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PART 1

Module 2 Unit 16
Skin Products

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Society of
Cosmetic Scientists
Distance Learning

Unit 16

Prepared by Grace Abamba


Amended by Paul Hebditch and John Woodruff

This material is the property of the SCS and is for the personal use of Jane Barber
(Copyright 2013).
Prepared at 24/12/2013 17:16:14 Society of Cosmetic Scientists

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Overview
The skin is a common substrate for the major disciplines within cosmetic science. Increased
consumer awareness plus the significant advances being made in skin research means that
todays cosmetic formulation scientist requires a working knowledge of the basic principles of
skin biology and skincare.
Goals
This unit will deal with products required for the cleansing, appearance and protection of the
skin.
Study time
The study time for this part of the unit is 13 hours which should be allocated approximately as
follows:
Text:

10 hours

Activities:

3 hours

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the following for their contribution to the revision of this unit: Drom
Fragrances International, European Flavours and Fragrances, Fragrance Oils and Mike Salmon.
Sections 1 and 2 deal (Part 1) with various formulations which you can prepare for cleansers,
toners and moisturisers according to skin types.
There is an opportunity to do some practical formulation work in section 1. Before embarking on
this practical activity, make sure you have read the instructions carefully and that you have
all the materials and equipment ready. You will also be asked to visit a high street chemist or
supermarket to find out about products on the market. If you have a busy schedule, perhaps you
could plan it into your own shopping time.
Practical Activities
There are a number of practical activities within this Unit and they are located in the Unit itself or
online, as indicated by the icon.

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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

CONTENTS
PART 1
1 Formulating cleansing products
1.1 Cleansing for dry skin
Activity 1 Preparation of a cold cream
1.2 Cleansers for normal and combination skins
Activity 2 Advantages/disadvantages of toilet soap
1.3 Cleansers for oily skin
1.4 Skin toners
Activity 3 Skin toner actives

4
4
5
6
7
11
12
12

2 Formulating moisturising products


2.1 Moisturisation
2.2 Basic components of a moisterising product
Activity 4 Product aesthetics
Activity 5 Moisturising products store checks
2.3 Moisturisers for dry and normal skin
2.4 Moisturisers for combination and oily skins
2.5 Extra protection products: Caring for hands and feet
2.6 Baby skin products: Caring for younger skin

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14
16
16
17
17
23
23
23

Appendix Guideline formulations for Part 1

25

PART 2
3 Control of body odour and sweating
3.1 Body odour and sweating
Activity 6 The causes of body odour
Activity 7 Comparison of apocrine and eccrine sweat
3.2 Formulating deodorant and antiperspirant products
Activity 8 Advantages and disadvantages of product formats
3.3 Active materials for antiperspirants
Activity 9 Deodorant and antiperspirant evaluation

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54
55
57
58

4 Sun protection
4.1 Sunlight and its effects on the skin
Activity 10 Factors which affect light intensity
Activity 11 Sunburn symptoms
4.2 Formulating suncare products
Activity 12 Properties of suncare products
Activity 13 SPF calculation
Activity 14 Factors affecting SPF value

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71
71
75
78

5 Removal of unwanted hair


5.1 Methods of hair removal
5.2 Shaving
Activity 15 Wet shaving product properties
5.3 Aftershave products
5.4 Chemical depilatories
Activity 16 Properties of a good depilatory product

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Appendix Guideline formulations for Part 2

89

SUPPLEMENTARY BOOKLET
Article 1
Article 2

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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

1 FORMULATING CLEANSING PRODUCTS


Aim
In this section I aim to discuss the different categories of skin cleansing products on the market
and present some examples of raw materials and formulations. Since toners are used for the
final stages of the cleansing process, I have also included them in this section.
Introduction
There is a wide choice of cleansing formulations for the consumer to use. For example, skin can
be cleansed with a traditional alkaline bar soap, oil in water or water in oil cream emulsion, or
synthetic detergents. The choice of a suitable cleanser depends on the individuals skin type and
whether the person is wearing make-up or not. The consumer can also choose from a wide
variety of product forms: bars, liquids, gels, creams, impregnated tissue wipes and aerosol
mousses.
Notes on the formulations
In the remaining two sections, we will look at some guideline formulations which can be found
in the appendix. Before we start, it is important that you understand the way they are presented.
The information about the formula is divided into up to four columns as shown below.
Phase

*INCI name/
Chemical description

% by
weight

Function

**q.s.

Manufacture

*International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)


**as required
Note:
Please remember that these are only guideline formulations and if you wished to use them, you
would need to adapt them to meet your objectives and conduct the usual microbiological,
stability and quality control tests.
1.1 Cleansers for dry skin
Cleansing creams, lotions and milks can be oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions which combine
the solvency of water and oils to effect cleansing of the skin. In doing this, they also leave a layer
of emollient oil on the skin which keeps it smooth and supple rather than the dryness often left
behind by the use of soaps and other synthetic detergent systems.
Cleansing creams
The original cleansing cream was based on one of the oldest known emulsions and is commonly
known as a cold cream. It was traditionally based on a mixture of natural waxes and vegetable
oils (beeswax and olive oil) stabilised with borax. At the turn of the century, mineral oil replaced
the more unstable vegetable oils as shown in Appendix 1; Formula 1. In addition, mineral oil is
excellent for make-up removal. In a cold cream, the proportion of fatty and oily material
predominates. When it is applied, one experiences a pleasant cooling sensation which is
produced from the slow evaporation of the water contained in the emulsion.

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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

To obtain different textures and consistencies, part of the mineral oil can be replaced with up to
16% of petrolatum. Further substitution with fatty acid esters such as isopropyl myristate helps
the cream to thin down quickly when it is rubbed in, improving its spreading properties; this
behaviour is described as thixotropy.
In the next activity, you will learn how to formulate a modern cold cream. If you have never
made one up before, then it is certainly worth trying out because cold creams provide a good
starting point in formulating other emulsion-based products. If you are already familiar with such
formulations then you may prefer to skip this activity.

ACTIVITY 1 Preparation of a cold cream


This activity has been identified as a key activity for this unit.
Please go to the online module to complete this activity, so that you can share your
ideas and opinions with your fellow learners and benefit from their experience and
knowledge in this area.

Cleansing lotions and milks


Cleansing milks and lotions can be described as pourable, low viscosity alternatives to cleansing
creams. They are applied to the skin with a tissue or cotton wool pad and so are often more
economical than creams. In general these products contain Paraffinum liquidum (mineral oil) or
vegetable oils such as Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) seed oil and fatty acid esters like isopropyl
palmitate.
Modern formulations are based on non-ionic emulsifiers such as sorbitan esters with their
ethoxylated counterparts. Other examples include PEG-free systems such as the alkyl glucosides.
This gives the formulator a great deal of flexibility, such that anything from a textured cream to
pourable milk can be produced. Stearate soaps are still employed but to a lesser degree. Cetyl
alcohol acts as an emollient and, like carbomers, it increases the viscosity of the product.
Hydrocolloids such as cellulose derivatives, alginates, xanthan gum and magnesium aluminium
silicate may be used to thicken the external phase of oil-in-water emulsions.
A cleansing lotion is shown as Formula 02 and a foaming cleansing lotion as Formula 03 in
Appendix 1.
Rinse-off emulsions (foaming cleansers)
Rinse-off emulsions are applied or massaged into the face and rinsed off with water rather than
wiped off with a tissue. Some of these products will generate a small amount of lather whilst
being washed off and are known as foaming cleansers. Such products incorporate some
synthetic detergent to achieve this action. Consumers who enjoy using soap and water will
prefer to use the products described in order to avoid the drying effects of soap or detergentbased cleansers.

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(Copyright 2013).
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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Bath Oils
People with dry skin may prefer to bathe in bath oils and essences, which clean the skin
dissolving away the oily grime, leaving the skin feeling soft and moisturised. A number of choices
are available on the market:
spreading or floating oils, which remain on the surface of the water
dispersible or blooming oils
soluble oils
The ideal properties of bath oil is that it does not foam, that it contains effective perfume
solubilisers, is mild to the skin and that it does not leave the bath too slippery. The main
constituents are water-insoluble materials such as vegetable or mineral oil combined with nonionic surfactants and fragrance or essential oils.
Formula 04 gives an example of a spreading bath oil. The dispersible bath oil shown in Formula
05 consists of emollients and fragrance with surfactants that disperse these materials to produce
an emulsion in the bath water. The emulsion appears as a white cloud or bloom. Soluble bath
oils consist of solutions of non-ionic surfactants in water with small amounts of emollient
material and the low level of hydrophobic emollients allows these products to produce a little
foam.
Multiphasic bath oils are a novelty form but fun to make; an example of a triphasic product is
shown in Formula 06
Bath Beads & Pearls
Bath oils may also be packaged in gelatine capsules to make bath beads or pearls in a variety of
shapes. Once added to the bath water, these capsules dissolve releasing their contents.
1.2 Cleansers for normal and combination skins
Soap
Traditionally soap, like the cold creams, represents another way of cleansing the skin. Soap
results from the neutralisation of a mixture of fatty acids with an alkaline base such as sodium
hydroxide in a process called saponification. The main components of a basic toilet soap bar are
shown in Formula 07. Liquid toilet soaps are made using triethanolamine and potassium
hydroxide to saponify the fatty acids. The next activity gives you the opportunity to think about
some advantages and disadvantages in using toilet soaps.

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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

ACTIVITY 2 Advantages/disadvantages of toilet soap


(Allow about 2 minutes)
In the columns below, list some advantages and disadvantages of using toilet soap in terms of
cost, properties in use (for example, foaming, ease of rinsing) and the after effects on the skin.
You may like to draw some of your answers from your own experience.
Advantages

Disadvantages

Cost

Properties in use

After effects on the skin

Soap is effective in removing grime and is relatively inexpensive. It produces a rich lather and can
be easily rinsed off, leaving a squeaky-clean skin. On the other hand, the washing solution
formed by soap is extremely alkaline (pH 9-10) and can cause irritation, dryness and scaling. In
hard water it leaves scum deposits on the washbasin.
The skin compatibility of soaps has been improved by the incorporation of various superfatting
agents such as glycerin or the fatty alcohols. However, soap is gradually losing its popularity to
synthetic, detergent-based products which tend to offer more flexibility in formulating.
Synthetic detergent-based cleansers
These types of products have brought versatility to the formulator and are available as bars,
liquids, gels, aerosol mousses and impregnated tissue wipes. They are based on the use of
synthetic surface active agents, or surfactants. Their main advantages over toilet soaps are that:
they are milder on the skin
they do not leave scum deposit films in hard water
they can be formulated to match the skins pH
a wider range of perfumes and water-soluble dyes (colours) can be used with
them because of their lower pH.
Unlike toilet soaps, however, synthetic detergent-based cleansers do not always produce the rich
creamy lather and are a little more difficult to rinse off.

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(Copyright 2013).
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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Synthetic detergent bars


Although synthetic detergent bars or syndet bars, as they are commonly known, are more
expensive to manufacture than toilet soaps, they are very mild and produce a rich creamy lather.
They are often sold at a premium price as facial cleansing bars. The main components of a
syndet base, together with their typical use levels, are shown in table 3.
Table 3: Syndet base
INCI name

%w/w Prime function

Sodium cocoyl isethionate

25 -35 Surfactant

Stearic acid
PEG-350

12.5- 17.5 Adds body and texture to


8 - 12 Refatting agent

Sodium isethionate

4- 6 Surfactant

Etidronic acid

0.05 Chelating agent

Zea mays (Corn) starch

2.00 Filler

Titanium dioxide [CI 77891]

0.30 Whitener

Sodium cocoyl glutamate

3 - 4 Thickening aid

Preservative, fragrance, colour etc.

q.s

Citric acid to pH 4.0


Water / aqua to 100%
Many different types of additives can be incorporated into a syndet base to suit a wide range of
applications. For example, soya lecithin can be used as a skin conditioning agent. Oatmeal can
be incorporated as the active ingredient in a syndet bar for oily and combination skin. An
example formulation is shown in Formula 08.
The list of refatting or skin conditioning agents which can be used in these formulations is
endless. Hydrolysed proteins, which are proteins that have been cut into shorter chains, are very
substantive to the skin and are often used as skin conditioning agents Glycols like glycerin and
propylene glycol are humectants and may moisturise the skin and also improve foam texture.
Silicone derivatives have increased in popularity due to their ability to smooth the skin without
leaving it sticky. Examples of silicones which can be used include PEG-n dimethicone where n is
the number of moles of ethylene oxide and PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone, which contains an
average of 18 moles of ethylene oxide and 18 moles of propylene oxide.
The concept of natural products addresses consumer concerns for environmental issues. Natural
oils and extracts are easy to incorporate as skin conditioners with the aid of non-ionic emulsifiers.
Synthetic detergent liquids
This category includes:
Shampoos (covered in Unit 15)
Facial cleansers.
Shower gels and body wash (which are used all over the body)
Liquid soaps for hands and intimate areas
Foam baths
The most popular combination of surfactants is the anionic/amphoteric/non ionic system. The
structure and behaviour of these materials are explained in more detail in Unit 8, Surfactants.
Examples of amphoteric surfactants are:
Alkyl betaines e.g. Lauryl betaine
Alkylamido betaines e.g. Cocamidopropyl betaine
Sulfobetaines (sultaines) e.g. Lauryl sultaine; lauryl hydroxysultaine

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

N-alkyl-amino propionates. e.g. Sodium lauriminodipropionate


Amphoacetates e.g. Sodium lauroamphodiacetate
Examples of anionic surfactants are:
Alkoxylated carboxylic acids e.g. Laureth-5 carboxylic acid
Sarcosinates e.g. Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate
Isethionates e.g. Sodium cocoyl isethionate
Sulfosuccinates e.g. Disodium laureth sulfosuccinate
Mono alkyl phosphates e.g. C20-22 alkyl phosphate
Examples of non-ionic surfactants are:
Lauryl glucoside
Decyl glucoside
Caprylyl/capryl glucoside
PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate
Facial cleansers must be able to effect a mild yet thorough cleansing of the skin. Such
formulations normally contain a mixture of surfactants which work synergistically. This means
that they work better together than individually to provide better foaming, cleansing and
mildness characteristics. Other ingredients may include refatting agents, a thickener,
preservatives, perfume and water. The appearance of the product can be modified by using
water-soluble dyes. Pearlescent agents such as glycol stearate or opacifying agents like titanium
dioxide or copolymer latex emulsions are other possible additives.
Transparent coloured gel systems are still very popular where the surfactant can be thickened
with carbomers or other acrylate based materials; PEG-based thickeners such as PEG-7 glyceryl
cocoate, or with sodium chloride. Other viscosity modifiers, which also provide a pleasant silky
feel to the lather, can be used. These include cationic guar gums, cellulose derivatives,
polyethylene glycol (PEG) esters and xanthan gum. (For further information see Unit 7, Gums,
Thickeners and Resins). The final viscosity will of course depend on the dispensing system and
the flow properties and consistency required.
Facial scrubs
Facial scrubs can be classed as exfoliating products, which involves the removal of the outermost
layer of the stratum corneum. Scrub products are available as pastes, liquids, creams or gels in
which tiny abrasive particles have been suspended. The suspending medium may be a low oil
content emulsion or a mild synthetic detergent-based system. The product is applied to the face
and massaged gently into the skin whilst avoiding the delicate eye area, then rinsed off with
warm water to leave a smooth glowing skin.
Facial scrubs are not recommended for frequent use since they may cause long-term physical
damage to the skin and should be avoided by people who suffer from acne to prevent scarring
from ruptured comedones. Commonly-used scrub agents include natural seeds from almonds,
apricots and walnuts; ground loofah, corn cob and pumice and hydrogenated jojoba oil.
Synthetic particles such as polythene powder are also widely used. The formula given in Formula
09 utilises Hydrogenated jojoba seed oil to provide a gentle scrubbing action plus some residual
emolliancy.
Foam bath
The bathing ritual, which people have enjoyed for centuries, serves to cleanse the skin and relax
body and mind. Foam bath is also known as bubble bath, crme bath, foaming bath essence or
herbal bath. A foam bath is a carefully formulated surfactant blend that is added to running
bath water to generate copious amounts of foam in soft and hard water. It also contains
fragrance, which fills the bathroom with a pleasant odour and may include moisturisers,
vitamins, minerals and natural extracts such as herbs.
Menthol can be incorporated into the fragrance to produce a breathe freely foam bath. When
added to the bath water, it releases fragrance to help clear the nasal passages. Since consumers
will spend a reasonable amount of time in the bath, foam bath must be safe on skin and
mucous membranes.
Fragrance has always been a key ingredient in foam bath, and for that matter a wide range of
toiletries. However more recently marketers have used it to make stronger mood enhancing

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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

claims, linking use of these products to lifestyle and spiritual pursuits.


Formula 10 shows a relaxing foam bath, containing water-dispersible hydrolysed oats as a
moisturiser.
Shower gels
Shower gels, also known as body gels or body wash, were introduced in response to the
installation of showers in the home. Shower gels contain similar ingredients to those employed
in foam baths; however they do not need to foam as much but must be effective at cleansing.
These products tend to be more viscous to enable the consumer to apply it more easily over the
body. They can be applied to the skin by hand or with a body puff or loofah to generate creamy,
stable foam, which rinses off to leave the skin feeling clean, soft and smooth. Once again
fragrance lingers on the skin and in the room during and after the shower to enhance the
experience. As brands become more global, it is vital to select fragrances that are well accepted
in targeted markets. Shower products are often marketed as a range of variants with a different
fragrance in each one.
Multi functional shower gels, often known as 2-in-1s, have grown in popularity, evolving from
the success of the 2-in 1 hair shampoo and conditioning systems. The trend started with shower
shampoos, which are formulated to clean the skin and hair and to provide residual conditioning
on the hair. An example is shown in Formula 11. Another concept is shower gels which clean
and moisturise. Nowadays milder surfactants with more skin substantive moisturisers make such
a positioning easier to substantiate. A moisturising body wash is shown as Formula 12
Liquid hand soaps
Liquid hand soaps were developed to compete with toilet soaps and so were positioned as more
hygienic and convenient. True liquid hand soaps are based on saponified fatty acids but the
majority are now based on synthetic surfactants. The liquid hand soap in Formula 13 is based on
synthetic surfactants and uses glycol stearate to provide a rich pearly appearance
These products have evolved into hygienic dermoprotector products, formulated with antibacterial and skin conditioning agents. More recently waterless hand cleaners, based on
ethanol, have gained in popularity for travel and outdoor activities where water may not be
readily available see Formula 14.

10

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Intimate liquid soaps


These products are used to clean the genital (intimate) areas and initially gained popularity in
France and Italy, where bidets are in common use. Intimate products are formulated with low
active level of mild surfactants. See Formula 15.
Bath crystals
Bath crystals are essentially sodium salts of weak acids. Commonly used ingredients include
sodium carbonate crystals, sodium bicarbonate, sodium sesquicarbonate and disodium
phosphate. Modern formulations incorporate herbal extracts and natural oils. The crystals can be
coloured or tinted by spraying with aqueous/alcoholic solutions of dye or immersing them in a
tank of the dye solution. Once the colour is evenly dispersed, perfume is added to the crystals in
a tumble dryer- type mixer to ensure even distribution. The crystals are spread onto trays and
allowed to dry before packing.
If a water-soluble perfume is being used then the colouring and fragrancing operation can be
performed in one step. Herbal extracts are usually added with the perfume.
Bath bombs
Bath bombs are effervescent bath crystals containing an organic acid and bicarbonate so that
carbon dioxide is released when the product comes into contact with water. This gives the
sensation of a natural carbonated spa. See Formula 16.
1.3 Cleansers for oily skin
Frequent and effective cleansing is recommended for oily skin in order to keep the amount of
sebum left on the skin to an absolute minimum and so avoid the development of spots and
pimples. Emulsion cleansers are to be avoided since they tend to leave a layer of oil on the skin.
Face masks and exfoliating lotions are used for exfoliation of acne-prone skin rather than facial
scrubs since the latter can cause disruption of the comedones, which exacerbates the condition.
A solution for the preparation of freshening and cleansing wipes is shown in Formula 17. Methyl
gluceth-10 provides soft feel whilst PEG-75 lanolin and oleth-20 provide gentle cleansing. The
alcohol produces a cooling sensation along with some antibacterial properties. Microbiological
testing of this type of product must be carried out extensively and monitored carefully during
manufacture and after marketing.
Gels have become a popular product form for cleansing and post-cleansing products. See the
notes following Formula 17.
Face masks and packs
Masks are beauty treatments that may be used once or twice a week to provide a variety of
effects: deep cleansing, stimulating, toning, hydrating and emollient. There are different types
but the most widely used are peel-off and setting masks. The majority of formulations are the
setting type, based on clay or Fullers earth mixed with a liquid. When setting masks are spread
over the face and allowed to dry, they harden and contract, producing a tightening sensation,
which stimulates blood flow to the skin.
Peel off masks form a colloidal suspension that has a jelly-like consistency when applied to the
face. The water evaporates from the mask to form a plastic film that is peeled off. This type of
mask is used for sensitive, dehydrated and mature skins.
Masks can be formulated to suit each skin type and examples of setting and peel off masks are
shown in Formulas 18 & 19 respectively.

11

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

1.4 Skin toners


Skin toners are called by a variety of names, including tonics, fresheners, clarifying lotions and
astringents, and are available as liquids and gels. When applied to the skin with a cotton wool
pad, toners remove the final traces of grime, residues of soap or emulsion cleansers plus any
loose flakes of dead skin. They leave the skin feeling clean, fresh and invigorated before a
moisturiser or liquid foundation make-up is applied. For the next activity, you may like to give a
little more thought to the active ingredients which are used in toners.

ACTIVITY 3 Skin toner actives


(Allow about 3 minutes)
The active component of these products is astringent. What do you think are the likely properties
of such products? Give some examples of astringent materials if you can.

12

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The astringent will give the product the following properties to varying degrees: sensation of
skintightening; erection of hairs (hairs stand on end); temporary reduction of skin pore size;
removal and reduction in skin oiliness; antiperspirant action; rapid coagulation of blood from a
fresh wound and skin healing (useful while shaving!).
Materials with astringent properties can be classified as follows:
vegetable extracts containing tannins, for example, witch hazel
organic acids with low molecular weight, such as lactic acid and citric acid
metal salts of organic or inorganic acids, such as aluminium sulphate and aluminium lactate
short chain alcohols, for example, alcohol (ethanol), isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol)
Basic skin toners will contain the astringent material, water, moisturiser and preservative.
Alcohol (Ethanol) is commonly used as the astringent material at levels between 5-25%.
Toners for oily skin
Astringent lotions are useful in the control of very oily or acne-prone skin. These products often
contain higher levels of ethanol or isopropyl alcohol, which exhibits stronger solvent properties.
As well as its astringent properties ethanol is an effective germicide/antiseptic and its evaporation
from the skin provides a pleasant cooling sensation. In products for acne, antibacterial agents
can be included to minimise bacterial proliferation. Such agents include chloroxylenol, triclosan
and benzalkonium chloride. Note: if the product is to be marketed within Europe these materials
must be added within the limits permitted in Annex V of Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of the
European Parliament. Other countries have their own regulations so attention must be paid to
each individual marketing area. Keratolytic agents like salicylic acid that dissolve or break down
the outer layer of skin (keratins) and promote the softening and peeling of the epidermis may be
incorporated as exfoliants.
Toners for normal and dry skin
Toners for normal and dry skin are usually based on lower alcoholic strengths. Alcohol-free
toners are often preferred since alcohol can leave the skin feeling dry and it does not project a
natural image. Menthol can be used instead of ethanol to provide similar cooling sensations. A
traditional skin tonic is shown in Formula 20.
Formula 21 shows a low-alcohol freshener that uses alternatives to glycerin as moisturising
agents as glycerin can leave an unpleasant sticky feel. There are many other moisturisers to
choose from such as sodium hyaluronate, jojoba ethoxylates, panthenol and water-soluble
vitamin E derivatives. Formula 22 contains sodium pyrrolidone carboxylate [INCI: Sodium PCa],
which is one of the constituents of the skins natural moisturising factor, NMF, referred to in Unit
11.
Toning solutions can be thickened to form attractive gels with carbomers and cellulose
derivatives.

CHECKLIST
You should now be able to:
classify the main types of cleansing formulations available on the market
recognise and recall the common active raw materials used for cleansing dry, normal and oily
skins
describe the advantages and disadvantages of soaps, synthetic detergents and emulsions
give examples of the active raw materials which can be used in toners for dry, normal and oily
skins.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

2 FORMULATING MOISTURISING PRODUCTS


Aim
In this section the aim is to introduce the concept of moisturisation, to describe the different
classes of raw materials which provide moisturisation and to discuss formulations for different
types of moisturising products.
2.1 Moisturisation
Since dry or dehydrated skin lacks water, cosmetic formulations can temporarily reverse this by a
process called moisturisation. Moisturisation is the ability of a preparation to increase the water
content of the stratum corneum. Moisturising creams, gels and lotions are applied for the relief
of the signs and symptoms of dry skin, leaving it soft, smooth and supple. The skin scales
(corneocytes) become more pliable and transparent and therefore less visible, which gives a
visually dramatic improvement. Moisturisers form the basis of other products such as rich night
creams, suntan lotions, anti-ageing creams and barrier creams.
There are several methods of achieving moisturisation, the most popular being the use of
emollients and humectants.
Emollients
An emollient is a material such as an oil or wax which, when applied to the skin, makes it feel
soft and smooth. Emollients often have an occlusive action. This means they behave like an extra
barrier on the skin surface and so reduce transepidermal water loss (TEWL). This in turn increases
the water content of the stratum corneum. The rapid reversal of the rough feel in dry skin can
be largely attributed to the emollients ability to fill the cracks in the horny layer and glue down
the protruding corneocytes.
Humectants
Humectants are materials which exhibit hygroscopic behaviour; this means that they can draw
and hold onto a large amount of water. When an aqueous solution of a humectant is applied to
the skin, it is thought to reduce trans-epidermal water loss by holding the water in the
intercellular lipid matrix found between the corneocytes in the stratum corneum. Like emollients,
humectants increase the water content of the stratum corneum and so keep it soft and supple.
Humectants like glycerin and propylene glycol also inhibit water loss from oil-in-water emulsions.
Other moisturising materials
Materials such as hyaluronic acid and colloidal oatmeal act as a type of water blanket, providing
protection as well as moisture to the skin. Amino acids and hydrolysed proteins are hygroscopic
and substantive to skin. Penetration enhancers like urea soften the outer layers of the stratum
corneum to improve its water-holding capacity and smoothness.
Commonly-used emollients, humectants and moisturisers are listed in table 4 on the following
page.

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Table 4: Raw materials commonly used in moisturising formulations


Function

Class

Examples

Emollients

Esters

Isopropyl myristate, Isopropyl palmitate

Fatty acids

Linoleic acid, Stearic acid

Fatty alcohols

Cetyl, Stearyl & Cetearyl alcohol

Hydrocarbons

Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil), petrolatum

Triglycerides

Vegetable oils are triglycerides

Amino acids

Apricot kernel amino acids; Oat amino acids; Milk


protein amino acids; Silk amino acids

Humectants

Lanolin & derivatives Lanolin, Lanolin oil and Lanolin alcohols


Polyols

Glycerin; sorbitol

Protein

Collagen; Elastin; Vegetable proteins e.g. Lupinus


albus protein; Triticum vulgare (Wheat) germ protein

Silicones

Dimethicone, cyclopentasiloxane

Sugars

Glucose; Xylitol; Xylose

Miscellaneous
additives

includes biological
and botanical
additives; penetration
enhancers, pH
adjusters,
antioxidants
Emulsifying agents Ethers

Thickening agents
Preservatives

15

Caviar extract; Fish cartilage extract; Hydrolysed


collagen extract; Aloe barbadensis leaf juice; Urea;
Sodium lactate; Lactic acid, BHT, Tocopherol,
Ascorbic acid

Steareth-n; Ceteareth-n; Isosteareth-n where n =


moles of ethylene oxide

Polymers

Acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymers;


Polyacrylates e.g. Sodium polyacrylate

Silicones i.e. Silanes


and siloxanes

Cetyl PEG-8 dimethicone; Lauryl PEG-8 dimethicone;


PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone; PEG-9 dimethicone;
Dimethicone/PEG-10/15 crosspolymer

Sterols

Lanolin alcohol; Lanosterol; Cholesterol; Soyasterol;


Choleth-n; PEG-n phytosterols; PEG-n soy sterol

Surfactants; anionic:
soaps and alkyl
sulfates.

Fatty acid soaps e.g. Triethanolamine stearate.


Sodium alkyl sulfates e.g. Sodium lauryl sulfate

Surfactants; anionic:
replacing soaps and
alkyl sulfates

Alkoxylated carboxylic acids e.g. Laureth-5 carboxylic


acid. Alkyl phosphates and alkyl ether phosphates
e.g. Stearyl phosphate; Potassium cetyl phosphate

Surfactants;
amphoteric: seldom
used for preparing
skin care emulsions
Surfactants; cationic:
more commonly used
for hair conditioning

Alkyl amino propionates e.g. Sodium


lauriminodipropionate

PEG-15 cocamine; Stearalkonium chloride,


Behentrimonium methosulfate

Surfactants; non-ionic Glycereth-n cocoate etc., C18-36 glycol ester etc.,


PEG-12 laurate / stearate etc. Glyceryl stearate etc.,
Polyglyceryl-4 isostearate, Sorbitan esters and their
ethoxylated counterparts (Polysorbates) Sucrose
cocoate / palmitate / stearate
Carbomers; Xanthan gum; Cellulose gum;
Sclerotium gum; Polyacrylates (see Unit 7)
See Unit 6

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2.2 Basic components of a moisturising product


Unfortunately the majority of effective occlusive agents cannot be used without some
modification because they are difficult to apply and can leave the skin feeling tacky or greasy. For
example, Petrolatum is an excellent emollient but its skin-feel is unacceptable for a cosmetic
product. For this reason, moisturisers are formulated into cosmetic emulsions stabilised with an
appropriate emulsifier system. Moisturising products, like emulsion-based cleansers, are available
as milks, lotions, creams, clear gels and aerosol mousses. A product may have excellent
moisturising properties but if it does not have good aesthetics, in terms of appearance, fragrance
and skin feel on application, the consumer is unlikely to buy it again.
In the next Activity you will look at the aesthetics required for a good moisturiser.

ACTIVITY 4 Product aesthetics


(Allow about 2 minutes)
Write down a list of properties you would expect from a good moisturiser.
e.g., easy to apply to the skin

A good moisturising formulation should be non-irritant, rub in easily without soaping up and
leave the skin feeling soft rather than sticky. The product should have a pleasant odour and if it
is to be unperfumed there should be no fatty base odour.
The basic components of a moisturising product include moisturiser(s), an emulsifier system,
water, preservative(s) and antioxidants if necessary. Examples of commonly-used components are
listed in table 4. Emulsifiers are fully described in Module 1, Units 3, 8 & 10. It is obvious that the
extensive catalogue of components can generate an infinite number of formulations. The
character of these formulations will therefore depend on the product type required and the
choice and experience of the formulation chemist. The example formulations given in this section
represent a basic guide and not an exhaustive account.
It has already been pointed out that moisturisers are used to alleviate the symptoms of dry skin.
At the same time, we should remember that people with normal, combination and oily skins still
need to use a moisturiser to prevent their skin from becoming dry.

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In the marketplace, moisturisers are often positioned under the following groups:
day facial products
night facial products
hand and body products
all-purpose products
extra protection/barrier products.
The next Activity will help you to become familiar with the brands and claims associated with the
above classification. It is worth incorporating it into your normal shopping time.

ACTIVITY 5 Moisturising products store checks


This activity has been identified as a key activity for this unit.
Please go to the online module to complete this activity, so that you can share your
ideas and opinions with your fellow learners and benefit from their experience and
knowledge in this area.

Typical formulations for moisturising products


2.3 Moisturisers for dry and normal skin
Moisturising products for every day application tend to be light, oil-in-water emulsions, which
spread easily and rub into the skin quickly. These properties can be traced back to the traditional
vanishing cream system which is a non-greasy, oil-in-water emulsion based on high quality stearic
acid as the oil phase. Commercial stearic acid consists of a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids
with a tiny amount of oleic acid. Partial neutralisation, that is saponification of the fatty acid with
an alkaline base such as triethanolamine or potassium hydroxide, produces a soap which acts as
the emulsifier by forming a type of gel which holds the cream together. Saponifying about 1621% of the stearic acid present in the formula is usually sufficient for a cream.
The texture and viscosity of the product may be varied to make stiffer creams or lotions by
altering the degree of saponification. An example of a simple day cream using this system is
shown in Appendix 1 as Formula 23 however soap-based emulsions are no longer thought
suitable for moisturisers and have been largely replaced by alkyl phosphates and alkyl ether
phosphates e.g. Stearyl phosphate, Potassium cetyl phosphate and by non-ionic emulsifiers see
Formula 24.
Products for night time application tend to have a richer feel than the day moisturisers and are
often water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions, which leave a skin-softening occlusive film on the skin
overnight. An advantage of w/o products is that the continuous oil phase has direct contact with
the skin and forms a protective film immediately without any detergent action. In this way the
dispersed water particles are trapped in the oil by the w/o emulsifier and the product is more
resistant to being removed by washing.
Traditionally w/o creams left a sticky after-feel on the skin attributed to the presence of waxes in
the formulae, which were required to provide a rigid interfacial film that helps to hold the
emulsion together. However by careful selection of the emulsifying system and by using emulsion
stabilisers to thicken the continuous oil phase cosmetically elegant w/o creams are possible see
Formula 25.
Non-ionic emulsifiers are: by far the predominant class of emulsifiers for skin care products. They
include alkoxylated alcohols; fatty acid ethoxylates and glycol esters; ethoxylated carboxylic acids;
glyceryl fatty acid esters and sorbitan esters and their ethoxylated counterparts (Polysorbates).
The Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) system of emulsifier selection generally works well with
non-ionic emulsifiers and gives the formulation chemist a great deal of flexibility in the
development of stable emulsions for varying oil/water combinations and they may be used to
form both stable oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. [For a complete explanation
of the HLB System refer to Unit 10]
Systems that form liquid crystals [see Unit 8, section 2.7] are of interest for moisturisers as they
tend to penetrate further into the stratum corneum and moisturise at deeper levels than those

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that form occlusive films on the surface. Examples of emulsifiers that form liquid crystals are as
follows: Cetearyl glucoside with cetearyl alcohol
Sorbitan olivate and cetearyl olivate
Sorbitan stearate with sorbityl laurate
Sorbitan stearate with sucrose cocoate
Polyglyceryl-3 methylglucose distearate
Potassium cetyl phosphate with hydrogenated palm glycerides
Lauryl glucoside with polyglyceryl-2 dipolyhydroxystearate
See Formula 26
Cationic surfactants, such as stearalkonium chloride, are used to a much lesser extent as
emulsifiers for skin care products. Because of their substantivity to the skin, however, they may
be used to give an additional velvet-smooth skin feel after application but they are not
compatible with anionic systems.
Emulsifier systems for preparing w/o emulsions include the following:

Methoxy PEG-22/Dodecyl glycol copolymer


PEG-30 dipolyhydroxystearate
Polyglyceryl-10 decaoleate
Polyglyceryl-2 dipolyhydroxystearate
Polyglyceryl-3 diisostearate
Polyglyceryl-3 oleate
Polyglyceryl-3 polyricinoleate
Polyhydroxystearate/sebacate
There are many proprietary mixtures available; see suppliers web sites

Improving emulsion stability


Emulsion stability can be improved by including other materials which support the main
emulsifier system. These materials are known as secondary emulsifiers and commonly-used
examples are fatty alcohols such as cetyl and stearyl alcohol and self-emulsifying glyceryl
monostearates (s/e GMS) but note that only those containing PEG-100 are stable at acid pH. For
w/o systems lanolin alcohol and other sterols and glyceryl stearate may be used.
Note: Throughout the text there is mention of cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol and cetearyl alcohol.
Cetyl alcohol is C16, stearyl alcohol is C18 and cetearyl alcohol is a mixture of C16/C18 alcohols.
All three are fatty alcohols and are white waxy solids. They are almost interchangeable provided
the grade used for creating the original formula is maintained throughout product development,
testing and manufacture.
Increasing the viscosity of the continuous phase is commonly used to stabilise emulsions. For o/w
emulsions carbomers, or Carbopol resins as they are commonly known, can be used to increase
the viscosity of the water phase to inhibit coalescence of the dispersed oil droplets but
carbomers are pH dependent and electrolyte intolerant. Other thickening aids include cellulose
gum, xanthan gum and silicates and more on this can be found in Module 1; Units 9 & 10. For
w/o emulsions increasing the volume of the disperse phase works well as does adding low
melting point waxes to the oil phase. The oil phase can be thickened by adding silica or by
various gelling agents like dextrin palmitate.
Emulsions contain water therefore they must be adequately preserved. Although there are
numerous antimicrobial materials that may work only those that appear in Annex V of
Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of The European Parliament are permitted if the products are to
be sold in Europe. Other countries have their own regulations so attention must be paid to each
individual marketing area.
Product aesthetics
The soaping-up or whitening effect found when applying oil-in-water products can be reduced
or eliminated by using dimethicone or cyclopentasiloxane, which act as defoaming agents.

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Dimethicone is also an effective moisturiser.


The heaviness experienced with w/o creams can be improved by incorporating low viscosity
oils like cyclopentasiloxane, isopropyl myristate, hexyl laurate and diethylhexyl carbonate to
improve spreading on the skin.
The use of silicone emulsifiers such as Cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 dimethicone has proved popular.
These can be used to produce stable water-in-oil formulations with up to 74% water with little
or no wax. The resulting formulations exhibit excellent moisturising properties combined with
improved aesthetics. An example of a formulation using this technology is given in Formula 27.
This formula is particularly interesting since it contains a high level of Persea gratissima (Avocado)
oil, which tends to be rather difficult to emulsify.
Additives
Natural additives
Over the last 20 years, there has been a great demand by the consumer for natural products.
Although a general consensus as to what constitutes a natural product has not yet been agreed,
it is very difficult to develop a completely natural product. The cosmetic industry has responded
in a number of ways. The most common method is to add small amounts of oils or water-soluble
extracts from plants and display these prominently on the label. Although the list of naturals is
endless they tend to be extracts of fruits, vegetables, herbs and seeds plus vitamins and amino
acids. It is worth noting that the natural theme is applied to many skin care products today and
can be used for cleansers, toners and moisturisers.
Examples of natural extracts used in skin care are summarised in Table 5 but please note that this
list is only a guide and more appear to be added every month or so.
When using naturals in skincare formulations, it is worth noting that just because a material is of
natural botanical origin it does not mean that it is safe for any particular consumer use. Naturals,
like any other raw materials, must undergo strict quality control, preservation and toxicological
tests. Finally, much research is currently under way to separate scientific facts on naturals from
the herbal folklores on which much of their appeal is based. This has resulted in many active
ingredients being offered to the cosmetic industry that may have beneficial effects on skin.
Please note that this list is only a guide.
.

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Table 5. Natural extracts in skin care

Honey

Circulation
stimulant

Anti-irritant

Cornflower

Cucumber

Evening primrose
Wheatgerm

Anti-microbial

Anti-oxidant

Combination

Normal

Oily skin

Dry skin

Application in skin care

o
o

Seaweed

Cornelia

Sweet almond

Honeysuckle

Orange flower

Carrot

Avocado oil

Clary sage

Pineapple

Kukui nut
Aloe vera

o
o

Apricot kernel oil

Witch hazel

Chamomile
Elderflower

Peach

Dandelion
Borage

Orchid

Papaya

Bergamot

Lemon

Arnica

Balm mint

Sweet almond

Comfrey

Veronica

Lavender

Yarrow

Lime flower

Bamboo

Ginger

Green Tea

Gingko Biloba
Ginseng

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o
o

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Licorice

Circulation
stimulant

Anti-irritant

Anti-microbial

Anti-oxidant

Combination

Normal

Oily skin

Dry skin

Application in skin care

Grape seed

Oat

Tea Tree
Cottonseed oil

o
o

Special additives
Consumer skincare needs have not really changed, however in the last 15 years, a number of
new active ingredients have featured prominently on pack claims. The special additives, which
are used in both day and night products, are becoming rather sophisticated and expensive.
Examples include hydroxyacids, sunscreens, vitamins, proteins, essential fatty acids, alpha hydroxy
acids and liposomes. Some of these raw materials are described below.
Alpha and beta hydroxyacids are organic chemicals used in anti-ageing and some shaving
products. Glycolic and salicylic acids are the most commonly used but lactic, tartaric, citric, malic
and mandelic acids may also be found. Although these may be found naturally in willow bark,
citrus fruits, sour milk and sugar cane the synthetic forms are normally used in formulations.
These materials dramatically affect the epidermal renewal process of the skin as summarised
below:1. Reduction of corneocyte adhesion in the basal layer of the stratum corneum (SC) by a process
termed exfoliation.
2. Increase cell turnover rate, producing smoother looking skin.
3. Reduction in hyper pigmentation
4. Long-term increase in collagen and elastin synthesis.
The most effective alpha hydroxyacids are lactic and glycolic used at levels of 1% to 5%. The
disadvantage of these materials is that they can cause irritation because of their low pH, and
should therefore be buffered to approximately pH 4.5. It is also recommended that exposure to
the sun be limited if using products containing them.
Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid that tends to be milder to the skin with a long history of use
as a peeling agent. More recent studies suggest that conjugating alpha hydroxy acids with amino
acids could significantly reduce irritation. An example of a moisturising cream with glycolic acid is
shown as Formula 28.
Vitamins
The use of vitamins in cosmetics has become ever more popular because it complements the
holistic (body, mind and soul) approach to well being. So we move away from the myth that just
slapping on some cream is enough. Instead, we take into consideration diet and exercise and
emotional and spiritual factors. Therefore consumers not only take vitamin supplements but they
also apply them topically. Vitamins E, A, C and panthenol are still the most widely used however
Vitamin D is banned for use in cosmetics in the EU.
Vitamin E (dl alpha tocopherol) found naturally in wheat germ, can be incorporated into
formulations at up to 5% as an antioxidant/free radical scavenger. Free radicals such as lipid
peroxides can be generated in the body during cell respiration and by exposure to ultraviolet
light (sun light). This results in disruption of the cell membranes. The ester vitamin E acetate
tends to be used as an emollient in skin care.

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Vitamin A in its pure form is retinol but as this is unstable it is more usually found in cosmetics as
its ester, either retinyl acetate or retinyl palmitate. Retinoids at levels of 0.025-0.05% have been
used to treat sun or photo-damaged skin. They normalise epidermal activity and reduce
hyperpigmentation. Retinoids such as tretinoin also have a number of undesirable side effects
such as erythema, dryness and itching and are not permitted for use in cosmetics within the EU.
Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is a natural anti-oxidant that regulates collagen biosynthesis and the
bodys wound healing processes. Collagen, [see Module 1, Unit 11] is one of the structural
proteins found in the connective tissue of the dermis. Until recently it has been difficult to apply
vitamin C topically because it is readily oxidised when in solution. However, it can be stabilised in
microcapsules or liposomes and presented as ascorbyl dipalmitate, which is lipo-soluble.
NOTE: It should be noted that according to the FDA cosmetics declaring ingredients as vitamins
as, for example, tocopherol as vitamin E, convey the misleading impression that these ingredients
and products offer a nutrient or health benefit and may therefore be deemed misbranded. The
INCI Dictionary, the currently recognized source of cosmetic ingredient names, lists vitamin
ingredients by their respective chemical names.
Essential fatty acids
An intact skin barrier is vital to the overall health of the body. Ceramides found in the stratum
corneum (SC) play a fundamental role in the functioning and hydration of the barrier. Ceramides
account for at least 40% of the intercellular lipids found between the corneocytes. Essential fatty
acids (EFAs) such as linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid are important building blocks of ceramides
in man. The former is found in plants (borage, evening primrose and grape seed) and in fish oils.
EFAs are also important in the regulation of keratinisation and the metabolism of prostaglandins,
which play a crucial role in the bodys immune system. A deficiency in EFAs has been linked to
abnormal dryness of the skin or mucus membranes (xerosis), and increased TEWL. When applied
topically, EFAs can become incorporated into the SC structural lipids, improving the skins
suppleness and flexibility.
Macromolecules
Proteins: Protein derivatives such as hydrolysed protein (milk, silk and marine), amino acids and
glycosaminoglycans, are very substantive to the skin, leaving it feeling soft and smooth.
Glycosaminoglycans including hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate have a large number of
hydroxyl groups that allow them to absorb and retain considerable amounts of water. They are
too large to penetrate the SC but can form a hygroscopic, semi permeable film on the skin
surface.

Polysaccharides
Beta-glucans are polysaccharides derived from oats, wheat and bakers yeast. They can be
chemically modified to make them more hydrophilic. When used in skin creams, beta-glucans
can affect the skin in a number of ways including reduction of irritation caused by detergents;
increasing cell turnover in the SC, stimulation of collagen synthesis and reduction of fine
wrinkles.

Delivery vehicles
Over the years, there has been much progress in the way active materials are delivered into the
SC. Delivery systems have expanded from single emulsions and microcapsules to multiple
emulsions, cyclodextrins, liposomes, polymeric systems, wipes and patch technology.
Liposomes can be defined as microscopic bubbles known as vesicles. The walls of these vesicles
bear a close resemblance to animal and plant cell membranes which are organised into bilayers.
The membranes of true liposomes consist of phospholipids, which are important building blocks
for animal and plant cell membranes. On the other hand, vesicles whose walls consist of nonionic surfactants are called niosomes. Liposomes are very compatible with the skin and because
of their size (15-3500 nm); they are able to penetrate the skin efficiently, unlike classical
emulsions.

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Plant phospholipids (lecithin) tend to be used more than animal phospholipids because of their
high content of esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. As a type of
microencapsulation technology, liposomes offer a safer way of delivering actives such as
moisturisers and vitamins to the deeper layers of the skin (see K. Suzuki and K. Sakon, 1990,
Cosmetics & Toiletries, Vol. 105, No. 61). Liposomes have been used to tackle cosmetic problems
such as dry and oily skin, age spots, and skin ageing. A moisturising lotion with liposomes is
shown as Formula 29.
Hand and body lotions
Products for use on the hands and body tend to be similar in formulation to the day moisturisers.
They normally exist as lotions and sometimes aerosol mousses rather than creams for ease of
application. These lotions will have an initially rich texture which breaks down easily without
leaving a greasy feel. This behaviour can be achieved by increasing the viscosity of the water
phase with agents like the carbomers and cellulose derivatives.
Formula 30 is a formula that uses cocoa butter and lanolin oil, which is rich in cholesterol, to
provide excellent emolliancy. The emollient Caprylic/capric triglyceride is a reconstituted vegetable
oil that improves the spreading properties of the cream on the skin. An antioxidant should be
included to prevent any rancidity from the cocoa butter.
All-purpose products
As their name suggests, all-purpose products can be used as a moisturiser or as a cleanser on the
face, hands and body. All-purpose milks have become popular because of their light texture and
ease of spreading. In Formula 31 isohexadecane, cyclopentasiloxane and PPG-15 stearyl ether
together with Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil) are used for their emolliancy; sorbitan stearate
and Polysorbate 60 form the emulsifier system. Urea is included for its moisturising properties.
Talcum powder or dusting powder is often used after bathing to absorb moisture and perfume
the skin, leaving it feeling soft and silky. In warm weather it absorbs perspiration to help cool the
body. Formulations are based on the mineral talc with hydrous magnesium silicate, to provide the
slippery skin feel. It is important that the talc, a natural product, is sterilised before use to
minimise risk form microbial contamination.
In Formula 32 zinc stearate is included for lubricity and its mild antiseptic properties. Soothing
agents such as aloe and allantoin can be added, to help relieve minor skin irritations and the
discomfort caused by prickly heat rash and sunburn. Magnesium carbonate provides absorbency
and fluffiness. Some talcum powders may contain modified starch.
2.4 Moisturisers for combination and oily skins
The use of too many oily/fatty components in moisturisers for combination and oily skin must be
avoided for obvious reasons. Formula 33 gives a light moisturising milk for combination skin.

2.5 Extra protection products: Caring for hands and feet


Care of hands and nails has always been important, because like the face they are exposed to
environmental conditions. Regular contact with detergents and industrial chemicals makes the
hands the most vulnerable part of the body, exhibit early signs of ageing. Barrier creams, such as
hand creams, are protective products. However, in addition to this, they prevent external
materials from passing through the skin. External materials will include water, defatting solvents,
soil and dirt.
The formulation of barrier creams will be determined by the type of external materials from
which the end-user requires protection. Two types of protection are discussed below.
Protection from water
These formulations have water-repellent properties and can be based on petroleum jelly, lanolin
or silicones. An aerosol mousse, as an alternative, offers a product which is hygienic and easy to
apply. Kaolin may be included as a skin protectant. Glyceryl stearate allows the product to be
easily washed off after use (see Formula 34).

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Protection from oils


Non-oil soluble film formers such as tragacanth, sodium alginate or gum acacia can be used to
provide oil repellence. Glycerin helps to plasticise the gum film. An example is shown in Formula
35.
Feet are often the most neglected area of the body, where people usually only purchase such
products at the beginning of summer or if they have a specific problem. However some
innovative products are now available in the market place, see Formulas 36 & 37.
2.6 Baby Skin Products: Caring for younger skins
Caring for baby skin involves general cleansing of excreta, protection from nappy rash and
exposure to ultraviolet light. A babys skin makes up a higher percentage of the body weight
than adult skin. The higher surface area to weight ratio makes babies and infants more
susceptible to increased trans-epidermal water loss, percutaneous absorption of topically applied
materials, infection, and heat loss, therefore, it is extremely important that raw materials are
chosen carefully and that pharmacopoeia grade materials are used.
Formula 38 is a simple emollient bath oil that provides gentle cleansing and leaves the skin
feeling soft and moisturised.
Wet wipes have grown in popularity and are used in many different products areas. They should
be able to remove excreta and fatty deposits from previously applied creams and lotions.
Traditionally baby wipes are made from paper, impregnated with a mild surfactant solution.
Recently, more premium products have entered the market. These products consist of spun lace
(polyester/viscose) that offers a softer feel, impregnated with a low viscosity lotion. The latter
provides cleansing and moisturisation in one step. Fragrance-free wipes have also gained
considerable market share. A lotion wet-wipe is shown as Formula 39.
After cleansing the nappy area, protective creams or baby powder may be applied. The use of
liquid talc, as shown in Formula 40 is a safer alternative to traditional baby powder because it
overcomes the risk of inhalation of airborne particles. Formula 41 is a barrier cream which can be
applied to the nappy area for protection against chemical attack from excreta and decomposition
products. This helps to prevent nappy rash and chafing. Zinc oxide is the active ingredient known
for its protective and anti-inflammatory properties.

CHECKLIST
You should now be able to:
define the terms, humectant, emollient and moisturisation
give examples of raw materials which are commonly used as moisturisers
list the basic components of moisturising products
classify the moisturising products available on the market
outline some of the new functional materials which are now available as special additives.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

APPENDIX GUIDELINE FORMULATIONS FOR PART 1


Appendix 1 contains formulations that are referenced in Unit 16 Part 1. The INCI (International
Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients) system has been used to name the materials with
occasional explanations in brackets to help identify them further. Short explanations of how the
formula is created are given; it should be remembered that the function of the ingredients is in
part dependent on the total composition in which they are incorporated. The formulations are
given to illustrate the text and should only be considered as starting points with which to
experiment and customise to your own requirements.
Virtually all of them require a carefully selected preservative system. Aqua (Water) is preferably
deionised and should be free of microbial contamination. Disodium EDTA is incorporated in some
formulations as a sequestrant or chelating agent. It chelates heavy metal ions and may prevent
discolouration. It also has some microbiological activity so may be considered a useful addition to
other formulations containing water.
Throughout the appendix, alcohol is ethanol and is suitably denatured, i.e. made undrinkable by
the inclusion of a suitable ingredient. In the EU, alcohol is denatured with denatonium benzoate
and tertiary butyl alcohol and it is referred to as Alcohol denat. on labels. WARNING: Alcohol is
highly flammable and must always be handled with care according to safety instructions.
Formula 01: Cold cleansing cream [Note: this is a Key Activity formula]
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil)

40.00 Soil/makeup remover

Cera alba (Beeswax)

16.00 Emulsifier/thickener

Isopropyl myristate

5.00 Moisturiser

Petrolatum

5.00 Moisturiser

Sodium borate

1.00 Emulsifier

Aqua (Water) to 100%

33.00 Solvent

Parfum (fragrance)*

q.s.** See Unit 13

Preservative*

q.s.** See Unit 6

Preparation
1. Heat A to 75C.
2. In a separate container, heat B to 75C.
3. Add B to A slowly whilst stirring.
4. Cool to 35C and add C.
* Not required for Activity 8
** Where q.s. appears it translates to quantity sufficient and is used where the level of
material to be added is either to meet a subjective requirement, like dye or perfume, or to adjust
pH or to adequately preserve the final composition.
In Formula 01 fatty acids present in Cera alba (beeswax) are partially saponified by the sodium
borate (borax) to form a soap-type emulsifier. The Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil) is the
principal solvent for make-up and facial grime, helped by the isopropyl myristate, which also
reduces some of the oiliness caused by the petrolatum, which is added to give body to the
cream.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 02: Cleansing lotion


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Steareth-100

3.00 Surfactant - cleansing

Glycol stearate

3.00 Pearliser

PPG-15 stearyl ether

3.00 Emollient

Isohexadecane

7.00 Emollient

Cetearyl alcohol

1.00 Thickening

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Sodium cocoyl isethionate

Polysorbate 20

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

q.s.
10.00 Surfactant - cleansing
3.00 Emulsifier

Preparation
1. Heat A, the oil phase, to 70C to dissolve all waxes.
2. In a separate vessel heat water in B to 70C to dissolve the sodium cocoyl isethionate. Add
the remaining ingredients in phase B.
3. Add A to B slowly with intensive stirring.
4. Cool to 35C, adding preservative and perfume whilst stirring.
NOTE: The composition can be thickened by the addition of 1% hydroxyethylcellulose. Retain
about 10% water from Stage A and dissolve the hydroxyethylcellulose at about 35C and add it
to the mix at 35C.
In Formula 02 sodium cocoyl isethionate is the principal cleansing agent in association with
steareth-100. Polysorbate 20 is the principal emulsifier. Glycol stearate forms pearly crystals when
dissolved in surfactant systems and then allowed to cool. Cetearyl alcohol is a thickener and
emulsion stabiliser and also adds skin feel while isohexadecane and PPG-15 stearyl ether add
emolliancy.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 03: Foaming cleansing lotion


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Sodium cocoyl isethionate

Stearic acid

1.00 Emollient

Glycol stearate

3.00 Pearlising agent

Cetearyl alcohol

4.00 Emollient/thickener

Ethylhexyl hydroxystearate

2.00 Emollient/thickener

Lauramide MIPA

3.00 Foam thickener/ booster

Stearamide MIPA

3.00 Foam thickener/ booster

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

30.00 Surfactant

Preparation
1. Heat water to 70C, add sodium cocoyl isethionate and stir until dissolved.
2. In a separate vessel, combine ingredients in B and heat to 65 - 70C.
3. Add B to A and stir until cool.
4. Add C.
In Formula 03 the foaming agent is sodium cocoyl isethionate and the lauramide MIPA and
stearamide MIPA boost the foam and make it thicker and creamier. The formula is selfemulsifying; stearic acid adds emolliancy and glycol stearate forms pearly crystals when dissolved
in a hot surfactant system and allowed to cool. Cetearyl alcohol thickens the lotion and adds
emolliancy to skin.
Formula 04: Spreading bath oil
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil)

45.00 Emollient

PPG-15 stearyl ether

49.00 Emollient

PEG-40 sorbitan peroleate

1.00 Surfactant/dispersal agent

Parfum (Fragrance)

5.00 See Unit 13

Preparation
Mix all items together in a clean, dry vessel.
In this formula the PEG-40 sorbitan peroleate disperses the other ingredients as a floating film on
the surface of the bath water. No preservative is needed as there is no water in the formulation.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 05: Blooming bath oil


Stage
A
B
C
D
E

INCI Name
PEG-40 sorbitan peroleate
PPG-15 stearyl ether
Ethylhexyl palmitate
Prunus amygdalus dulcis (Sweet almond) Oil
Parfum (Fragrance)

%w/w
30.00
15.00
50.00
5.00
5.00

Prime function
Surfactant/dispersal agent
Emollient
Emollient
Emollient
See Unit 13

Preparation
1. Mix all items together in a clean, dry vessel.
In this formula the PEG-40 sorbitan peroleate disperses the other ingredients as a cloud or
bloom in the bath water. Other vegetable oils may be substituted for the sweet almond oil. No
preservative is needed as there is no water in the formulation but adding an antioxidant like
tocopherol or BHT should be considered.
Formula 06: Triphasic Bath Oil
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate

30.00 Emollient

Glycerin

34.00 Forms separate phase

Paraffin liquidum (Mineral oil)

33.00 Emollient

Aqua (Water)

3.00 Dissolves Blue 1

Parfum (Fragrance)

5.00 See Unit 13

Chlorophyll

qs Colours upper phase

CI 47005 (Yellow 10)

qs Colours middle phase

CI 42090 (Blue 1)

qs Colours lower phase

Preparation
Add each item in turn to a clean, dry vessel, stirring with each addition. Mix well until clear and
it should separate into 3 distinctive layers. Although it contains a little water the glycerin will
effectively shield this from microbial spoilage. The perfume may upset the balance so try without
it first.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 07: Bar toilet soap


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Soap chips

84.60 Soap cleanser

Etidronic acid

BHT

Glycerin

CI 77891 (Titanium dioxide)

1.50 Whitener

Parfum (Fragrance)

1.00 See Unit 13

0.20 Sequestering agent


0.20 Antioxidant
12.50 Humectant

Preparation
1. Add all materials to soap chips.
2. Pass through a triple roll mill.
3. Feed mixture into a toilet soap amalgamator
4. Refine, extrude, cut and stamp.
Soap chips are purchased from small quantity suppliers that may be found on-line. The mixing,
milling and extruding equipment is quite specialised and also may be found on-line. Etidronic
acid sequesters (chelates) iron ions to prevent discolouration. Glycerin is primarily to stop the bar
soap drying out but also to give the right consistency. CI 77891 (Titanium dioxide) is to make the
bar white and it also has a hardening effect. The anatase form may be dispersed in glycerin
before addition to the mix to ensure even distribution. Perfumes often cause discolouration in
soaps so make sure the supplier knows the end-use and check stability at 40c and in daylight.
Formula 08: Syndet bar for oily skin
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Sodium cocoyl isethionate

30.00 Surfactant

Stearic acid

15.00 Adds body and texture to

PEG-350

10.00 Refatting agent

Sodium isethionate

5.00 Surfactant

Etidronic acid

0.05 Chelating agent

Colloidal oatmeal

8.00 Soft scrub agent

CI 77891 [Titanium dioxide]

0.30 Whitener

Glycerin

2.00 Humectant

Sodium cocoyl glutamate

3.50 Thickening aid

Preservative, fragrance, colour etc.

q.s.

Citric acid to pH 4.0

q.s.

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Preparation
1. Place all the materials into a soap bar kneader and mix until homogenous.
2. Pass through a triple roll mill.
3. Feed mixture into a toilet soap amalgamator or return to the kneader for further mixing.
4. Press into suitable moulds..
The kneading, milling and extruding equipment is quite specialised and may be found on-line.
Etidronic acid sequesters (chelates) iron ions to prevent discolouration. Colloidal oatmeal imparts
a gentle scrubbing action when hand washing. Glycerin is primarily to stop the bar soap drying
out but also to give the right consistency. CI 77891 (Titanium dioxide) is to make the bar white.
The anatase form may be dispersed in glycerin before addition to the mix to ensure even
distribution. Perfumes often cause discolouration in soaps so make sure the supplier knows the
end-use and check stability at 40c and in daylight.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 09: Body polishing scrub


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua to 100%

qs

Sodium olefin sulfonate (37%)

PEG-80 jojoba acid

Sodium laureth sulfate (28%)

Cocamidopropyl betaine (30%)

Aqua (Water)

Hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)

1.00 Thickener

Hydrogenated jojoba seed oil

6.00 40/60 mesh - scrub agent

Triethanolamine or citric acid

q.s. To pH 6.5 7.5

Parfum (fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

Water-soluble colour

q.s.

15.00 Surfactant
1.00 Thickener/foam stabiliser
15.00 Surfactant
5.00 Surfactant
10.00

Preparation
1. Heat water A to 70C.
2. Add ingredients in phase B in order listed whilst mixing.
3. In a separate vessel, Add HEC in phase C to water in phase C with high speed propeller
agitation and mix for 30 minutes at moderate speed.
4. Add phase C to phase A-B.
5. Cool to 35C and add phase D.
In Formula 09 the HEC acts as a suspending agent for the hydrogenated jojoba seed oil, which
confers a mild scrubbing action to the formula. Sodium olefin sulfonate and sodium laureth
sulfate are the main foaming agents and cocamidopropyl betaine adds mildness to the
composition. PEG-80 jojoba acid improves foam stability and foam density.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 10: Relaxing foam bath


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua To 100%

q.s.

Sodium laureth sulphate (28%)

Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (30%)

7.50 Surfactant

PEG-9 cocoglycerides

4.00 Emollient

PEG-75 lanolin

3.00 Solubiliser/emollient

Glycol stearate

1.50 Pearlising agent

Lactic acid to pH 6.5 7.0

Hydrolysed oats (50% active)

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

Water-soluble colour

q.s.

30.00 Surfactant

q.s. pH adjuster
2.50 Moisturiser

Preparation
1. Measure out water and add all Stage A ingredients in turn and heat to 75-80C.
2. Mix until homogeneous.
3. Stir to cool. Adjust pH to 6.5-7.0 with lactic acid.
4. At 35-40C, add hydrolysed oats and perfume.
5. Add preservative and colour as required.
The sodium laureth sulphate provides good and copious foam and the sodium lauroyl sarcosinate
makes it creamier and more stable. PEG-9 cocoglycerides and PEG-75 lanolin each provide
emolliancy and the glycol stearate is a pearlising agent. It crystallises out of hot surfactant
solutions to give a pearly effect. If a pearly finish is not required leave out the glycol stearate and
heat just enough to mix all Stage A ingredients to give a clear solution. Herbal extracts may be
added to suit the demand for products with natural ingredients.
Formula 11: All-in-one shampoo and shower gel
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua To 100%

q.s.

Sodium laureth sulphate (28%)

40.00 Surfactant

Cocamidopropyl betaine (33%)

12.00 Surfactant

PEG-120 methyl glucose dioleate

2.50 Thickener

PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate

2.00 Thickener

Panthenol

0.40 Hair benefit agent

Triethanolamine/citric acid

q.s To pH 6.5- 7.0

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

Water-soluble colour

q.s. Optional

Preparation
1. Add sodium laureth sulphate to water, with moderate mixing.
2. Add Stage B ingredients to Stage A.
3. Adjust pH to 6.5-7.0.
4. Add perfume, preservative and colour as required.
Sodium laureth sulphate provides copious foam and cocamidopropyl betaine makes foam richer
and creamier and is said to reduce the irritation potential of sodium laureth sulphate. PEG-120
methyl glucose dioleate and PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate each further enrich the foam and skin feel
and add residual conditioning to hair. Panthenol is a small molecule that is proven to penetrate
and add moisture to hair although whether it is of benefit in this formulation is debateable.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 12: Moisturising body wash


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (30%)

14.00 Surfactant

Sodium laureth sulfate (28%)

13.00 Surfactant

Cocamidopropylamine oxide (30%)

4.00 Surfactant/foam stabiliser

PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate

2.00 Surfactant/.emollient

B
C

PEG-150 pentaerythrityl tetraisostearate


Parfum (Fragrance)

2.00 Thickener
1.00 See Unit 13

1.00 Moisturiser

Cocodimonium hydroxypropyl hydrolyzed wheat


protein
Citric acid to pH 6.5 7.0

Sodium chloride

q.s. Thickener

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

q.s. pH adjustment

Preparation
1. Measure out the water into a suitable vessel and start heating to 65 70c.
2. While heating add items in Stage B in turn to the hot water, stirring until clear but avoid
aeration.
3. When solution is below 35C add each Stage C item in turn, with careful stirring
4. Finally adjust pH to 6.5 to 7.0, thicken with sodium chloride if necessary and add a
preservative to ensure adequate protection from microbial contamination.
Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate is a mild anionic surfactant; in this formulation it improves lather,
mildness and after-feel. Sodium laureth sulfate is included for its ability to provide instant
foaming. Cocamidopropylamine oxide is included as a foam stabiliser, while PEG-7 glyceryl
cocoate is incorporated as a non-ionic mildness additive, which also functions as a water soluble
emollient. PEG-150 pentaerythrityl tetraisostearate is a complex high molecular weight ester that
is an effective thickener for aqueous detergent systems. The quaternary wheat protein derivative,
cocodimonium hydroxypropyl hydrolyzed wheat protein, is a highly substantive conditioning
agent included to moisturise the skin. Citric acid is added to adjust pH to 6.5 7.0 and a
preservative is required to adequately preserve the finished composition.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 13: Liquid hand soap


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua To 100%

q.s.

Cocamidopropyl betaine (30%)

7.50 Surfactant

Sodium laureth sulphate (28%)

25.00 Surfactant

PEG-55 propylene glycol oleate

2.00 Skin conditioner

Glycol distearate

2.00 Pearl effect

Cocamide MEA

2.50 Non-ionic surfactant

PEG-150 distearate

0.50 Thickener

Parfum (Fragrance)

1.00 See Unit 13

Hydrolyzed wheat protein

1.00 Moisturiser

Citric acid to pH 6.5 7.0

q.s. pH adjustment

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

Preparation
1. Heat the water to 60C. Add ingredients in StageA in order and mix between each addition,
being careful to avoid aeration.
2. Cool to 30 35C and add ingredients in B. Mix well, avoiding air entrapment.
3. Finally adjust pH to 6.5 7.0 and add a preservative to ensure adequate protection from
microbial contamination.
Sodium laureth sulphate provides copious foam and cocamidopropyl betaine makes foam richer
and creamier and is said to reduce the irritation potential of sodium laureth sulphate. The PEG55 propylene glycol oleate has a skin conditioning effect; glycol distearate crystallises from hot
surfactant solution to impart a pearly effect. Cocamide MEA stabilises the foam and makes it feel
richer and creamier. PEG-150 distearate is a very effective thickener for surfactant systems and
hydrolyzed wheat protein has a moisturising effect.
Formula 14: Waterless hand cleaner
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Disodium EDTA

Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl acrylate crosspolymer

Glycerin

10.00 Humectant

Alcohol (Ethanol)

50.00 Antimicrobial solvent

Triclosan

0.30 Antimicrobial agent

Parfum (Fragrance)

0.30 See Unit 13

Sodium hydroxide solution to pH 6.5 7.0

0.10 Sequestrant
0.50 Thickener

q.s. pH adjustment

Preparation
1. Measure the water into a suitable vessel and dissolve the Disodium EDTA and carefully
disperse the Acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer. Warming to 30C speeds the
process.
2. Mix the items of stage B together and add to Stage A with stirring.
3. Finally adjust pH to 6.5 7.0 by careful addition of sodium hydroxide solution this will gel
the mix.
The alcohol sterilises the skin and rapidly evaporates. The glycerin stops the ethanol from being
too drying; triclosan is an antimicrobial agent that will stay on the skin. When acrylates/C10-30
alkyl acrylate crosspolymer is neutralised to pH 6.5 7.0 it forms a clear gel. Because of the high
alcohol content a preservative is not required. The perfume is optional.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 14: Waterless hand cleaner


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Disodium EDTA

Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl acrylate crosspolymer

Glycerin

10.00 Humectant

Alcohol (Ethanol)

50.00 Antimicrobial solvent

Triclosan

0.30 Antimicrobial agent

Parfum (Fragrance)

0.30 See Unit 13

Sodium hydroxide solution to pH 6.5 7.0

0.10 Sequestrant
0.50 Thickener

q.s. pH adjustment

Preparation
1. Measure the water into a suitable vessel and dissolve the Disodium EDTA and carefully
disperse the Acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer. Warming to 30C speeds the
process.
2. Mix the items of stage B together and add to Stage A with stirring.
3. Finally adjust pH to 6.5 7.0 by careful addition of sodium hydroxide solution this will gel
the mix.
The alcohol sterilises the skin and rapidly evaporates. The glycerin stops the ethanol from being
too drying; triclosan is an antimicrobial agent that will stay on the skin. When acrylates/C10-30
alkyl acrylate crosspolymer is neutralised to pH 6.5 7.0 it forms a clear gel. Because of the high
alcohol content a preservative is not required. The perfume is optional.
Formula 15: Intimate foaming cleanser
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate

Capryl/capramidopropyl betaine

Glycerin

Citric acid

q.s To pH 6.5- 7.0

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

2.00 Surfactant/.emollient
17.00 Surfactant
3.00 Humectant

Preparation
1. Measure the water into a suitable vessel and dissolve the EDTA, Disodium salt and stir in the
PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate, Capryl/capramidopropyl betaine and glycerin.
2. Adjust pH to 6.5 7.0 by careful addition of citric acid.
3. Finally add perfume if required and add a preservative to ensure adequate protection from
microbial contamination. Pack into a pump-type foamer.
This formula uses mild surfactants that will not irritate mucous membranes and that will foam
when dispensed from a suitable applicator.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 16: Effervescent bath crystals


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Sodium sesquicarbonate

70.00. Bath salts

Sodium bicarbonate

Tartaric acid

Sodium methyl oleoyl taurate (Powder)

Parfum (Fragrance)

5.00 Bath salts


20.00 Reacts with the carbonates
5.00 Foaming agent
q.s. See Unit 13

Preparation
1. Mix together in a clean, dry powder blender. Compress into suitable moulds.
Formula 17; Skin cleansing wipes
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Methyl gluceth-10

5.00 Cleansing/skin feel

PEG-75 lanolin

3.60 Cleansing/skin feel

Citric acid

0.20 pH adjustment

Oleth-20

1.00 Surfactant

Alcohol (Ethanol)

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 13

15.00 Antimicrobial/astringent

Preparation
1. Combine all the ingredients except alcohol, perfume and preservative.
2. Stir until homogeneous.
3. In a separate vessel, mix together alcohol, perfume and preservative and stir until
homogeneous then add to main mix.
Pack in sealed sachets, ensuring that wipes are completely saturated.
Methyl gluceth-10 provides soft feel; PEG-75 lanolin and oleth-20 provide gentle cleansing but
the alcohol is the prime cleansing agent.
This solution may be gelled using a carbomer or Acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer at
0.60 1.00%. Leave out the citric acid and neutralise to pH 6.5 7.0 with a suitable alkali.

35

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(Copyright 2013).
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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 18: Cream setting mask


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Kaolin

14.00 Absorbent powder

Bentonite

10.00 Thickener /absorbent

Light magnesium carbonate

8.00 Toning / bulking agent

CI 77981 [Titanium dioxide]

1.00 Whitener

Ceteareth-20

3.00 Emulsifier

Cetearyl alcohol

0.80 Emollient

Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil)

5.00 Emollient

Isopropyl palmitate

2.50 Emollient

Glycerine

5.00 Humectant

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 5

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Parfum (Fragrance)

Alcohol (Ethanol)

q.s. See Unit 13


15.00 Drying agent

Preparation
1. Sieve mixed powders in phase A.
2. Heat B to 70C.
3. Dissolve preservative in glycerin at 70C and add to water (phase D) at 70C.
4. Add B to the water phase and mix to form a cream
5. Add A to batch slowly to expel as much air as possible.
6. When cool stir in a mixture of ethanol and perfume.
The kaolin absorbs sebum and facial grime; the bentonite thickens the mix, light magnesium
carbonate adds bulk to the powders and titanium dioxide whitens them. The items of Stage B
form an oil-in-water emulsion with the water phase. Alcohol ensures the mask drying in a
reasonable time frame but glycerin stops the mask from becoming too dry. The ratio of these
two ingredients may be varied to obtain the effect desired.
Formula 19: Peel-off mask
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

10.00 Gelling agent

Aqua (Water) to 100%

55.00

Alcohol (Ethanol)

25.00 Drying agent

PEG-6 methicone acetate

2.00 Emollient

Triethanolamine, 99%

3.00 Neutralising agent

Preservatives, parfum, pigments

5.00

Preparation
1. Mix polyvinyl alcohol into hot water and stir until fully dissolved, cool to <40C.
2. In a separate vessel, mix together the alcohol and PEG-6 methicone acetate and add to A
when below 40C.
3. Adjust pH to 6 - 7
4. Add perfume, pigments and preservative(s) whilst stirring.
The polyvinyl alcohol is the setting agent that forms a skin on the skins surface as the alcohol
and water evaporate. The mask may be peeled off when fully set, removing dead skin cells at
the same time. Experiment may be needed to obtain the best results.

36

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(Copyright 2013).
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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 20: Astringent lotion for oily skin


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Oleth-10

0.50 Solubiliser

Parfum (Fragrance)

0.20 See Unit 13

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Propylene glycol

5.00 Humectant

Methylparaben

0.20 Preservative

Alcohol (Ethanol)

Sodium lactate

Lactic acid to pH 5.3 5.8

q.s.

20.00 Astringent
0.30 pH buffer
q.s. pH adjustment

Preparation
1. Pre-disperse perfume in oleth-10 with gentle warming.
2. Add to the water with vigorous stirring.
3. Dissolve the methylparaben in the propylene glycol and add to main mixture.
4. Stir well and add ethanol.
5. Add sodium lactate then add lactic acid to adjust pH to 5.3 5.8
Sodium lactate has moisturising activity and buffers the pH on the addition of lactic acid. This is
a basic formulation to which suitable extracts can be added, including Hamamelis virginiana
(Witch hazel) extract. Methylparaben is the preservative of choice for this mixture although
others may be suitable.
Formula 21: Toning lotion for normal/dry skin
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Glycerin

q.s.

Hydrolyzed silk protein

1.00 Skin conditioner

Alcohol (Ethanol)

5.00 Astringent/solvent

Polysorbate 20

1.25 Solubiliser

Parfum

Methylparaben

0.25 Preservative

Sodium lactate

0.30 pH buffer

Lactic acid to pH 5.3 5.8

10.00 Humectant

q.s. See Unit 13

q.s. pH adjustment

Preparation
1. Mix together items of Stage A
2. In a separate vessel, mix together items of Stage B
3. Add Stage B to stage A while mixing
4. Add sodium lactate then add lactic acid to adjust pH to 5.3 5.8.
This formulation has reduced alcohol content for less astringency and a high glycerin content to
inhibit the skin drying effect of the alcohol. Hydrolyzed silk protein is added to improve the feel
of skin. Sodium lactate has moisturising activity and buffers the pH on the addition of lactic acid.
This is a basic formulation to which suitable extracts can be added, including Hamamelis
virginiana (Witch hazel) extract. Methylparaben is the preservative of choice for this mixture
although others may be suitable.

37

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(Copyright 2013).
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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 22: Toning lotion for normal/dry and sensitive skin


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Sodium PCA

Hamamelis virginiana (Witch hazel) extract

1.00 Astringent

Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) fruit extract

5.00 Moisturising

Polysorbate 20

1.25 Solubiliser

Parfum

Methylparaben

0.25 Preservative

Propylene glycol

5.00 Solvent

Sodium lactate

0.30 pH buffer

Lactic acid to pH 5.3 5.8

10.00 Humectant

q.s. See Unit 13

q.s. pH adjustment

Preparation
1. Mix together items of Stage A.
2. In a separate vessel, mix together items of Stage B.
3. Add Stage B to stage A while mixing.
4. Dissolve methylparaben is propylene glycol and stir into main mix.
5. Add Sodium lactate then add lactic acid to adjust pH to 5.3 5.8.
This formulation has Hamamelis virginiana (Witch hazel) extract for low astringency and Cucumis
sativus (Cucumber) fruit extract for moisturising claims. Sodium lactate has moisturising activity
and buffers the pH on the addition of lactic acid.
This is a basic formulation to which suitable extracts can be added, including sodium
hyaluronate, jojoba ethoxylates, panthenol and water-soluble vitamin E. Methylparaben is the
preservative of choice for this mixture although others may be suitable.
Formula 23: Stearic acid type vanishing cream
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Isopropyl palmitate

2.00 Emollient/Occlusive

Wheatgerm oil

1.00 Emollient/Occlusive

Stearic acid

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Triethanolamine

1.40 Neutraliser

Glycerin

6.00 Humectant

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s See Unit 6

23.00 Emollient/Occlusive
q.s.

Preparation
1. Heat A and B independently to 75C.
2. Add B to A slowly with continuous stirring.
3. Cool to 35C and add perfume and preservative.
This illustrates a traditional vanishing cream and is now unlikely to be used for a commercial
product. The triethanolamine will saponify part of the stearic acid to form a soap, which is an
anionic emulsifier, so the emulsion will be an oil-in-water (o/w) type. Over the course of a day or
two the stearic acid will form pearl-like crystals and the cream will soften. This process can be
encouraged by gentle stirring after 24/48 hours.

38

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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 24: Moisturising cream


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Caprylic/capric triglyceride

8.00 Emollient

Dimethicone

3.00 Emollient/occlusive

Ethylhexyl palmitate

5.00 Emollient

Cetearyl alcohol

3.00 Emollient/occlusive

A2

Potassium cetyl phosphate

3.00 Emulsifier

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Glycerin

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s See Unit 6

q.s.
5.00 Humectant

Preparation
1. Heat A (Oil Phase) to 80C then when clear stir in A2 (Potassium cetyl phosphate) and stir
until melted.
2. Heat B (Aqueous Phase) to 80C then slowly add oils to water with stirring, briefly
homogenise,
3. Cool with stirring and add C (perfume and preservative) when below 35C and homogenise.
Formula 24 is a more modern version of a moisturising day cream, suitable for day time use. The
caprylic/capric triglyceride is a stabilised form of vegetable oil with a pleasant skin feel. The
dimethicone improves application and is part of the moisturising system as it forms an occlusive
film on the skin. The cetearyl alcohol has a similar function but is also an emulsion stabiliser.
Glycerin is the humectant and ethylhexyl palmitate is a light spreading ester that reduces the oily
feel of the composition on application. This formula can form the basis of a good moisturising
cream to which can be added other moisturising agents like Sodium PCA; herbal extracts for
natural claims and a UV absorber for sun protection.

39

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(Copyright 2013).
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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 25: A w/o night cream


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Octyldodecanol

15.00 Emollient

Theobroma cacao (Cocoa) seed butter

2.00 Thickens oil phase

Ethylhexyl palmitate

8.50 Emollient

PEG-30 dipolyhydroxystearate

2.00 w/o emulsifier

Cera alba (Beeswax)

3.00 Emulsion stabiliser

Prunus amygdalus dulcis (Sweet almond) oil

5.00 Emollient

BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene)

0.05 Antioxidant

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Magnesium sulfate

0.80 Emulsion stabiliser

Glycerin

5.00 Humectant

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

q.s.

Preparation
1. Heat A (Oil Phase) to 80C with stirring until waxes have melted.
2. Heat B (Aqueous Phase) to 80C then slowly add Aqueous Phase to Oil Phase with stirring,
briefly homogenise, cool with stirring.
3. Add C (perfume and preservative) when below 35C and homogenise
This is an example of a w/o emulsion containing natural oil (Prunus amygdalus dulcis (Sweet
almond) oil) and natural waxes (Theobroma cacao (Cocoa) seed butter & Cera alba (Beeswax).
The emulsifier is PEG-30 dipolyhydroxystearate and w/o emulsion stability is enhanced by the
addition of magnesium sulfate in the aqueous phase. An antioxidant is required to prevent
rancidity of natural oils and waxes; BHT is suggested but there are other ones that are suitable
e.g. tocopherol. The waxes give structure to the oil phase and the octyldodecanol and ethylhexyl
palmitate reduce the heavy feeling of the oils/waxes on application.

40

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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 26: A moisturiser with liquid crystal emulsifier system


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Caprylic/capric triglyceride

6.00 Emollient

Cetearyl alcohol

3.00 Emulsion stabiliser

Cetearyl glucoside

1.00 Emulsifier

Vitis vinifera (Grape) seed oil

4.00 Emollient

Tocopherol

0.10 Antioxidant

A2

Cyclopentasiloxane

0.20 Prevents soaping

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Disodium EDTA

0.08 Sequestrant

Xanthan gum

0.15 Rheology modifier

Glycerin

5.00 Humectant

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s See Unit 6

q.s.

Preparation
1. Heat A (Oil Phase) to 70C and stir until ALL melted. Just prior to mixing the two phases
together add A2 (cyclopentasiloxane), which is volatile.
2. Heat B (Aqueous Phase) to 30C, dissolve the disodium EDTA and then disperse the xanthan
gum before heating to 70C.
3. Slowly add oils to water with stirring, briefly homogenise, cool with stirring and add C
(perfume and preservative)
4. When below 35C add perfume and preservative with stirring. Do not homogenise as this
disrupts the formation of liquid crystals.
This is a basic formula to illustrate an emulsifier system (cetearyl glucoside & cetearyl alcohol)
that forms liquid crystals in o/w emulsions. The combination of caprylic/capric triglycerides give a
nice skin feel on application, which is further enhanced by the cyclopentasiloxane. The xanthan
gum helps stabilise the emulsion and glycerin is the humectant. The formula may be readily
adapted to use any of the emulsifier combinations suggested in the main text for forming liquid
crystals and herbal extracts and moisturising agents may be added.

41

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(Copyright 2013).
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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 27: w/o emulsion using a silicone-based emulsifier


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Persea gratissima (Avocado) oil

25.50 Emollient

Cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 dimethicone

2.50 Silicone emulsifier

Hydrogenated castor oil

0.80 Soft wax

Cera alba (Beeswax)

1.20 Wax

BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene)

0.10 Antioxidant

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Sodium chloride

1.20 Emulsion stabiliser

Glycerin

5.00 Humectant

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s See Unit 6

q.s.

Preparation
1. Heat A (Oil Phase) to 75C with stirring until waxes have melted.
2. In a separate vessel heat B (Aqueous Phase) to 75C then slowly add Aqueous Phase to Oil
Phase with stirring, briefly homogenise, cool with stirring.
3. Add C (perfume and preservative) when below 35C and homogenise when at 25C.
Cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 dimethicone is the primary emulsifier with stability improved by the
incorporation of hydrogenated castor oil and beeswax.
Formula 28: Alpha-hydroxy cream
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Cetearyl alcohol

2.80 Emollient

PEG-20 glyceryl stearate

4.30 Emulsifier

Stearic acid

1.40 Emollient

Isopropyl palmitate

4.20 Emollient

Paraffinum liquidum

4.30 Emollient

Cetyl dimethicone

1.40 Emollient

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Sodium magnesium silicate

1.00 Thickener

B2

Glycerin

4.50 Humectant

B2

Glycolic acid (50%)

7.10 Alpha-hydroxy acid

B3

Sodium hydroxide to pH 4.5

q.s. pH buffer

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s See Unit 6

q.s.

Preparation
1. Heat A (Oil Phase) to 75C and stir until melted.
2. In a separate vessel heat water to 30C and disperse Sodium magnesium silicate with
vigorous stirring then bring temperature to 75C, adding B2 ingredients while heating and
stirring.
3. When Aqueous Phase is at 75C slowly add oils to water with stirring, briefly homogenise
then continue stirring while cooling to 40C.
4. Add B3 (Sodium hydroxide 25% solution) to adjust pH to 4.5 +/- 0.2
5. Continue cooling with stirring and add C (perfume and preservative) when below 35C and
homogenise.
PEG-20 glyceryl stearate is an acid stable emulsifier; further stability is conferred by the presence
of cetearyl alcohol and cetyl dimethicone and these plus the other emollient oils help protect the
skin from irritation as the alpha-hydroxy acid dislodges dead skin cells.
42

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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 29: Moisturising cream with liposomes


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylates crosspolymer

0.25 Emulsion stabiliser

Carbomer

0.20 Rheology modifier

Caprylic/capric triglyceride

3.00 Emollient

Ethylhexyl stearate

8.00 Emollient

Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil)

7.00 Emollient

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Glycerin

2.00 Humectant

Sodium hydroxide (18% solution)

0.50 pH adjuster

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s See Unit 6

Liposome [Phospholipids + active]

q.s.

3.00 Delivery system

Preparation
1. Combine ingredients in phase A in final vessel, stirring rapidly to disperse the polymers.
2. In a separate vessel combine the ingredients in phase B, mix until homogeneous.
3. Add three-quarters of Phase B to A slowly, with rapid stirring for 20 minutes to swell
polymers.
4. When emulsion is smooth and white, add part of the sodium hydroxide solution and bring to
pH 7.0, then continue mixing.
5. Slowly add the remainder of Phase B with moderate mixing.
6. Add the rest of the sodium hydroxide solution.
7. Add C, the perfume and preservative and mix.
8. Add D, the liposomes whilst stirring very slowly to avoid rupturing them.
9. Mix until uniform.
Mixing the polymers in the oil phase is a way of avoiding the problems of dispersing them in
water and it can be very successful, as long as the oils and mixing vessel are perfectly dry. The
Liposome can be any that is commercially available from a supplier.

43

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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 30: Moisturising cream with Cocoa seed butter


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Caprylic/capric triglyceride

2.00 Emollient

Theobroma cacao (Cocoa) seed butter

2.00 Emollient

Lanolin oil

1.00 Emollient

Stearic acid

2.00 Emulsifier

Glyceryl stearate SE

2.00 Emulsifier

Dimethicone

1.00 Occlusive emollient

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Glycerin

4.00 Humectant

Triethanolamine

0.93 pH adjuster

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s See Unit 6

q.s.

Preparation
1. Heat A (Oil Phase) to 70C and stir until melted.
2. In a separate vessel heat B (Aqueous Phase) to 70C
3. Slowly add oils to water with stirring, briefly homogenise,
4. Cool with stirring and add C (perfume and preservative) when below 35C and homogenise.
The glyceryl stearate SE is a self-emulsifying grade which has been partially saponified with
sodium or potassium hydroxide to form an anionic soap-type emulsifier. It must only be used at
pH 7.0 and above. Further emulsifier is formed between the stearic acid and triethanolamine
within the formula. The result is a non-greasy emulsion that protects the hands but it can be
readily removed by washing.

44

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(Copyright 2013).
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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 31: All-purpose moisturising milk


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Isohexadecane

6.00 Emollient

PPG-15 stearyl ether

2.00 Emollient

Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil)

Sorbitan stearate

3.00 Emulsifier

A2

Cyclopentasiloxane

1.50 Improves application

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Disodium EDTA

0.08 Sequestrant

Xanthan gum

0.10 Rheology modifier

Glycerin

4.00 Humectant

Polysorbate 60

2.50 Emulsifier

Urea

5.00 Moisturiser

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

10.00 Emollient

q.s.

Preparation
1. Heat A (Oil Phase) to 70C and stir until ALL melted. Just prior to mixing the two phases
together add A2 (cyclopentasiloxane), which is volatile.
2. In a separate vessel heat B (Aqueous Phase) to 30C, dissolve the disodium EDTA and then
disperse the xanthan gum before heating to 70C.
3. Slowly add oils to water with stirring, briefly homogenise, cool with stirring and add C
(perfume and preservative)
In formula 31, isohexadecane, cyclopentasiloxane and PPG-15 stearyl ether together with
Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil) are used for their emolliancy; sorbitan stearate and polysorbate
60 is the emulsifier system. Urea is included for its moisturising properties. The formula may be
made less oily by substituting an emollient ester for some or all of the Paraffinum liquidum.
Moisturising additives like sodium hyaluronate or sodium PCA may also be included. As an
exercise check the required HLB of the oil phase and see if the emulsifiers satisfy the HLB system.
Formula 32: Talcum powder
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Magnesium carbonate (light)

Zinc stearate

5.00 Adds lubricity

Zinc oxide

4.00 Soothing agent

Talc to 100%

15.00 Absorbent powder

q.s. Absorbency and slip

Preparation
1. Mix perfume with magnesium carbonate
2. Add remaining ingredients and mix in a suitable blender
Zinc stearate is included for lubricity and its mild antiseptic properties. Soothing agents such as
Aloe barbadensis leaf juice and allantoin can be added, to help relieve minor skin irritations and
the discomfort caused by prickly heat rash and sunburn. Magnesium carbonate provides
absorbency and fluffiness. Some talcum powders may contain modified starch.

45

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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 33: Moisturising milk for combination and oily skin


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

PEG-5 glyceryl stearate

1.50 Emollient

Steareth-10

1.50 Emollient

Cetearyl alcohol

0.80 Emollient

Caprylic/capric triglyceride

5.00 Emollient

Ethylhexyl palmitate

8.00 Emollient

A2

Cyclopentasiloxane

1.00 Improves application

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Disodium EDTA

0.08 Sequestrant

Carbomer

0.15 Rheology modifier

Glycerin

3.00 Humectant

Triethanolamine

0.15 neutraliser

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

q.s.

Preparation
1. Heat A (Oil Phase) to 70C and stir until ALL melted. Just prior to mixing the two phases
together add A2 (cyclopentasiloxane), which is volatile.
2. In a separate vessel heat B (Aqueous Phase) to 30C, dissolve the disodium EDTA and then
disperse the Carbomer before heating to 70C.
3. Slowly add oils to water with stirring, briefly homogenise
4. Cool with stirring and add C (perfume and preservative)
The emolliancy can be modified by substituting Paraffinum liquidum for some or all of the
ethylhexyl palmitate. The viscosity can be modified by increasing or decreasing the carbomer
content, in which case add sufficient triethanolamine to neutralise to pH 6.5 7.0
Formula 34: Barrier cream for foot protection against water and water-borne pollutants
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil)

10.00 Emollient/occlusive

Glyceryl stearate SE

5.00 Emulsifier

Cetearyl alcohol

0.80 Emollient

Dimethicone 200cs

5.00 Waterproofing

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Glycerin

Kaolin

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preservative

q.s See Unit 6

q.s.
3.00 Humectant
35.00 Barrier agent

Preparation
1. Heat A (Oil Phase) to 70C and stir until ALL melted.
2. In a separate vessel heat B (Aqueous Phase) to 70C
3. Slowly add oils to water with stirring, briefly homogenise
4. Add kaolin with continuous mixing, allow air to dissipate and keep mixing until a smooth
consistency is obtained.
5. Cool with stirring and add C (perfume and preservative)
This formula is suggested as protection against water and water-borne pollutants. The kaolin,
Paraffinum liquidum and dimethicone will form a protective film on the foot surface.

46

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SKIN PRODUCTS

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 35: Barrier cream for foot protection against oil and oil pollutants
Stage
A
A
B
B

INCI Name
Acacia senegal gum
Aqua (Water) to 100%
Glycerin
Astragalus gummifer gum
Preservative

%w/w
5.00
q.s.
2.50
5.00
q.s.

Prime function
Barrier film former
Plasticiser
Barrier film former
See Unit 6

Preparation
A. Dissolve the Acacia Senegal gum in the water, warming may help..
B. Dissolve the Astragalus gummifer gum in the glycerin.
C. Add B very slowly to A with continuous stirring then add preservative
This formula is suggested as protection against water and water-borne pollutants however it is
added here more for interest than practical application and the use of modern film forming g
resins would provide a more elegant product. Acacia senegal gum is also known as gum arabic
and astragalus gummifer gum as gum tragacanth.
Formula 36: Liquid powder for feet
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Disodium EDTA

Acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer

Alcohol (Ethanol)

Dichlorobenzyl alcohol

0.10 Fungicide

Cyclopentasiloxane

3.00 Improves application

Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree) leaf oil

0.15 Essential oil/fragrance

Menthol

0.10 Cooling agent

Mentha piperita (Peppermint) oil

0.10 Essential oil/cooling

Tapioca starch

20.00 Absorbent powder

Triethanolamine

0.140 Neutraliser

Aqua (Water)

0.10 Sequestrant
0.45 Rheology modifer
35.00 Solvent

0.50

Preparation
1. Warm water to 40C, dissolve disodium EDTA and disperse acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate
crosspolymer (Use propeller stirrer). Cool A to below 30C.
2. Mix together items of Stage B. When main mix below 30C stir in Stage B mix.
3. Stir in tapioca flour; this must disperse well and be smooth and homogenous.
4. Finally; when a smooth homogenous main mix is obtained thicken it by the addition of a
water/triethanolamine solution to adjust pH to 6. 7.0.
This applies as a thickened liquid but during application the alcohol evaporates leaving the foot
coated with absorbent powder. It is cooling and pleasant to use. The alcohol content is the
preservative and dichlorobenzyl alcohol has fungicidal properties.

47

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 37: Cooling foot spray


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Alcohol (Ethanol)

55.00 Solvent

Dichlorobenzyl alcohol

0.10 Fungicide

Propylene glycol

5.00 Rheology modifer

Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree) leaf oil

0.15 Essential oil/fragrance

Menthol

0.10 Cooling agent

Mentha piperita (Peppermint) oil

0.10 Essential oil/cooling

Aqua (Water)

Sodium lactate

0.20 pH buffer

Lactic acid (88%)

0.10 pH adjustment

Aqua (Water) to 100%

20.00

q.s.

Preparation
1. Dispense the alcohol warning highly flammable.
2. Mix together the Items of Stage B and add to alcohol.
3. Slowly add water C to main mix with vigorous stirring then add sodium lactate and lactic acid
to adjust pH to 4.8 5.8.
4. Slowly add water D to main mix with vigorous stirring.
This formula is suitable for packing in a pump spray. The alcohol content is the preservative and
dichlorobenzyl alcohol has fungicidal properties.
Formula 38: Emollient baby bath oil
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Caprylic/capric triglyceride

80.00 Emollient

Polysorbate 80

20.00 Cleansing

Preparation
Mix together in a clean dry vessel.
Formula 28 will disperse in the bath water making it easy to clean the baby and imparting an
emollient film to the skin. Beware the baby may be slippery after bathing! No preservative is
required as there is no water in the product and it can be left unperfumed or a suitable
parfum/fragrance obtained for use in baby products.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 39: Lotion for wet wipe


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Ethylhexyl palmitate

1.50 Emollient

Cetearyl stearate

0.50 Emollient

Paraffinum liquidum

Sorbitan stearate

1.50 Emulsifier

A2

Cyclopentasiloxane

0.80 Improves application

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Glycerine

3.00 Humectant

Polysorbate 60

1.50 Emulsifier

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

10.00 Emollient

q.s.

Preparation
1. Heat A (Oil Phase) to 70C and stir until ALL melted. Just prior to mixing the two phases
together add A2 (Cyclopentasiloxane), which is volatile.
2. In a separate vessel heat B (Aqueous Phase) to 70C.
3. Slowly add oils to water with stirring, briefly homogenise
4. Cool with stirring and add C (perfume and preservative) when below 35C
This formula is suitable for application on wet wipes .Caprylic/capric triglyceride could be
substituted for the Paraffinum liquidum and the lotion could be made without fragrance.
Formula 40: Liquid talc for babies
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Carbomer

PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate

Cetearyl alcohol

0.60 Emollient

Cyclopentasiloxane

0.80 Improves application

Maize or tapioca starch

3.00 Humectant

Talc

Triethanolamine (50%) to pH 7.0

q.s. Neutraliser

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

0.50 Suspending agent


10.00 Emulsifier

10.00 Emulsifier

Preparation
1. Heat the water (A) to 30C and disperse the carbomer then bring to 70C with stirring.
2. When at 70C stir in the PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate and then the cetearyl alcohol. Make sure this
completely dissolves in the hot emulsion.
3. Cool to 60C and stir in the cyclopentasiloxane (C).
4. Stir in the starch and talc (D) and continue to cool with stirring.
5. At about 40C add the preservative and then triethanolamine as a 50% solution in water;
this will gel the mix.
6. If to be fragranced add when mix is below 35C and make sure fragrance is considered safe
for babies.
This is very much a guide formulation, which will need further work to ensure its stability. The
cetearyl alcohol is added to hot water as there is insufficient oil phase to add separately.

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Formula 41: Protective baby cream


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Microcristallina cera

3.50 Thickener

Petrolatum

Sorbitan stearate

Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil)

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Glycerin

5.00 Humectant

Allantoin

0.10 Soothing agent

Zinc oxide

7.00 Skin protectant

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

13.50 Emollient/occlusive
2.00 Emulsifier
14.50 Emollient/occlusive
q.s.

Preparation
1. Heat the items of Stage A, the oil phase, to 70C until all melted.
2. In a separate vessel heat the items of Stage B, the aqueous phase to 70C.
3. Add Stage B to Stage A with mixing.
4. Cool to 60C with stirring and sift in the zinc oxide.
5. Mix to a smooth consisentcy and continue mixing to room temperature, adding preservative
and then perfume if required. Homogenise if possible.
Zinc oxide is a traditional additive for creams for babies bottoms. It has soothing properties and
helps keep the area dry. This is a product where the occlusive properties of petrolatum and
Paraffinum liquidum are particularly beneficial as they provide a barrier against babies urine.

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SKIN PRODUCTS

PART 2

Module 2 Unit 16
Skin Products

Society of
Cosmetic Scientists
Distance Learning

Unit 16

Prepared by Grace Abamba


Amended by Paul Hebditch and John Woodruff

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

3 CONTROL OF BODY ODOUR AND SWEATING


3.1 Body odour and sweating

In the hustle and bustle of everyday living, with overcrowded trains and stuffy meeting rooms,
one becomes highly aware of the next persons smell or body odour, which can vary from quite
attractive to positively nauseating. Having a socially acceptable smell is very important. In addition,
sweat-stained armpits on clothing are perceived to be a sign of anxiety. Body odour in cosmetic
terms refers specifically to armpit (or axillary) odour which tends to have a characteristic smell.

ACTIVITY 6 The causes of body odour


(Allow about 5 minutes)
In the space below, write down what you think are the common causes of body odour and
sweating. I have given you an example of each.

52

Body odour
1 Lack of washing 1

Sweating
Vigorous exercise

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Hot weather, exercise, anxiety/emotional stress makes us hot and therefore sweat. Lack of
washing to remove sweat and skin debris, and eating certain foods such as garlic contribute to
underarm odour. Underarm hair tends to trap and concentrate any odour produced.
Sweat glands and skin bacteria
In the first part of this unit, we discussed the two types of sweat glands and how apocrine sweat
in particular is broken down by skin bacteria to cause body odour. You may like to go over that
section again if you cannot recall this material.
There are specific groups of skin bacteria which act on apocrine sweat to produce characteristic
malodours. For example, the Gram-positive Coryneforms produce a pungent, acrid odour; on the
other hand, Micrococci and Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli produce sweaty smells. For
further information read chapter 8 in the reference book on antiperspirants and deodorants given
at the beginning of this unit.

ACTIVITY 7 Comparison of apocrine and eccrine sweat


(Allow about 5 minutes)
Since the secretion of body fluids (sweat) is the primary source of body odour, we need to be
aware of how it is produced and the nature of its composition.
Apocrine sweat composition

Eccrine sweat composition

Protein

1.56

Sodium chloride

Amino acids

0.97

Acetic acid

0.0096

Lipids

0.03

Propionic acid

0.0002

0.10

Caprylic acid and caprionic acid

0.0046

Carbohydrates
Water

to 100

0.70

Lactic acid

0.10

Citric acid

0.14

Urea

trace

Water

to 100

How would you say that the two types of sweat differed?

Eccrine sweat consists of mainly common salt (sodium chloride) and short chain organic acids.
However, we can see that apocrine sweat produces the main source of nutrients for bacterial
growth. The other contributory factors which result in axillary odour are summarised in figure 6
on the following page.

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Apocrine
glands

Eccrine
glands

Proteins, lipids,
carbohydrates

Water, minerals,
electrolytes

Bacterial
growth

Semi-occluded
environment

Lipid
mixture

Sebaceous
glands

Odour

Anatomy of
axillae

Figure 6. Contributory factors to axillary odour

As you can see, the anatomy of the underarm area provides a partially closed environment where
bacteria can thrive on the nutrients provided by the three major glands. The sebaceous and
apocrine glands secrete lipids, proteins and carbohydrates while the eccrine glands provide water,
minerals and electrolytes.
3.2 Formulating deodorant and antiperspirant products
Aims
In this section, I aim to discuss the products used to combat underarm odour and sweating,
namely deodorants and antiperspirants; and explore methods for evaluating their efficiency.
Introduction
You may like to think that a good wash in the morning is all you need to prevent body odour
later in the day, but often this is not the case. Depending on the type of work or activity we are
involved in during the day, we may need to reduce or disguise our body odour. The cosmetics and
toiletries industry has developed products, namely deodorants and antiperspirants, which can do
this job.
Let us start this section by defining exactly what we mean by the terms antiperspirant and
deodorant. A deodorant is a cosmetic product which masks, reduces and/or removes or prevents
the development of body odour. An antiperspirant is a chemical that when applied topically to the
underarm will reduce the production of sweat at that site. In the USA, antiperspirants are
classified as over-the-counter (O.T.C.) drugs and are regulated by the Federal Drug Administration
(FDA); this is not the case in Europe.
Product formats
Before we begin to look more closely at formulations, it is important to note that deodorants and
antiperspirants are available in at least four different formats: aerosols, roll-ons, pumps, and
sticks/solids. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in creams and the more recent
deo-wipe format. Some of these formats are shown in figure 7 on the following page. The
product format chosen will obviously determine the nature of the finished formulation, even
though the same active material is being used.

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Aerosol

Roll-on

Pump

Stick

Figure 7. Packaging for deodorants and antiperspirants

ACTIVITY 8 Advantages and disadvantages of product formats


This activity has been identified as a key activity for this unit.
Please go to the online module to complete this activity, so that you can share your
ideas and opinions with your fellow learners and benefit from their experience and
knowledge in this area.
Formulations
I shall now look at active materials for deodorants. There are three mechanisms for achieving
deodorancy: odour modification; odour reduction and/or removal; and odour prevention.
Odour modification. In the absence of frequent bathing, the use of fragrances to modify body
odour was extremely common until the use of soap became popular. Odour modification by
fragrances can be done in a number of ways. The fragrance can change a malodour to give it a
more pleasant character in a process called masking.

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Perfume raw materials which can be used include the terpenes, such as citrals, alphaionone and
geranyl formate. These volatile materials are effective at extremely low concentrations and work
by competing with the malodorous chemicals to volatilise; so we smell the odour-masking
substance rather than the malodour. Use of encapsulation technology provides controlled release
of fragrances over a period of time. This allows manufacturers to make stronger efficacy claims
such as 24 hour deodorancy.
A fragrance can also reduce the intensity of the malodour by counteraction. Odour counteraction
can be explained as follows. Consider two odours A and B, where each is given a perceived odour
intensity score on an arbitrary scale. A represents the malodour with a perceived intensity score of
8 and B represents a fragrance compound with a score of 3. When the two odours are combined,
their perceived odour intensity score is reduced to 5 or even 2. As a result, there is a perceived
reduction in the malodour.
Odour removal. Physical methods involve good skin hygiene such as daily washing, which helps to
remove skin debris and malodorous chemicals, and reduces the total number of bacteria on the
skin. Chemical substances such as sodium bicarbonate, zinc glycinate and magnesium oxide work
by chemical neutralisation of the short chain fatty acids such as isovaleric and butyric acids, in the
axillae. Odour absorbents capture and retain odour molecules inside their structure. On the other
hand, odour adsorbents retain the molecules on the surface of their structure. Examples of these
materials include zinc ricinoleate and patented materials such as aluminium and potassium double
sulfate.
Odour prevention. The most common method of achieving deodorancy is to combine perfume
with an antimicrobial agent. These work by eliminating skin bacteria including those responsible
for breaking down apocrine sweat in the axillae. These materials are often used as preservatives in
cosmetic formulations. The earliest examples of such materials include cresylic acid (used in
Lifebuoy soap, 1895), zinc oxide (used in Mum, 1902), hexachlorophene (used in Dial Soap, 1948)
and later benzethonium chloride. Nowadays trichloro hydroxy diphenyl ether or Triclosan is widely
used. In addition, aluminium salts, which are primarily used as antiperspirant actives, have very
good antibacterial properties too. We will discuss antiperspirants in more detail in the next
section. The use of bacterial enzyme inhibitors represents an alternative way of controlling body
odour to using antimicrobial agents which tend to be non-specific and can cause skin irritation in
sensitive skins. These enzyme inhibitors are usually esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids; one example
is triethyl citrate (at 1-1.5% w/w). They work as follows:
1 Bacterial enzymes known as esterases normally attack a variety of esters in apocrine sweat.
2 In the presence of triethyl citrate, the esterases attack the triethyl citrate and hydrolyse it to citric
acid.
3 Citric acid will reduce the skin pH. Now esterases cannot work in highly acidic conditions and so
do not metabolise apocrine sweat; hence the malodorous chemicals are not produced.
A disadvantage with the use of enzyme inhibitors is that once they are used up or diluted by
eccrine sweat, then the skin pH will return to normal and the bacterial esterases will start working
again. There fore the product containing such inhibitors has to be reapplied fairly often. Examples
of deodorant formulations are given in formulae 42 and 43.

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3.3 Active materials for antiperspirants


The first antiperspirant on the market used aluminium chloride as the active. However, it is highly
acidic and became extremely unpopular because it was a skin irritant which stained fabrics and
led to their eventual disintegration. Nowadays, the most commonly used active ingredients are
aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH) and aluminium zirconium chlorohydrate (AZCH). These are
buffered astringent salts with an approximate pH 4. A combination of magnesium hydroxide and
glycine produces a good buffering system.
Mode of action
There are a number of hypotheses to explain how antiperspirants reduce axillary sweating. The
most widely accepted one is the hydroxide plug hypothesis which involves the diffusion of the
soluble antiperspirant into the sweat duct. The acidic metal salt is gradually neutralised to form a
polymeric aluminium hydroxide gel. The latter partially blocks the opening of the sweat duct and
so reduces the amount of sweat delivered to the skin (see figure 8).

Stratum
corneum

Hydroxide gel plugs of


Aluminium-Zirconium
antiperspirant

Epidermis
Eccrine
sweat
duct

Figure 8. Blockage of the sweat duct by antiperspirant salts

Active ingredient forms


ACH and AZCH complexes are available commercially as:
solutions - ACH and AZCH are available as 50% and 35% aqueous solutions respectively
powders of various particle sizes: macrospheres of ACH for aerosols; fine powders for sticks and
roll-ons
granules - ACH only.
Activated aluminium compounds
The introduction of activated or enhanced forms of ACH and AZCH is the most recent
development in antiperspirant technology. The process involves modification of the distribution of
the active molecular species within the complex, which significantly improves its antiperspirancy
compared to the unactivated salt. It is beyond the scope of the module to discuss the chemistry of
these materials. Further information can be found in chapter 6 of L. Karl and C. B. Felger,
Antiperspirants and deodorants.

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Legislation
The use of antiperspirants, like antimicrobial actives, is regulated by the EU Cosmetics Directive in
Europe, and the FDAS OTC Review Panel in USA. See table 6 below.
Table 6. Regulation of antiperspirant actives

Active

Maximum use level (anhydrous)

Exclusions

ACH

25%

None

AZCH*

20%

Not permitted in aerosols due to


inhalation risk

Normal use levels are 3 - 10% in aerosols and 15 - 20% in sticks and roll-ons. AZCH tends to be
about 30% more active than ACH on a weight for weight basis. In order for a product to be
registered as an antiperspirant , it must be shown to reduce sweating by a minimum of 20% in at
least 50% of the test population. The following table illustrates the relative efficiency of
antiperspirant actives in different product forms.
Table 7. The efficiency of antiperspirant actives

Active

Product form

% Sweat reduction

ACH (20% aqueous)

Stick/roll-on

35-40

AZCH (20% aqueous)

Stick/roll-on

55-60

ACH (standard)

Aerosol

20-25

ACH (activated)

Aerosol

35-40

Formulations
Examples of antiperspirant formulations are given in formulae 44 - 46.

Evaluating the efficacy of deodorants and antiperspirants


Evaluation of deodorants and antiperspirants involves rather complicated processes which must be
strictly controlled in order to obtain meaningful results.

ACTIVITY 9 Deodorant and antiperspirant evaluation


(Allow about 50 minutes)
Standard methods for evaluating the efficacy of deodorants and antiperspirants are given in the
extract contained in the Supplementary Booklet.
Read the extract carefully, and make notes on it. There is no need to dwell on the statistical
methods employed at this stage, since statistics will be covered in a later module. The original text
contained further references which have been omitted in this extract. You will need to obtain a
copy of the textbook to find these references.
When you make notes, use as a guide the questions which follow.

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1 List the two main methods for evaluating deodorant efficacy in vivo.

2 Describe the Baxter and Reed Olfactory Method of assessing deodorant efficacy.

3 Summarise the indirect method for deodorant efficacy measurement.

4 Describe the gravimetric method for assessing antiperspirant efficacy.

5 Summarise the alternative methods for measuring antiperspirant efficacy, namely thermography
and hygrometry.

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Summary
To conclude this section, I have summarised in figure 9 the various factors which contribute to
body odour and the cosmetic formulations used to control and prevent it.
Factors affecting production
Emotion

Apocrine
sweat

Heat

Underarm hair

Exercise

Washing

Eccrine
+
sweat

Skin
bacteria

Control
measures

Skin
debris

Diet

Underarm
odour

Washing
Antiperspirant

Antibacterial

Perfume
Absorbent

Figure 9. The production and control of body odour

CHECKLIST
You should now be able to:
list the major factors which cause underarm odour
explain the difference between apocrine and eccrine sweat in terms of composition
define the function of a deodorant and an antiperspirant
describe the various product and packaging forms available for deodorants and antiperspirants
list the common active materials used in deodorants and antiperspirants
list other basic components found in deodorant and antiperspirant formulations.

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4 SUN PROTECTION
4.1 Sunlight and its effects on the skin
Aims
In this section, I aim to discuss the physical nature of sunlight and how it interacts with the skin to
cause tanning and less favourable effects such as sunburn, premature ageing (photo-ageing) and
skin cancer.
Introduction
As well as promoting a feeling of well-being and enabling the synthesis of vitamin D, the sun
causes white skin to turn brown in a process called tanning. People who are born with brown skin
tend to get darker in more intense sunlight. Until the turn of the century, tanned skin was viewed
quite differently from the way it is today. A person with tanned skin was likely to come from a
poor background, which meant that they were engaged in menial outdoor work. The rich made
efforts to protect their skin from the sun and even bleached it, at their own peril, with mercurybased products. With a change in social attitudes, a good tan signifies wealth and the fact that
one has been away on holiday. This has resulted in an increase in sunburn, skin cancer and young
people with prematurely aged skin. The cosmetics industry has responded with a plethora of
suncare products and, more recently, anti-ageing products.
The function of suncare products has shifted from just an aid for developing a good tan to an
essential protective measure against the ill-effects of the sun. Products for consumers with dark
skins are also emerging. Increased consumer awareness about sun-related diseases has led to a
phenomenal growth in European sun product sales exceeding 1.48 billion in 2010, up 4.2% on
the previous year in the Big 5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK) alone.
Electromagnetic spectrum
Let us have a closer look at the nature of sunlight. The sun emits electromagnetic radiation as
waves from its surface, which can be divided into 8 major wavelengths, as shown in table 8.
Table 8. Solar radiation

Type of radiation
Cosmic rays

Wavelength range (m)

Energy range

10-15

Highest energy

105

Lowest energy

Gamma rays
X-rays
Ultraviolet rays
Visible light
Infra-red
Microwaves
Radio waves

The ultraviolet (uv) radiation is the waveband that concerns us, and can be divided into 3 main
wavelengths: UVC (200 - 290 nm), UVB (290 - 320 nm), and UVA (320 - 400 nm). UVC rays
never enter the earths atmosphere because they are filtered out by the ozone layer unlike UVA
and UVB rays. Ultraviolet A is able to penetrate glass whereas UVB cannot.
Both UVB and UVA can penetrate the ozone layer. Although UVB has much higher energy than
UVA, it does not penetrate glass. UVB will penetrate the epidermis, but it is mostly absorbed just
above the dermis. UVA penetrates into the dermis and beyond. Going one step further, visible
light and infra-red, which is detectable as heat, can penetrate more deeply into the body.
The energy that UVA and UVB transmit to cellular structures is responsible for damaging effects
on the skin ranging from acute symptoms of sunburn and tanning to chronic skin cancer and
premature ageing (see figure 10 on the following page).

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UV - A (down to the dermis)

Reflection
from skin
surface
(5%)

UV - B (above the dermis)

Incident
radiation

Thickness
(in )
Stratum
corneum
(8-15)

Granular
cell layer
(2-4)

20

Dermal reflection

40
Squamous
cell layer
(50-150)

60
Absorption
Melanocyte

80

Diffraction

100
Basal
cell layer
(5-10)

120

140
Dermis
(1000-4000)

Capillaries

160

200

Veinlet

Arteriole

Figure 10. Diagrammatic cross-section of the skin showing the penetration of UV radiation (courtesy Givaudan-Roure)

Light intensity
The two major factors which influence skin colour (pigmentation) and how it reacts to exposure
to sunlight are the intensity of light and the persons skin type. The intensity of light reaching the
skin will be determined by a number of environmental factors.

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ACTIVITY 10 Factors which affect light intensity


(Allow about 3 minutes)
Note down some of the environmental factors which would affect the amount of light reaching
the skin. Which factors (for example, the time of day) will increase the amount of light reaching
the skin and which will decrease it?
Environmental factors
e.g., depletion of ozone layer

63

Effect
e.g., increased radiation from sun

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Light intensity is affected by the seasons, the time of day, and how long the skin is exposed to
sunlight. The part of the world, in terms of both latitude and altitude, is also important. In
addition, the amount of light which is being transmitted and reflected will depend on factors such
as the weather, the type of clothes being worn, and whether one is swimming in the sea or in a
pool. Indoors, the amount of light passing through glass windows is significant. In general, glass,
water, clothing and cloudy weather will reduce the amount of light reaching the skin. Higher
altitudes, and reflection from rain, snow, sand and grass will increase the intensity of light
reaching the skin. If you have ever been skiing, you will know how important it is to protect your
skin and eyes from the reflected rays of the sun.
Skin types
Human skin can be classified into 6 major types based on the colour of unexposed skin and the
ease of burning and tanning (see table 9, on page 75, for a summary, and refer to photos 1 to 5),
the scale being developed in 1975 by T.B. Fitzpatrick, a Harvard dermatologist. It is useful to have
this information when setting up a consumer panel to measure the efficacy of suncare products
and labelling products.
Pigmentation
As mentioned in the first module, the melanin pigment in the skin functions as the skins natural
sunscreen as well as being the major determinant of skin colour. The amount of protection gained
from the melanin will depend on the amount present and the size and activity of the melaninproducing cells (melanocytes). Obviously, this will differ from race to race. For instance, in black
skin, the melanin particles are larger and more widely distributed in the epidermis compared to
white skin. Black skin offers about ten times more protection from the suns rays than white skin.

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65

Photo 1: Skin type I (see Table 9)

Photo 2: Skin type II

Photo 3: Skin type III

Photo 4: Skin type IV

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Photo 5: Skin type V

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Photo 6: Skin type VI

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Table 9. Skin types I - VI

Skin type

Sunburn and tanning history * Example

Always burns easily; never tans. People most often with fair skin, blue
eyes, freckles; unexposed skin is white.**

II

Always burns easily; tans


minimally.

People most often with fair skin, red or


blond hair, blue, hazel or even brown
eyes; unexposed skin is white.

III

Burns moderately; tans


gradually and uniformly (light
brown)

Normal average white person;


unexposed skin is white.

IV

Burns minimally; always tans


well (moderate brown)

People with white or light brown skin,


dark brown hair, dark eyes (e.g.,
Hispanics, Mediterraneans,
Monogoloids, Orientals); unexposed skin
is white to light brown.

Rarely burns, tans profusely


(dark brown)

Brown skinned persons (e.g. American


Indians, East Indians, Hispanics, AfroCaribbeans, African Americans);
unexposed skin is brown.

VI

Never burns; deeply pigmented


(black)

Blacks (e.g. Afro-Caribbeans, African


Americans, Australian Aborigines and
South Indians); unexposed skin is black.

* Based on first 30 to 80 minutes sun exposure after winter season or no sun exposure.
** These people may be of Celtic descent (Irish or Scottish); others may have dark hair and
brown eyes.

Tanning
A suntan develops in two stages and will depend on the persons skin type and the intensity of
sunlight. An immediate tan develops after about an hours exposure to sunlight and is the result
of the darkening of the melanin precursors and bleached melanin already present in the
epidermis. It does not prevent skin reddening which normally occurs before tanning, but it is
thought to protect genetic material in the basal layer. So a cap of melanin covers the nucleus in
each keratinocyte. Delayed tanning begins after two days exposure and peaks after 4 to 10 days.
UV radiation stimulates the production of melanocytes, which in turn produce more melanin. At
the same time, there is an increased cell division at the basal layer resulting in more keratinocytes
which can carry more melanin to the stratum corneum. The stratum corneum becomes tanned
and thicker and offers 2 to 4 times more protection than untanned skin. A full tan develops in
about 14 days and will last for the lifespan of the epidermis.
Skin damage
Skin damage reveals itself in the following ways:
sunburn
premature ageing
skin cancer.
Sunburn can result in real agony, as those of us who have fallen asleep in the sun can testify! In
the next activity, we will describe the symptoms of sunburn.

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ACTIVITY 11 Sunburn symptoms


(Allow 2 minutes)
Take a few minutes to write down the signs of sunburn; you may not have experienced it but you
may know someone who has.

Sunburn occurs in two stages:


1 Reddening of the skin, (erythema). In darker skins, this is not readily visible. Erythema is the
result of an increased blood flow to the skin. In paler skin, it can be seen as a slight pink/red
skin colouring after 20 minutes exposure, or in severe cases, a vivid lobster-red colour
accompanied by swelling after 90 minutes.
2 Blistering and peeling of the skin, accompanied by a lot of pain, after 3 hours exposure.
If the skin is well looked after, severe sunburn will heal within 10 days but is often accompanied
by unsightly peeling of the skin as inflammation subsides.
Premature ageing, also known as photoageing, involves the degeneration of the dermal
connective tissue, particularly collagen fibres and their synthesis, to produce the following changes
to the skin:
dryness
fine wrinkling
loss of skin elasticity
thinned epidermis
hyperpigmentation patches.
Although it is difficult to separate UVA and UVB unless under controlled conditions, premature
ageing is thought to be caused mainly by UVA which can penetrate into the dermis. Premature
ageing used to be prevalent in outdoor workers such as sailors, construction workers and farmers,
but nowadays it is also seen in the so-called sun worshippers who stay too long in the sun or
under UV lamps.
In normal ageing, photoageing still plays an integral role, as can be seen when comparing
exposed and unexposed areas of skin. Normal aged skin will display the same features as listed
above. Hyperpigmentation patches are known as age spots. However, there are other factors
involved such as changes in the immune system, changes to the genes and in the general
metabolism. These changes affect the ageing of the person as a whole.
Skin cancer: the incidence of this has increased over the years especially among white people
living in subtropical and tropical climates. UVB is chiefly responsible for producing melanoma and
other skin cancers. It is beyond the scope of this module to elaborate further on this subject.

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Mechanism of UV damage to the skin


When UV radiation penetrates the skin, it produces highly reactive chemicals called free radicals
which cause extensive damage to the genetic material (DNA and RNA, which tend to absorb UV
radiation) and to the cell membranes. Free radicals are not unknown to cells because they are
mainly produced during cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen. Although the cell contains
its own mopping-up mechanisms for removing most of the free radicals, they are known to play a
role in normal ageing and diseases such as arteriosclerosis.
Free radicals are very unstable compounds containing an odd number of electrons. Examples
include superoxides, hydroperoxides and hydroxy radicals. The following chemical reactions show
how different free radicals can be formed. These free radicals go on to damage cellular structures.

O2 + e A O2 v
Superoxide radical
+

O 2 v + H A HO 2 v
Hydroperoxide radical

H 2 O 2 + e A HOv
H 2 O 2 + O 2 v A O 2 + HO-v + HOv
Hydroxy radical
Control of free radical formation
As mentioned above, the cells have natural methods of controlling the production of free radicals
and the damage they can cause. These methods involve enzymes such as catalase and
glutathione-S-transferase which prevent free radical formation from hydrogen peroxide.
Superoxide dismutase enzymes have the important job of mopping up the superoxide and
hydroperoxide radicals in the cell.
Black skin
The types of adverse effects described above are reported mainly, though not exclusively, in
people with white or light brown skin (types I, II and III). Black skin (types IV and V) suffers other
problems as a result of its highly pigmented nature. Cosmetic formulators should take note of
these problems when developing products for black skin.
Although normal, untraumatised black skin has the same thickness as white skin, it has a thicker,
more dense stratum corneum. However, it reflects light to the same degree as white skin. It tends
to absorb 30 per cent more heat than white skin and this is compensated for by more sweating,
which cools the body faster in tropical climates. Melanin tends to be distributed freely throughout
the epidermis and stratum corneum. This phenomenon is also seen in whites with deeply tanned
skin. Since it is so good at screening UV radiation, this unfortunately reduces final synthesis of
vitamin D. This poses a problem to blacks living in temperate climates who may then be prone to
develop rickets.
Black skin has a tendency to get darker (hyperpigment) and to form keloids in areas which have
been inflamed, damaged or scarred. For example, the use of very strong detergents, skin
lighteners, and peeling agents such as benzoyl peroxides, retinoic acid and fruit acids can leave
unsightly patchy skin colour. Keloids are hard raised, smooth and shiny outgrowths (papules and
nodules). They itch and can be painful and tender. They do occur in other skin types but are
prevalent in black skin. Although keloids are treated medically, the cosmetic formulator can
minimise irritation by making sure that products undergo rigorous safety test on black skin.

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Summary
In this section we have looked at the nature of sunlight and identified UV radiation as the major
waveband in causing tanning and adverse reactions. Short-term effects of exposure to UV
radiation are sunburn and tanning. Long-term overexposure causes photoageing and skin cancers.
The way skin reacts to UV radiation depends largely on the light intensity and skin type in
question. Finally, black skin which offers better protection from sunlight can suffer from
hyperpigmentation and keloids as a result of irritation.

CHECKLIST
You should now be able to:
list the 8 main components of the suns electromagnetic spectrum
list the 3 main types of ultraviolet light plus their corresponding wavelengths
explain how sunlight interacts with the skin
classify skin into six main types in terms of their normal pigmentation, sunburn and tanning
characteristics
describe how the skin develops a tan
summarise the effects of long term chronic exposure of the skin to ultraviolet radiation, using
premature ageing as an example.

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4.2 Formulating suncare products


Aims
The aim of this section is to explore the types of products which can be used to protect the skin
from over exposure to ultraviolet radiation and methods of evaluation of their efficacy.
Sunscreens
There are two main types of active ingredients used in suncare formulations to control the
amount of UV light penetrating the skin: chemical sunscreens and physical sunscreens. Chemical
sunscreens can be added to skin care products to chemically absorb ultraviolet light. On the other
hand, physical sunscreens work by reflecting and scattering UV light.
The extent of protection is variable and depends on three major factors:
the type of sunscreen and which wavelength of UV light it absorbs
the level of sunscreen used in the product
the product base used as a vehicle for the sunscreen, e.g., gel, emulsion or oil.
ideally any sunscreen used on human skin must be photo-stable, in that it should not degrade,
or cause other sunscreens present in the formulation, to degrade under irradiation.
In the next activity you may like to think about the properties required for a good suncare
product.

ACTIVITY 12 Properties of suncare products


(Allow 2 minutes)
Make a list of desirable properties for the ideal suncare product, in terms of formulation,
aesthetics and performance.

An ideal sunscreen is one that would bind well to the stratum corneum, resist ruboff and washoff by water and sweat, and be non-staining and non-toxic. It should absorb light effectively over
a broad spectrum at low concentrations to minimise risks of allergy and irritation. When
evaluating sunscreen agents we need to determine which wavelength of ultraviolet light it
absorbs best.

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E11%cm

UV-C

UV-B

UV-A

1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340

Wavelength (nm)

Figure 11. Absorption spectrum for a sunscreen

An absorption spectrum shows how a chemical absorbs and transmits light at different
wavelengths. The graph in figure 11 shows the absorption spectrum for a chemical sunscreen.
The chemical shown in figure 11 absorbs light best at 308 nm (i.e., has an absorption maximum
at 308 nm), which makes it a good UVB absorber. This chemical sunscreen is known as Ethylhexyl
Methoxycinnamate and is widely used in suncare products. The structure and absorption
maximum for some widely used chemical sunscreens are shown in table 10.
Chemical sunscreens
There is a range of approved chemical sunscreens available which can be used at regulated levels.
Table 10 gives some examples.

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Table 10. Approved structure of some chemical sunscreens

Sunscreen (CTFA name)


and structure

Absorption
maximum (nm)

Isoamyl Methoxycinnamate

308

O
C

C5H11

H3CO

Ethylhexyl Salicylate
O

305

C2H5

CH 2

CH

C4H9

OH

Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane
O

355

Benzophenone-3
O

286 and 325

OH

CH 3

Physical sunscreens
Physical sunscreens employed in suncare products are inorganic pigments and minerals such as
talc, kaolin, mica and metallic oxides. Titanum dioxide and zinc oxide are the most popular
physical sunscreens. Until recently, products formulated with these materials offered poor
aesthetics due to their large particle size (~200 nm). So for instance when applied, they gave the
skin a greyish white, tacky sheen, as seen on vivid lips of skiers. However, micronised versions
offering much smaller particle sizes are now available and certainly improve the appearance of the
final product on the skin. A combination of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide with organic sunscreens,
when formulated correctly, can provide excellent synergistic effects. Unfortunately, finer particle
sizes reduce the reflective properties of the metallic oxide.
To aid dispersion of physical sunscreens during manufacture and to resist re-agglomeration of the
individual particles during storage, physical sunscreens are often coated to make them more
hydrophobic.

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Choice of sunscreens (UV filters)


There is a wide range of sunscreens available but only some of these are approved in the major
markets of Europe, the USA, Australia and Japan. Some examples are shown in table 11.
Table 11. EU Permitted filters in USA
INCI Name

Annex
Ref.
No.

Max.
conc.
%
w/w

Range of
wavelengths
absorbed

UVA/B

USA (drug name)

Camphor benzalkonium methosulfate

1.2

max 284nm

UVB

No

Homosalate

1.3

10

max 305nm

UVB

15% Homosalate

Benzophenone-3

1.4

10

max 287nm

UVB/A

6% Oxybenzone

Phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid

1.6

8(a)

max 307nm

UVB

4% Ensulizole

Terephthalylidene dicamphor sulphonic acid

1.7

10(a)

max 345nm

UVA

No

Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane

1.8

max 355nm

UVA

3% (b) Avobenzone

Benzylidene camphor sulfonic acid

1.9

6(a)

max 294nm

UVB

No

Octocrylene

1.10

10(a)

max 302nm

UVB

10% Octocrylene

Polyacrylamidomethyl benzylidene camphor

1.11

max 295nm

UVB

No

Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate

1.12

10

308-310nm

UVB

7.5% Octinoxate

PEG-25 PABA

1.13

10

max 307nm

UVB

No

Isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate

1.14

10

max 308nm

UVB

No - TEA (c)
[Amiloxate @ 10%]

Ethylhexyl triazone

1.15

max 312nm

UVB

No - TEA (c)
[Octyl traizone @ 5%]

Drometrizole trisiloxane (g)

1.16

15

UVA

No

Diethylhexyl butamido triazone

1.17

10

max 311nm

UVB

No

4-Methylbenzylidene camphor

1.18

max 303nm

UVB

No - TEA (h)
[Enzacamene @ 4%]

3-Benzylidene camphor

1.19

max 290nm

UVB

No

Ethylhexyl salicylate

1.20

max 306nm

UVB

5% Octisalate

Ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA

1.21

max 310nm

UVB

8% Padimate O

Benzophenone-4 (for the acid)

1.22

5(a)

max 285nm

UVB

10% Sulisobenzone

Benzophenone-5 (for the salt)

1.22

5(a)

max 285nm?

UVB

No

Methylene bis-benzotriazoyl
tetramethylbutylphenol (MBBT)

1.23

10

max 370nm

UVA

No - TEA (c)
[Bisoctrizole @ 10%]

Disodium Phenyl Dibenzyimadazole


Tetrasulfonate (DPDT)

1.24

10 (a)

max 335nm

UVA

No

Bis-Ethylhexyloxyphenol Methoxyphenyl
Triazine (BEMT)

1.25

10

max 341nm

UVA

No - TEA (c)
[Bemotrizinol @ 10%]

Polysilicone-15

1.26

10

max 312nm

UVB

No

max
290-300nm

UVB/
UVA

25% Titanium
Dioxide

max
360-370nm

UVA

25% Zinc Oxide

Titanium Dioxide

1.27

25

Diethylamino Hydroxybenzoyl Hexyl Benzoate

1.28

10

Zinc Oxide

NOTES: a) the conc. is calculated as the conc. of the acid. b) Avobenzone is only permitted in
combination with some UV filters. c) Approval has been requested via a Time & Extent
Application.
Antioxidants
Sun care formulations can be enhanced by incorporating free radical scavengers. The latter tend
to be antioxidants such as vitamin E, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative) and,
more recently, grape skin extracts.

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Measuring the efficacy of sunscreen products


Historically, most countries had their own methods for the determination the efficacy of sunscreen
products. One is to measure the UVB protection in terms of Sun Protection Factor (SPF), with the
main international methods being the German DIN, American FDA, Australia, Japan and COLIPA.
Each method used a slightly different procedure and generated different SPF numbers. Recent
developments have concentrated in harmonisation of the various method, culminating in the
publication of International Sun Protection Factor (SPF) Test Method (May 2006) this being initially
adopted by the USA, Europe, Japan and South Africa.
Earlier work concentrated on the acute effects of UVB radiation on the skin, namely erythema,
sunburn and tanning. The advent of safe tanning led to the development of the sun protection
factor test for new products. This method is based on the ability of UVB to cause erythema in the
skin. The test relies on the accurate detection of the first sign of erythema by measuring the
minimal erythemal dose (MED). The Minimal Erythemal Dose in human skin is defined as the
lowest ultraviolet (UV) dose that produces the first perceptible unambiguous erythema with
defined borders appearing over most of the field of UV exposure, 16 to 24 hours after UV
exposure (International Sun Protection Factor (SPF) Test Method 2006).
The sun protection factor or SPF of a product indicates how much longer the protected skin can
be exposed to ultraviolet light before reddening occurs.
This can be summarised by the following equation:
MED with sunscreen
SPF = ---------------------------------------------------------MED without sunscreen
The higher the SPF number on the product, the higher the protection from UVB radiation. The
equation could also be written as
Time to produce erythema in protected skin
SPF = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Time to produce erythema in unprotected skin

ACTIVITY 13 SPF calculation


(Allow 2 minutes)
Using the equation above, see if you can work out the SPF required from a suncare product.
On the first day of his holiday, Joe Smith forgets to put on any suntan lotion and it takes just
15 minutes in the sun for his skin to start turning red. The following day he remembers to use his
suntan lotion. It takes two hours before his skin starts to turn red. What is the SPF rating of his
suntan lotion?

In order to calculate the SPF, you simply enter the times taken to produce erythema into the
formula. The MED with sunscreen was two hours or 120 minutes; the MED without sunscreen
15 minutes. The SPF is thus 120 divided by 15, which is 8.
Therefore, for Joe Smith, the SPF for that particular sunscreen would be 8.

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Photo 9:
Solar simulator lamp

Photo 10:
Selection of test sites

Photo 11:
Exposure to UV radiation

Photo 12:
Reaction to UV radiation

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Procedure for measuring SPF in human test volunteers


The determination of SPF values for a product must be done under controlled conditions, in order
to produce reliable results. The procedure should be performed by trained and qualified personnel
in order to avoid and damage to the skin of volunteers involved in the study.
The general method involves a number of steps. The International SPF Test Method is a laboratory
method that utilises a xenon arc lamp solar simulator (or equivalent) of defined and known
output. To determine the Sun Protection Factor, incremental series of delayed erythemal responses
are induced on a number of small sub-sites on the skin of selected human subjects. The test is
restricted to the area of the back between waist and shoulder-line. An area of each subjects skin
is exposed to ultraviolet light without any protection and another (different) area is exposed after
application of a test sun protection product. Furthermore at least one further area is exposed after
application of an SPF reference sunscreen formulation.
By incrementally increasing the UV dose, varying degrees of skin erythema (redness due to
superficial vasodilatation) are generated. These delayed erythemal responses are visually assessed
for redness intensity 16 to 24 hours after UV radiation, by the judgement of a trained evaluator.
The minimum erythemal dose (MED) for unprotected skin and that obtained after application of a
sun protection product must be determined on the same subject on the same day. More than one
product may be tested on the same subject in any single test.
An individual sun protection factor (SPFi) for each subject tested is calculated as the ratio of
protected and unprotected MEDs.
The sun protection factor for the product (SPF) is the arithmetic mean of all valid SPFi results from
each and every subject in the test and should be expressed to one decimal place. A minimum of
10 valid results and a maximum of 20 shall be used for the calculation of SPF.
Confidence limits (95% Confidence Interval) for the mean SPF should fall within the range of
17% of the mean SPF.
Every test shall include an appropriate high or low SPF reference sunscreen formulation depending
on the expected SPF of the test formulations with the obtained SPF for the reference sunscreen
falling within the expected range.
The principle of the water resistance test is to compare the Sun Protection Factor for a sunscreen
product after a period of immersion in water with the original, static SPF of the product
determined according to the International Sun Protection Factor (SPF) Test Method. To determine
the wet SPF (SPFw), the International Sun Protection Factor (SPF) Test Method is followed to the
point where the product under test has been applied to the volunteers skin. Product treated skin
is then immersed in water according to the following schedule:
Allow 15 to 30 minutes drying time after product application
First 20 minute immersion in water
Allow 15 minutes drying time (no towelling)
Second 20 minute immersion in water
Allow to dry for 15 minutes or until completely dry (no towelling)
Water immersion takes place in a spa-pool, Jacuzzi, bathtub or equivalent after which the wet SPF
is determined. Individual Percentage Water Resistance Retentions are determined and a mean
retention calculated for up to 25 volunteers.
A Water Resistant product should have a Mean Retention of greater than 50% and a Very Water
Resistant product should have a Mean Retention of greater than 50% when subjected to four 20
minute water immersions.

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Now that we have been through the steps involved in measuring SPFs you may have already
started to think of factors will affect the final SPF rating for the product tested. There are about
twelve factors. See how many you can think of in the next activity.

ACTIVITY 14 Factors affecting SPF value


This activity has been identified as a key activity for this unit.
Please go to the online module to complete this activity, so that you can share your
ideas and opinions with your fellow learners and benefit from their experience and
knowledge in this area.
UVA and broad spectrum protection
A suncare product must offer UVB and UVA protection to combat both short and long term
effects of exposure. The SPF method described above cannot be used to measure the degree of
protection from UVA because UVA has a longer wavelength than UVB and so would require
higher doses of UVA or longer exposure times in order to produce measurable skin effects. An
alternative method must be used to determine UVA protective properties of a product. In the
past, photosensitises such as were used to increase skins sensitivity to UVA-induced erythema.
This is extremely distressing and irritating to volunteers and is quite unethical. Workers have also
investigated the use of both immediate and permanent pigment-darkening effects of UVA.
Light protection index
An in vitro method was developed by Jack Ferguson and co-workers to measure the wavelengths
of radiation that a particular sunscreen is likely to protect against. This method uses a synthetic
skin cast which is a replica of the skin surface and which is transparent to light. The skin cast is
irradiated by a solar stimulator such as a Xenon arc lamp. The amount of radiation passing
through the cast without sunscreen is measured by a UV meter and processed through a
computer program in order to relate the results to real life conditions. The sunscreen product is
then applied to the skin cast and the process is repeated to give a light protection index:
Amount of light passing through with protection
Light protection index (LPI) = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Amount of light passing through without protection
The cast was found to be susceptible to chemical attack by the sunscreen actives, and has since
been superseded by a special adhesive tape developed by Brian Diffey and coworkers. Roughened
glass quartz plates or PMMA can also be used.
In one method, transmission measurements at six discrete regions of the glass plate are taken at
5 nm increments from 290 nm to 400 nm by a computer-controlled scanning monochromator
with a photomultiplier mounted directly below the glass. This procedure is carried out three times
for each product being tested. Three UVA/UVB ratios are generated for each product, from which
the mean and standard deviation are calculated. These ratios are categorised using a consumer
friendly symbol system originally developed by Boots the Chemist. The original scale had 4
categories of protection:Mean UVA/UVB ratio

UVA protection category (star rating)

0 to <0.2

too low to make a UVA claim

0.2 to <0.4

moderate (*)

0.4 to <0.6

good (**)

0.6 to <0.8

superior (***)

0.8+

maximum (****)

This has been modified over time to firstly include a 5 Star Category with a ratio above 0.9 and
more recently to align the method with the EU Commission Recommendation of 22nd September

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2006 "on the efficacy of sunscreen products and the claims made relating thereto"
(2006/647/EC). This later change has included a re-irradiation step in the test method and removal
of the bottom 2 categories. The Diffey method forms the basis of the Boots star rating system as
a guide for consumers choosing a sunscreen product to suit their skin type (see B.L. Diffey, J.
Robson, A new substrate to measure sunscreen protection factors throughout the ultraviolet
spectrum, J. Soc. Cos. Chem., 40, 127 - 133 (May/June 1989).
Table 13. Advantages and disadvantages of the Diffey method

Advantages

Disadvantages

Measures UVA and UVB protection

Not measured on real volunteers

Quick, reproducible

Cant predict safety on skin and eyes

Good screening tool

Used for emulsions not for hydroalcoholic/oil


based formulations

Good correlation with SPF measurements

Suncare formulations
Suncare products are now available in various forms such as emulsions (creams, lotions and milks),
mousses, sticks, gels and oils. We will now look at some examples of such formulations.
Gels. The clarity and cooling sensation offered by alcoholic-based gels are very attractive to the
consumer. Unfortunately, the alcohol can be both irritating and drying to the skin. In addition,
gels do not achieve very high SPFs. However, the emergence of alcohol-free gels may help to
improve their acceptability. Formula 47 is an example of an alcohol-free sunscreen gel which uses
PMV/MA decadiene cross polymer to produce and stabilise the gel structure.
Emulsions are the most popular type of formulation for suncare systems. They can either be oil-inwater (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) (see the module on Emulsions). They can produce very high SPFs
leaving an opaque film on the skin. Formula 48 gives an o/w cream containing nonionic
emulsifiers and carbomers. The carbomers provide quickbreaking properties to help with
spreading the product onto the skin. Formula 49 uses physical sunscreen, microfine titanium
dioxide and zinc oxide, which are available in very small particle sizes down to 50 nanometres.
Water-resistant properties of emulsions, especially the o/w type, can be improved by including
film-forming raw materials such as silicones and polyvinylpyrrolidones at 2 - 3% w/w.
Sticks. The nature of sticks allows them to be directed at specific areas of the body such as lips,
nose, forehead and nipples. They provide good water-proofing properties and work best with
opaque, physical sunscreens. In the formula in formula 50, chemical sunscreens are combined
with beeswax and carnauba to provide plasticity and hardness respectively.
Oils. The use of these provides high water resistance and good ease of application. The major
drawback with oils is that they are sticky and do not achieve very high SPFs because they leave a
thin, transparent film on the skin. Formula 51 provides a formulation. These products can only
provide minimal protection against serious burning.
Emollients and solvents. The choice of emollients and solvents for sunscreens is very important in
ensuring good skin feel, spreading and protection properties. Branched chain esters are excellent
emollients for use in suncare products. The type and polarity of commonly used solvents such as
mineral oil, propylene glycol and ethanol will affect the final absorption maximum achieved by the
sunscreen. Formulations may include dicaprylyl carbonate as an emollient that also improves
solubility of crystalline filters and spreadability of the product on the skin.
Formats
Lotions are still the most popular format, although trigger sprays and wipes offer improved ease
of use and less greasy formulations. Aerosol mousses offer a novel way to apply sunscreen.
Unfortunately, they are oil based which makes them more expensive and less effective than other
formats.
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Childrens products
Although a childs skin has identical barrier properties to that of adult skin, it tends to be thinner
and more susceptible to moisture loss. Suncare products for children should be easy to apply,
highly protective and moisturising with very little, if any, perfume, to avoid irritation and
sensitisation. Emulsion-based products provide the best vehicle for sunscreens in this type of
product.
The use of physical sunscreens without organic sunscreens is becoming the preferred route for
formulating childrens products because they exhibit a low potential for causing irritant/allergic
skin reactions.
Anti-ageing products
The anti-ageing sector of the market has shown significant growth. Many of these products are
based on moisturising formulations with low levels of sunscreens to provide daily protection all
year round. Other sophisticated ingredients such as hyaluronic acid, soluble collagen and
ceramides may also be included to improve the water binding properties of ageing skin.
More recently, another class of materials known as the fruit acids or alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs)
have received a lot of attention. Examples include lactic and glycollic acid. These work by
stimulating cell renewal activity in the epidermis, resulting in increased exfoliation. Over a period
of time, they are claimed to reduce the appearance of fine wrinkles and so keep the skin looking
smooth. The formula in formula 52 shows an example of an anti-ageing cream using fruit acids.
These materials can cause irritation and hyperpigmentation in sensitive skins so appropriate skin
safety tests must be conducted.
There has been renewed interest in the use of anti-oxidants, vitamins and active ingredients from
oats and wheat.
After sun products
After sun products are used after sun exposure which may have resulted in mild to moderate
sunburn. Obviously, severe sunburn would require medical treatment. Such products tend to be
similar to moisturising milks and lotions discussed in the first part of this module. In addition,
they contain soothing and healing agents such as allantoin, aloe vera gel, calamine and vitamins
A and E. Inclusion of emollients will help to cover the appearance of unsightly flaking and
peeling skin. Cooling agents such as menthol can also be used.
Artificial tanning and self tanning products
A separate class of products exists which are aimed at people that never tan but instead burn
easily (skin type 1), or who may be allergic to sunlight or may just want to look tanned all year
round. These products do not offer any protection but give a tanned appearance so they should
be used with the appropriate suncare product when skin is exposed to sunlight.
There are three major approaches to formulating such products:
Dihydroxyacetone. The best known method uses a chemical called dihydroxyacetone at a use
level of 5%. The latter reacts with free amino acids to form dark-coloured melanoids. The tanned
effect appears just several hours after application. The next time you visit the chemist, you may
like to buy some and apply it to a small part of your skin, and see if it really works. See formula
53 for a crystal clear gel spray.
Pigmented face powders. Heavily pigmented face powders can be applied to imitate the tanned
appearance of the skin.
Tanning accelerators. Melanin precursors, tyrosine and riboflavin mixtures are commercially used
in suncare products to speed up the tanning process. When the skin is exposed to light,
riboflavin oxidises the tyrosine in the skin and in the formulation to form melanin.

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Summary
In this section I have discussed the use of chemical and physical sunscreens to reduce or prevent
the deleterious effects of UV radiation on the skin, and dealt with the methods used for
measuring the efficacy of UVB sunscreens, namely SPF numbers and UVA sunscreens with the
Diffey method. The advantages and disadvantages of various product formats for suncare
products were described. Finally, the emergence of the anti-ageing sector as an extension of
suncare and moisturising products was highlighted.

CHECKLIST
You should now be able to:
define what is meant by the term sunscreen
explain the difference between a chemical and a physical sunscreen in terms of their mode of
action
list the characteristics of an ideal sunscreen product in terms of formulation aesthetics and
performance
give examples of UVA and UVB sunscreens
describe how the efficacy of UVA and UVB sunscreens can be measured
list and describe the other basic components used in suncare products
describe the active ingredients used in after sun, anti-ageing products and artificial tanning
products
explain how a sun protection factor (SPF) is calculated
list and describe the variables that influence the calculation of the SPF number for a product.

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5 REMOVAL OF UNWANTED HAIR


Aims
The aim of this section is to discuss the removal of unwanted hair from the skin using cosmetic
products. I begin by highlighting the various methods available for hair removal, and then
concentrate on shaving products and chemical depilatories.
Introduction
We remove hair from various parts of our body (underarm, legs, face and genital area) for a
number of reasons. The major reason is to improve our appearance and social acceptability. In
our society a clean-shaven look is perceived to be more respectable than an untidy beard.
Women are often embarrassed when they grow hair in parts which our culture does not accept,
such as on the face, legs and in the armpit area. However, certain circumstances cause excessive
growth of hair in these areas. Examples include hormonal changes (puberty, pregnancy,
menopause), various drugs (contraceptive pill, steroids), and diseases (tumours). Normal and
abnormal hair growth is covered in Unit 12.
5.1 Methods of hair removal
The process of hair removal from below the skins surface is called epilation. The other term,
depilation, describes the temporary removal of hair from the surface of the skin. Methods for
removing hair can be divided into 2 groups as shown below.
Table 14. Methods for removing unwanted hair

Mechanical hair removal

Chemical hair removal

Tweezing

Thioglycollates

Threading

Enzymes

Electrical epilation
Electrolysis
Sugaring
Waxing
Shaving

Chemical hair removal will be discussed later in this section. Let us look first at the various
methods of removing unwanted hair mechanically.
Tweezing involves pulling out individual hairs with tweezers. In threading, a piece of thread is
wound around each individual hair and then pulled.
Electrical epilation involves the use of an appliance designed with rotating coils, which pull out
the hair by the roots. Apparently with continued use, any hair from the new growth becomes
finer, softer and more sparse.
Electrolysis involves passing a fine needle into the hair follicle and destroying the bulb by passing
an electric current through it. The hair is loosened and then plucked from the follicle. Although it
is possible to buy an apparatus for home use, most electrolysis is undertaken in salons by
professionally qualified personnel. As such, it is a time-consuming and costly procedure, and is
mostly used for the removal of small amounts of coarse facial hair.

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Waxing is one of the most common methods used for hair removal. There are two types. Hot
waxing involves the application of molten wax to the skin. When the wax cools, it hardens and is
then stripped off, bringing the hair with it. In strip waxing, the molten wax is applied to the hair
and a strip of paper or fabric is pressed into the wax. Once the wax cools and hardens, the
paper is pulled off, taking the unwanted hair and wax. As you can imagine, hot waxing is
extremely painful and has been largely superseded by strip waxing. After the waxing process,
products containing emollients and soothing agents are then applied.
Sugaring. A new method called sugaring has recently arrived in salons and is undertaken by
beauticians who are members of the Federation of Professional Sugaring. It originated from
African and Middle Eastern practices. It is based on a mixture of sugar, lemon juice and water,
with a putty-like consistency. The latter is applied in the direction of hair growth. The hair is
removed by flicking off the dried putty with the fingers. Kits for home use are now available.
5.2 Shaving
During his adult life, the average male shaves off about 28 feet of hair. Shaving involves the use
of a sharp razor blade or electric razor to cut the hair just below the skin surface. There are two
methods, wet shaving and dry shaving. We will start by discussing the products which can be
used in wet shaving.
Wet shaving
In wet shaving, the hair must first be softened with soap and water or other shaving products
and then a mechanical razor blade used to remove the hair. In terms of formulations, there are
two types of wet shaving products:
soap-based, available as sticks /cakes, lather creams and aerosols
emulsion-based brushless shave creams.
In the next activity, it is worth considering the desired properties from a wet shaving product. If
you do shave then you will have first-hand knowledge of what you want from such a product.

ACTIVITY 15 Wet shaving product properties


(Allow 2 minutes)
What are the ideal properties of a wet shaving product? See if you can fill in the table below.
Properties

Details

Foaming

Foams quickly and copiously. Also

Effect on hair

Effect on skin

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The product must foam quickly and copiously and must be stable enough to last throughout
shaving process. The foam must surround, separate and hold hairs. In addition, the product
should soften and swell hairs and lubricate the skin to reduce blade resistance thus preventing
razor burn. As with other cosmetic products, it must be non-irritating to the skin and should
have a pleasant fragrance.
Components of soap-based formulations
Soap-based shaving products contain a mixture of long- and short-chain fatty acids which are
saponified using a choice of bases to form soap of varying consistencies. They also contain a
humectant such as glycerine to stabilise the foam and prevent it from drying out.
A useful summary is given in table 15 which describes the effect of the various components on
the final soap and the foam.
Table 15. Soap-based shaving product ingredients and their effects

Ingredient

Effect on soap

Effect on foam

Short chain fatty acids


(e.g. C12 - C14)

Softening - more
irritant to skin

Large quantity of loose,


quickly produced foam

Long chain fatty acids


(e.g. C16 - C18)

Hardening

Small quantity of thick foam

Triethanolamine (T.E.A.)

Soft soap

Fast copious foam

Potassium hydroxide solution

Soft soap

Copious foam

Sodium hydroxide solution

Hard soap

Moderate foam

Glycerin

Softens soap

Stabilises foam and


prevents it from drying out

Blends of the ingredients are selected to give the desired physical and performance properties as
shown below in table 16.
Table 16. Ingredients for shaving product formulations

Aerosol

PRODUCT FORMAT
Cream

Stick/cake

Lauric acid (C12)

1.00

10.00

18.00

Stearic acid (C18)

5.7

30.00

65.00

Glycerin

1.9

10.00

5.00

Triethanolamine

2.85
0.6

1.7

2.4

4.3

47.0

6.0

Ingredient (%w/w)

Sodium hydroxide
Potassium hydroxide
Water

83.55

Butane/propane

5.0

Now that you have read about the basic components of soap-based formulations, here are a few
more points which you have to consider when formulating sticks, creams and foams.

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Lather shaving stick/cake. As you can see from the table, shaving sticks and cakes contain the
highest level of soap. Once saponification is complete, the soap chips are mixed with opacifiers,
colour and perfumes, passed through a mill and moulded into the required shape with a soap
plodder.
Lather shaving creams. Lather shave creams are usually sold in tubes or more recently pumps,
and are extremely economical to use. When formulating such products, it is wise to leave a small
excess of fatty acids after the saponification reaction. Fatty acids help to neutralise any pockets
of base/alkali which may remain. So always check the level of excess or free fatty acids during
quality control procedures.
Aerosol shaving foams. Aerosol shave foams have become more popular than cream shaves,
owing to their convenience. Once the beard or hair is wetted, the foam is applied to it. More
recently the introduction of the post-foaming shave gels in a barrier pack has helped to further
revitalise what had become a stagnant market.
Post-foaming gels. Barrier packs used for post foaming gels are based on the separation of the
liquid concentrate from the propellant (see the Aerosols module). The product is dispensed from
the aerosol can as a clear stable gel. The gel is a soap solution gelled with a water-soluble
polymer thickener such as carboxymethyl cellulose. A small amount of hydrocarbon (like
isopentane) is introduced into the mixture. The hydrocarbon vaporises when the product is
rubbed into warm skin, causing the product to foam on the face. Post-foaming gels are said to
provide better wetting and lubrication, offering a more comfortable shave. The reasons are as
follows: other ingredients may be added to improve the aesthetics and skin compatibility;
antimicrobials are included to prevent infections in minor cuts; polymers such as polyvinyl
pyrrolidone, natrosol or cocamide diethanolamide give a thicker product; silicones such as
dimethicone, mineral oil, or lanolin oil are added as lubricants and emollients; allantoin may be
added to heal minor cuts and nicks; and menthol gives a fresh cooling sensation on the skin as it
evaporates.
It is important to separate the propellant from the liquid. If the propellant is not separated from
the liquid, the product will behave as an ordinary aerosol foam. In other words, as it is dispersed
it will start foaming, thus losing its product plus.
Brushless shave creams. Brushless shaves are essentially oil-in-water emulsions. When rubbed
into beard hair, they surround the hair with oil bubbles instead of air bubbles produced by soapbased products. Brushless shaves are usually formulated to a lower pH of 7.5-8.5 (compared to
pH 9-10 in soap-based products).
The advantages of these products are that they give a very comfortable shave and they are good
for people with dry skin. Unfortunately, the hair has to be presoftened with soap and water and
they are not as economical as soap-based products. Formula 54 gives an example of a brushless
shave.
Dry shaving products
Dry shaving products, or pre-electric shaves as they are commonly known, are used in
conjunction with electric razors. The hair must be dry and stiff to give a good shave with an
electric razor.
Shaving bumps and Pseudofolliculitis barbae
Dry shaving products tend to be used by people who suffer from acne, shaving bumps or the
more severe condition known as Pseudofolliculitis barbae. The latter tends to be common in men
with very curly hair such as African Americans and Afro-Caribbeans. In this condition, after
shaving, the hair starts to grow back and because of the curliness and sharp edge, it grows back
into the skin. This causes inflammation of the skin with varying degrees of severity. It becomes
virtually impossible to shave and, at this stage, the only solution is to grow a beard and allow the
skin to heal up.

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Pre-electric shaves serve a dual function by removing perspiration and lubricating the skin to
reduce friction between the skin and razor, thus avoiding razor burns. Typical formulations
contain a mixture of denatured alcohol and emollients. Some formulations will also contain
astringents such as aluminium chlorohydrate or lactic acid to tighten the skin pores in order keep
the hairs standing upright. An antibacterial is also included to minimise the chances of infection
and inflammation. See formula 55 for a formulation.
5.3 Aftershave products
The shaving process can be quite traumatic and often results in small cuts. Aftershave products
are used after shaving to moisturise, cool and refresh the skin and also to reduce the risk of
bacterial infection at injured sites. Aftershaves are available as lotions gels, balms, powders and
foams.
Traditional aftershave lotions are clear products based on quite a high level of denatured ethanol
(40-60%). They also contain emollients, humectants and antimicrobial agents. They also contain
up to 3% perfume and, depending on the ethanol/water ratio, a solubiliser may be necessary.
See formula 56 for an example of an aftershave lotion.
Aftershave balms are oil in water emulsions with little or no alcohol (ethanol) which makes them
suitable for sensitive or dry skins. More recent formulations will contain sunscreen agents for uv
protection. See formula 57.
5.4 Chemical depilatories
Chemical depilatories are widely used in the home for the removal of unsightly body hair. These
products are sometimes used by men prone to Pseudofolliculitis barbae. They used to be
packaged primarily in tubes which came with a plastic spatula-like applicator. Nowadays, they are
available in more convenient packs such as roll-ons, sachets and aerosols to suit the end use. So,
for instance, roll-ons are more convenient for underarm use.

ACTIVITY 16 Properties of a good depilatory product


This activity has been identified as a key activity for this unit.
Please go to the online module to complete this activity, so that you can share your
ideas and opinions with your fellow learners and benefit from their experience and
knowledge in this area.
How depilatories work
Thioglycollate-based depilatories work in a similar way to permanent waving lotions, by breaking
disulphide linkages in the keratin hair fibres. However, depilatories go one step further than
perms and totally disintegrate the hair.
Other actives such as inorganic sulphides of strontium or calcium are also available but are under
restricted use.
Formulations
Formula 58 gives a detailed formulation.
Perfuming these products is quite a challenge because of the sulphurous odour produced whilst
depilation is taking place. High pH and the strong reducing properties narrows the choice of
perfumes available. It is therefore vital to work with the perfumer at the very early stages of
development.
Safety
Since both hair and skin consist of keratin protein, adverse skin reactions are a major problem
with depilatories. A lot of work has been conducted to reduce the irritation potential of these
products. For instance, it has been found that inclusion of materials such as urea, thiourea and
guanidine is supposed to increase the rate of the thioglycollate reaction, thus reducing contact
time with the skin. In addition, redoxin has been found to reduce the required amounts of
thioglycollate required for efficient hair removal.
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Finally, depilatories must carry adequate cautions such as not to be used on broken or inflamed
skin or after using other products such as soap or perfumes.
Enzyme depilatories
Preparations containing protein-digesting enzymes such as papain (from the papaya tree) can be
used to treat empty hair follicles after waxing. They progressively reduce hair growth over a
number of months.
Summary
In this section, we looked at two major ways of removing unwanted hair, namely mechanical and
chemical methods. Mechanical methods include tweezing, threading, electrical epilation,
sugaring, waxing and shaving. A variety of shaving and aftershave formulations were described.
With regard to chemical methods, I discussed the importance of thioglycollate-based products
and the emergence of newer products based on enzymes.

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CHECKLIST
You should now be able to:
distinguish between mechanical and chemical methods of hair removal
explain the differences between wet and dry shaving
list the desired properties of a good wet shaving product
list the three main types of wet shaving products currently available on the market
describe the basic components of soap-based and emulsion-based shaving products
list the function and components of a dry shaving preparation
define the functions of an aftershave product
list the major components in an aftershave product
list the requirements of a chemical depilatory
explain the active ingredients used in a chemical depilatory
explain how a thioglycollate-based depilatory works
describe how enzymes and sugaring are used for hair removal.

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APPENDIX GUIDELINE FORMULATIONS FOR PART 2


Appendix 2 contains formulations that are referenced in Unit 16 Part 2. The INCI (International
Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients) system has been used to name the materials with
occasional explanations in brackets to help identify them further. Short explanations of how the
formula is created are given; it should be remembered that the function of the ingredients is in
part dependent on the total composition in which they are incorporated. The formulations are
given to illustrate the text and should only be considered as starting points with which to
experiment and customise to your own requirements.
Virtually all of them require a carefully selected preservative system. Aqua (Water) is preferably
deionised and should be free of microbial contamination. Disodium EDTA is incorporated in some
formulations as a sequestrant or chelating agent. It chelates heavy metal ions and may prevent
discolouration. It also has some microbiological activity so may be considered a useful addition to
other formulations containing water.
Throughout the appendix, alcohol is ethanol and is suitably denatured, i.e. made undrinkable by
the inclusion of a suitable ingredient. In the EU, alcohol is denatured with denatonium benzoate
and tertiary butyl alcohol and it is referred to as Alcohol denat. on labels. WARNING: Alcohol is
highly flammable and must always be handled with care according to safety instructions.
Formula 42: Deodorant Stick
Stage INCI Name
A

Alcohol (Ethanol)

Aqua (Water)

Methyl gluceth-20 stearate

Propylene glycol

Stearic acid

Triclosan

Parfum (Fragrance) & colour

%w/w Prime function


65.00 Solvent
5.00
10.00 Emulsifier
7.00 Lubricant
6.0 Gelling agent
0.20 Antimicrobial
q.s. See Unit 13

Preparation
1. Mix together the items of Stage A and heat to 65C.
2. In a separate vessel mix together the items of Stage B and add to main mix, maintaining
temperature at 65C.
3. Add Stage C, stearic acid, to Stage A+B with mixing and mix until clear.
4. Add D, Triclosan and E, perfume; mix until clear then pour into suitable moulds and allow to
cool.
The alcohol is cool and refreshing and has an instant antimicrobial effect on the skin. The stearic
acid is a gelling agent in this formulation. The triclosan remains on the skin as an antimicrobial
agent.

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Formula 43: Deodorant pump spray


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Alcohol (Ethanol)

50.00 Solvent

Triclosan

0.05 Antimicrobial

PPG-15 stearyl ether

2.00 Lubricant

Isopropyl myristate

1.00 Emollient

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Preparation
1. Measure out alcohol and stir in triclosan until clear.
2. Add items B in order with mixing.
3. When main mix is clear add water [C] slowly with stirring until clear.
The alcohol is cool and refreshing and has an instant antimicrobial effect on the skin. The
triclosan remains on the skin as an antimicrobial agent and the PPG-15 stearyl ether is a lubricant
and it also reduces stickiness.
Formula 44: Antiperspirant roll-on (Water-in-volatile silicone emulsion)
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Cyclopentasiloxane

20.00 Volatile silicone

Parfum (Fragrance)

Polyglyceryl-10 palmitate

PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone

10.00 Silicone emulsifier

Aluminum chlorohydrate (50%)

38.00 Antiperspirant active

Aqua (Water) to 100%

0.50 See Unit 13


2.00 Lubricant

q.s.

Preparation
1. Mix together items of Stage A until clear.
2. Mix together items B, aluminum chlorohydrate solution and water.
3. Add Stage A to Stage B with constant stirring then homogenise with a high shear mixer.
4. Fill into suitable roll-on packs.
The cyclopentasiloxane is cool and refreshing; the polyglyceryl-10 palmitate is a lubricant and the
PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone is a water-in-silicone (w/Si) emulsifier. Aluminum chlorohydrate is
the antiperspirant active material, which is usually available as a 40% or 50% solution in water.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 45: Antiperspirant dry stick


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Cyclopentasiloxane

46.00 Volatile silicone

PEG-400 distearate

6.00 Emollient/gelling agent

PEG-32

2.00 Gelling aid

PEG-1000

2.00 Gelling aid

Stearyl alcohol

Silica

Aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex Gly

Parfum (Fragrance)

20.00 Gelling aid


1.00 Suspending agent
20.00 Antiperspirant active
2.00 See Unit 13

Preparation
1. Weigh the cyclopentasiloxane into a suitable vessel and heat to 70C. Note this material is
volatile.
2. Add items of stage B in order, maintaining the temperature at 70C and with continuous
stirring.
3. After 10 minutes stirring add the Aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex Gly; this is available
as a microfine powder.
4. Cool to 60C; add perfume and fill into suitable containers.
The cyclopentasiloxane is cool and refreshing; the PEG-400 distearate, PEG-32 and PEG-1000 all
gel the stick and add some emolliancy. The stearyl alcohol thickens and solidifies the stick and
the silica acts a suspending aid for the aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex Gly powder, which
is the antiperspirant active.
Formula 46: Aerosol antiperspirant spray
Stage INCI Name
A

Disteardimonium hectorite

Cyclopentasiloxane

Dimethicone

Aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex Gly

Parfum (Fragrance)

Isobutane

%w/w Prime function


1.00 Suspending agent
11.80 Volatile silicone
4.00 Emollient
10.00 Antiperspirant active
0.20 See Unit 13
73.00 Propellant

Preparation
1. Stage A; weigh the cyclopentasiloxane into a suitable vessel and disperse the
disteardimonium hectorite into it using a high shear mixer, continue mixing on high shear for
20 minutes then change to a low shear mixer.
2. Stage B: add the dimethicone while mixing and mix for 10 minutes.
3. Stage C: blend in the aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex Gly powder.
4. Pass the suspension through an in-line homogeniser, add perfume and when mixed fill into
aerosol containers and charge with isobutane, E.
The cyclopentasiloxane is cool and refreshing; the disteardimonium hectorite is a suspending
agent and dimethicone adds emolliancy. The aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex Gly is the
antiperspirant active and a microfine powder must be used.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 47: Sunscreen gel (non-alcoholic)


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

PVM/MA decadiene crosspolymer

0.45 Water-proofing/thickener

Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate

0.40 Preservative

Phenoxyethanol

0.60 Preservative

Aloe barbadensis (Aloe) leaf juice

1.00 Anti-inflammatory agent

Tocopherol acetate

0.05 Free-radical scavenger

Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate

5.50 UVB absorber

Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) seed oil

1.00 Emollient

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preparation
1. Stage A; measure the water into a suitable vessel, stir in the PVM/MA decadiene crosspolymer
and heat to 80C with mixing until homogeneous.
2. Cool to 60C and stir in Stage B: the two preservatives.
3. While mixing add each item of Stage C in turn.
The PVM/MA decadiene crosspolymer is the gelling agent and should hold the oil droplets of
tocopherol acetate, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) seed oil in
suspension.
In theory the composition is SPF6 and does not provide any UVA protection so does not meet
international standards; however it may serve as a starting point for a more advanced
formulation. Unfortunately ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate destabilises butyl
methoxydibenzoylmethane, which is one of only two globally accepted UVA absorbers. The other
is terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid, which is permitted globally to a maximum of 3%. In
theory this addition would give SPF15 but insufficient UVA protection to meet international
expectations.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 48: Sunscreen cream, SPF 10


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA

7.50 UVB absorber

Benzophenone-3

3.50 UVB/UVA absorber

Steareth-21

0.50 Emulsifier

Steareth-2

1.50 Emulsifier

Ceteareth-20

2.00 Emulsifier

Cetearyl alcohol

0.50 Emulsion stabiliser

Tocopherol acetate

2.00 Free-radical scavenger

Aqua (Water) to 100%

Carbomer

B2

Preservative

B2

Triethanolamine (50%)

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s.
0.80 Rheology modifier
q.s. See Unit 6
1.60 Neutraliser
q.s. See Unit 13

Preparation
1. Weigh the oil phase (A) into the smaller vessel and heat to 70 75C.
2. Start warming the water in the main mixing vessel and when at about 30C slowly add the
carbomer with fast stirring; when fully dispersed heat to 70C.
3. When both phases are at 70C slowly pour the hot oil phase into the aqueous phase while
stirring, when fully mixed start cooling with slow speed stirring.
4. When cooled to about 60C add the preservative then slowly add the triethanolamine as a
50% solution, which will gel the mix. The pH should be 6.0 7.0.
5. Continue slow mixing to 35C and stir in the perfume and continue mixing while cooling to
ambient temperature
In theory the composition is SPF10 but it provides little UVA protection so does not meet
international standards; however it may serve as a starting point for a more advanced
formulation although ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA and benzophenone-3 are seldom used in modern
formulations.
In the EU high protection refers to SPF > 30 and very high protection is SPF >50. The EU
authorities also recommend that the UVA protection factor measured at 370nm should be at
least 1/3rd of the declared SPF.
European recommendations
SPF rating

Protection level

UVA protection

Boots stars

SPF 4 to <15

Low Protection

UVA Low

SPF 15 to <30

Medium Protection

UVA Medium

**

SPF 30 to <50

High Protection

UVA High

***

SPF 50+

Very High Protection

UVA Highest

****

USA recommendations are very similar and the FDA rules that the SPF must be above 15 in order
to make the claim that sunscreen reduces the risk of skin cancer and early skin aging when
used as directed The FDA also proposes to limit the maximum SPF on sunscreen labels to 50+
as it believes that there is insufficient data to show products with SPF values higher than 50
provide greater protection for users than products with an SPF of 50.
Canadian legislation requires that all broad spectrum sunscreen products contain both a
recognized UVA and a UVB absorber; be minimum SPF 15 and to have a critical wavelength
protection of at least 370 nm with a UVA:UVB ratio not be less than 1:3.

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Australia allows for labelling of sunscreen products with a rating of up to SPF 50+, as it is
understood that SPF 50+ sunscreens allow much less UVA radiation, which is largely responsible
for melanomas and skin cancer, to pass through a layer of sunscreen.
Formula 49: Sunscreen cream SPF 25, broad spectrum
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water) to 100%

q.s.

Acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer

0.38 Emulsifier/thickener

Propylene glycol

5.00 Solvent/humectant

Disodium EDTA

0.01 Sequestrant

Neopentyl glycol diheptanoate

Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane

Homosalate

Ethylhexyl salicylate

Octocrylene

10.00 UVB absorber

Tocopherol

0.20 Antioxidant

Triethanolamine (50% solution)

0.70 Neutraliser

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

5. 00 Emollient
3.00 UVA absorber
10.00 UVB absorber
5.00 UVB absorber

Preparation
1. Start warming the water in the main mixing vessel and when at about 30C slowly add the
polymer with fast stirring; when fully dispersed heat to 70C and add remaining Stage A
ingredients.
2. Weigh the oil phase (A) into a separate vessel and heat to 70 75C.
3. When both phases are at 70C slowly pour the hot oil phase into the aqueous phase while
stirring; when addition is complete mix at high shear for 3 minutes then start cooling with
slow speed stirring.
4. When cooled to about 60C add the preservative then slowly add the triethanolamine as a
50% solution, which will gel the mix. The pH should be 6.0 7.0.
5. Continue slow mixing to 35C and stir in the perfume and continue mixing while cooling to
ambient temperature
All the UV absorbers are within permitted levels for global acceptance and in theory the
composition is SPF25 and provides sufficient UVA protection to comply with international
standards. The UV absorbers are not the most effective and better ones, like the triazines, are
available but are not accepted world-wide.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 50: Sunscreen stick; SPF 15, broad spectrum


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Caprylic/capric triglyceride

65.00 Emollient

Cera alba (Beeswax)

11.00 Hardening wax

Copernicia cerifera (Carnauba) wax

11.00 Hardening wax

Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane

Octocrylene

3.00 UVA absorber


10.00 UVB absorber

Preparation
1. Melt the waxes in the caprylic/capric triglyceride at 85C.
2. Add Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and stir until dissolved.
3. Add Octocrylene and stir until dissolved.
4. Pour into mould at a temperature just before the cloud point (the temperature at which the
mixture starts to look cloudy).
5. Cool to room temperature.
The waxes harden the stick to make a lip salve and in theory it will provide SPF15 and sufficient
UVA protection to comply with international standards for broad spectrum protection. The two
UV absorbers are included at their maximum permitted levels and additional filters would be
required to achieve a higher SPF.
Formula 51: Sunscreen oil; SPF 15, broad spectrum
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Caprylic/capric triglyceride

65.00 Emollient/solvent

Diisopropyl adipate

10.00 Emollient/solvent

Petrolatum

10.00 Emollient

Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane

Octocrylene

3.00 UVA absorber


10.00 UVB absorber

Preparation
1. Measure out the caprylic/capric triglyceride and add the diisopropyl adipate; add the
petrolatum and warm with stirring until a clear liquid is obtained.
2. Stir in the butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene and mix until clear.
3. Cool and pack into suitable bottles.
In theory this composition will provide SPF15 and sufficient UVA protection to comply with
international standards for broad spectrum protection although when sprayed as a thin film of
oil on the skin actual performance is likely to be less. The two UV absorbers are included at their
maximum permitted levels and additional filters would be required to achieve a higher SPF. No
preservative is required because the product does not contain water.
Sun protection products are by far the most interesting and arguably the most useful type of
cosmetic product to formulate. It is a dynamic area with constant improvements being made but
many of these involve the use of speciality mixtures, which have no place in this unit.
For further reading look at: http://www.creative-developments.co.uk/8papers.html
For a (somewhat outdated) background to the challenges of formulating effective sun protection
products see: http://www.creativedevelopments.co.uk/papers/Factors%20affecting%20sun%20care%20formulations.html
For the BASF sunscreen simulator, which calculates theoretical SPF and UVA results go to:
http://www.personal-care.basf.com/europe/by-market-segment/sun-care/basf-sunscreen-simulator

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 52: Anti-ageing cream with alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs)


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil)

10.00 Emollient

Glyceryl stearate

5.00 Emulsifier

Polysorbate 60

2.00 Emulsifier

Cetearyl alcohol

2.50 Emulsion stabiliser

Tocopheryl acetate

1.50 Emollient

Cera alba (Beeswax)

0.50 Thickener/emollient

Myristyl alcohol

0.50 Thickener/emollient

Aqua (Water)

Lactic acid

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

q.s.
2.00 AHA

Preparation
1. This is a water to oils mix. Add the items of Stage A to the main vessel and heat to 70C with
occasional stirring. Make sure all the waxes are melted.
2. In a separate vessel, heat the aqueous phase to 70C.
3. Add the aqueous phase B to the oil phase A while stirring, mix well then cool to room
temperature with constant mixing, adding the preservative below 50C and the perfume
below 35C, followed by homogenising.
This is a w/o emulsion formed using a low HLB emulsifier, glyceryl stearate, with a higher HLB
emulsifier, Polysorbate 60. The aqueous phase is added to the oil phase to encourage the
formation of the w/o emulsion but the phase ratio looks rather low and more oil may be
required; a suggestion would be to add 10% caprylic/capric triglyceride and to reduce the water
accordingly.
The oil phase will leave an occlusive film on the skin, encouraging hydration by retarding transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the lactic acid will be entrapped in the oil film and may help to
dislodge dead skin cells.
A more modern approach to anti-ageing creams is to use a good quality moisturising cream as
the base and to provide SPF15 and a high level of UVA protection for daytime use and to apply a
w/o emulsion that includes a higher level of hydrating actives for night use. The use of AHAs
should be restricted to once weekly use. Where AHAs are being used to exfoliate the skin the
following warning is required in order for the product to be both EU and USA compliant:This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) that may increase your skins
sensitivity to the sun. Use a sunscreen, wear protective clothing and limit sun exposure
during usage of the product and for a week after use of the product has stopped. Avoid
contact with the eyes. If product gets into eyes rinse well with water immediately.
A Cosmetic Ingredient Report (CIR) published in summer 97 concludes with the following:Based on the available information included in this report, the CIR Expert panel concludes that
glycolic and lactic acids, their common salts and their simple esters are safe for use in cosmetic
products at concentrations of <10% at final formulation pH >3.5, when formulated to avoid
increasing sun sensitivity or when directions for use include the daily use of sun protection.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 53: Self-tanning gel spray


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Aqua (Water)

Disodium EDTA

Preservative

Dihydroxyacetone (DHA)

5.00 Tanning agent

Acrylates/aminoacrylates/C10-30 alkyl PEG-20


itaconate copolymer
Citric acid to pH 3 3.5

7.60 Gelling agent

q.s.
0.10 Sequestrant
q.s. See Unit 6

q.s. pH modifier

Preparation
1. Measure out the water and dissolve items of Stage A.
2. Add B, dihydroxyacetone, with stirring
3. Add C, Acrylates/aminoacrylates/C10-30 alkyl PEG-20 itaconate copolymer, with rapid stirring
and make sure it is fully dispersed
4. Add a solution of citric acid to adjust to pH 3 3.5
Although gelled this should provide a spray from a suitable pump spray applicator. It will turn
any skin with which it comes into contact a shade of brown. A much improved product is
obtained if about 2% erythrulose is included with the DHA but all self-tanning lotions need to
be applied to clean, unblemished skin that has recently had an exfoliant treatment for best
results.
Formula 54: Brushless shaving cream
Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Stearic acid

8.00 Forms soap with TEA

Lanolin oil

2.00 Emollient

Paraffinum liquidum

2.00 Emollient

Glyceryl stearate s/e (Acid stable)

3.00 Emulsifier

Cetearyl alcohol

1.00 Emulsion stabiliser

Aqua (Water)

Disodium EDTA

0.10 Sequestrant

Polysorbate 20

3.00 Emulsifier

Glycerin

3.00 Humectant

Triethanolamine (TEA)

0.75 pH modifier/neutraliser

Preservative

q.s. See Unit 6

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

q.s.

Preparation
1. Weigh out the items of Stage A and heat to 70C.
2. Measure out the water of Stage B into a separate vessel, add the remaining ingredients of
Stage B and heat to 70C.
3. When both phases are at 70C and all waxes have fully melted slowly add A to B with careful
mixing.
4. Mix for 5 minutes at 70C then start cooling with slow mixing.
5. When below 50C add the preservative and add the perfume below 35C; continue mixing to
ambient temperature.
The stearic acid is semi-saponified with the triethanolamine to form a soap to wet the skin and it
is also an anionic emulsifier. The glyceryl stearate s/e must be an acid stable version of selfemulsifying glyceryl stearate; it will contain PEG-100 stearate as the emulsifier. This product will
develop a pearly sheen over time and soften as the stearic acid crystallises; a slow and careful
mix before filling into tubes will increase this effect but beware of entrapping air in the product
it will never come out!
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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 55: Pre-electric shave lotion


Stage INCI Name

%w/w Prime function

Alcohol (Ethanol) to 100%

q.s. Astringent

Diisopropyl adipate

8.00 Emollient

PEG-6 caprylic/capric triglycerides

4.00 Emollient

Glycerin

3.00 Humectant

Parfum (Fragrance)

q.s. See Unit 13

Preparation
Weigh each item in turn into the mixing vessel and mix until clear.
This product is applied prior to an electric shave to assist in the beard cutting process. It is selfpreserving because of the high alcohol content.
Formula 56: After-shave lotion
Stage
1
2
3
4

INCI Name
Alcohol (Ethanol) to 100%
Propylene glycol
Allantoin
Parfum (Fragrance)

%w/w
q.s.
5.00
0.05
q.s.

Prime function
Astringent
Emollient
Healing agent
See Unit 13

Preparation
Weigh each item in turn into the mixing vessel and mix until clear.
This product is applied after a wet shave to assist in the beard cutting process. It is intended to
sterilise nicks and cuts caused by the shaving process. Allantoin is a recognised healing agent but
healing is not a claim that can be applied to cosmetic products. The main purpose of after
shave lotions is to provide the user with a pleasant perfume.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 57: After-shave balm


Stage
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
C
D
D
D

INCI Name
Aqua (Water) to 100%
Disodium EDTA
Carbomer
Glycerin
Isopropyl palmitate
Methyl gluceth-20 distearate
Ceteareth-20
Cetearyl alcohol
Triethanolamine (10%)
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Preservative
Parfum (Fragrance)

%w/w
q.s.
0.08
0.20
3.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
0.50
2.00
15.00
q.s.
q.s.

Prime function
Sequestrant
Gelling agent
Humectant
Emollient
Emollient
Emulsifier
Emulsion stabiliser
Neutraliser
Astringent
See Unit 6
See Unit 13

Preparation
1. Measure out the water and warm to about 30C to facilitate dissolving the disodium EDTA
and dispersing the carbomer. Stir in the glycerin and heat to 70C.
2. In a separate vessel heat the items of Stage B, the oil phase, to 70C and make sure all the
ingredients are properly melted.
3. Add the hot oils to the hot aqueous phase with mixing,
4. Add triethanolamine solution, which will thicken the mix then commence cooling with slow
mixing.
5. Dissolve the preservative and perfume in the alcohol and sir into the main mix when at 30C.
This has less sting than the previous formula but serves much the same purpose of tightening
the skin and providing an immediate but transitory antimicrobial action. At 15% the alcohol is
not sufficient to preserve the composition and a suitable one needs to be added. Such products
are being superseded by men using a light facial moisturiser with additional skin care benefits
and possibly adding UVB/UVA protection.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Formula 58: Thioglycolate depilatory cream


Stage
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
C
C
D
E
D

INCI Name
Aqua (Water) to 100%
Tetrasodium EDTA
Urea
Glycerin
Paraffinum liquidum (Mineral oil)
Decyl oleate
Ceteareth-12
Cetearyl alcohol
Calcium thioglycolate
Calcium hydroxide
Mica
Potassium hydroxide solution
Parfum (Fragrance)

%w/w
q.s.
0.08
4.00
3.00
1.00
3.00
2.00
10.00
7.50
1.50
5.00
q.s.
q.s.

Prime function
Sequestrant
Gelling agent
Humectant
Emollient
Emollient
Emulsifier
Emulsion stabiliser
Depilatory agent
pH modifier
Opacifier
See Unit 13

Preparation
1. Measure out the water and other ingredients of Stage A and heat to 75C.
2. Weigh the items of Stage B, the oil phase, into a separate vessel and heat to 75C
3. When both phases are at 75C and all waxes are melted add the oil phase B to the aqueous
phase, A, with mixing.
4. Mix with cooling to 40C and mix in Stage C items.
5. Mix well and add mica and continue slow mixing to ambient temperature.
6. Finally make a 10% solution of potassium hydroxide [with great care & wearing proper safety
equipment] in water and adjust pH of mix to 12.5
7. A perfume may be included but few are stable in this system.
WARNING: This is a corrosive product, be careful; it will dissolve hair, skin, eyes and carpets. Any
traces of iron will turn it purple. The tetrasodium EDTA will chelate iron ions; urea softens the
hair and other ingredients provide some protection to the skin against the irritating effects of the
depilatory. This formula is added for interest and anyone wishing to make a depilatory product is
advised to seek expert advice.
That is the end of the illustrative formulations for Unit 16. They have been included for interest
and are not meant to be commercially acceptable final compositions.

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

SUPPLEMENTARY
BOOKLET

Module 2 Unit 16
Skin Products

Society of
Cosmetic Scientists
Distance Learning

Unit 16
101

Prepared by Grace Abamba


Amended by Paul Hebditch

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

CONTENTS

102

Article 1
Efficacy testing of deodorants

103
103

Article 2
Skin care technologies

107
107

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DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE IN COSMETIC SCIENCE MODULE 2 UNIT 16

Efficacy testing of deodorants


Both in vivo and in vitro methods have been employed for screening potential deodorant systems.
In vitro techniques do not, however, provide a reliable indicator of clinical effectiveness. The well
designed clinical trial must therefore be regarded as the most valid approach to deodorant
evaluation. The two principal methods for the in vivo evaluation of deodorant efficacy are:
determination of the effect of treatment on the skin microflora; and
olfactory assessment of the effects on skin odours.
Techniques used to quantify microflora include tape stripping, contact plates, velvet replicate
pads, swabbing, scrubbing and pressurised spray methods. It must be stressed, however, that
none of these techniques are of use in the evaluation of actives such as odour suppressors,
modifiers or neutralisers which take effect after the formation of odorous substances by bacteria.
They are also of little value in evaluation deodorant formulations based on bacteriostats as, once
the bacterial population has been sampled and the organisms removed from the axilla, the
inhibitory effects of the antimicrobial are lost and the bacteria flourish normally. In these cases,
we must again resort to subjective sensory techniques for the evaluation of product efficacy.
Olfactory assessment of the effect of deodorants on body odours may be performed by direct
armpit sniffing or by indirect sniffing of pads or other sampling vehicles. The sensory evaluation
may be performed by panels of trained assessors, by the panellists themselves or by a
combination of both methods. These techniques are suitable for evaluation both materials which
act by inhibiting formation of axillary odour and those which act by reducing perception of
malodour once it has been produced.
The technique of Gee and Seidenberg for evaluation of deodorant soaps involves assessment of
intensity of odour by sniffing the axillae directly and assigning a numerical value. The method
has been widely used and lends itself to statistical analysis. A more recent adaptation of the
method is described by Baxter and Reed. The test panel involves 20 - 40 subjects, each panellist
testing each product in crossover fashion. Potential subjects are screened for the amount of
odour they produce following several days abstention from use of underarm products, except
for daily washing with an unperformed control soap. Male subjects are generally preferred since
they object less to persevering with ineffective (placebo) products and tend to generate higher
odour levels owing to the presence of axillary hair. While taking part in the trial, subjects are
forbidden to use any products in the axillae, such as antiperspirants, talcs, perfumes, etc., other
than those supplied by the tester. They are provided with two flannels, colour-coded for each
axilla, and instructed to use separate volumes of water for washing each axilla to minimise the
possible cross-transfer of actives.
The usual procedures of a double-blind clinical trial, balanced randomised order of product use
and incorporation of positive and negative controls, are observed. If non-perfumed, specific
actives are being evaluated, the test products are formulated without perfume for the purpose of
testing. Each cross-over period lasts for three weeks. The first week constitutes a pre-treatment
phase when the panellist is instructed to wash the axillae once daily with control soap. All
subjects use placebo products during this week. During the second week subjects are given one
of the following combinations of products (or placebo again) to use, one on each axilla, once
daily after washing:
Axilla A
Axilla B
Placebo
Placebo
Positive control
Vehicle
Test product
Vehicle

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In the final week, subjects do not wash or apply deodorant at home and washing is performed
at the laboratory, the same product combination being applied by test personnel. Axillary odour
is assessed each morning prior to washing and applying product and again in the afternoon,
approximately six hours after the previous application. As subjects are then in their second week
of treatment, these assessments are taken to represent the plateau for efficacy. Where
appropriate, bacterial sampling may be carried out at the 24-hour assessment and occasionally
also at the 6-hour assessment.
Odour assessment is performed by at least three assessors, since even experienced judges have
anosmias to particular elements. Selection of assessor panels is based on ability to rank graded
dilutions of odiferous materials such as isovaleric or butyric acids. Sniffing is carried out with the
nose less than 10 cm from the axilla and scores are assigned on a scale of 0 - 10, according to
the strength of the perceived odour. The distribution of odour scores is usually skewed, so that
nonparametric statistical methods, such as the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test, are used
to analyse the results.
Direct panellist-judge interaction does have certain disadvantages in evaluating underarm
deodorants. For example, there is the risk of contamination of odour by the smell of clothing or
other body odours. In addition, the judge may be influenced by visual effects such as product
residue in the axilla or recognition of the subject. As an alternative to direct axilla sniffing by the
judges, odour may be collected on cotton pads or on some other suitable vehicle. The method
discussed below uses the rounded end of 20 x 150 mm borosilicate glass test tubes which are
placed in the axillary vault.
Panellists are pre-screened to ensure an ability to develop moderate axillary odour in both axillae
when deodorants are not used. Conditions operating during and prior to testing are as follows.
Panellists should:
abstain from use of all deodorants, antiperspirants, medicated or perfumed products for seven
days prior to testing and during the test period, with the exception of those products issued
abstain from smoking, chewing gum and drinking alcohol for at least 15 minutes before each
visit to the test location
use control soap for all bathing and washing during pre-treatment and test periods. During the
test period only, all underarm washing is performed at the test location under supervision
refrain from washing for a full 24 hours before assessment on the first day of the test period
wear a clean shirt or blouse after each daily washing and application of product during the test
period.
Judges are selected as described above on the basis of their ability to rank correctly increasing
concentrations of isovaleric acid from 0 - 600 ppm. They are requested not to smoke or eat
within 15 minutes of evaluations and to refrain from the use of fragrances throughout the study.
Evaluations are made on a 10-point odour intensity scale, disregarding fragrance.
For evaluation a 20 x 150 mm borosilicate glass test tube is placed in each axillary vault and held
in place by the subject keeping his arms by his sides. When directed, the subject vigorously
rotates the bottom portion of the tube in the axilla. The tube is then given to an operator who
covers the bottom of each tube with a plastic closure. The two tubes from each pair of axillae
are quickly passed to two judges who independently evaluate them for odour intensity. Judges
evaluate pairs of samples from test subjects at intervals of approximately 1.0 - 1.5 minutes. Each
evaluation is entered on a separate score sheet which does not record details of product
assignment scores.

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A typical test design is as follows. On day 1, the final selection of subjects is made. Individuals
achieving a pre-wash score of at least 4 in both axillae, as judged by at least half the assessors,
are selected. This is the baseline score and is recorded. The axillae are washed, rinsed, dried and
the designated product is applied to each axilla. Subjects return for evaluations, usually at
intervals of 3, 6 and 24 hours. On day 2, the first 24-hour post-treatment assessment is made
and the day 1 procedure is repeated.
On day 3, the second 24-hour post-treatment assessment is made and the test is then complete.
The first day scores, used to screen out subjects with low odour levels, are also examined to
ascertain whether right/left side differences are sufficient to warrant using the day 1 scores as a
covariate in the analysis of post-treatment data to adjust for left or right lateral bias. The data
are analysed using a repeated measures design. Odour scores for the two test materials are
compared at each time period. Factors used in the analysis are panellists, treatment, test days,
and judges. The number of subjects experiencing superior performance with each treatment are
tabulated and treatment differences tested using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.
Advantages of the indirect sniffing method over the direct sniffing method may be summarised
as follows:
subjects do not come into recognition proximity with judges, thus minimising the effects of
revulsion, embarrassment and bias
judges can perform their task in a relaxed position and may therefore concentrate more
effectively on scoring
the interference of extraneous smells from a subjects skin, hair or clothing is effectively
eliminated
the odour samples can be stored for several hours under refrigeration without quantitatively or
qualitatively affecting the odour perceived. This can be most useful if one of the judges is
temporarily incapacitated.
While these indirect methods of deodorant evaluation are admittedly less true to life than the
direct sniffing of axillary odour, which accurately mimics how we evaluate our own body odour,
it would seem that the experimental practicalities are strongly in their favour.
The testing of antiperspirants
The most widely used procedure for efficacy testing of antiperspirants is a gravimetric method
which involves the collections and weighing of axillary sweat under controlled conditions. A
variety of different test methods have been cited in the literature. An example of the so-called
ratio method involves panels of at least 20 volunteers who abstain from use of antiperspirants
for a period of at least two weeks prior to testing, although the use of alcoholic deodorants is
normally permitted. On 3 - 4 days following this pre-treatment phase, they enter a controlled
environment chamber maintained at approximately 100F and 35% R.H., the hotroom with
absorbent pads (the A pads) strapped to both axillae. After 40 minutes, these pads are removed
and discarded as sweating rates are highly variable over this initial period. A fresh pair of
weighed pads (the B pads) are substituted and remain in place for 20 minutes before being
removed and reweighed. A second set of weighed pads (the C pads) are placed in the axillae
for a further 20 minutes. Then these in turn are removed and reweighed. This completes the
control phase of the study.
Applications of product are made under supervision at least once a day over 5 days, such that
half the panel receive the test product on the right axilla and the left is untreated or treated with
the control product. The other half of the panel receive the opposite pattern of application.
Repeated applications are necessary to build up the maximum antiperspirant effect. On the fifth
day and at least an hour after the final applications of product, panellists re-enter the hot-room
and the series of A, B, and C pads is repeated.

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The percentage reduction in sweating is calculated according to the following formula:


( Post-treatment treated/untreated sweat ratio )
1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 100
Corresponding mean control sweat ratio
A product cross-over may be employed to validate the reproducibility of the test result.
Panellists are selected on the criterion that they consistently yield at least 100 mg sweat from
each axilla during control collections, which is reported to exclude only about 1% of a normal
population. The only other reason for exclusion is a lack of reasonable uniformity in control
sweating ratios. This appears to be largely due to poor compliance with test conditions and
occurs infrequently. Most individuals produce slightly more sweat from the dominant axilla
depending on right- or lefthandedness.
Certain individuals exhibit pro-perspirancy, i.e., they fail to show the expected sweat reductions
or actually yield increased sweat weights following treatment with known effective products. This
is apparently not linked to product irritancy but is due to specific individual differences. Assuming
a panel of reasonable size, such individuals would not be excluded as, in this way, it would be
possible to achieve artificially much greater reduction values than those generated by
nonselected random populations.
Finally, two entirely different techniques, hygrometry and thermography, are worthy of mention.
Hygrometry involves measurement of the rate of evaporation of moisture from the surface of the
skin. The cooling effect of sweating is due to evaporative water loss at or below the skin surface.
Thus, as ambient air flows over the skin, its moisture content is increased. The product of
(increased water content) x (air flow rate) is a measure of the rate at which sweat is evaporating.
Provided that sweat droplets are not formed on the skin surface, the rate of evaporation is equal
to the rate of emergence of sweat from the sweat ducts.
Cylindrical cells are fixed to test and control skin sites on the back of test subjects. Ambient air is
drawn from the hot-room and pumped into the cells which are held in close contact with the
skin to prevent gross leakage. Outgoing air from each cell passes through a humidity sensor
which records relative humidity. A modified version of the Servomed Evaporimeter equipped with
dual probes is now available for this type of measurement.
Thermography is a process of recording variations in intensity of long wavelength emissions from
a surface, comparable to that of a visible wavelength television system. Hot areas emit more
energy in the sensitive range of the instrument than cold areas, so are displayed on a TV screen
as brighter areas in a monochrome system, or as different colours in a colour system, displaying
temperature variations over the skin surface as a map. The sensitivity is such that temperature
changes as small as 0.1C appear as distinct colour changes. Localised cooling of the skin
contributes to thermoregulation. It is reasonable to assume, therefore, that there is less cooling
of the skin when an effective antiperspirant has been applied to that area, i.e., the skin
temperature is higher. Thermography requires only 1 second to map the surface temperature of
the axilla. Hygrometry measurements can be made in less than 2 minutes, while gravimetric
measurements require at least 20 minutes collection period to achieve acceptable reproducibility.
In addition, both hygrometry and thermography allow antiperspirant activity measurements to be
made under conditions which do not interfere with the normal operation of sweat glands or the
cooling caused by sweat evaporation.
From H. Butler (ed.), Poucher's perfumes, cosmetics and soaps, Volume 3, (9th edition),
Chapman and Hall, 1993.

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Skin care technologies


As the population ages and the standards for beauty remain, technology becomes more
important in deciding the trends in the industry and the results clients see on their skin.
BY SARA MASON
GCI magazine, March 2002, Volume 170, No. 3, pages 36-39
Reproduced with permission.

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GCI

EDITORIAL STAFF
Karen A. Newman Publisher & Editor
630-653-2155 x525
Sara Mason Managing Editor
630-653-2155 x585

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smason@allured.com
gci@alIured.com

Global Cosmetic lndustry (ISSN 1523-9470) is published monthly by Allured Publishing


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