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Xv-˛- kn-°-µ¿- tem-Zn403.- -tem-I-sØ- G-‰-hpw- \o-fw- Iq-Sn-b- ]Zyw-˛- a-lm-`m-c-Xw404.- kp¬-Øm-≥]q¿- ]-£n-k-t¶-Xw- G-Xpkw-kv-Ym-\-Øv-˛- l-cn-bm-\405.

- kp-{]ow- tIm-SX
- n- No-^v- P-Ãn-km-b- sI.Pn.-_m-e-Ir-jv-W-≥ tI-c-f-Øn-se- G-XvPn-√-°m-c-\m-Wv-˛- tIm-´-bw406.- -Kp-]v-X-hw-i-Øn-s‚- c-≠mw- X-e-ÿm-\am-bn-cp-∂-Xv-˛- D-÷-bn-\n407.- -Ir-jv-W-tZ-h-cm-b-cp-sS- `-c-W-Im-ew-˛1509˛-29
408.- U¬-ln-bn-se- tXm-am-c-hw-i-Øn-se- G‰-hpw- {]-i-kv-X-\m-b- cm-Pm-hv-˛- am-ln-]me-≥
409.- -X-an-gv-\m-Sv- K-h¿-W-dm-b- a-e-bm-fn- h-\nX-˛- P-Ãn-kv- Fw.-F-kv.-^m-Øn-am-_o-hn410. -s\-{lp- I-gn-™m¬- ssN-\- k-µ¿-in-®B-Zy- C-¥y-≥ {]-[m-\-a-{¥n-˛- cm-Po-hvKm-‘n411. -sIm-®n-bn-se- A-h-km-\-sØ- Zn-hm-≥˛kn.-]n.-I-cp-Wm-I-c-ta-t\m-≥
412. tk-\-≥am¿- G-Xp- {]-tZ-i-am-Wv- `-cn-®Xv-˛- _w-Kmƒ413. l-hm- a-l¬- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv-˛- P-bv-]q¿414. -{^-©v- hn-π-h-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- sS∂o-kvt- Im¿-´v- {]-Xn-PvR
- - F-∂m-bn-cp-∂p˛- 1789 Pq-¨- 20
415. P
- e
- s
- Ø- ssh-Zyp-X- hn-t«-jW
- w- \-SØ
- nbm¬- In-´p-∂- aq-e-I-߃-˛- ssl-{U-P\pw- Hm-Iv-kn-P-\pw416. {- _n-´o-jv- `-cW
- I
- m-eØ
- v- ]m¿-es
- a-‚ v- Adn-b-s∏-´n-cp-∂-Xv-˛- sk-≥{S¬- e-Pn-t…‰o-hv- A-kw-ªn417. Xm¿- F-Iv-kv-{]-kv- Hm-Sp-∂-Xv- G-sX-√mwÿ-e-߃-°n-S-bn¬-˛- ap-\-_m- `m-shm˛- sJm-{I-]m¿418. `q-an-bn-se- G-‰-hpw- X-Wp-∏p-≈- ÿ-ew˛- sh¿-tJm-bm-≥kv-Iv419. Kp-Pd
- m-Øv- ssl-t°m-SX
- n-bp-sS- B-ÿm\w-˛- A-l-Ω-Zm-_m-Zv420.- Fw- kn- tdm-Un-s≥d- ]-Wn- Xo¿-∂-XvG-Xv- h¿-j-Øn¬-˛- F.-Un.-1877
421. -kv-Iqƒ- kn-‰n- F-∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv-˛-sUdm-Uq-¨422.- kzman hnthIm\µ≥ Nn°mtKm-bn-setem-I- a-X- k-tΩ-f\
- Ø
- n¬- ]-s¶-Sp-Øp{]-kw-Kn-®- h¿-jw-˛- 1893
423.- G-‰h
- pw- {]m-bw- Ip-d™
- k-am-[m-\- s\mt_¬- tP-Xm-hv-˛- ssa-do-Uv- tIm-dn-K-≥
(1976)424.- Pm¿-J-Wv-Un-s‚- X-e-ÿm-\w-˛- dm-©n425.- tIcf\nbak`bn¬ IqSpX¬ aWvU
e-ß-sf- {]-Xn-\n-[m-\w- sN-bv-X-Xv-˛- Fw.hn.-cm-L-h-≥
426.- hS°pIng°≥ C¥ybnse G‰hpw h
en-b- \-Zn-˛- {_-“-]p-{X427.- knw-em-I-cm-dn¬- H-∏p-sh-®-Xv-˛- C-µn-cmKm-‘n428.- -{^-©v - hn-π-h-Øn-s≥d- ap-{Zm-hm-Iyw-˛kzm-X-{¥yw,- k-a-Xzw,- km-tlm-Z-cyw429.- kn-°p-Im-cp-sS- B-Zy- Kp-cp-hm-b- \m\m-°v- (1469˛-1539)- P-\n-®- {Km-aw-˛- X¬h-µn430.- U-b-a-‚ n-\- {S-©v- G-Xv- k-ap-{Z-Øn-seG-‰-hpw- B-gw-Iq-Sn-b- `m-K-am-Wv-˛-C-¥y≥a-lm-k-ap-{Zw431. -tPm-\m-X-≥ lm¿-°¿- F-∂- I-Ym-]m-{XsØ- kr-jv-Sn-®-Xv-˛- {_mw- tÃm-°¿432.- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq¿- k-µ¿-in-®- B-Zy-sØssh-t{km-bn-˛- I-gv-k-¨- {]-`p433.- FXncn-√m-sX- Xn-c-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´- G-I{]-kn-U-‚ v-˛- \o-ew- k-Rv-Po-h-sd-Uv-Un434.- -sIm-®n- e-Pn-t…-‰o-hv- A-kw-_v-fn-bn¬Aw-K-am-b- B-Zy- h-\n-X-˛-tXm-´-bv-°m-´vam-[-hn-b-Ω435.- F-gp-Ø-—-≥ ]p-c-kv-Im-cw- t\-Sn-b- BZy- h-\n-X-˛- _m-em-a-Wn-b-Ω- (1995)436.- A-Iv-_¿- 1581˛¬- ]-cm-P-b-s∏-Sp-Øn-bamƒ-hb
- n-se- `-cW
- m-[n-Im-cn-˛- _m-kv- _-

lm-Zq¿437.- _p-≤-a-X-sØ-°p-dn-®v- ]-Tn-°m-≥ ^mln-bm-≥ C-¥y-bn-se-Øn-b- k-ab
- s
- ØKp-]v-X-cm-Pm-hv-˛-N-{µ-Kp-]v-X- hn-{I-am-ZnXy-≥
438.- AIv _¿ A¥-cn-®-Xv-˛- 1605 H-Iv-tSm_¿- 17
439.- F-gp-Ø-—-≥ ]p-c-kv-Im-cw- B-Zy-am-bnt\-Sn-b-Xv-˛- iq-c-\m-Sv- Ip-™-≥]n-≈(1993)440.- F-gp-Øp-hn-Zy- B-Zy-am-bn- D-]-tbm-Kn-®\m-K-cn-I-X-˛- kp-ta-dn-b-≥
441. -F-h-d-Ãn-\v B t]-cp- e-`n-°m-≥ Im-cW-°m-c\
- m-b- tPm¿-P-v F-hd- Ã
- -v B-cm-bncp-∂p-˛- C-¥y-bp-sS- k¿-th-b¿- P-\d
- ¬442.- Fw.-]n.-`-´-Xn-cn-∏m-Sn-s‚- Xq-en-Im-\m-aw˛- t{]w-Pn443.- -kn-Xm¿- C-¥y-≥ kw-Ko-X-Øn-\p- ]-cnN-b-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xv-˛- A-ao¿- Jp-{kp444.- Kp-P-dm-Øn-se- tKm-{[- kw-`-hw- \-S-∂h¿-jw-˛- 2002
445.- kpw-K-hw-i- ÿm-]-I-≥˛- ]p-jy-an-{X-≥
446.- kwL-Im-eI
- r-Xn-If
- p-sS- ap-Jy-{]-ta-bw˛- {]-W-bw,- bp-≤w447.- tem-I-sØ- an-I-®- {In-°-‰v- Xm-c-Øn-\p≈- sF.-kn.-kn.-A-hm¿-Uv-˛- Km-cn- tkmt_-gv-kv- A-hm¿-Uv448.- -tem-I-sØ- B-sI- F-{X- k-a-b-ta-Je-I-fm-bn- Xn-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p-˛- 24
449.- -tem-Iv-k-`-bn¬- Xn-c-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´Aw-K-߃- ˛- 543
450.- tIcfØn¬ \ne\n∂ncp∂ Zmb{Ia
sØ-°p-dn-®v- ]-cm-a¿-in-®- {]-Y-a- hn-tZi-k-©m-cn-˛- {^-b¿- tPm¿-Um-\-kv451. t- I-cf
- Ø
- n¬- ]-co-£W
- m¿-Yw- d-∫¿-Irjn- Xp-S-ßn-b-sX-hn-sS-˛- Xm-a-c-t»-cn452.- _m-jv-]-°-S¬- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv-˛-N-{µ-≥
453.- _p-≤-s‚- `m-cy- ˛- b-tim-[-c454.- -tk-\-hw-i-Øn-se- G-‰-hpw- a-lm-\m-bcm-Pm-hv-˛- hn-P-b-tk-\-≥
455.- -tI-c-f-Øn-se- B-Zy-sØ- {]-kv- tIm-´b-Øv- kv-Ym-]n-®-Xv-˛- s_-©-an-≥ s_bv-en- (1821)456.- tKm-hb
- p-sS- `-cW
- - X-eÿ
- m-\w-˛- ]-\m-Pn457.- -th-ep-Ø-ºn- Z-f-h- Ip-≠-d- hn-fw-_-cw]p-d-s∏-Sp-hn-®- h¿-jw-˛- 1809
458.- U]yq-´n- kv-]o-°¿- cm-Pn-°-Øv- \¬-Ip∂-Xm¿-°m-Wv-˛-kv-]o-°¿459.- -tZ-io-b-]-Xm-I-bn¬- H-cp- \n-dw- am-{Xap-≈- cm-Pyw-˛- en-_n-b460.- tIcfØnte°v hmkv-tIm- U- Km-a-bpsS- c-≠mw-hc
- h
- v- G-Xv- h¿-jØ
- n¬-˛- F.Un.-1502
461. -k-am-[m-\-Øn-\p-≈- s\m-t_¬- k-Ωm\w- e-`n-®- B-Zy-sØ- A-ta-cn-°-≥ {]-

466. k
- q-{X-]n-S-Iw- F-¥n-s\-°p-dn-®p- {]-Xn-]mZn-°p-∂p-˛- _p-≤-s‚- X-Øz-߃467. -tIm-´-bv-°¬- B-cy-ssh-Zy-im-e- ÿm-]n®-Xv-˛- ssh-Zy-c-Xv-\w- ]n.-F-kv.-hm-cy¿468. -Nm¿-hm-I-a-Xw- ap-t∂m-´p-h-®- ao-amw-k-˛tem-Im-b-X- Z¿-i-\w469. -kz-X-{¥-`m-c-X-Øn¬- B-`y-¥-c- A-Sn-b¥-cm-hÿ
- {]-Jym-]n-®X
- v- F-t∏mƒ-˛- 1975
Pq-¨470. -I-Y-I-fn-bp-sS- D-]-⁄m-Xm-hv-˛- sIm-´m-c°-c-Ø-ºp-cm-≥
471.- Km-\v-[n-Pn- ]-s¶-Sp-Ø- B-Zy-sØ- tIm¨-{K-kv- k-tΩ-f-\w-˛- 1901se- sIm¬-°Ø- k-tΩ-f-\w472. -tI-c-f-Z¿-∏-Ww,-tI-c-f- ]-{Xn-I,- a-e-bm-fnF-∂o- {]-kn-≤o-I-c-W-ß-fn¬- F-gp-Xptºmƒ- sI.-cm-a-Ir-jv-Ww-]n-≈- D-]-tbmKn-®n-cp-∂- Xq-en-Im-\m-aw-˛- tI-c-f-≥
473. k
- n-F≥
- .-{io-IW
- vT
- ≥
- \m-bc
- p-sS- \m-SI
- {- Xbw-˛- km-tI-Xw,- e-¶m-e-£v-an,- Im-©-\ko-X474. k
- z-X{- ¥- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se- c-≠m-as
- Ø{]-[m-\-a-{¥n-˛- ]-d-hq¿- Sn.-sI.-\m-cm-b-W]n-≈475. -Im-©-≥Pw-K- G-Xp- kw-ÿm-\-Øm-Wv-˛kn-°nw476. -Im-©n-en,- l-cn-sI- X-Æo¿-Ø-Sw- G-Xpkw-ÿm-\-Øm-Wv-˛- ]-©m-_v477. -Kp-W-\n-e-hm-c-ap-≈- Im¿-jn-I- D¬-]-∂߃-°v- \¬-Ip-∂- ap-{Z-˛- A-‹m¿-°v478. -`q-an-bn-se- G-‰-hpw- h-en-b- Zzo-]-k-aq-lw˛- C-≥sUm-\n-jy479. -\n-b-a-k-`-bn¬- _-Uv-P-‰v- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°p∂-Xv- B-cp-sS- t]-cn-em-Wv- ˛-K-h¿-W¿480. -tUm.-F-kv.-N-{µ-ti-J-dn-\v- sam-t_¬- kΩm-\w- In-´n-b- hn-j-bw-˛- ^n-kn-Iv-kv481.- tI-c-f- Zn-t\-i- _o-Un-bp-sS- B-ÿm-\w˛- I-Æq¿482. Uq-¨- kvI
- qƒ- F-hn-sS-bm-W˛-v s
- U-dm-Uq-¨483. -X-fn-t°m-´- bp-≤-Øn-\p-ti-jw- hn-P-b-\K-cw- k-µ¿-in-®- t]m¿-®p-Ko-kv- k-©mcn-˛- ko-k¿- s{^-U-dn-°v484. N
- t- {µm-]c
- n-Xe
- Ø
- n¬- G-‰h
- pw- Iq-Sp-X¬- ImW-s∏-Sp-∂- aq-eI
- w-˛- Hm-Ik
v- n-P≥
- (43%-)485. -P-∏m-\n¬- C-¥y-≥ C-≥Un-s]-≥U-≥kveo-Kn-\p- t\-Xr-Xzw- \¬-In-bX
- ˛v- - dm-jv- _nlm-cn- t_m-kv486. -tI-c-f- k¿-°m¿- I¿-j-I-Zn-\w- B-N-cn°p-∂-Xv-˛- Nn-ßw- 1
487. kn-°p-Im-cp-sS- A-©v- A-Sn-ÿm-\- kw-KXn-Iƒ-˛- tI-iw,-IM
- L
v- ,-I®
- ,-Ic
- ,-Ir-]m-¨488. -tI-c-f- Jn-em-^-Øv- I-Ωn-‰n-bp-sS- B-ZysØ- {]-kn-U‚
- ˛v- - Ip-™n-t°m-b- X-߃489. -{Lm-W-i-‡n- D-]-tbm-Kn-®v- B-lm-cw- Is≠-Øp-∂- ]-£n-˛-In-hn490. -tZ-io-b- Dƒ-\m-S-≥ P-e-K-Xm-K-X- C-≥Ãn‰yq-´v- B-ÿm-\w-˛-]m-‰v-\491.- -i-X-hm-l-\-≥am-cp-sS- X-e-ÿm-\w-˛- {]Xn-jv-Tm-\w- (tKm-Zm-h-co-Xo-c-Øv-)492. -lyq-h¿- ]p-c-kv-Im-cw- t\-Sn-b- B-Zy- C¥y-°m-c≥
- ˛- F.-]n.-sP.- A-_vZ- pƒ- I-emw493. -tI-c-f- tÃ-‰v- tIm-Hm-∏-td-‰o-hv- am¿-°-‰nwKv- s^-U-td-j-s‚- B-ÿm-\w-˛- tIm-gnt°m-Sv494. -1814˛¬- B-flo-b- k-`- ÿm-]n-®-Xv-˛- cmPm-dmw- tam-l-≥ tdm-bv495. -`-c-W-L-S-\m-\n¿-am-W-k-`- cq-]-h¬-°-cn°-s∏-´- Xo-b-Xn-˛- 1946 Un-kw-_¿- 6
496. -`q-tKm-f-Øn-s‚- F-{X- i-X-am-\-am-Wv- HmIv-kn-P-≥˛- 28
497. K¿Ø-߃-°-v hym-k≥
- ,- hm-ea
v- o-In,- tlma¿- Xp-Sß
- n-b- I-hn-If
- p-sS- t]-cv- \¬-In-bncn-°p-∂X
- v- G-Xv- {K-lØ
- n-em-W˛v- - _p-[≥
498.- km-aq-Xn-cn-bp-sS- B-ÿm-\w-˛- tIm-gnt°m-Sv499. k
- n-‘p-kw-kvI
- m-cI
- m-eØ
- v- D-]t- bm-Kn-®ncp-∂- en-]n-˛- Nn-{X-en-]n500. -Kp-P-dm-Øn-se- {]-kn-≤-am-b- h-\y-Po-hnk-t¶-Xw-˛- Kn¿501.- s
- Im-®n- cm-Pm-°≥
- am-cp-sS- In-co-S[
- m-cW
- w-

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´-߃-˛- {_-“-N-cyw,- Kr-l-ÿm-{i-aw,hm-\-{]-ÿw,- k-∂ym-kw368.- -kz-X-{¥-am-bn- \n-e-sIm-≠- B-{^n-°-≥
cm-Py-߃-˛- F-tXym-]y,- sse-_o-cn-b369.- -tem-I-Øv- B-Zy-am-bn- H-cp- P-\n-X-I- am∏v- X-øm-dm-°p-∂X
- n-\v- D-]t- bm-Kn-®X
- v- GXv- im-kv-{X-⁄-s‚- c-‡- km-ºn-fp-Ifm-Wv-˛- sP-bnw-kv- hm-Sv-k-¨370.- -knw-K-∏q¿- G-Xv- k-ap-{Z-Xo-c-Øm-Wv-˛-]k-^n-Iv- k-ap-{Zw371.- \n¿hrXn ]©IØns‚ I¿Ømhv˛{io
\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp372.- Nn-Ãn- Hm¿-U¿- ÿm-]n-®- kq-^n- h-cy≥˛- Izm-Pm- sam-bv-\p-±o-≥ Nn-Ãn373.- -tNm¿-an-\m¿- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv-˛- sU¬-ln374.- -tNm¿-an-\m¿- \n¿-an-®-Xv-˛- A-em-hp-±o-≥
Jn¬-Pn375.- 1954˛¬- B-Zy-sØ- s\-{lp- πm-\-t‰-dnbw- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- B-cw-`n-®-Xv-˛- ]q-sW376.- -kn-°-µ¿- C- km-\n- F-∂- ÿm-\-t∏-cvkzo-I-cn-®- U¬-ln- kp¬-Øm-≥ ˛- Aem-hp-±o-≥ Jn¬-Pn377.- kv-s]-jy¬- am-tcy-Pv- B-Iv-Sv- _m-[-I-a√m-Ø- C-¥y-≥ kw-ÿm-\w-˛- P-Ωp- Iiv-ao¿378.- -G-‰-hpw- `o-I-c-am-b- A-·n-]¿-h-X- kvt^m-S-\w-˛- {Im-°-tØm-h379.- Lm- \ - b p- s S- ]- g - b - t]- c v - ˛ - tKmƒ- U v tIm-Ãv380.- -tem-I-sØ- G-‰-hpw- h-en-b- D-]-Zzo-]v-˛A-td-_y381.- kq-cy-{]-Im-i-sØ- G-‰-hp-a-[n-Iw- {]-Xn^-en-∏n-°p-∂- {K-lw-˛- ip-{I-≥
382.- -ku-c-bq-Y-Øn-se- {K-l-ß-fn¬- h-ep-∏Øn¬- aq-∂mw- ÿm-\-ap-≈- {K-lw-˛-bpdm-\-kv383.- -tI-c-f-Øn-se- G-I- ap-…nw- cm-P-hw-iw-˛A-d-bv-°¬384.- -h-cn-Iƒ- C-√m-sX- kw-Ko-Xw- am-{X-ap-≈tZ-io-b- Km-\-ap-≈- cm-Pyw-˛- kv-s]-bn-≥
385.- -]p¬-ta-Sp-Iƒ- Im-Wm-Ø- G-I- `q-J-WvUw- ˛-A-‚m¿-´n-°386.- tI-c-f- ap-Jy-a-{¥n-bm-b-ti-jw- tI-{µa-{¥n-bm-b- B-Zy- hy-‡n-˛ -F.-sI.- B‚-Wn387.- Bbp¿-th-Z- Nn-In¬-km-co-Xn- e-`y-am-°nbn-´p-≈- C-¥y-bn-se- G-I- am-\-kn-Imtcm-Ky-tI-{µw-˛- tIm-´-bv-°¬388.- -`m-c-X-c-Xv-\w- tP-Xm-°-fn¬- C-¥y-°psh-fn-bn¬- P-\n-®- B-Zy- hy-‡n-˛- a-Z¿sX-tc-k389.- -`m-c-Xo-b- k-¶¬-]-ß-fn-se- _r-l-kv-]Xn- G-Xp- {K-l-am-Wv-˛- hym-gw390.- B-Zy-sØ- Hm-S-°p-g¬- A-hm¿-Uv- t\-Snb-Xv-˛- sh-Æn-°p-fw- tKm-]m-e-°p-dp-∏v391.- h-\-a-tlm-’-hw- \-S-Øp-∂- am-kw-˛- Pqsse392.- kzm-X-{¥y-Øn-\p-ap-ºp-≈- C-¥y-bn¬Zm-cn-Zy-tc-J-sb-°p-dn-®v- N¿-®- sN-bv-XB-Zy- t\-Xm-hv-˛- Zm-Zm-`m-bv- \-h-tdm-Pn393.- -tI-c-f- C-≥em-≥Uv- \m-hn-tK-j≥
- tIm¿∏-td-j-s‚- B-ÿm-\w-˛- sIm-®n394.- Ip-Spw-_{- io- B-cw-`n-®- kw-ÿm-\w-˛- tIc-fw395.- k
- n-dm-Pv- D-Zv- Zu-fb
- p-sS- X-eÿ
m-\w-˛- ap¿jn-Zm-_m-Zv396.- Xangv\mSv kwÿm\Øv apJya{¥n-bmb- B-Zy- h-\n-X-˛- Pm-\-In- cm-a-N-{µ-≥
397.- -H-∂mw- [-\-Im-cy- I-Ωn-j-s‚- A-[y-£≥˛- sI.-kn.-\n-tbm-Kn398.- Im-©o-]p-cw- G-Xv- \-Zn-bp-sS- Xo-c-Øv-˛]m-em¿399.- Ãm-≥en- dn-k¿-thm-b¿- G-Xv- \-Zn-bn-emWv-˛-Im-th-cn400.- knwlmNew GXp kwÿm\sØ Xo¿Ym-S\
- - tI-{µ-am-Wv˛- - B-{‘m-{]-tZ-iv401.- P-bv- ln-µv- F-∂- ap-{Zm-hm-Iyw- k-Ωm-\n®-Xv-˛- kp-`m-jv- N-{µ-t_m-kv402.- kp¬-Øm-t\-‰n-s‚- X-e-ÿm-\w- U¬ln-bn¬-\n-∂pw- B-{K-bn-te-°v- am-‰n-b-

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