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- Statics

Moment

of Inertia

Composite Areas

is cold and calculating.

Radius of Gyration

This

for separation on a dance floor.

It actually is just a property of a shape and

is used in the analysis of how some

shapes act in different conditions.

Radius of Gyration

The

of the ratio of the moment of inertia to the

area

kx =

ky =

kO =

3

Ix

A

Iy

A

JO

=

A

Ix + Iy

A

If

centroidal axis of a figure, you can

calculate the moment of inertia about any

parallel axis to the centroidal axis using a

simple formula

I y = I y + Ax

I x = I x + Ay 2

4

Since

centroidal axis, the moment of inertia

about a centroidal axis also uses the bar

over the axis designation

I y = I y + Ax 2

I x = I x + Ay 2

5

If

should notice that the moment of inertia

about a centroidal axis will always be the

minimum moment of inertia about any axis

that is parallel to the centroidal axis.

I y = I y + Ax

I x = I x + Ay 2

6

In

to calculate the centroid of a figure by

breaking it up into component areas, we

can calculate the moment of inertia of a

composite area

I y = I y + Ax 2

I x = I x + Ay 2

Inside

same figure that we used for the centroid

calculations we can find calculations for

moments of inertia

I y = I y + Ax

I x = I x + Ay 2

8

I y = I y + Ax 2

I x = I x + Ay 2

HERE

IS A CRITICAL MOMENT OF

CAUTION

REMEMBER HOW THE PARALLEL AXIS

IS WRITTEN

IF THE AXIS SHOWN IN THE TABLE IS

NOT THROUGH THE CENTROID, THEN

THE FORMULA DOES NOT GIVE YOU

THE MOMENT OF INERTIA THROUGH

THE CENTROIDAL AXIS

9

I y = I y + Ax 2

I x = I x + Ay 2

By

example

The Iy given for the Semicircular area in

the table is about the centroidal axis

The Ix given for the same Semicircular

area in the table is not about the centroidal

axis

10

We

the position shown of a semicircular area

as shown about the x and y axis, Ix and Iy

y

10"

x

11

First,

Ix and Iy about the axis as shown

10"

x

12

In

centroidal axis and x axis is 6 below the

base of the semicircle, this would be

usually evident from the problem

description

5"

y

8"

10"

6"

x

13

Calculating

the y axis in the table is the centroid axis

so we wont have to move it yet

1

Iy = r4

8

1

4

I y = ( 5in )

8

I y = 245.44in 4

14

5"

10"

x

Next

A=

( 5in )

2

y

2

A = 39.27in 2

15

5"

10"

x

If

axis and the ybar axis, we can calculate

the moment of inertia using the parallel

axis theorem

5"

y

2

8 in

y

x

I y = I + Ad

16

6in

I x = I x + Ad y 2

10"

2.12"

I

moved to avoid confusion with the

distance from the origin

I y = I y + Ad x 2

8 in

10"

6in

I x = I x + Ad y 2

17

5"

2.12"

The

always be a the origin.

I y = I y + Ad x 2

18

8 in

6in

I x = I x + Ad y 2

5"

10"

2.12"

If

centroidal axis, then the moment of inertia

about the y axis would be

I y = I y + Ad x2

I y = 245.44in 4 + ( 39.27in 2 ) (8in )

8 in

10"

6in

I y = 2758.72in 4

19

5"

2.12"

The

slightly different case since the formula

presented in the table is the moment of

inertia about the base of the semicircle,

not the centroid

5"

y

8 in

6in

20

10"

2.12"

10

To

the x-axis, we have to make two steps

21

5"

y

8 in

10"

6in

I x = I x + A ( d centroid to x-axis )

2.12"

We

I x = I x + A ( d centroid to x-axis )

2

5"

y

8 in

6in

22

10"

2.12"

11

Dont

You have to move to the centroid first

I x = I x + A ( d centroid to x-axis )

2

5"

y

8 in

6in

23

10"

2.12"

In

centroid of the figure with respect to the

base

We can use the table to determine this

4r 4 ( 5in )

y=

=

3

3

y = 2.12in

the object, not the x-axis.

5"

y

8 in

6in

24

10"

2.12"

12

Now

bottom of the semicircle, not the centroidal

axis

That is where the x axis is shown in the

table

5"

y

8 in

6in

10"

25

2.12"

So

the Ix (Ibase) about the bottom of the

semicircle

26

5"

8 in

6in

1

I base = r 4

8

1

4

I base = ( 5in )

8

I base = 245.44in 4

10"

2.12"

13

Now

inertia about the x centroidal axis

2

I base = I x + Ad base

to centroid

2

I x = I base Ad base

to centroid

I x = 68.60in 4

5"

y

8 in

6in

10"

27

2.12"

And

the the x-axis

2

I x = I x + Ad centroid

to x-axis

I x = 2657.84in 4

5"

y

8 in

6in

28

10"

2.12"

14

The

origin would be

JO = I x + I y

J O = 2657.84in 4 + 2758.72in 4

J O = 5416.56in 4

5"

y

8 in

6in

29

10"

2.12"

Another Example

We

find the moment of inertia of a composite

figure

30

15

Another Example

y

6"

3"

6"

x

6"

31

Another Example

We

areas with shapes from the table

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

32

16

Another Example

Since the parallel axis theorem will require the area for

each section, that is a reasonable place to start

ID

I

II

III

Area

(in2)

36

9

27

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

33

Another Example

We can locate the centroid of each area with respect

the y axis.

ID

Area

xbari

(in2)

(in)

36

II

III

27

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

34

17

Another Example

From the table in the back of the book we find that the

moment of inertia of a rectangle about its y-centroid

axis is

3

y

6"

3"

y

1

I = bh

12

ID

Area

xbari

(in2)

(in)

36

II

III

27

35

6"

I

II

III

6"

6

Moment of Inertia - Composite Area

Another Example

In this example, for Area I, b=6 and h=6

1

3

6

in

6

in

( )( )

12

I y = 108in 4

Iy =

ID

36

Area

xbari

(in2)

(in)

36

II

III

27

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

6

Moment of Inertia - Composite Area

18

Another Example

For the first triangle, the moment of inertia calculation

isnt as obvious

y

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

37

Another Example

The way it is presented in the text, we can only find

the Ix about the centroid

6"

x 6"

3"

II

III

b

38

6"

19

Another Example

The change may not seem obvious but it is

just in how we orient our axis. Remember an

axis is our decision.

h

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

h

39

Another Example

So the moment of inertia of the II triangle can

be calculated using the formula with the

correct orientation.

1 3

bh

36

1

3

I y = ( 6in )( 3in )

36

I y = 4.5in 4

Iy =

40

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

20

Another Example

The same is true for the III triangle

1 3

bh

36

1

3

I y = ( 6in )( 9in )

36

I y = 121.5in 4

Iy =

41

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

Another Example

Now we can enter the Iybar for each sub-area into the

table

SubArea

42

Area

xbari

Iybar

(in2)

(in)

(in4)

36

108

II

4.5

III

27

121.5

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

21

Another Example

We can then sum the Iy and the A(dx)2 to get

the moment of inertia for eachy sub-area

6"

3"

I

6"

II

III

SubArea

Sub-Area

43

I

II

III

6"

Area

xbari

Iybar

A(dx)2

Iybar +

A(dx)2

(in2)

(in)

(in4)

(in4)

(in4)

36

108

324

432

II

4.5

441

445.5

III

27

121.5

972

1093.5

Area

xbari

(in2)

36

9

27

(in)

3

7

6

Iy bar

(in4)

108

4.5

121.5

(in4)

324

441

972

(in4)

432

445.5

1093.5

1971

Another Example

And if we sum that last column, we have the

Iy for the composite figure

y

6"

6"

3"

II

III

SubArea

Area

xbari

Iybar

A(dx)2

Iybar +

A(dx)2

(in2)

(in)

(in4)

(in4)

(in4)

36

108

324

432

II

4.5

441

445.5

III

27

121.5

972

1093.5

6"

1971

44

22

Another Example

We perform the same type analysis for the Ix

ID

6"

6"

I

II

Area

(in2)

36

9

27

I

II

III

45

3"

III

6"

Another Example

Locating the y-centroids from the x-axis

Sub-Area

I

II

III

46

Area

(in2)

36

9

27

ybari

(in)

3

2

-2

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

23

Another Example

Determining the Ix for each sub-area

Sub-Area

Area

ybari

Ixbar

(in2)

(in)

(in4)

36

108

II

18

III

27

-2

54

47

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

Another Example

Making the A(dy)2 multiplications

SubArea

48

6"

6"

3"

II

Area

ybari

Ixbar

A(dy)2

(in2)

(in)

(in4)

(in4)

36

108

324

II

18

36

III

27

-2

54

108

III

6"

24

Another Example

Summing and calculating Ix

SubArea

Area

)2

A(dy

Ixbar +

A(dy)2

ybari

Ixbar

(in2)

(in)

(in4)

(in4)

(in4)

36

108

324

432

II

18

36

54

III

27

-2

54

108

162

6"

6"

3"

II

III

6"

648

49

Homework

Problem

10-27

Problem 10-29

Problem 10-47

50

25

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