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PLUMBING

DR. PRAMOD KUMAR

BUILDING SERVICES
Synonyms

Architectural Engineering
Building Services Systems
Building Services Technology
Building Services Engineering

Scope

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning or HVAC System


Utility Services System
Fire Protection System

All building services use plumbing or piping.

COURSE CONTENT

S. Particulars
N. Cr: 3 L:2 T:1

P:0

CWS:25

MTE:25

ETE:50

Contact
Hours

1.

Basic principles of plumbing; Terminology

2.

Systems of Water Supply of Buildings, high altitude plumbing

3.

Units, Most Probable Simultaneous Demand and Design of plumbing


system

4.

Hot Water Supply Systems tank, cylinder and combinations; direct and
indirect systems

5.

Fire Water Supply, Wet and Dry Standpipes, Automatic Fire Sprinkler
Systems

6.

Drainage Systems two pipes, one pipe, single stack and MOP systems

7.

Septic Tank Disposal and Soakage Pit Design

8.

Waste Disposal from High Rise Buildings

9.

Water Supply to High Rise Buildings, Problems encountered and systems


adopted

STUDY MATERIAL

S.N.

Author, Title and Publisher

1.

2011 Uniform Plumbing Code of India,


IAPMO/IPA, New Delhi
2012 International Plumbing Code,
IAPMO, CA, USA
BIS SP 35 Handbook on Water Supply and Drainage,
Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi
Hall and Greeno, Building Services Handbook,
Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK
Manual on Water Supply and Treatment,
CPHEEO, MOUD, Government of India, New Delhi.
Manual of Sewerage and Sewage Treatment,
CPHEEO, MOUD, Government of India, New Delhi.
NBC-2005, National Building Code of India - 2005,
Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi
Panchdhari, Water Supply and Sanitary Installations,
New Age International Ltd., New Delhi
Tchobanoglous, Integrated Solid Waste Management,
Mc Graw Hill, New York

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.

Year of
Publication
2011
2012
1993
2001
1997
1993
2005

2000
1993

CE-394 BUILDING SERVICES

SCOPE
Water supply - principles of plumbing; system design for cold, hot and
fire water supply in residential, commercial and public buildings.
Waste collection wastewater drainage system, night soil disposal
one stack and two stack systems.
Water supply and waste collection in high-rise buildings; plumbing in
high altitude and low temperature regions.
PRACTICE: CODAL REQUIREMENTS
International Plumbing Code, IPC 2012, ICC USA.
Uniform Plumbing Code of India, UPC India 2011.
National Building Code of India, NBC, 2005 Collection of relevant
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Codes of Practice on plumbing.
ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF BUILDING SERVICES
Building services including heating ventilation and air conditioning
grab lions share of total building cost about 50% share of total cost
in common buildings to over 80% of total cost in the sports buildings.

BIS CODES OF PRACTICE


BIS SP 57 (1993) Handbook on pipes and fittings for drinking water
supply
IS:2065 (1983) Code of practice for water supply in buildings
IS:7558 (1974) Code of practice for domestic hot water installations
IS:5329 (1983) Code of practice for sanitary pipe-work above ground
for buildings.
IS:1172 (1983) Code of practice for basic requirements for water
supply, drainage and sanitation.
IS:12183 (1987) Code of practice for plumbing in multistoried
buildings: Part 1 Water Supply.
IS:6295 (1986) Code of practice for water supply and drainage in high
altitudes and/or subzero temperature regions
IS:2470 (1985) Code of practice for installation of septic tanks:
Part 1 Design criteria and construction.
Part 2 Secondary treatment and disposal of septic tank effluents.

PLUMBING
Plumbing: working with plumbum or lead; a plumber is somebody who
works with plumbum. It is originally derived from Roman civilization
practice: people used lead pipes in domestic plumbing around 40 BC.
In modern practice lead is used only in seals of water pipes. The
metal gets dissolved in soft waters and causes toxicity.
USA recently enacted legislation to remove lead from all water supply
networks. Fitting water supply pipelines in buildings and premises
however continues being called plumbing.
Historical Developments
Indus Valley Civilizations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro, about 2500
BC, used copper and iron pipes in domestic water supplies.
Formal plumbing with piped water supply and flushed toilets was
introduced in India by Britons during 19th century. Most plumbing
systems therefore have influence of British design.
Some Indian architects underwent training in USA during post
independence period, which influenced plumbing designs in
multistoried buildings. India adapted UPC India 2008 from IPC, USA.

HVAC PIPED SERVICES


Low temperature hot water (LTHW)
Heating
plant
and
pipe-work
distribution
systems
with
radiators, fan coils or heater batteries, etc. These systems can
be
subdivided
into
either
constant
volume,
variable
temperature or variable volume, constant temperature.
Direct expansion refrigerant
A piped system transporting refrigerant acting like a freezer
although operating in reverse to cool a space. Refrigerant
systems extend from small individual room cassettes to cold
rooms for product storage.
Chilled water
Chillers and pipe-work systems for distributing chilled water for
cooling air before it is passed into an air conditioned or
comfort cooled space and to cool process plant and equipment; the chilled
water flow and return pipe-work system from the clients remote chiller
plant and into the building .

HVAC PIPED SERVICES


Cooling tower water
Cooling towers or air blast coolers (indirect cooling coils) and
distribution pipe-work frequently used to provide a heat sink
for liquid cooled chiller plant; Cooling tower water flow and return
pipe-work system from the remote cooling tower plant and into the
facility.
Steam and condensate
Steam generation and distribution pipe-work for heating,
sterilizing, and humidifying with liquid condensate recovery
return pipe-work; the steam distribution pipe-work system from a
new or existing site boiler house into the new facility
Fire Protection System
Piping for fire hydrants and sprinkler systems in all types of buildings.

UTILITY PIPED SERVICES

Domestic water services


Hot and cold water to basins, sinks, baths, showers, vending
machines, etc. including potable and non-potable water
systems.
Potable water
The water supply from the water company main in the road to the
new facility
Rainwater drainage
Rainwater drainage from roofs discharging at ground level into below
ground drainage systems.
Above ground drainage
Soil waste drainage from sanitary accommodation; Wastewater
drainage from household applications.
Specialist water treatment systems
De-mineralized, reverse osmosis, distilled, de-ionized water,
etc. and associated water treatment equipment

HYDRAULICS
Fluid flow calculations

Pipe flow calculations

Headloss Calculations

Pressure head calculations

Stresses in hot water pipes

Stresses in pipes due to pressure

Pumping requirements calculations

Negative pressure, backflow and siphonage

Overpressure in pipes due to water hammer

Devices for overcoming overpressure in pipes

PIPE FLOW CALCULATIONS

z1

z2

Datum

Bernoullis Equation between two sections in a pipe


Energy conservation: p1/ + V12/2g + z1 = p2/ + V22/2g + z2 + hL
p/ = Pressure head, m = unit weight of water = 9.81 kN/m3
V= Flow velocity, m/s
V2/2g = Velocity head, m
z = Position head, m
hL = Head loss, m
Darcy Weisbach Formula
hL = fLV2/(2gD)
f = friction factor = (0.008-0.1) = F(pipe material, flow characteristics)
L = Length of pipe, m ;
D = Diameter of pipe, m;
g = 9.81 m/s2

PIPE FLOW CALCULATIONS

Flow characteristics and friction factor


Reynolds Number, Re= VD/

is kinematic viscosity = Dynamic Viscosity ()/Density ()


= 1x10-3 (N.s/m2)/1000 (kg/m3) = 10-6 m2/s
Laminar Flow

Re < 2000

64
f
Re

2.51
e
f 2log10

3.7D
Re f

Transition Flow

Re: 2k-4k

Turbulent Flow

Re > 4000 f 0.5 1.14 2l nD

D/e is the ratio of pipe diameter to its characteristic surface roughness.


Moodys diagram determines f from relative roughness (e/D) and Re.

FRICTION FACTOR

MOODYS DIAGRAM

PIPE FLOW CALCULATIONS


Typical values of surface roughness

Pipes

Surface roughness, e, in micron

Copper and PVC Pipes

1.5

Common Steel pipes

45

Galvanized Iron pipes

150

Common Cast Iron pipes

250

Typical values of friction factor for steel pipes used in plumbing

Steep pipes available for plumbing in India as per IS:1239(I): 2004


Bore, mm

10

15

20

25

32

40

50

65

80

100

t, mm

1.8

1.8

1.8

2.0

2.3

2.6

2.6

2.9

2.9

3.2

3.2

3.6

Pmax, MPa*

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.03

1.03

0.86

0.86

0.86

0.83

0.83

Note: T = Wall Thickness. Pmax is Maximum Permissible Pressure for screwed or socketed joints.
Pmax is 2.06 Mpa for welded and flanged joints for all bores i.e. internal diameter.

HAZEN WILLIAMS FORMULA

= 0.849 CR0.63S0.54
= 0.35 CD0.63S0.54
R= Flow area/flow perimeter = A/P= D/4 for circular pipes
S = Slope of energy grade line = hL/L
C = Hazen Williams coefficient.
C depends on pipe age, material and diameter.
V

Pipes
GI

C Values
New pipes Old pipes
120
100
130
100
130
120
150
130

CI
Copper
Plastic
It is NBC recommended formula.
Use values recommended for old pipes while designing new pipes also.

EXAMPLE

Consider a commercial steel rising main 2 in diameter, 30m long,


flowing at 2m/s.
Diameter = 2 in = 2x25.4 mm = 50.8mm = 50.8x10-3 m
Area = x(50.8x10-3 )2/4= 2.03x10-3 => Flow = 0.004 m3/s
Re= VD/ = 2x 50.8x10-3 /10-6 =101.6x103=>Turbulent Flow
3

D
50.8

10
0.5
3

f
1.14 2l n 1.14 2l n

15.2

4.32

10
6
e
45

10
-6
-3
Using Moodys diagram, e/D = 45x10 /50.8x10 = 0.000089 => f = 0.029
Using tabulated value, f = 19 x 10-3
Using Hazen Williams formula, V= 0.849 CR0.63S0.54 =>
2 = 0.849 x100x (50.8x10-3 /4)0.63S0.54 =>
S = 0.158 = hL/L = fV2/2gD
=> f = 2gDS/V2 = 2x9.81x 50.8x10-3x 0.158/22 = 0.039.
Therefore head-loss = fLV2/2gD = 0.52 m by formula; 2.29 m by
tabulated f, 3.5 m by Moodys Diagram, and 4.7 m by Hazen Williams
formula. Use conservative estimate for design => head loss = 4.7 m.

EQUIVALENT PIPE LENGTHS


It is the length of pipe that produces the known amount of head loss.
Headloss through valve or fitting = KV2/2g; K = A Coefficient
Headloss through pipe length L and diameter D = fLV2/2gD
Equating the two expressions for head loss, L = KD/f
Thus the fitting is hydraulically equivalent to L length of D diameter
pipe. Similarly f1L1V12/2gD1 = fLV2/2gD or L = (f1/f) L1(V1/V)2 (D1/D).
For example if flow velocity at 1m/s through 2 in dia steel pipe is to
increased 2m/s then dia required for the will be 2/2 = 1.4 in. Using
1 in dia pipe, velocity = 1.74 m/s and equivalent length will be L =
(f1/f) L1(V1/V)2 (D1/D) = (19/21)x1x(1/1.74)(2/1.5)= 0.7m/m length.
Manufacturers of valves and fittings express the capacity and
hydraulic characteristics in terms of flow coefficient, which is flow per
unit pressure or head loss.

HEADLOSS FORMULAE

K Values
Entry: Bell mouth entry 0.04
Circular or Square edge entry 0.5
Exit: 1.0
Fittings:
Standard 900 elbow 0.9

Standard Tee 1.8

Valves:
Gate valve half open 5.6 wide open 0.2
Swing check valve wide open 2.5
Globe valve wide open 10
Angle valve 5
Venturi meter 0.3
Orifice 1

Return bend 2.2

PUMPING MACHINERY
Pump Capacity requires specifying the following two quantities:
Rating = flow rate (lps) e.g. 24 lpm pump
Power = h Q /
= unit weight of water, 9.81 kN/m3
h = Total pumping head, m
Q = Total flow rate, m3/s
= Pump Efficiency
Centrifugal pumps are 60 to 85% efficient.
Bernoullis equation is used to calculate total pumping head.
Total pumping head Static head difference + total head loss
Total head loss Major head loss, due to pipe friction + Minor head loss,
due to pipe fittings.
For example for 2 in diameter main at 2m/s, flow Q=0.004 m3/s. If total
lift is 30m then total head loss = major head loss 4.57m + minor head
loss, say 30% of major head loss, 1.37m = 5.94m => Power required
for pumping = 9.81 x (30+5.94) x 0.004/0.7 = 2 kW. Electric motors
are about 90 percent efficient => Electricity required = 2/0.9 = 2.3 kW.

WATER HAMMER

Pressure in pipes increases when valves are suddenly closed. It may


burst pipes and/or damage pipe fittings like valves. It is called water
hammer pressure.
This increase in the pressure (kg/cm2 ) in rigid pipes is approximately
15 times the flow velocity (m/s), i.e. 15-30 kg/cm2 (or 0.15 to 0.3
MPa) for 1-2 m/s velocity of flow.
Maximum Water Hammer Pressure in plumbing pipes,

P 0.1V

(1/K

d/Et)

P = Water hammer pressure, Pa;


V = Flow velocity, m/s;
D = pipe diameter, m;
t = pipe wall thickness, m;
= Density of water = 1000 kg/m3
K = Bulk modulus of elasticity of water = 2.2 x 106 kN/m2 =2.2 GPa
E = Modulus of elasticity of pipe = 2.1x10 10 kg/m2 for steel = 210 GPa

WATER HAMMER
Nominal water hammer pressure for 3 steel pipes in municipal water
supply is 840 kN/m2. Water hammer pressure developed in smaller
diameter pipes used in building water supply is more than this value.
Causes of Water Hammer
Sudden closure of non return valves when pumps are shut-off
automatically, and
Sudden closure of quick closing valves at ground floor under high
pressure conditions.
Water Hammer Control Measures
Installation of water hammer arresters in the riser pipes
Proper gate and check valves for prevention of sudden closures, and
Piping designs restricting water pressure to permissible limits by
vertical hydraulic zoning, pressure reducing valves, etc.

EFFECTS OF WATER HAMMER


Ruptured Check Valve due to excess
pressure

Cyclic Fatigue in a fitting due to


repeated exposure to overpressure

WATER HAMMER ARRESTERS


Water hammer arresters are devices designed to provide protection against hydraulic shock in
the building water supply system.
Two types of devices air chamber and mechanical devices (Copper billows).

AIR CHAMBERS
Source: IPC 2012

AIR CHAMBER
Air chambers are large
diameter pipes (2 3 times
the
pipe
connection)
usually 450-750 mm long.
They have air trapped in
top portion which absorbs
the water hammer shock
waves.
They
are
sometimes
placed on top of a riser
pipe depending on the
pressure conditions.
They are provided with a
shut-off valve, a drain valve
and an air vent cock to
periodically renew the air.

AIR CHAMBER INSTALLATION

WATER HAMMER ARRESTERS


Water hammer arresters are
made by copper bellows or
rubber bags enclosed in a cast
iron body.
The bellow or bag is charged
with air or nitrogen which
absorbs excess pressure in the
pipe line.

Note: Bellow is a device


constructed to furnish a
strong blast of air. It is
therefore sometimes called
blast bag.

WATER HAMMER ARRESTOR


INSTALLATION

STRESSES IN PIPES
ThermalStres s es T CE
rP
Hoop Stres s H
t
rP
Longi tudi na l Stres s L
2t
d 2
Longi tudi na l Stres sdue to Changei nDi rection L V s i n
2t
2
r = Pipe radius
P = Internal Pressure
= Change in direction
= Change in temperature
C = Coefficient of thermal expansion
E = Modulus of elasticity of pipe material

EXAMPLE
Consider a steel pipe 50mm bore having 2.9mm thickness. Water
flows through the pipe at 2m/s.

P 0.1V

(1/K d/Et)

P 0.1x1000x2
9
3
9
-3
1000(1/2.2x10 50x10 /210x10 x2.9x10 )

0.273x106 Pa 0.273 MPa

Hoop Stress = rP/t = 25x10-3x0.273/2.9x10-3=2.35 MPa


Longitudinal stress = 2.35/2 = 1.18 Mpa
Longitudinal stress at 900 bend =
(50x10-3/(2x2.9x10-3)) x 1000 x22x sin 45 = 2.4x104 Pa = 0.024 MPa

BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Use conservative designs.


Use 1-2 m/s flow velocity in all pipe design calculations.
Exact calculations are often thwarted due to pipes being available in
discrete sizes.
Pipes get scoured at high velocities; steel and CI may deteriorate at 34m/s; plastics, concrete, copper at 2-3 m/s.
In case of waste pipes, deposition of waterborne particles on pipe
walls starts at low velocities (viz. 0.3 m/s for inorganic particles; 0.6
m/s for organic particles). It reduces carrying capacity of pipes and
eventually chokes them. The minimum flow velocity in drains pipes
should be 0.8 m/s. This velocity is called self cleansing velocity, which
is of special concern in the design of building drainage system.
Wastes contain organic matter that decompose an produce noxious
gases like hydrogen sulfide and methane. These gases increase
pressure in pipes. Waste pipes are therefore never designed to flow
full. Instead, maximum depth of flow in these pipes is of the order or
80% of total depth of flow, viz. pipe diameter.

SEWERS

Sewers are designed to flow only partially full, say 80-85% =>d 0.8D
Average flow = 80-85% of water
supplied
Maximum Flow Twice of Average
D
d
Flow
Minimum Flow One-third of
Average Flow
Hydraulic Elements: h = D d
= 2 cos-1[ (D - 2h)/D ]
A = D2 /4 D2( sin)/8
P = D D/2
R = A/P
Design Procedure: Assume a pipe diameter and verify the following; otherwise
revise the diameter.
Check: Carrying capacity > Maximum flow at 0.8 depth and V=1m/s
Find depth at minimum flow using 0.8m/s velocity and find pipe slope for this
velocity.
Calculate depth of flow and velocity at maximum flow for the pipe slope
calculated in previous step. This velocity should be less than pipe materials
scousing velocity.

EXAMPLE
Design a sewer pipe for 100 occupancy in a residential building.
Solution
Assume water supply rate at 200 lpcd.
Assume wastewater produced at about 80% of water supplied.
Average flow of wastewater generated from the building is therefore
0.8x100x200 = 16000 L/d = 1.84x10-4 m3/s.
Minimum flow = 16000/3 = 5333 L/d = 0.61x10-4 m3/s
Maximum flow = 2x16000 = 32000 L/d = 3.7x10-4 m3/s
Normally 100mm diameter CI pipes are used in house sewers.
Check for carrying capacity at 0.8 depth:
h=0.2D, =2cos-1(0.6)=1060=1.85 rad
A = x0.12/4 0.12( sin)/8
= 7.85x10-3-0.01(1.85-sin 106)/8 = 6.74x10-3m2 .
At 3 m/s velocity, flow = 6.74x10-3 m2x3m/s = 0.02m3/s > maximum
flow. OK.

EXAMPLE

Minimum Flow Condition:


A = 0.61x10-4 /0.8 = 0.77x10-4m2
=> 0.77x10-4 = D2 /4 D2( sin)/8
= x0.12/4 0.12( sin)/8=7.85x10-31.25x10-3 (sin)=>sin=6.22
Solving by trial and error, =5.35
=5.35=2cos-1[(D-2h)/D]=>1-2h/D=Cos(/2)=-0.89=>h=0.95D
d=D-h = 0.05D = 0.005m;
P = D D/2 = 0.047m;
R=A/P =1.64x10-3 m;
V=0.8= 0.849CR0.63S0.54 =>S=0.32 for C=100, i.e. slope of pipe=1 in 3.1, say
1:3.
Maximum Flow Condition:
Q=AV =Ax0.849C(A/P)0.63S0.54 = 0.849x100xA1.63S0.54/P0.63
=> 3.7x10-4= 84.9x [D2/4 D2( sin)/8 ]1.63 (0.33)0.54/[DD/2]0.63
On Simplification, [D2/4 D2( sin)/8 ]1.63 = 7.9x10-6 [DD/2]0.63
Substituting, [7.85x10-31.25x10-3 (sin)]1.63= 7.9x10-6 [0.3140.05]0.63
Solving by trial and error, =5.25 => A= 2x10-4m2 =>V = 1.85 m/s < 3m/s. OK.

SUITABLE PIPE SELECTION


Criteria
Design life
Cost involved
Hot or cold water
Material and environment characteristics strength, roughness,
ease of transportation, available sizes, and availability of skilled
labor
General Principles
Corrosion resistant material
Lead may be used only for flushing and in overflow pipes
Polyethylene and unplasticized PVC pipes should not be installed
near heat sources.

SUITABLE PIPE SELECTION


Selection Criteria
Strength of the Pipe, i.e. the ability of the pipe to withstand internal
pressure and external loads: Pipes resist a number of forces
individually- or in combination:
Internal water pressure equal to full head of water plus water
hammer pressure due to sudden opening and closing of valves,
and in pipes connected to pumps.
Typical working pressures: CI and steel pipes 2.4 MPa; PVC 1 MPa
External loads in the form of back-fill and traffic; and expansion
and contraction of pipes with change in temperature. Steel pipes
have low strength against external loads due to thin walls. They
may be therefore embedded in concrete to increase their strength
in such loading conditions. Strength of pipe decreases significantly
with increase in the temperature of service environment.
Water Carrying Capacity, that decreases due to rusting or
incrustation.
Life and Durability of the Pipe, e.g. resistance of cast iron and steel
pipes to corrosion and plastic pipes to cracking, etc.

SUITABLE PIPE SELECTION


Selection Criteria

Transportation, e.g. heavy and bulky pipes are difficult to transport.


Fail-safe features, i.e. failure with warning, no sudden failure.
Maintenance and repairs, i.e. low frequency and cost of repair.
Skilled labor requirements, e.g. skill for laying and joining pipes.
Cost effectiveness of pipe materials:
Total cost, that includes
Initial cost
cost of pipe, fittings, and laying material; and cost due to
breaking of pipes at any stage
Storage, handling and transportation cost
Laying cost, i.e. cost of excavation of trenches, laying pipes,
joining pipes and filling the trenches
Maintenance cost, e.g. cost of replacing defective pipe,
including labor cost

SUITABLE PIPE SELECTION


Selection Criteria

Crossings, e.g. railway, road, canal


Energy losses, i.e. due to head-loss
Pilferage factor, i.e. chances of theft etc.
Type of the soil, e.g. corrosive soils, frost line
Chances of leakage, e.g. frequency and quantity of leakage
Life of pipe material, i.e. durability of pipe in particular surroundings
Contamination of water, i.e. chances of cross connection in future
scenario.
Service conditions of pipe, i.e. weather conditions during the lifetime
of pipe.
Community/individual supply connections, e.g. individuals mat afford
costly pipes that community may not.

COPPER PIPE JOINTS


Bronze Welding.
Push-fit joints are made from polybutylene.
Capillary joints. Fit wire wool, flux, solder flow with heat application;
solder alloys Copper, Tin
Above ground pipe work. Non-manipulative compression joints (no
special provision to prevent pulling out of the joint)
Below ground pipe work. Manipulative compression joints (resist pull
out of the pipes joined), as in the case of copper joints

PIPE JOINTS: COPPER

COPPER PIPE JOINTS

STEEL PIPE JOINTS


Threaded joints sealed
by non-toxic jointing
paste and hemp or
polytetrafluorethylene.
Union joints permit
slight deflection
without leakage
Plain ended steel pipes
may be joined by
welding

CAST IRON PIPE JOINTS

FLANGED JOINT

SPIGOT AND SOCKET JOINT

PVC PIPE JOINTS

POLYTHENE PIPE JOINTS

PIPING SYMBOLS

PIPING SYMBOLS

PIPING SYMBOLS

PIPING SYMBOLS

FLIMSY AND E-PLAN


Flimsy
The term flimsy is used to describe the as constructed plan of the
internal plumbing constructed by a plumber to connect a house to
the sewer mains. Plumbers are legally obliged to provide the Water
Corporation with the as constructed plan or flimsy after completing
plumbing work.

E-Plan
An e-plan (abbreviation of extract plan) is an extract from the Water
Corporations mapping system which contains detailed information
about water, wastewater and drainage mains. E-plans are essential
for plumbers when they need to locate connection points.

WC Water closet
UVP Upstream vent
pipe
S Kitchen sink
ORG Overflow
relief gully
B Lavatory basin
IS Inspection shaft
Bth Bath
RS Rising shaft
Tr(L) Wash trough
Ur Urinal
SOB Square on
back

A flimsy

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