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Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion

2011 Post-Construction Monitoring


Program

Report to:

TransAlta Corporation
110-12TH Avenue SW
PO Box 1900 Station M
Calgary AB T2P 2M1

March 6, 2012

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

Executive Summary

In 2011, Stantec Consulting Ltd. (Stantec) was retained by TransAlta Corporation (TransAlta) to
undertake Year 1 of the bird and bat post-construction monitoring program (the Program) for the
Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion Project (the Expansion) near Prosser Brook, in Albert County,
New Brunswick. Post-construction monitoring was completed in 2009 and 2010 on the initial
phase of the wind farm which began commercial operation in December 2008. The Expansion
phase of the wind farm began commercial service in December 2010 and consists of 18
3.0 MW (megawatt) wind turbines. A protocol for the Program was developed by TransAlta in
consultation with the New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources (NBNDR) and the
Canadian Wildlife Service, as required by one of the Conditions of Approval following
completion of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) registration of the Expansion.
Year 1 of the Program consisted of bird and bat casualty surveys and bird monitoring. Casualty
surveys were conducted for 28 weeks in spring, summer and fall, and consisted of casualty
searches, searcher efficiency trials and scavenger impact trials. Bird monitoring consisted of
breeding bird surveys conducted twice in June.
Casualty searches were undertaken weekly during spring (mid-April to mid-June), summer (midJune to mid- August) and fall (mid-August to mid-October) periods. A sample of 10 of the 18
new wind turbines were selected for surveying, which was representative of the spatial extent of
the wind farm expansion, allowed a comparison of lit vs. unlit turbines, and included various
habitat types. Casualty searches were conducted in a spiral search pattern using two searchers
and a 57 m length of rope attached to the turbine tower. Each casualty encountered was
identified and retained for future examination and species confirmation. Casualties in good
condition were also used for searcher efficiency and scavenger removal trials. Information
recorded for each casualty included GPS location, distance and direction from the tower,
substrate on which it was found, and the condition of the casualty.
Searcher efficiency trials were carried out once per season for each search team, and are
designed to correct for carcasses that may be overlooked by searchers during the survey
periods. The results were used to estimate the number of bird and bat casualties and correct for
detection bias. Searcher efficiency trials were conducted in a blind manner, whereby the search
team did not know which search plot contained the trial carcass or how many trial carcasses
were deployed. Carcasses were placed by someone other than the searchers within one of the
circular plots prior to the search team completing the casualty searches. After the casualty
search was complete the number of test carcasses remaining in the search plot was
determined to establish the searcher efficiency rate.
Scavenger impact trials were carried out in order to determine the rate at which bat and bird
carcasses were removed by local scavenging wildlife. These trials were conducted once in each
of the three seasons. Typically, one each of quail chick and rat were placed at five locations in

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E.1

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
March 6, 2012

representative habitat. Scavenger impact trials were carried out for a maximum of eight days. A
scavenger impact trial form was completed in order to record weather data, the day of carcass
placement and level of scavenging or removal during each subsequent daily check.
Bird monitoring consisted of breeding bird surveys conducted twice in June 2011. The 20 sites
surveyed during pre-construction conditions during the EIA process were resurveyed in 2011.
The 2011 surveys were conducted using similar methodology, thus allowing for direct
comparison of the results between pre- and post-construction conditions. The use of each area
by breeding birds, and any sensitive species observed (i.e., species of conservation concern)
were determined during 10-minute point counts.
The results of the 2011 casualty searches yielded low mortality rates, similar to rates recorded
in 2009 and 2010 for the initial phase of the wind farm. In 2011, a total of four bird carcasses
and three bat carcasses were located during the 28-week monitoring period. In addition, one
incidental bird casualty was reported at a turbine that was not part of the scheduled search for
that week (Black-and white Warbler at E6 on May 17). The bat species observed during 2011
casualty searches, Little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), is considered a species of conservation
concern; all bird species are common and widespread. When the mortality estimate correction
equation is applied to these numbers, taking into account scavenger impact trial and searcher
efficiency trial results, the estimated number of bird and bat mortalities for the 28-week
monitoring program in 2011 is 1.41 birds per turbine (or 0.47 birds per MW) and 0.95 bats per
turbine (or 0.32 bats per MW).
Observations made during the breeding surveys are comparable to those made during preconstruction surveys in 2009, and are typical of the area. During the breeding bird surveys of
2011, 34 bird species were observed, compared to 41 species observed during the breeding
bird surveys carried out during pre-construction surveys in June 2009. A cumulative total of 45
species over the two years were recorded and only 26 species were encountered both years.
Changes in bird density (i.e., actual change in density and percent change in density) from preconstruction (2009) to post-construction (2011), based on distance to nearest turbine (i.e.,
separately by actual distance in metres and by distance category: near 0-250m, medium 251500m, far >500m), were examined using an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of the
ANOVA examining the changes in densities between the 2009 and 2011 breeding bird survey
results indicate that there was no significant difference in the absolute or percent change in bird
density (2011 compared to 2009 results) with distance to nearest turbine (p>0.05), either by
actual distance or by distance category. Results of an ANOVA of changes in densities of the
four most common species (Black-throated Blue Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler,
Ovenbird and Red-eyed Vireo) from pre-construction to post-construction, based on the
distance to nearest turbine, found a significant difference (p< 0.05) in the change in density of
Black-throated Blue Warbler only. The significant difference in the change in density of Blackthroated Blue Warbler was due to the decrease in individuals observed in point counts close to
turbines.

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
March 6, 2012

The only Endangered or Threatened species as listed in the Species at Risk Act (SARA)
encountered during 2011 surveys was a single Chimney Swift recorded as a flyover (no
breeding evidence) during a breeding bird point count survey. No species considered
Endangered, Threatened, or Special Concern by the Committee on the Status of Endangered
Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), but not yet added to Schedule 1 of SARA were recorded. The
species of conservation concern identified during the 2011 casualty surveys, little brown bat, is
ranked Sensitive by New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources, but is ranked S4 (usually
widespread, fairly common throughout its range in the province) by the Atlantic Canada
Conservation Data Centre. Its Sensitive ranking is largely due to the hibernating habits of this
species, which congregates in hibernacula to overwinter.
No major concerns were identified during the pre-construction monitoring work at the Kent Hills
Wind Farm Expansion, and the results of the 2011 post-construction monitoring program, as
well as the two previous years for the first 32 turbines would support that conclusion. The
National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) provides a summary of studies conducted at
more than 60 wind farms throughout North America. Results from this summary report show
that estimates of bird casualties have been found to be fairly consistent in that 42 of the 63
studies report casualties of 3 casualties/MW/year (Strickland et al., 2011). In comparison, the
estimated casualty rate of birds in 2011 at the Kent Hills Expansion was found to be low at
0.47 birds/MW for the 28-week monitoring period. With respect to bats, of the 66 studies
reported in Strickland et al. (2011) that provided estimates of bat casualties, most wind farms
(54) report bat casualties < 10 casualties/MW/year, and range from 0.07 to 39.7 bat
casualties/MW/year. In comparison, the estimated casualty rate of bats at the Kent Hills
Expansion in 2011 is 0.32 bats/MW for the 28-week monitoring period.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

E.1

1.0 INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................1.1


1.1 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................1.1
1.1.1
Location and Habitat ..........................................................................................1.1
1.1.2
Birds ...................................................................................................................1.2
1.1.3
Bats ....................................................................................................................1.2
1.2 MONITORING PROGRAM ...............................................................................................1.2
2.0 METHODOLOGY..............................................................................................................2.1
2.1 CASUALTY SURVEYS .....................................................................................................2.1
2.1.1
Casualty Searches .............................................................................................2.1
2.1.2
Searcher Efficiency Trials ...................................................................................2.5
2.1.3
Scavenger Impact Trials .....................................................................................2.6
2.2 BIRD MONITORING .........................................................................................................2.8
2.2.1
Breeding Bird Surveys ........................................................................................2.8
3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION..........................................................................................3.1
3.1 CASUALTY SURVEYS .....................................................................................................3.1
3.1.1
Searcher Efficiency Trials ...................................................................................3.1
3.1.1.1 Spring.................................................................................................................3.1
3.1.1.2 Summer .............................................................................................................3.1
3.1.1.3 Fall .....................................................................................................................3.1
3.1.1.4 Overall................................................................................................................3.1
3.1.2
Scavenger Impact Trials .....................................................................................3.2
3.1.2.1 Spring.................................................................................................................3.2
3.1.2.2 Summer .............................................................................................................3.2
3.1.2.3 Fall .....................................................................................................................3.3
3.1.2.4 Overall................................................................................................................3.3
3.1.3
Casualty Searches .............................................................................................3.4
3.1.3.1 Birds ...................................................................................................................3.5
3.1.3.2 Bats ....................................................................................................................3.6
3.1.4
Time Period ........................................................................................................3.8
3.1.5
Per Turbine ........................................................................................................3.8
3.1.6
Distance from Turbines ......................................................................................3.8
3.2 BIRD MONITORING .........................................................................................................3.9
3.2.1
Breeding Bird Surveys ........................................................................................3.9
3.3 SPECIES OF CONSERVATION CONCERN ..................................................................3.14
4.0 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................4.1
5.0 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................5.1
5.1 LITERATURE CITED ........................................................................................................5.1

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

5.2 PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS ....................................................................................5.1


6.0 APPENDICES...................................................................................................................6.1
APPENDIX A Protocol
APPENDIX B Wildlife Collection Permits
APPENDIX C Detailed Calculations
APPENDIX D Field Data Collection Forms
APPENDIX E Mortality Surveys Results
APPENDIX F Breeding Bird Surveys Results
APPENDIX G Breeding Bird Summary of Species by Point Count Location
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1
Figure 2.1
Figure 3.1

Project Location .......................................................................................... 1.3


Searched Turbines and Breeding Bird Survey Locations............................. 2.3
Breeding Bird Densities (#/ha) by Year and Distance to Nearest Turbines 3.12

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1
Table 3.1
Table 3.2
Table 3.3
Table 3.4
Table 3.5
Table 3.6
Table 3.7
Table 3.8
Table 3.9
Table 3.10
Table 3.11
Table 3.12
Table 4.1

ii

Carcass Condition Categories ..................................................................... 2.2


Number of Carcasses Remaining at Each Visit Spring Trial ..................... 3.2
Number of Carcasses Remaining at Each Visit Summer Trials ................ 3.3
Number of Carcasses Remaining at Each Visit Fall Trial.......................... 3.3
Overall Proportion of Carcasses Not Removed by Scavengers. .................. 3.4
Carcasses Found During the Program, 2011 .............................................. 3.4
Corrected Estimates for Bird Casualties ...................................................... 3.6
Corrected Estimates for Bat Casualties ....................................................... 3.7
Distance Range of 2011 Casualties from Turbines (m) ............................... 3.8
Maximum Number and Density of Birds Recorded at Point Counts in 2009
and 2011. .................................................................................................. 3.10
Number and Density of Birds in 2009 and 2011 by Distance from Turbines3.11
Results of ANOVA of Breeding Bird Densities ........................................... 3.13
Results of ANOVA of Change in Densities of Selected Bird Species ......... 3.14
Mortality Rates Comparison within Kent Hills Wind Farm ............................ 4.1

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

1.0

INTRODUCTION

In December 2010, TransAlta Corporation (TransAlta) began operation of the Kent Hills Wind
Farm Expansion Project (the Expansion) near Prosser Brook, in Albert County, New Brunswick
(Figure 1.1). The Expansion facility consists of 18 3.0 MW Vestas V90 wind turbine
generators with a combined nameplate capacity of 54 MW. The initial phase of the wind farm
consists of 32 3.0 MW wind turbines, with the Expansion bringing the overall Kent Hills Wind
Farm to a combined nameplate capacity of 150 MW.
The Expansion was subject to the Clean Environment Act, and an Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) registration was completed prior to construction. TransAlta received a
Certificate of Determination for this EIA on December 18, 2009. One of the conditions of
approval of the Expansion was the undertaking of bird and bat post-construction monitoring at
the site over two years. A protocol for the required monitoring was developed in consultation
with the New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources (NBDNR) and the Canadian Wildlife
Service (CWS), and is provided as Appendix A. The following provides the results of Year 1
(2011) of the post-construction monitoring program (the Program) for the Expansion facility.

1.1

BACKGROUND

For the New Brunswick EIA registrations for both phases of the wind farm, and the
Environmental Assessment (EA) Report to support a Screening under the Canadian
Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) of the initial phase, extensive fieldwork, consultation
and analysis were undertaken. This included a thorough characterization of the natural
environment at the site of the Kent Hills Wind Farm, including vegetation, birds and other
vertebrate species. Specifically, bird surveys were carried out onsite for seven seasons (spring,
summer and fall of 2006; winter, spring, summer and fall 2007) for the initial phase, and for
three seasons (spring, summer and fall of 2009) for the Expansion. Beyond what was required
and reported in the EIA and EA Reports, TransAlta undertook bat monitoring using Anabat
detectors positioned on site at both ground level and at 30 m above ground level (agl) during the
summer and fall of 2007. These data provide good baseline knowledge of pre-construction
conditions for bird and bat activity at the Kent Hills Wind Farm.
1.1.1

Location and Habitat

The Kent Hills Wind Farm is located in the Southern New Brunswick Uplands Ecoregion of the
Atlantic Maritime Ecozone in eastern New Brunswick. Kent Hills is located 5 km northeast of
Fundy National Park. The site is situated on a plateau, and the turbines are strategically placed
over an area approximately 12 km long and 6 km wide. The land is owned by the province
(Crown Land), and there are logging roads to and through the site which are frequently used by
ATV drivers. The area is located between elevation 350 m and 400 m. The habitat within the
Expansion boundaries is predominately mixed or hardwood forest, with some nursery/plantation

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1.1

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


INTRODUCTION
March 6, 2012

areas. Much of the forest habitat is immature, with numerous clear cuts at various stages of
regeneration.
1.1.2

Birds

Based on a review of available information, including consultation with government agencies,


local naturalists and on-site surveys, the Kent Hills Wind Farm site hosts few species of
conservation concern (e.g., Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus during migration). The site
does not host large concentrations of staging or wintering birds, is not likely located on a major
migration route, and is not near any nesting bird colonies, such as a heronry. The sites forest
habitat supports a breeding population of forest bird species that are typical of the variety of
habitats of this and the surrounding areas, including some birds considered species of
conservation concern.
1.1.3

Bats

Monitoring of bat activity in 2007, using Anabats located onsite, found that most activity was
restricted to low flight heights, with very little activity at 30 m agl. Only 17 individual bat passes
were noted at a height of 30 m agl in a total of 103 nights sampled. Of those 17, 11 were Myotis
species (either little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), or northern long-eared (M. septentionalis)),
four were hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), one was either big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) or
silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), and one was not identified to species.

1.2

MONITORING PROGRAM

As a condition of approval of the Expansion under the EIA Regulation, TransAlta is required to
undertake a minimum of two years of post-construction monitoring, in consultation with
Environment Canada and NBDNR. In keeping with the protocol developed for the postconstruction monitoring program at the Expansion, and with due consideration of the low bird
and bat mortality rates observed during the previous two years at the first phase of the wind
farm, the spatial extent of the monitoring for 2011 was limited to a subset of 10 of the 18
Expansion turbines. The post-construction monitoring program in 2011 was designed and
implemented to assess both direct (casualty rate) and indirect (habitat avoidance, displacement)
effects to birds and bats from operating wind turbines in the Expansion area. Indirect effects
were assessed by repeating the breeding bird surveys that were conducted during preconstruction conditions to allow a comparison to post-construction conditions. . The direct
effects were assessed through regular casualty searches around the bases of operating wind
turbines.
Temporally, these surveys (breeding bird and casualty) were undertaken over a 28-week period
during the spring, summer and fall, as outlined below.

1.2

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Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion


2011 Post Construction Monitoring Program

1
1.5
Kilometers

PROJECT NO.:

121810397

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


INTRODUCTION
March 6, 2012

1.4

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

2.0

METHODOLOGY

The survey methodology outlined below was considered to be appropriate for the Expansion,
and is based on the standardized and tested survey methodology used for the initial phase of
the Kent Hills Wind Farm, at other TransAlta operational projects and at other wind energy
facilities, and was approved by CWS and NBDNR prior to implementation. Consideration was
given for Environment Canadas protocol guidance document (Environment Canada 2007)
during the drafting of the protocol.
The 2011 Program consisted of bird and bat casualty surveys, and bird monitoring. Casualty
surveys consisted of casualty searches, searcher efficiency trials and scavenger impact trials.
Bird monitoring consisted of breeding bird surveys. The following provides detailed descriptions
of the casualty survey methodology and bird monitoring components of the Program.

2.1

CASUALTY SURVEYS

Casualty surveys were made up of three components; casualty searches, searcher efficiency
trials, and scavenger impact trials.
2.1.1

Casualty Searches

Casualty searches were undertaken for 28 weeks during spring (mid-April to mid-June), summer
(mid-June to mid- August) and fall (mid-August to mid-October) periods. Surveys were
completed weekly during each period. An increase in frequency was not warranted as carcass
removal by scavenging was not particularly high at the site, though higher than has been
previously recorded at the Kent Hills Wind Farm.
A sample of 10 of the 18 wind turbines (Figure 2.1) were selected for surveying, which was
representative of the spatial extent of the expanded wind farm, lit vs. unlit turbines, and habitat
types. At each turbine, a circular plot was searched, with a radius of 50 m centered on the base
of the turbine. All open area within this circular plot was searched for casualties. In densely
vegetated areas within the 50 m radius where searcher efficiency was compromised, the
approximate unsearchable area was mapped and used in determining the percent area
searched correction factor.
Casualty surveys began on April 11, 2011, and continued for six months (28 weeks) with the
final survey conducted on Oct. 17, 2011. Surveys were initiated one week earlier than planned,
at the request of NBDNR. Surveys of the 10 turbines were completed over one day each week,
either Monday (typically) or Tuesday. From time to time, alternate turbines were surveyed when
a turbine normally searched was inaccessible due to maintenance activities. Alternate turbines
were chosen in the same area as the regularly searched turbine.
Searching was undertaken through the use of two people and a rope 57 m in length. This has
been done very effectively in casualty searches at TransAltas Summerview, Ardenville and
Blue Trails wind farms, and was the approach used in the first two years of monitoring at the
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2.1

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


METHODOLOGY
March 6, 2012

Kent Hills Wind Farm. One observer was situated at the end of the rope and another was
situated 7 m from the end of the rope (57 m and 50 m from the turbine base, respectively). As
the observers walk together in a circle around the base of the turbine, keeping the rope taut, the
rope wraps around the turbine base (7 m in circumference), thus creating a spiral search path,
which continues until the observers are at the base of the turbine. This method allows the
observers to focus on searching for bird and bat casualties without having to maintain a
standard grid pattern.
Each casualty found was identified to species, aged and sexed in the field (if possible). All
unidentified carcasses were retained for future identification or confirmation, ageing and sexing
using Pyle (1997) (in the case of birds). Scientific collection permits were obtained from
Environment Canada and NBDNR (Appendix B). The location of each carcass was recorded
using a handheld GPS and by measuring distance and direction from the turbine base. The
condition of the carcass (Table 2.1) and the probable cause of death (with rationale for the
determination) were noted. Carcasses of bats and birds were removed from the sampling area
to avoid attracting scavengers. Specimens not used for searcher efficiency and/or scavenger
trials were made available to New Brunswick Museum of Natural History (NB Museum) staff for
examination and/or necropsy.
Table 2.1
Code
M
F
R
D
X

Carcass Condition Categories


Description
Injured or moribund.
Freshly dead with little or no decay or scavenging by insects; probably died within 48 hours.
Recently dead but with noticeable decay or scavenging by insects; probably died within 1-7
days.
Decomposed carcass, barely recognizable or not recognizable to species; probably dead more
than 7 days.
Residual remains, such as feathers, bones, blood or other scraps of tissue.

The actual number of bird and bat carcasses found does not necessarily reflect the number of
mortalities occurring at a wind farm. A correction equation used to determine the estimated
number of mortalities at a wind farm, modified from an equation provided by Environment
Canada (Denise Fell, pers. comm., 2009), is as follows:

C = (c / (Se x Sc x Ps)) x (K/n),


where:

C
c
Se
Sc
Ps
n
K
2.2

is the corrected number of bird or bat mortalities for the entire expansion;
is the number of carcasses found;
is the proportion of carcasses expected to be found by search teams
(searcher efficiency);
is the proportion of carcasses not removed by scavengers over the search
period; and,
is the percent of the area searched.
is the number of turbines searched
is the total number of turbines in the wind farm

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LEWIS
MOUNTA
IN
A5
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rd

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.

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.

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. G2
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r

29

Forestry data last updated in 2003.

DATE:

09/11/2011
SCALE:

1:50,000

COORDINATE SYSTEM:

NAD 83 NB
Double
Stereographic

F9
F9

"/
"

#
0

Lit Turbine

Building
Wind Farm
Road and Collection

E6
E6
19

Substation
Transmission Line Easement

E8
/ E8
"

Road
Dobson Trail
Watercourse
Waterbody
Wetland (DNR)
Silviculture

Clearcut

!
.

Partial Cut

Older Hardwood Forest


Older Mixedwood Forest
Older Forest Softwood

Fi
v

For
ty

NBDNR
SNB

!
.

Original Turbine

DATA SOURCES:

F8F8

Expansion Turbine

Roa

# 9 11
0
H7
H7 15
#
#0
/ 0
"
H8 17 13
/ H8
"
#

#0
0

F7
F7

E7
E7

Expansion Turbine Alternate Searched

^ Met Tower

21

# 28
0

Expansion Turbine Searched

sey

#
0

Burley
Bog

/
"

rri
Mo

H5
# H5
0
" 7
/

#
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32 H6
H6
# !.
0

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.
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.

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ro
at B

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Breeding Bird Point Counts

#
0

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27

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F6

33

#
0

23

/
"

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E5

F4
F4

!
.

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.
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.

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.

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#
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H3 0

34

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# H2
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.

r
ive

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H1

!
.

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E3

!
.

ch L
ittle R

Map Features

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E2

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rm
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D7

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lls

ook
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C2
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D2
D2

Younger Forest
Nonforest

0 0.25 0.5

Figure 2.1
Searched Turbines
and Breeding Bird Survey Locations
Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion
2011 Post Construction Monitoring Program

1
1.5
Kilometers
PROJECT NO.:

121810397

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


METHODOLOGY
March 6, 2012

2.4

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


METHODOLOGY
March 6, 2012

According to Environment Canada, most bird and bat fatalities due to turbine mortality are likely
to fall within 50 m of the turbine (Denise Fell, pers. comm., 2009). The percent of the area
searched during the casualty surveys must be calculated in order to factor into the estimated
mortality correction equation. Percent area searched (Ps) is calculated as follows:

Ps = area searched
r2

where r = 50 m

In this equation, area searched refers to the unvegetated, searchable areas within the 50 m
radius searched, and r is the radius corresponding to the size of the area Environment Canada
identified as most likely to find the carcasses (50 m). The searchable area varied for each
turbine. The weighted average Ps of all searched turbines (weighted by total number of
searches for each turbine) was used in the correction equation to provide an estimate of the
total number of bird and bat mortalities associated with the Expansion. The area searched
around each turbine was determined in the field using a GPS to map out the approximate limits
of the area searched. The percent area searched for each turbine was calculated using GIS.
Overall, the corrected estimate of bird and bat casualties for the entire Expansion is presented
as the number of casualties per turbine, or casualties per MW for the 28-week monitoring
period.
2.1.2

Searcher Efficiency Trials

Searcher efficiency trials were carried out once per season for each search team, and are
designed to correct for carcasses that may be overlooked by searchers during the survey
periods. The results were used to estimate the number of bird and bat casualties and correct for
detection bias. Searcher efficiency trials were conducted in a blind manner, whereby the search
team did not know which search plot contained the trial carcass or how many trial carcasses
were deployed. Carcasses were placed by someone other than the searchers within one of the
circular plots prior to the search team completing the casualty searches. After the casualty
search was complete, the number of test carcasses remaining in the search plot was
determined to establish the searcher efficiency rate. This provides a measure of variability
between search teams and of search success by the study team, providing an overall estimate
of the efficiency of the searching methodology.
These trials were repeated for each search team in each season of sampling to address interseasonal variability in searcher efficiency due to vegetation cover differences.
Test carcasses (i.e., control carcasses) were quail chicks, as well as coloured rats (typically light
to dark gray) to represent bat carcasses. Where available and in good condition, previously
collected birds and bats were used for the searcher efficiency trials. Between 10 and 15 test
carcasses per search team were distributed within the 50 m search radius during each seasonal
searcher efficiency trial. One to three carcasses were placed at each selected turbine.
Carcasses not found during the searcher efficiency trials were retrieved at the end of the day to
ensure that they were overlooked and not scavenged.

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2.5

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


METHODOLOGY
March 6, 2012

For each searcher efficiency trial, the following information was recorded:

Date;

Weather conditions;

Carcass type (native bird, quail chick, rat, or bat);

Turbine number;

Location description; and,

Confirmation of whether carcass was located, overlooked or scavenged.

If the carcass was not found, it was not included in searcher efficiency calculations. A copy of
the forms completed in the field can be found in Appendix D.
Searcher efficiency (Se) was calculated for each search team using the following equation:

Se =

number of test carcasses found


(number of test carcasses placed) (number of test carcasses scavenged)

Because search teams searched varying numbers of turbines over the course of the casualty
surveys, it was necessary to find a weighted average which reflected the proportion of turbines
searched by each team. This weighted average, or overall searcher efficiency, was calculated
as follows:

Seo = Se1(n1/T) + Se2(n2/T) + Se3(n3/T) + Se...(n.../T)...


where:

Seo

is the overall searcher efficiency;

Se1 and 2 and 3...

are individual searcher efficiency ratings;

n1 and 2 and 3...

are number of turbines searched by each search team; and

is the total number of turbines searched by all searchers.

The overall searcher efficiency was calculated separately for each of the three seasons that the
casualty surveys were conducted, as well as for the overall Program.
These Se values contribute to the correction equation used to provide an estimate of the total
number of bird and bat casualties associated with the Expansion.
2.1.3

Scavenger Impact Trials

In addition to being overlooked by searchers, casualties may also go unaccounted for because
they may have been scavenged or removed by local wildlife before searchers have a chance to
locate them. To adjust for this, scavenger impact trials were carried out. To assess the influence
of scavenging in each season, a sample of carcasses (such as quail chicks and rats obtained
from suppliers) were placed in similar habitat at least 500 m away from any casualty search
area and checked daily for a period of seven days or until all of the carcasses had been
2.6

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


METHODOLOGY
March 6, 2012

scavenged, whichever was less. Typically, one each of quail chick and rat were placed at five
locations.
Results of these trials were used to correct for the removal of carcasses by scavengers in
estimating overall mortality.
The information recorded for each carcass placement is listed below (see Appendix D). This
information aided searchers in locating the carcasses during the daily checks over the trial
period. Information recorded included:

Date scavenger impact trial carcass was placed;

UTM coordinates and closest turbine number; and,

Description of carcass location.

To monitor the scavenging rate, a scavenger impact trial daily check form was filled out during
each search (Appendix D). Information collected included:

Date of monitoring;

An indication of whether the carcass had been scavenged or not-scavenged; and,

Condition of the carcass.

Carcasses that differentiated between those which were untouched by scavengers and those
showing evidence of varying levels of scavenging, but were not removed from the search area,
were noted. This approach provided a method by which to determine the time frame for a
carcass to be completely removed by scavengers. Scavenging rates were calculated using the
following formula;

Sc =

nvisit1 + nvisit2 + nvisit3 + nvisit4 + nvisit5 ++ nvisit7


nvisit0 + nvisit1 + nvisit2 + nvisit3 + nvisit4 ++ nvisit6

where:

Sc

is the proportion of carcasses not removed by scavengers over the


search period

nvisit0

is the total number of carcasses placed

nvisit1 nvisit7

is the numbers of carcasses remaining on visits 1 through 7

These values contribute to the correction equation used to provide an estimate of bird and bat
mortalities associated with the Expansion.
Searcher efficiency in locating scavenger trial carcasses is assumed to be 100%, as carcasses
were recorded using a GPS unit at the time of placement, and location was carefully noted.

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2.7

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


METHODOLOGY
March 6, 2012

2.2

BIRD MONITORING

2.2.1

Breeding Bird Surveys

Breeding bird surveys were undertaken in late spring/early summer (June to early July). Survey
methodology followed that which was used during pre-construction conditions in order to allow
comparisons between pre- and post-construction breeding bird diversity and abundance. Two
visits were completed, one early in the period and one late in the period, separated by 10 days
to two weeks. The 20 sites surveyed during the EIA fieldwork (Figure 2.1) were revisited and
surveys were conducted using similar methodology. Of these 20 sites, four are close to (within
150-170 m) turbine locations, while others are located at various distances (210-770 m) from
the closest wind turbines. The distance from turbine was taken into consideration during
analysis of the results. Surveys began at the site in the early morning, at or just after daybreak
(usually 30 minutes before scheduled sunrise).
Unlimited distance point counts of ten minutes in duration (separated into two 5-minute periods)
were conducted at each of the survey stations. All birds observed, either by sight or sound, were
noted, including both species and number. Three distance categories were used to note birds:
0-50 m from the observer, 50-100 m and greater than 100 m. Birds flying over were noted
separately from other observations. The date, start time and weather were recorded at each
survey station. Recorded weather data included approximate temperature, wind speed and
direction, precipitation, and visibility. Point count surveys were not done in heavy rain or in
strong winds (e.g., greater than 20 km/h).
Incidental observations of species in the area were noted outside of the set point count surveys.
For any species of conservation concern encountered, the observer noted specific details of the
observation, including location and behaviour.
All bird records were used to determine the overall species richness for the site. Species
diversity was calculated using the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H):

H =    ln  
where S is the total number of species and pi is the frequency of the ith species.
Population densities for each species were presented as birds per ha, calculated by first
determining the maximum number of birds detected within 100 m between the first and second
survey for each point count location and summing up across all 20 sites. Density is calculated
using the following equation:

Density (# territories/ha) = sum of all territories counted within 100 m x 0.3183a


number of points surveyed
a

2.8

The factor of 0.3183 represents the number of point count circles within a hectare,
assuming a standard count radius of 100 m, which has an area of 3.141592654 ha.

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


METHODOLOGY
March 6, 2012

Changes in breeding bird density were analyzed using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; JMP
ver 9.0.0 2010, SAS Institute Inc.).

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2.9

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


METHODOLOGY
March 6, 2012

2.10

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

3.0

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1

CASUALTY SURVEYS

3.1.1

Searcher Efficiency Trials

Searcher efficiency can vary between individuals/teams and the season, as factors such as
weather, searcher level of experience and vegetation growth affects the visibility of carcasses,
and the searchers ability to locate them. Searcher efficiency ratings at other wind farms in North
America range, on average, from 30% to 85% (Morrison 2002). The following sections provide a
discussion of searcher efficiencies for each season, as well as overall searcher efficiency for the
2011 monitoring period. Searcher efficiency calculations for each search team are provided in
Appendix C.
3.1.1.1 Spring
Searcher efficiency for the two search teams during spring monitoring were 31% and 53%. One
search team responsible for searches earlier in the season conducted the searcher efficiency
trials on May 2, and the second team responsible for the later surveys conducted trials on
May 17. By weighting individual team searcher efficiency ratings with regard to the proportion of
the turbines surveyed, the overall searcher efficiency was calculated to be 39.8% for the spring
search period.
3.1.1.2 Summer
A single searcher efficiency trial was conducted during the summer period, as there was only
one search team conducting all of the casualty surveys. The searcher efficiency trial was
conducted on July 12, resulting in a searcher efficiency of 66.7% for the summer search period.
3.1.1.3 Fall
Searcher efficiencies for the two search teams conducting fall monitoring were 46.3% and
58.3%. The searcher efficiency trials were conducted on September 12. While there were two
teams, the main team conducted 83% of the turbine searches over the fall period. By weighting
individual team searcher efficiency ratings with regard to the proportion of the turbines
surveyed, the overall searcher efficiency was calculated to be 48.2% for the fall search period.
3.1.1.4 Overall
The overall searcher efficiency was calculated to be 51.1%. There was no notable pattern
observed in the searcher efficiencies over the monitoring period. The decrease in searcher
efficiency compared to monitoring of the initial phase of Kent Hills Wind Farm conducted over
the previous year may have been due to differences in the types of trial carcasses used

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3.1

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

between years. Although much of the search area is uniform gravel pad with little vegetation
growth, portions of most turbine search areas were vegetated in 2011, which may also account
for reductions in searcher efficiencies compared to values recorded in 2009 and 2010 at the
Kent Hills Wind Farm.
3.1.2

Scavenger Impact Trials

The following section discusses the results of the scavenger impact trials by season (i.e., spring,
summer and fall) and overall.
3.1.2.1 Spring
The spring scavenger impact trial ran from May 17 to 24, 2011. Carcasses were typically placed
along access roads or other cleared areas that had similar substrate conditions as the turbine
search areas. Five quail chicks and five rats were placed initially, with six carcasses remaining
at the end of the trial. Two remaining carcasses had evidence of scavenging, but enough of the
carcasses remained to make it possible to locate and identify them, though one was partially
buried. Table 3.1 presents the number of carcasses remaining during each of the visits following
initiation of the spring trial, as well as the proportion of carcasses not removed by scavengers
over the spring trial period (the Sc value).
Table 3.1

Number of Carcasses Remaining at Each Visit Spring Trial

Date
Placed

Visit 1

Visit 2

Visit 3

Visit 4

Visit 5

Visit 6

Visit 7

17-May

18-May

19-May

20-May

21-May

22-May

23-May

24-May

10

10

10

Sc (spring)

0.9333

There was no sign of scavenging until Day 3, with one rat removed per day over the next three
days, and a chick removed on day 6. The proportion of carcasses not removed by scavengers
over the trial period (Sc) for the spring was 0.9333, or 93.3%.
3.1.2.2 Summer
The summer scavenger impact trial ran from July 12 to 19, 2011, and had the highest
scavenging rates of the three seasons. As was done in spring, carcasses were placed along
access roads or other cleared areas with substrate conditions similar to those within the turbine
search areas. Four quail chicks and five rats were placed. Scavenging was high relative o the
spring trial, with 2 carcasses missing after the first day, and three more missing the next day.
All carcasses were gone by the last visit. Table 3.2 presents the number of carcasses
remaining during each of the visits for the summer trial, as well as the proportion of carcasses
not removed by scavengers over the summer trial period (the Sc value).

3.2

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

Table 3.2

Number of Carcasses Remaining at Each Visit Summer Trials

Date
Placed

Visit 1

Visit 2

Visit 3

Visit 4

Visit 5

Visit 6

Visit 7

12-Jul

13-Jul

14-Jul

15-Jul

16-Jul

17-Jul

18-Jul

19-Jul

Sc (summer)

0.7273

The proportion of carcasses not removed by scavengers over the trial period (Sc) for the
summer was 0.7273, or 72.7%.
3.1.2.3 Fall
The fall scavenger impact trial ran from September 12 to 19, 2011. As with the spring and
summer scavenger impact trials, carcasses were placed along access roads or other cleared
areas with substrate conditions similar to those within the turbine search areas. Five poultry
chicks and five mice were placed. Table 3.3 presents the number of carcasses remaining
during each of the visits following initiation of the fall trial, as well as the proportion of carcasses
not removed by scavengers over the fall trial period (the Sc value).
Table 3.3

Number of Carcasses Remaining at Each Visit Fall Trial

Date
Placed

Visit 1

Visit 2

Visit 3

Visit 4

Visit 5

Visit 6

Visit 7

12-Sep

13-Sep

14-Sep

15-Sep

16-Sep

17-Sep

18-Sep

19-Sep

Sc (fall)

0.7568
10

The trend was very similar to the summer trial, with more carcasses missing with each visit, and
only 1 carcass remaining at visit 7. The remaining carcass had evidence of scavenging. The
proportion of carcasses not removed by scavengers over the seven visit trial period for the fall
was 0.7568, or 75.7%.
3.1.2.4 Overall
The overall Sc was calculated by adding up the carcass numbers by visit number, as shown in
Table 3.4, and completing the equation.

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3.3

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

Table 3.4

Overall Proportion of Carcasses Not Removed by Scavengers.

Season

Visit 0

Visit 1

Visit 2

Visit 3

Visit 4

Visit 5

Visit 6

Visit 7

Spring

10

10

10

Summer

Fall

10

Overall

29

26

21

17

14

12

11

Sc (overall)

0.8308

Morrison (2002) reported that the average persistence of carcasses varied depending on the
season, but was shorter in the spring and longer in the summer/fall. In the case of the Kent Hills
Wind Farm Expansion Post-construction Monitoring Program, the opposite was noted, with
higher carcass persistence in the spring, and a decrease in persistence time noted in the
summer and fall. In the summer and fall of 2011, the presence of fox and coyote on site was
noted, and may be a factor in the reduced carcass persistence time. The overall Sc is less than
the spring value and higher than the summer and fall values.
3.1.3

Casualty Searches

In all, only four bird and three bat carcasses were found during the 28 weeks of postconstruction casualty searches at the Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion in 2011. The casualties
were roughly distributed equally between birds and bats, and among the seasons. The 2011
numbers are comparable to the number of casualties recorded in 2009 and 2010 for the initial
phase of the wind farm when twice as many turbines were searched. In 2009, nine bird and four
bat casualties were found, and four bird and 1 bat casualty were discovered in 2010 (Stantec
Consulting Ltd. 2010 and 2011).
Table 3.5 provides a summary of carcasses found during 2011, including their provincial
ranking. None of the species found are listed in the Species at Risk Act (SARA). The following
sub-sections discuss findings, and provide the corrected mortality estimates for both birds and
bats.
Table 3.5

Carcasses Found During the Program, 2011

Date

Turbine

Type

Common Name

Scientific Name

SRank

NBDNR Rank

11-Apr-11

H3

bat

little brown bat

Myotis lucifugus

S4

Sensitive

9-May-11

E8

bird

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

S5

Secure

30-May-11

H1

bird

Northern Parula

Parula americana

S5

Secure

3.4

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

Table 3.5

Carcasses Found During the Program, 2011

Date

Turbine

Type

Common Name

Scientific Name

SRank

NBDNR Rank

4-Jul-11

E3

bird

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

S5

Secure

25-Jul-11

H1

bat

little brown bat

Myotis lucifugus

S4

Sensitive

12-Sep-11

G1

bat

Myotis lucifugus

S4

Sensitive

26-Sep-11

H3

bird

little brown bat


Black-throated Green
Warbler

Dendroica virens

S5

Secure

3.1.3.1 Birds
During the 28-week post-construction monitoring period in 2011 four bird carcasses were
located during the regularly scheduled casualty searches. Of these, two were found during the
spring survey period (mid-April to mid-June), one in the summer (mid-June to mid-August), and
one during the fall period (mid-August through mid-October). All carcasses were observed
individually, on separate days. The spring casualties were recorded mid-season, at the
beginning and end of May. Each of the four different species observed are common in New
Brunswick. Two of these species (Black-throated Green Warbler and Red-eyed Vireo) had
been previously recorded as casualties at the Kent Hills Wind Farm in 2010. Neither Blueheaded Vireo nor Northern Parula had been previously recorded as casualties at Kent Hills.
One incidental bird casualty record, a Black-and-white Warbler, was recorded on May 17 at
turbine E6 (unlit). As this record was not recorded during a scheduled survey of a selected
turbine, the record was not used in calculating mortality estimates.
Bird casualties were spread among the turbines, including two in the H-Row (H1 and H3), and
two in the E-Row (E3 and E8). None were recorded in the two short rows (G and I). No
turbines had more than one recorded bird casualty. Two of the four turbines with bird casualties
are lit. Given the low number of collisions, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the
casualty records, an attempt at discerning patterns based on weather and/or habitat is not
possible or warranted.
Table 3.6 presents the seasonal and overall corrected estimates for bird casualties, as well as
the correction factors used to determine the casualty estimates (refer to Section 2.1.1). The
corrected estimates were calculated using the correction equation provided by Environment
Canada, which takes scavenging, searcher efficiency and percent area searched calculations
into consideration. The corrected estimate for bird casualties is calculated, and presented, as
casualties per turbine, or casualties per MW for the 28-week monitoring program (see Table
3.6).

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3.5

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

Table 3.6

Corrected Estimates for Bird Casualties

Period

Se

Sc

Ps

Casualties
Per
Turbine

Casualties
Per MW

Spring

0.3979

0.9333

0.6688

14.49

0.81

0.27

Summer

0.6667

0.7273

0.6691

5.55

0.31

0.10

Fall

0.4818

0.7568

0.6697

7.37

0.41

0.14

Overall

0.5113

0.8308

0.6692

25.33

1.41

0.47

Note: C is the corrected number of bird casualties for the entire expansion

Spring monitoring was undertaken weekly from April 11 to June 13, 2011, for a total of ten
weeks. Two avian carcasses were located by searchers, for a corrected total estimate of 14.49
bird casualties for the spring season, which equates to 0.81 bird casualties per turbine or 0.27
bird casualties per MW for spring.
Summer monitoring was undertaken weekly from June 20 to August 15, 2011, for a total of nine
weeks. One avian carcass was located by searchers, for a corrected total estimate of 5.55 bird
casualties for the summer season, which equates to 0.31 bird casualties per turbine or 0.10
casualties per MW for summer.
Fall monitoring was undertaken weekly from August 22 to October 17, 2011, for a total of nine
weeks. One avian carcass was located by searchers, for a corrected estimated total of 7.37 bird
casualties for the fall season; which equates to 0.41 bird casualties per turbine or 0.14 bird
casualties per MW for fall. All bird species located during the 2011 Program are ranked as S5
(widespread abundant and secure) by the Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre (AC
CDC). These species are common within the Expansion area and surrounding region.
Casualty searches were conducted during both spring and fall migration periods and throughout
the breeding season. Monitoring work did not include (roughly) six months of the year during
which activity levels in birds are known to significantly drop, thus the casualty estimate is not
expected to be much greater for the whole year. The corrected causality estimates for the
Program were calculated to be 1.41 bird casualties per turbine, or 0.47 bird casualties per MW .
3.1.3.2 Bats
During the 28-week post-construction monitoring period in 2011, three bat carcasses were
found during the casualty searches, all little brown bats, one in each season. The identifications
were confirmed by NB Museum staff.

3.6

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

Bat casualties were reported at three different turbines: H1, H3 and G1. Only H1 is a lit turbine.
Given the low number of collisions, and the spatial and temporal spread of the casualty records,
an attempt at discerning patterns based on weather and/or habitat is not warranted. Little brown
bat, which may breed in the vicinity of the Expansion area and surrounding region, was the only
bat species recorded in 2011, on April 11, July 25, and September 12. Little brown bat is not
listed in SARA, however it is considered a species of conservation concern, as it is ranked
Sensitive by the province, despite being ranked S4 (widespread and fairly common) by the AC
CDC.
Table 3.7 presents the seasonal and overall corrected estimates for bat casualties, as well as
the correction factors used to determine the casualty estimates (refer to Section 2.1.1). The
corrected estimates were calculated using the correction equation provided by Environment
Canada, which takes scavenging, searcher efficiency and percent area searched calculations
into consideration. The corrected estimate for bat casualties is calculated, and presented, as
casualties per turbine, and casualties per MW for the 28-week monitoring period (see Table
3.7).
Table 3.7

Corrected Estimates for Bat Casualties

Period

Se

Sc

Ps

Casualties
Per
Turbine

Casualties
Per MW

Spring

0.3979

0.9333

0.6688

7.25

0.40

0.13

Summer

0.6667

0.7273

0.6691

5.55

0.31

0.10

Fall

0.4818

0.7568

0.6697

7.37

0.41

0.14

Overall

0.5113

0.8308

0.6692

17.05

0.95

0.32

Note: C is the corrected number of bat casualties for the entire expansion

Spring monitoring was undertaken weekly from April 11 to June 13, 2011, for a total of ten
weeks. One bat carcass was located by searchers, for a corrected total estimate of 7.25 bat
fatalities for the spring season (0.40 bat casualties per turbine or 0.13 bat casualties per MW).
Summer monitoring was undertaken weekly from June 20 to August 15, 2011, for a total of nine
weeks. One bat carcass was located by searchers, for a corrected total estimate of 5.55 bat
fatalities for the summer season (0.31 bat casualties per turbine or 0.10 bat casualties per MW).
Fall monitoring was undertaken weekly from August 22 to October 17, 2011, for a total of nine
weeks. One bat carcass was located by searchers, for a corrected estimated total of 7.37 bat
casualties for the fall season (0.41 bat casualties per turbine or 0.14 bat casualties per MW).

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3.7

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

Casualty searches were conducted during both the spring and fall migration periods for bats.
Although monitoring work did not include roughly six months of the year during which activity
levels in bats are known to drop to zero, it is expected that these values represent total
casualties for the year. Therefore, the corrected causality estimates for the Program were
calculated to be 0.95 bat casualties per turbine, or 0.32 bat casualties per MW.
3.1.4

Time Period

The incidence of bird or bat mortality could vary for each of the seasons, as usage of the area
will change over the course of the year. During spring, it would be expected that bird casualties
would reflect species known to breed in the region. Conversely, as bat activity levels increase
throughout the summer months and more notably during the fall migratory season, an increase
in bat casualties could be expected. However, given the low numbers of both bat and bird
carcasses and the relatively even temporal distribution of the casualties, little can be concluded
with regards to timing of mortalities.
3.1.5

Per Turbine

Casualties were spread among the Expansion wind turbines, with carcasses found at five of the
10+ surveyed turbines, with no more than one bird or bat casualty per turbine. However, as
turbines H1 and H3 each had a bird and bat casualty recorded, four of the seven casualties
were recorded at the northwestern end of the wind farm Expansion.
3.1.6

Distance from Turbines

Recording and reporting data on the distance at which a carcass was found from a turbine can
aid in future design of post-construction monitoring protocols. Environment Canada has noted
that birds and bats tend to be concentrated within certain distances from turbines, with the
majority of bird and bat carcasses typically landing within 50 m from the turbine (Denise Fell,
personal communication, February 25, 2009). In collecting and providing the distances at which
carcasses were found, Environment Canada is better able to design monitoring protocols that
reflect variations in the distance carcasses are found from turbines, thus aiding in determining
appropriate search areas.
Table 3.8 presents the number of bird and bat carcasses found at ranges of 5 m increments
from the turbine, up to 50 m from the turbine (the extent of the casualty search area employed)
for 2011.
Table 3.8

Distance Range of 2011 Casualties from Turbines (m)

0 to 4
Bats
Birds
Total

3.8

0
1
1

5 to
9
0
2
2

10 to
14
0
0
0

15 to
19
1
0
1

20 to
24
1
0
1

25 to
29
0
0
0

30 to
34
0
0
0

35 to
39
0
0
0

40 to
44
1
0
1

45 to
50
0
1
1

Total
3
4
7

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

The bat carcasses were found between 17 m and 46 m of the turbine base. Of the four bird
casualties that were recorded, three (75%) were within 10 m of the turbine base.

3.2

BIRD MONITORING

The following section describes the findings of the breeding bird surveys. Species of
conservation concern that were observed during the bird monitoring program are further
discussed in subsection 3.2.2. The raw data containing the breeding bird records is provided in
Appendix F.
3.2.1

Breeding Bird Surveys

During the post-construction breeding bird surveys of 2011, 34 bird species were observed, as
compared to 41 species observed during the breeding bird surveys carried out during preconstruction surveys in June 2009, for a cumulative total of 45 species over the two years.
Considering only species recorded within 100 m, which are included in population estimates, 34
were recorded in 2009 and 29 in 2011, for a total of 37 different species over the two years.
Twenty-six of the same species were recorded in both years. Species recorded in only one of
the two years were found in low numbers (5 or fewer) and frequency. Overall species diversity
between the two years was very similar, with a Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index value of 2.84 in
2009, and 2.79 in 2011.
The breeding bird community observed in the study area is typical of environments in southern
New Brunswick. The relatively low species diversity reflects the relatively low diversity and
quality of breeding bird habitat found within and adjacent to the Kent Hills Wind Farm
Expansion, and most of the species are common forest or edge species.
Table 3.9 presents the total maximum number and density (# per ha) of birds observed during
the two breeding bird survey visits (using point counts with a 100 m detection radius) for each of
the two years of surveys (2009 and 2011). The maximum of the two visits is used because the
individuals recorded during the second survey are likely the same ones that were recorded
during the first survey, so it is assumed that individuals of the same species are recorded during
both visits. Species observations that were either more than 100 m from the observer or had no
evidence of breeding, were not used in density calculations. Species not included in density
calculations over the two years of survey included Ruffed Grouse, Barred Owl, Chimney Swift,
Northern Flicker, Pileated Woodpecker, Common Raven, Ruby-crowned Kinglet, and Wilsons
Snipe.
Overall, numbers and densities between the two years were relatively unchanged, with 275
individuals (4.38 per ha) recorded in 2009 and 274 individuals (4.36 per ha) in 2011, with equal
effort and the same survey locations. Red-eyed Vireos, the second most numerous species,
followed this trend, with 41 recorded in 2009 and 42 in 2011. Other species with relatively high
overall numbers, in addition to being detected at a high frequency of point count locations,
included Ovenbird (49 in 2009 vs. 45 in 2011; an 8% decrease), Black-throated Blue Warbler
(33 vs. 28; a 15% decrease), and Black-throated Green Warbler (22 vs. 29; a 32% increase).

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3.9

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

Table 3.9

Maximum Number and Density of Birds Recorded at Point Counts in 2009 and 2011.
Maximum
Number of
Individuals
Observed
Average
NBDNR
within 100m
Density (#/ha)
SStatus
Common Name
Scientific Name
Rank
Rank
2009
2011
2009
2011
Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Archilochus colubris

S5B

Secure

0.03

0.00

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

S5B

Secure

13

0.21

0.05

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

S5

Secure

0.08

0.03

Hairy Woodpecker

Picoides villosus

S5

Secure

0.03

0.08

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Contopus virens

S5B

Secure

0.08

0.00

Alder Flycatcher

Empidonax alnorum

S5B

Secure

0.03

0.10

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

S5B

Secure

13

0.11

0.21

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

S5B

Secure

0.06

0.08

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

S5B

Secure

41

42

0.65

0.67

Blue Jay

Cyanocitta cristata

S5

Secure

0.02

0.00

Black-capped Chickadee

Poecile atricapillus

S5

Secure

0.03

0.02

Red-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta canadensis

S5

Secure

0.02

0.00

White-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta carolinensis

S5

Secure

0.03

0.03

Brown Creeper

Certhia americana

S5B

Secure

0.05

0.05

Winter Wren

Troglodytes troglodytes

S5B

Secure

0.02

0.00

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Regulus satrapa

S5B

Secure

0.02

0.02

Swainson's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus

S5B

Secure

0.05

0.00

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

S5B

Secure

0.06

0.06

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

S5B

Secure

0.10

0.11

Cedar Waxwing

Bombycilla cedrorum

S5B

Secure

0.02

0.00

Northern Parula

Parula americana

S5B

Secure

0.08

0.11

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

S5B

Secure

12

0.14

0.19

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

S5B

Secure

33

28

0.53

0.45

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Dendroica coronata

S5B

Secure

0.02

0.02

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

S5B

Secure

22

29

0.35

0.46

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

S5B

Secure

0.08

0.08

Black-and-white Warbler

Mniotilta varia

S5B

Secure

0.00

0.02

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

S5B

Secure

10

18

0.16

0.29

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

S5B

Secure

49

45

0.78

0.72

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

S5B

Secure

0.13

0.14

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

S5B

Secure

0.08

0.06

Song Sparrow

Melospiza melodia

S5B

Secure

0.00

0.03

Lincoln's Sparrow

Melospiza lincolnii

S5B

Secure

0.03

0.02

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

S5B

Secure

11

0.11

0.18

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

S5B

Secure

12

0.19

0.06

3.10

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

Table 3.9

Maximum Number and Density of Birds Recorded at Point Counts in 2009 and 2011.
Maximum
Number of
Individuals
Observed
Average
NBDNR
within 100m
Density (#/ha)
SStatus
Common Name
Scientific Name
Rank
Rank
2009
2011
2009
2011
Rose-breasted Grosbeak

Pheucticus ludovicianus

S5B

Secure

0.02

0.00

Purple Finch

Carpodacus purpureus

S4B

Secure

0.00

0.05

Total

275

274

4.38

4.36

Richness

34

29

AC CDC S-Ranks
S1 = Extremely rare throughout its range in the province (typically 5 or fewer occurrences or
very few remaining individuals). May be especially vulnerable to extirpation.
S2 = Rare throughout its range in the province (6 to 20 occurrences or few remaining
individuals). May be vulnerable to extirpation due to rarity or other factors.
S3 = Uncommon throughout its range in the province, or found only in a restricted range,
even if abundant at some locations (21 to 100 occurrences).
S4 = Usually widespread, fairly common throughout its range in the province, and
apparently secure with many occurrences, but the species is of long-term concern
(e.g., watch list) (100+ occurrences).
S5 = Widespread, abundant, and secure, under present conditions

S Rank Qualifiers:
B = Breeding (Migratory
species)
N = Non-breeding (Migratory
species)
? = Inexact or uncertain
C = Captive or cultivated

Table 3.10 lists the maximum number and density of birds for each individual point count
location (100 m detection radius) in 2009 and 2011, sorted by distance to nearest turbine. The
densities of breeding birds in 2009 and 2011 by distance to nearest turbine are also shown in
Figure 3.1. For the four point count locations within 200 m of a turbine, there was a decrease in
total numbers and density, ranging from 12% to 56%, however decreases of greater than 20%
were also recorded at survey points located 350, 410 and 770 m from wind turbines, suggesting
these differences may be attributed to survey variability or natural variation. Beyond the 200 m
distance, there is no obvious trend, with changes ranging from a 33% decrease to a 100%
increase. At 11 of the 20 breeding bird point count locations, either no change or an increase in
total numbers and density was recorded in 2011 compared to data collected during the 2009
surveys.
Table 3.10

Number and Density of Birds in 2009 and 2011 by Distance from Turbines

KHE34

Distance to
Nearest
Turbine (m)
150

5.73

4.14

KHE21

160

16

-56%

5.09

2.23

KHE27

160

16

10

-38%

5.09

3.18

KHE25

170

17

15

-12%

5.41

4.77

KHE19

210

15

18

20%

4.77

5.73

KHE32

210

15

14

-7%

4.77

4.46

KHE35

230

13

18

38%

4.14

5.73

KHE07

240

13

21

62%

4.14

6.68

Point Count
Location

Maximum Number
2009

2011

18

13

Density (#/ha)
%Change

2009

2011

-28%

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3.11

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

Table 3.10

Number and Density of Birds in 2009 and 2011 by Distance from Turbines

KHE33

Distance to
Nearest
Turbine (m)
330

5.41

6.05

KHE15

350

15

10

-33%

4.77

3.18

KHE09

380

14

16

14%

4.46

5.09

KHE05

400

10

17

70%

3.18

5.41

KHE23

410

15

10

-33%

4.77

3.18

KHE03

440

10

11

10%

3.18

3.50

KHE17

520

12

12

0%

3.82

3.82

KHE01

560

12

10

-17%

3.82

3.18

KHE11

580

16

100%

2.55

5.09

KHE29

620

13

14

8%

4.14

4.46

KHE28

710

12

12

0%

3.82

3.82

KHE13

770

14

11

-21%

4.46

3.50

275

274

-<1%

4.38

4.36

Point Count
Location

Total Number/% Change and


Average Density

Maximum Number
2009

2011

17

19

Density (#/ha)
%Change

2009

2011

12%

Breeding Bird Denisity (#/ha)

8
7
6
5
4

2009

2011

2
1
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

Distance to Nearest Turbine (m)

Figure 3.1

3.12

Breeding Bird Densities (#/ha) by Year and Distance to Nearest Turbines

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

Changes in bird density (i.e., actual change in density and percent change in density) from preconstruction (2009) to post-construction (2011), based on distance to nearest turbine (i.e.,
separately by actual distance in metres and by distance category: near 0-250m, medium 251500m, far >500m), were examined using an analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the results
presented in Table 3.11. Results of the ANOVA examining the changes in densities between the
2009 and 2011 breeding bird survey results indicate that there was no significant difference in
the absolute or percent change in bird density (2011 compared to 2009 results) with distance to
nearest turbine (p>0.05), either by actual distance or by distance category.
Table 3.11

Actual Change
Overall
Near
Medium
Far
Percent Change
Overall
Near
Medium
Far

Results of ANOVA of Breeding Bird Densities


Mean

Std. Dev.

SE of Mean

Lower 95% CI for


Mean
Change in Density by Distance

-0.0150
-0.2788
0.1083
0.2133

20
8
6
6

1.5160
1.8585
1.4752
1.2364

0.3390
0.6571
0.6022
0.5048

4.5410
-2.4950
6.5650
11.5980

20
8
6
6

39.1727
39.8952
38.2248
44.6971

8.7593
14.1050
15.6050
18.2480

Upper 95% CI for


Mean

P-value

-0.7245
-1.833
-1.440
-1.084

0.6945
1.2750
1.6564
1.5109

0.4588

-13.8824
-35.8500
-33.5500
-35.3100

22.7844
30.8580
46.6790
58.5050

0.8277

0.4695
0.8087

Note: there was no statistically significant difference between the 2009 and 2011 breeding bird density results (P>0.6)

Appendix G provides a summary of species observations by point count, sorted by the distance
to the nearest turbine. Red-eyed Vireo had a reduction in numbers within 160 m of turbines, but
was more likely to increase in numbers at a greater distance, though this trend was not
consistent. While Ovenbird had its greatest decrease at one of the sites within 160 m of a
turbine, there was no change at the other turbine within 160 m or the 170 m site, and at greater
distances there was no noticeable trend. Black-throated Blue Warbler numbers were down for
the point counts near turbines (160-170 m), but also decreased at further distances (e.g., 230 to
560 m). Black-throated Green Warbler numbers increased at point counts at varying distances
from turbines (160 m,170 m, 240 m, 350 m, 380 m, 440 m, 520 m), and appeared at two point
counts where they had not been previously recorded (560 m and 580 m). Overall, Blackthroated Green Warbler numbers increased by 32% in 2011, as compared to 2009. The Least
Flycatcher and Brown Creeper had been previously detected (i.e., in 2009) at point counts that
are now located within 200 m of turbines, but were not detected in 2011. Other species such as
Yellow-bellied Woodpecker and Dark-eyed Junco had overall reductions in density, whether
they were close or far from turbines.
Table 3.12 presents the results of an ANOVA of changes in densities of the four most common
species from pre-construction to post-construction, based on the distance to nearest turbine.
There is a significant difference (p< 0.05) in the change in density of Black-throated Blue
Warbler, while there was no significant difference in the change in densities of Black-throated

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3.13

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
March 6, 2012

Green Warbler, Ovenbird and Red-eyed Vireo. The significant difference in the change in
density of Black-throated Blue Warbler was due to the decrease in individuals observed in point
counts close to turbines (refer to Appendix G).
Table 3.12

Results of ANOVA of Change in Densities of Selected Bird Species


Mean

Black-throated
-0.0796
Blue Warbler
Black-throated
-0.0955
Green Warbler
Ovenbird
0.1114
Red-eyed Vireo
0.3183
*significant at p < 0.05

3.3

Std. Dev.

SE of Mean

Lower - 95%
CI for Mean

Upper - 95%
CI for Mean

P-value

20

0.2033

0.0455

-0.1747

0.0156

0.0302*

20

0.2551

0.0570

-0.2149

0.0239

0.2121

20
20

0.2971
0.4258

0.0664
0.0952

-0.0276
0.1190

0.2504
0.5176

0.2986
0.2419

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION CONCERN

No SARA-listed Endangered or Threatened species with evidence of breeding were


encountered during surveys, nor were any species considered Endangered, Threatened, or
Special Concern by COSEWIC, but not yet added to Schedule 1 of SARA. Chimney Swift,
Threatened under SARA (Schedule 1), was observed calling and flying through during a point
count on July 2, 2011 (Point count #21; see Figure 2.1). As the observation was a flyover, it
was not counted as a potential breeder at the point count; however the individual was likely
foraging, as there is potential breeding habitat in mature hardwood forest stands surrounding
the turbines. Chimney Swift was confirmed as breeding in 2007 during area searches in the
mature hardwood forest between turbines F5 and E4 (Jacques Whitford 2007).
One species of conservation concern was identified during the 2011 casualty surveys. Little
brown bat, observed during all three seasons of the Program, is ranked Sensitive by NBNDR,
but is ranked S4 by AC CDC (i.e., usually widespread and fairly common, but of longer-term
concern). Its Sensitive ranking is largely due to the hibernating habits of this species, which
congregates in hibernacula to overwinter.

3.14

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

4.0

CONCLUSION

The 2011 Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion Post-Construction Monitoring Program was
undertaken to assess the direct and indirect effects of operating wind turbines in the Expansion
area on birds and bats. Direct effects were assessed through weekly casualty surveys at 10
turbines over a 28-week period from mid-April to mid-October. Indirect effects (i.e.,
displacement or habitat avoidance) were assessed by repeating the breeding bird point count
surveys that were conducted in 2009 during pre-construction conditions.
The results of casualty surveys for the initial phase of the wind farm had yielded relatively low
mortality rates, and similar numbers were recorded in 2011 for the Expansion. In total, four bird
carcasses and three bat carcasses were located during the 2011 casualty searches. As
discussed in Section 3.3, the bat species (little brown bat) located during casualty searches is
considered a species of conservation concern; whereas the bird species are common in the
region. When the mortality estimate correction equation was applied to these numbers, taking
into account scavenger impact data, searcher efficiency trial results, and percent area searched
calculations, the estimated number of bird and bat mortalities for the 28-week monitoring period
in 2011 was 1.41 birds per turbine, or 0.47 birds per MW; as well as 0.95 bats per turbine, or
0.32 bats per MW. These numbers are similar to the estimated mortality rates in 2009 and 2010
for the Kent Hills Wind Farm (Table 4.1).
Table 4.1
Program
Initial Phase
Expansion

Mortality Rates Comparison within Kent Hills Wind Farm


Casualties Per Turbine
Year
Birds
Bats
2009
0.96
0.41
0.39
0.10
2010
0.95
2011
1.41

Casualties Per MW
Birds
Bats
0.33
0.14
0.13
0.03
0.47
0.32

The National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) provides a summary of studies


conducted at more than 60 wind farms throughout North America. Results from this summary
report show that estimates of bird casualties have been found to be fairly consistent in that 42 of
the 63 studies report casualties of 3 casualties/MW/year (Strickland et al., 2011). In
comparison, the estimated casualty rate of birds in 2011 at the Kent Hills Expansion was found
to be low at 0.47 birds/MW for the 28-week monitoring period. With respect to bats, of the 66
studies reported in Strickland et al., (2011) that provided estimates of bat casualties, most wind
farms (54) report bat casualties < 10 casualties/MW/year, and range from 0.07 to 39.7 bat
casualties/MW for the 28-week monitoring period. In comparison, the estimated casualty rate of
bats at the Kent Hills Expansion in 2011 is 0.32 bats/MW for the 28-week monitoring period.
Avian mortality studies from 14 North American facilities were reviewed by Arnett et al. (2007).
Corrected avian mortality estimates ranged from 0.63 to 7.7 birds per turbine or 0.95 to 11.7 bird

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


CONCLUSION
March 6, 2012

casualties per MW. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is situated approximately 240 km WSW of the
Kent Hills Wind Farm. Fatalities at the Mars Hill Wind Farm were 0.68 bats per turbine and 2.04
birds per turbine (Stantec Consulting 2009). It should be noted, however, that methodologies
differed between the Expansion 2011 monitoring protocol and the Mars Hill 2008 monitoring
protocol. Arnett et al. (2008) reviewed bat studies from 22 North American wind facilities, and
found that corrected estimates of bat mortality rates ranged from 0.1 to 69.6 bats per turbine or
0.2 to 53.3 bats per MW across North America.
With regards to the breeding bird surveys, observations made during the breeding season are
comparable to those made during pre-construction surveys in 2009, and are typical of the area.
Overall bird numbers and species diversity remained consistent.
Changes in bird density (i.e., actual change in density and percent change in density) from preconstruction (2009) to post-construction (2011), based on distance to nearest turbine (i.e.,
separately by actual distance in metres and by distance category: near 0-250m, medium 251500m, far >500m), were examined using an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of the
ANOVA examining the changes in densities between the 2009 and 2011 breeding bird survey
results indicate that there was no significant difference in the absolute or percent change in bird
density (2011 compared to 2009 results) with distance to nearest turbine (p>0.05), either by
actual distance or by distance category. Results of an ANOVA of changes in densities of the
four most common species (Black-throated Blue Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler,
Ovenbird and Red-eyed Vireo) from pre-construction to post-construction, based on the
distance to nearest turbine, found a significant difference (p< 0.05) in the change in density of
Black-throated Blue Warbler only. The significant difference in the change in density of Blackthroated Blue Warbler was due to the decrease in individuals observed in point counts close to
turbines.
No large concerns were identified during the pre-construction monitoring work at the Kent Hills
Wind Farm Expansion, and the results of the post-construction monitoring program in 2011
would support that conclusion. The total estimated annual mortality rates for 2011 fall within the
lower end of the reported range of estimated mortalities at wind farms throughout North America
and Canada.
This report has been prepared on behalf of and for the exclusive use of TransAlta Corporation
and its representatives for the Expansion. This review only represents the literature available at
the time of its preparation. The conclusions presented herein represent the best judgment of
Stantec based on current knowledge and standards. Stantec attests that to the best of our
knowledge, the information presented in this report is accurate.

4.2

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CONCLUSION
March 6, 2012

Sincerely,
STANTEC CONSULTING LTD.

Greg A, M, Johnson, M.Sc.


Project Manager
Associate, Environmental Management

Derek Ebner, M.Sc., P.Biol.


Senior Reviewer
Senior Wildlife Biologist

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4.3

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

5.0

REFERENCES

5.1

LITERATURE CITED

Arnett, E.B., D.B. Inkley, D.H. Johnson, R.P. Larkin, S. Manes, A.M. Manville, J.R. Mason, M.L.
Morrison, M.D. Strickland, and R. Thresher. 2007. Impacts of Wind Energy Facilities on
Wildlife and Wildlife Habitats. Wildlife Society Technical Review 07-2. The Wildlife Society,
Bethesda, Maryland.
Arnett, E.B., Brown, W.K., Erickson, W.P., Fiedler, J.k., Hamilton, B.L., Henry, T.H., Jain, A.,
Johnson, G.D., Kerns, J., Koford, R.R., Nicholson, C.P., OConnell, T.J., Piorkowski, M.D.,
Tankersley, R.D. Jr. 2008. Patterns of Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North
America. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 72(1).
Environment Canada. 2007. Recommended Protocols for Monitoring Impacts of Wind Turbines
on Birds. April 2007.
Jacques Whitford. 2007. EIA Registration File Number 4561-3-1128: Kent Hills Wind Farm,
TransAlta Wind Response to Comments. Letter report to New Brunswick Department of
Environment, Project Assessment Branch, dated August 20, 2007.
Morrison, M. 2002. Searcher Bias and Scavenging Rates in Bird/Wind Energy Studies. National
Renewable Energy Laboratories, Colorado.
National Wind Coordinating Collaborative. 2010. Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and
their Habitats: A summary of Research Results and Priority Questions.
www.nationalwind.org. 8 pp. Spring 2010.
Pyle, P. 1997. Identification guide to North American birds - part 1. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas,
CA.
Stantec Consulting. 2009. Post-construction Monitoring at the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Maine
Year 2. 2008. Prepared For: First Wind Management, LLC. Prepared By: Stantec
Consulting, Topsham, ME. January 2009.
Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2010. Kent Hills Wind Farm 2009 Post-Construction Monitoring
Program. Final Report. Prepared For: TransAlta Corporation. Prepared By: Stantec
Consulting Ltd, Saint John, NB. February 24, 2010.
Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2011. Kent Hills Wind Farm 2010 Post-Construction Monitoring
Program. Final Report. Prepared For: TransAlta Corporation. Prepared By: Stantec
Consulting Ltd, Saint John, NB. January 24, 2011.
Strickland, M.D., E.B. Arnett, W.P. Erickson, D.H. Johnson, G.D. Johnson, M.L. Morrison, J.A.
Shaffer, and W. Warren-Hicks. 2011. Comprehensive Guide to Studying Wind
Energy/Wildlife Interactions. Prepared for the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative,
Washington, D.C., USA.

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


REFERENCES
March 6, 2012

5.2

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

Fell, Denise. Personal Communication, via email. February 25, 2009.

5.2

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6.0

Appendices

APPENDIX A Protocol
APPENDIX B Wildlife Collection Permits
APPENDIX C Detailed Calculations
APPENDIX D Field Data Collection Forms
APPENDIX E Mortality Surveys Results
APPENDIX F Breeding Bird Surveys Results
APPENDIX G Breeding Bird Summary of Species by Point Count Location

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APPENDIX A
Protocol

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Appendices
March 6, 2012

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Protocol
Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion
Post-Construction
Bird and Bat Monitoring
April 2011

TransAlta Corporation
110 - 12th Avenue S.W.
Box 1900, Station M
Calgary, Alberta
T2P 2M1

(403) 267-2000
www.transalta.com

Introduction
TransAlta Corp. (TransAlta) has developed the Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion (the
Project) in Albert County, New Brunswick. This Project was subject to the Clean
Environment Act, and an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) registration was
undertaken. TransAlta received a Certificate of Determination for this EIA on December
18, 2009. One of the conditions of approval was the undertaking of post-construction
monitoring of bird and bat resources at the site. This document presents a protocol for
this follow-up program, incorporating comments from Environment Canada/Canadian
Wildlife Service (EC) and the New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources
(NBDNR), following their review of an earlier draft dated January 2010.

Background
For the Kent Hills Wind Farm New Brunswick EIA registration, and subsequent
Environmental Assessment (EA) Report to support a Screening under the Canadian
Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), extensive fieldwork, consultation and analysis
was undertaken. This included a thorough characterization of the natural environment at
the site of the original Kent Hills Wind Farm and Expansion, including vegetation, birds
and other vertebrate species. Specifically, for the original application, bird surveys were
carried out onsite for seven seasons (spring, summer and fall of 2006; winter, spring,
summer and fall 2007). For the Expansion Project application, a 2008 fall bird migration
study was completed focusing on the Expansion (G-row and H-Row) part of the Study
Area, to supplement the 2006 and 2007 data.

Habitat
The Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion is located in the Southern New Brunswick Uplands
Ecoregion of the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone, in eastern New Brunswick. Kent Hills is
located 5 km northeast of Fundy National Park. The site is situated on a plateau and is
irregularly shaped, approximately 12 km long and as much as 5.5 km wide. The land is
currently owned by the province (Crown Land), and there are logging roads to and
through the site which are frequently used by ATV drivers. The Study Area is located
between elevation 350 m and 400 m. The habitat within the Project boundaries is
predominately mixed or hardwood forest, with some nursery/plantation areas. Much of
the habitat is young, with numerous clear-cuts at various stages of regeneration.

Birds
As part of the original EIA Report a field program was employed to collect data on birds
in the Primary Study Area, with emphasis on migrating birds. A migration monitoring
program was undertaken in the spring (April/May) and autumn (September/October) of
2006. Additionally, breeding bird surveys were conducted within the Primary Study Area
in June 2006. The results of these surveys were presented in the original EIA report.
Supplemental surveys were also conducted in the breeding and fall migration seasons in
2007. A migration and breeding bird monitoring report for the 2007 surveys was
provided in the response to TRC Comments.

Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol


Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion

April 2011

Page 2

As follow up to the 2006 and 2007 bird monitoring programs, a 2008 fall bird migration
study was completed focusing on the Expansion (G-row and H-Row) part of the Study
Area, to supplement the 2006 and 2007 data.
Post-construction bird and bat monitoring was conducted at the Kent Hills Wind Farm in
2009 and 2010. Indirect effects (i.e. displacement, habitat avoidance) were assessed in
2009 by replication of the breeding bird point count surveys that were undertaken during
pre-construction (baseline) conditions. Direct effects (mortality) to birds and bats were
assessed in 2009 and 2010 through carcass searches around a subset of 20 of the 32
wind turbines during the 26 week monitoring period.

Scope of Monitoring
TransAlta has committed to undertaking up to two years of focused post-construction
monitoring, with a commitment to assess the results of the first year of monitoring in
cooperation with EC and NBDNR to determine the need for the second year.
Monitoring will focus on the assessment of direct effects to birds and bats and indirect
effects to birds of operating wind turbines in the Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion.
Indirect effects will be assessed through repeating the breeding bird point count surveys
to compare pre-construction conditions with those during the first year or two years of
Project operation. Direct effects to birds and bats will be monitored by carcass searches
at 10 wind turbine sites in the Expansion area.
The spatial extent of the post-construction monitoring will include the extent of the Kent
Hills Wind farm Expansion as constructed. Temporally, bird and bat casualty surveys will
be undertaken during the spring, summer and fall, as outlined below.

Survey Methodology
The survey methodology outlined below is considered appropriate for this Project, and is
based on standardized and tested methodology of surveys completed at other TransAlta
operational projects and other wind energy facilities. Consideration was given to
Environment Canadas protocol guidance document (Environment Canada 2007) during
the drafting of this protocol.

Direct Effects - Casualty Surveys


Casualty surveys will be undertaken during spring (mid-April to mid-June), summer (midJune to mid-August) and fall (mid-August to mid-October) for a 26 week survey period.
Frequency of surveys will be weekly, but this may be increased if carcass
removal/scavenging frequency is high at the site (see below).
A representative sample of 10 of the 18 wind turbines will be selected for surveying, and
will be representative of spatial extent of the wind farm, lit vs. unlit, and habitat found in
the Project area. At each turbine, a circular plot will be searched, with a radius of 50 m
centered on the base of the turbine. All open area within this circular plot will be
searched for casualties, and an assessment completed on a site-by-site basis as to the
efficacy of searching in vegetated areas within the plot. If searcher efficiency is
compromised in certain areas, the approximate area compromised will be mapped and

Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol


Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion

April 2011

Page 3

noted for later use in correcting for the percent area searched in estimating the total
mortality.
Searching will be efficient through the use of two people and a rope 57 m in length. This
methodology has proven very effective for casualty searches at TransAltas
Summerview Wind Farm. One observer is situated at the end of the rope and another is
situated 7 m from the end of the rope (57 m and 50 m from the turbine base,
respectively). As the observers walk together in a circle around the base of the turbine,
keeping the rope taut, the rope wraps around the turbine base, thus creating a spiral
search path, which continues until the observers are at the base of the turbine. This
method allows the observers to focus on searching for bird and bat casualties without
being distracted by following flagged paths or prescribed search areas. This method was
used during the casualty searches in 2009 and 2010 at the Kent Hills Wind Farm.
Each carcass detected will be identified to species, aged and sexed in the field if
possible (using Pyle (1997) or other sources), or retained for future identification, ageing
and sexing. (Note: appropriate federal and provincial scientific collection permits will be
obtained from EC and NBDNR if specimens are to be retained.) The location of each
carcass will be recorded using a handheld GPS, and the condition of the carcass (Table
1) and probable cause of death (with rationale for the determination) will be noted.
Carcasses of bats and birds will be removed from the sampling area to avoid attracting
scavengers, and assuming the appropriate permits are obtained, specimens will be
made available to NB Museum and university staff for examination and/or necropsy.
In light of the recent discovery of White-nose Syndrome in Albert County NB, all bat
carcasses discovered during the 2011 monitoring program will be delivered to the NB
Museum. Subsequent analyses (conducted by Museum staff) may help to further the
understanding of the distribution or spatial extent of bats infected with the White-nose
disease.
Table 1. Carcass condition categories.
Code

Description

M
F
R
D

Injured or moribund.
Freshly dead with little or no decay or scavenging by insects; probably died within 48 hours.
Recently dead but with noticeable decay or scavenging by insects; probably died within 1-7 days.
Decomposed carcass, barely recognizable or not recognizable to species; probably dead more
than 7 days.
Residual remains, such as feathers, bones, blood or other scraps of tissue.

In addition to bird and bat carcasses, any injured or moribund individuals will be
recorded in the same fashion as above for fatalities. These moribund individuals will be
humanely euthanized (the appropriate permit will be obtained from the relevant agency).
Circumstantial evidence of bird or bat casualty (e.g., feathers, blood spots) will be noted,
geo-referenced and identified to species if possible (in the case of bird feathers).
To assess the influence of scavenging on carcass removal in each season, a sample of
carcasses (such as chicks, quails and chickens obtained from suppliers) will be placed in
similar habitat at least 500m away from any sample station and checked daily for a
period of a week, or until all of the carcasses have been scavenged. Results of this test
will be used to correct mortality estimates for the effect of carcass removal by
scavengers.

Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol


Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion

April 2011

Page 4

Searcher efficiency trials are designed to correct for carcasses that may be overlooked
by searchers during the survey periods. To facilitate this correction, trial carcasses will
be placed within the search area prior to the regular search by someone other than
searchers. Searcher efficiency trials will be done blindly, in that searchers will not know
they are being tested. After the regular search, the person doing the trial will return to
the search areas and retrieve any overlooked trial carcasses. Collected trial carcasses
will be removed from the actual mortalities during calculations of the total mortality
estimate. Searchers will walk following the searching method noted above. Each
searcher will walk the search path noting the location of carcasses. This test will provide
a measure of variability between searchers and searching success for the study team,
offering an overall estimate of the efficiency of the searching methodology.
These trials will be repeated in each season of sampling to address inter-seasonal
variability in scavenging removal and searcher efficiency rates (due to vegetation cover
differences).

Indirect Effects Breeding Bird Point counts


In order to allow for an assessment of indirect effects to birds (habitat avoidance,
displacement), breeding bird surveys will be undertaken in 2011. The 20 point count
locations surveyed during the EIA fieldwork will be re-surveyed using the same
methodology to facilitate a direct comparison between pre-construction and postconstruction breeding bird diversity and abundance. Two surveys will be conducted, one
in early June and one in late June using 10 minute point counts. All birds (species and
number) observed, either by sight or song will be noted. Three distance categories will
be used for recording: 0-50 m from the observer, 50-100 m and greater than 100 m.
Birds flying overhead will be noted separately from the point count observations. Data
will also be collected on weather conditions during the point count surveys, including
temperature, wind speed and direction, precipitation and visibility. Point counts will not
be conducted in heavy rain or strong winds.
Incidental observations will be recorded of species in the area during each survey day
outside of the point count surveys conducted in the early morning hours. The observer
will note specific details, including location and behaviour for any species of
conservation concern noted through incidental observation.

Data Analysis and Reporting


A final report will be produced that will provide raw data and results analysis of the postconstruction monitoring program. The report will be shared with EC and NBDNR for
review and discussion. Based on the results of the 2011 monitoring work, and
consultation with EC and NBDRN, requirements for subsequent monitoring in 2012 will
be determined.

Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol


Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion

April 2011

Page 5

Literature Cited
Environment Canada. 2007. Recommended Protocols for Monitoring Impacts of Wind
Turbines on Birds. April 2007.
Pyle, P. 1997. Identification guide to North American birds - part 1. Slate Creek Press,
Bolinas, CA.

Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol


Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion

April 2011

Page 6

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

APPENDIX B
Wildlife Collection Permits

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March 6, 2012

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Appendices
March 6, 2012

APPENDIX C
Detailed Calculations

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Appendices
March 6, 2012

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Appendix C

Calculations Summaries

The methodologies for calculating Scavenger Impact Trial value, the overall weighted Searcher
Efficiency values, the Percent Area Searched and the final Corrected Mortality Estimate value
are illustrated below.
SEARCHER EFFICIENCY TRIAL CALCULATION
Searcher efficiency (Se) was calculated for each search team using the following equation:

Se =

number of test carcasses found


(number of test carcasses placed) (number of test carcasses scavenged)

Searchers searched varying numbers of turbines over the course of the casualty surveys, and it
was necessary to find a weighted average which reflected the proportion of turbines each
search team searched. This weighted average, or overall searcher efficiency, was calculated as
follows:

Seo = Se1(n1/T) + Se2(n2/T) + Se3(n3/T) + Se...(n.../T)...


where:

Seo

is the overall searcher efficiency;

Se1 and 2 and 3...

are individual searcher efficiency ratings;

N1 and 2 and 3...

are number of turbines searched by each searcher; and

is the total number of turbines searched by all searchers.

The overall searcher efficiency was calculated separately for each season that the casualty
surveys ran (Table C1).

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Table C1:

Weighted Searcher Efficiency Trial Results Seasonal and Overall

Survey
Team

Season

Spring
(mid-Apr to
mid-Jun)

SE(team)

T1

Avg(1)

Se (Season)

2-May

HF/TJK

15

0.533

40

0.4000

0.2133

17-May

RB/TJK

13

0.3077

60

0.6000

0.1846

Total

100

1.0000

0.3979

Summer
(mid-Jun to mid-Aug)
Trial conducted 12-Jul
Fall
(mid-Aug to mid-Oct)
Trial conducted 12-Sept

Overall

Number
Number of
Number
Number
of
Carcasses
Scavenged overlooked carcasses
Placed
found

RB/TJK

10

0.667

90

1.0000

0.6667

HF/RB

12

0.583

15

0.1667

0.0972

RB/TJK

13

0.462

75

0.8333

0.3846

Total

90

1.0000

0.4818

HF/TJK

15

0.533

40

0.1429

0.0762

RB/TJK

13

0.3077

60

0.2143

0.0659

RB/TJK

10

0.667

90

0.3214

0.2143

HF/RB

12

0.583

15

0.0536

0.0313

RB/TJK

13

0.4615

75

0.2679

0.1236

Total

280

0.4921

0.5113

T1
Total turbines searched per team for Season
Avg(1) Total turbines searched per team/Total turbines searched per season
[Avg(1)][Se(team)]
Se (season)

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PERCENT AREA SEARCHED CALCULATION


Percent area searched methodology is discussed in section 2.2.1 of the Report. Below provides
the calculations for percent area searched by season.
Percent area searched (Ps) is calculated as follows:

Ps = area searched
r2

where r = 50 m

In this equation, area searched refers to the unvegetated, searchable areas within the 50 m
radius searched, and r is the radius corresponding to the size of the area Environment Canada
identified as most likely to find the carcasses.
Since the searchable area around a turbine varied per turbine, the weighted average Ps of all
searched turbines (weighted by total number of searches for each turbine) was used in the
correction equation. The area searched around each turbine was determined using a GPS to
map out the approximate limits of the area searched. Using ArcInfo, this area was calculated
for each turbine, and is presented in Table C2, along with the percent area searched for each
turbine.
Table C2: Searchable Area and Percent Area Searched for Each Turbine
2

Turbine
E3

Searchable Area (m )
5905.3

Ps (turbine)
0.7539

E5

5595.2

0.7143

E6

4622.9

0.5902

E7

5700.8

0.7278

E8

5329.6

0.6804

G1

5462.5

0.6973

H1

5400.9

0.6895

H2

5051.0

0.6448

H3

5597.7

0.7146

H5

4876.3

0.6225

H7

4828.3

0.6164

H8

5636.6

0.7196

I1

3885.9

0.4961

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Table C3:

Calculation of Percent Area Searched by Season

Season

Summer

S1
(1)
Avg
Ps

S1

E3
E5
E6
E7
E8
G1
H1
H2
H3
H5
H7
H8
I1

Spring

Fall

Turbine

Avg

(1)

Ps

9
10
1
1
9
10
9
1
10
10
10
10
10

0.0900
0.1000
0.0100
0.0100
0.0900
0.1000
0.0900
0.0100
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000

0.0678
0.0714
0.0059
0.0073
0.0612
0.0697
0.0621
0.0064
0.0715
0.0623
0.0616
0.0720
0.0496

Total

100
9
8
1
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

1.0000
0.1000
0.0889
0.0111
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000

0.6688
0.0754
0.0635
0.0066
0.0680
0.0697
0.0689
0.0715
0.0623
0.0616
0.0720
0.0496

Total

90
9
9
9
9
9
1
8
9
9
9
9

1.0000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.0111
0.0889
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000

0.6691
0.0754
0.0714
0.0680
0.0697
0.0689
0.0072
0.0635
0.0623
0.0616
0.0720
0.0496

180

1.0000

0.6953

E3
E5
E6
E8
G1
H1
H3
H5
H7
H8
I1
E3
E5
E8
G1
H1
H2
H3
H5
H7
H8
I1

Total
Total Searches per turbine for season
S1/Total Searches for season
(1)
[Avg ][Ps(turbine)]

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

ESTIMATED MORTALITY CORRECTION EQUATION CALCULATION


Mortality Correction Equation:

C = (c / (Se x Sc x Ps)) x (K/n),


where:

is the corrected number of bird or bat mortalities for the entire expansion;

is the number of carcasses found;

Se

is the proportion of carcasses expected to be found by searchers (searcher


efficiency);

Sc

is the proportion of carcasses not removed by scavengers over the search


period; and,

Ps

is the percent of the area searched.

is the number of turbines searched

is the total number of turbines in the wind farm

Corrected bird mortality estimates and bat mortality estimates are calculated separately per
season, and are provided below in Tables C4 and C5. Because different searchers worked for
differing lengths of time, their efficiencies are weighted by season, then added together for the
overall 28-week monitoring period. Searcher efficiency and scavenger trials, and percent area
searched are all used for the correction of bird and bat mortality estimates.

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Table C4:

Season

Estimated Bird Mortality Correction Results

Se

Sc

Ps

K/n

Spring

0.3979

0.9333

0.6688

1.8000

Summer

0.6667

0.7273

0.6691

1.8000

0.4818

0.7568

0.6697

1.8000

0.8308

0.6692

1.8000

Fall
Overall
0.5113
n=10; K=18

Casualties
per turbine

Casualties
Per MW

14.49

0.81

0.27

5.55

0.31

0.10

7.37

0.41

0.14

25.33

1.41

0.47

Casualties
Per Turbine

Casualties
Per MW

Note: C is the corrected number of bird casualties for the entire expansion

Table C5: Estimated Bat Mortality Correction Results

Season

Se

Sc

Ps

K/n

Spring

0.3979

0.9333

0.6688

1.8000

7.25

0.40

0.13

Summer

0.6667

0.7273

0.6691

1.8000

5.55

0.31

0.10

0.4818
Fall
Overall
0.5113
n=10; K=18

0.7568

0.6697

1.8000

7.37

0.41

0.14

0.8308

0.6692

1.8000

17.05

0.95

0.32

Note: C is the corrected number of bird casualties for the entire expansion

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

APPENDIX D
Field Data Collection Forms

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Appendices
March 6, 2012

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2011 Kent Hills Wind Turbine Casualty Search

Date

, 2011

Turbine ID ______
Temp: ______ C

Observers: ______________ __

Time Start: ____________

Job # 121810397

__________________

Time End: ___________

Precipitation: ________________ Wind Direction: ______ Wind Speed: ______

Cloud Cover _______% Visibility ________km


Anything Found: Yes ____ No ____

Turbine ID ______
Temp: ______ C

Comments______________________________________________

Time Start: ____________

Time End: ___________

Precipitation: ________________ Wind Direction: ______ Wind Speed: ______

Cloud Cover _______% Visibility ________km


Anything Found: Yes ____ No ____

Turbine ID ______
Temp: ______ C

Comments______________________________________________

Time Start: ____________

Time End: ___________

Precipitation: ________________ Wind Direction: ______ Wind Speed: ______

Cloud Cover _______% Visibility ________km


Anything Found: Yes ____ No ____

Turbine ID ______
Temp: ______ C

Comments______________________________________________

Time Start: ____________

Time End: ___________

Precipitation: ________________ Wind Direction: ______ Wind Speed: ______

Cloud Cover _______% Visibility ________km


Anything Found: Yes ____ No ____

Turbine ID ______
Temp: ______ C

Comments______________________________________________

Time Start: ____________

Time End: ___________

Precipitation: ________________ Wind Direction: ______ Wind Speed: ______

Cloud Cover _______% Visibility ________km


Anything Found: Yes ____ No ____

Comments______________________________________________

Bird/Bat Mortality Monitoring Form - 2011


Date and Time_________________________

Project Number___121810397__________

Study Area and Site: Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion


Observer _____________________________________

Temperature ___________________

Weather

Wind Condition_______________________

Wind Direction :
N

NNE

Precipitation
None Fog

NE

ENE

ESE

SE

SSE

SSW

SW

Cloud Cover (%) ________


Drizzle

WSW

WNW

NW

NNW

Visibility _______________

Lt Rain Hvy Rain

Carcass Information:
Carcass ID example (Year-Month-Day)-(Searcher Initials)-(Turbine Number-Carcass Letter)
Carcass ID #
Turbine Tower #
UTM of Specimen Location
Distance and Direction to Nearest Turbine
Substrate Specimen Found In
Adjacent Structures (i.e. fence, power line,
substation) and Approximate Distance from
Specimen
Sex
Age Class
Carcass Condition Code
Keeled Calcar Present?
YES
NO
Toe Hairs Longer than Toes Nails?
YES
NO
Dorsal Tail Membrane Densely Furred?
YES
NO
Measurements (in mm)
Tragus:
Forearm:
Foot:
Species ID
Categories of Carcass Condition
CODE
M

Description
Injured or moribund

Freshly dead with little or no decay or scavenging by insects; probably died within 48 hours

Recently dead but with noticeable decay or scavenging by insects; probably died within 1-7 days

Decomposed carcass, barely recognizable or not recognizable to species; probably dead more than 7 days

Residual remains, such as feathers, bones, blood or other scraps of tissue

Comments:_________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Searcher Efficiency Carcass Form


Date Placed________________________________________________________________________________
Project Number, Study Area & Site 121810397 Kent Hills Expansion

Turbine #__________

Observer ______________________________Searcher____________________________________________

Weather Conditions When Placed

Temperature ______________Wind Condition____________________

Wind Direction :
N

NNE

NE

Precipitation
None Fog

Carcass Type

ENE

ESE

SE

SSE

SSW

SW

Cloud Cover (%) ________


Drizzle

WSW

WNW

NW

NNW

Visibility ______________________

Lt Rain Hvy Rain

Turbine
Number

Location Description
(cleared area, grassy area, on gravel
access road, within crops, etc)

Carcass Located During


Mortality Search? Yes or No.
If No, Confirm Whether
Carcass was Scavenged or
Overlooked

Carcass clearly visible?

Yes, carcass located

Carcass not clearly visible?

No, carcass was not located

Native Bird
Poultry
Description of carcasses location:

If no, carcass was:


Scavenged
Overlooked

Native Bird
Poultry

Carcass clearly visible?

Yes, carcass located

Carcass not clearly visible?

No, carcass was not located

Description of carcasses location:

If no, carcass was:


Scavenged
Overlooked

Native Bird
Poultry

Carcass clearly visible?

Yes, carcass located

Carcass not clearly visible?

No, carcass was not located

Description of carcasses location:

If no, carcass was:


Scavenged
Overlooked

Scavenger Trials - Kent Hills 2011 - Job # 121810397


Kent Hills Wind Farm Expansion - 2011 Scavenger Trials
1

10

Site name
easting

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

northing

507

507

507

507

507

507

507

507

507

507

bait type
Date
SO

Scavenger Codes
SO - Set out
NC - No Change
PB - Partially buried
P - Partial remains
R - Remnants
G - Gone

SO

SO

SO

SO

SO

Notes

* barely recognizable
** beetles or slugs present

SO

SO

SO

SO

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

APPENDIX E
Mortality Surveys Results

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Appendices
March 6, 2012

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

APPENDIX E

Mortality Surveys Results

11-Apr-11

H3

2011-04-11-HF,TK-H3-A

UTM Coordinates
(NAD83 Zone 20;
Easting, Northing)
348642, 5071459

9-May-11

E8

2011-05-09-RB,TK-E8-A

354116, 5010609

Bird

Blue-headed Vireo

6.35

SSW

gravel

30-May-11

H1

2011-05-30-RB,TK-H1-A

348627, 5072385

Bird

Northern Parula

46

SSW

gravel

4-Jul-11

E3

2011-07-04-RB,TK-E3-A

352819, 5072681

Bird

Red-eyed Vireo

0.17

SSE

stairway platform

25-Jul-11

H1

2011-07-25-RB,TK-H1-A

348628, 5072325

Bat

little brown bat

17.33

NNW

gravel

12-Sep-11

G1

2011-09-12-RB,HF-G1-A

349940, 5070484

Bat

little brown bat

22

NNE

gravel

26-Sep-11

H3

2011-09-26-RB,TK-H3-A

348639, 5071419

Bird

Black-throated Green
Warbler

5.2

SW

gravel

Turbine
#

Date

Carcass ID#

Bird/
Bat
Bat

Carcass
Condition

Distance from
turbine (m)

Direction
to Turbine

Substrate Type

little brown bat

43

SSW

snow

Species

Carcass Condition Categories


M
F
R
D
X

Injured or moribund.
Freshly dead with little or no decay or scavenging by insects; probably died within 48 hours.
Recently dead but with noticeable decay or scavenging by insects; probably died within 1-7 days.
Decomposed carcass, barely recognizable or not recognizable to species; probably dead more than 7 days.
Residual remains, such as feathers, bones, blood or other scraps of tissue.

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Appendices
March 6, 2012

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

APPENDIX F
Breeding Bird Surveys Results

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Appendices
March 6, 2012

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KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Counts

Site #
01

6/15/2009

8:52

20

100

Fog

01

6/15/2009

8:52

20

100

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

01

6/15/2009

8:52

20

100

Fog

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

01

6/15/2009

8:52

20

100

Fog

Northern Parula

Parula americana

01

6/15/2009

8:52

20

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

01

6/15/2009

8:52

20

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

01

6/15/2009

8:52

20

100

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

01

6/15/2009

8:52

20

100

Fog

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

01

7/1/2009

6:54

15

100

Fog

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

01

7/1/2009

6:54

15

100

Fog

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

01

7/1/2009

6:54

15

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

01

7/1/2009

6:54

15

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

01

7/1/2009

6:54

15

100

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

01

6/7/2011

8:21

NNE

100

Fog

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

01

6/7/2011

8:21

NNE

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

01

6/7/2011

8:21

NNE

100

Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

01

6/7/2011

8:21

NNE

100

Fog

Hairy Woodpecker

Picoides villosus

01

6/7/2011

8:21

NNE

100

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

01

6/7/2011

8:21

NNE

100

Fog

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

01

6/7/2011

8:21

NNE

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

01

6/7/2011

8:21

NNE

100

Fog

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

01

6/28/2011

6:43

14-20

NNW

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

01

6/28/2011

6:43

14-20

NNW

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

01

6/28/2011

6:43

14-20

NNW

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

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>100m

Dendroica caerulescens

50 to 100m

Black-throated Blue Warbler

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

<50m

Appendix F

2
1
1

1
1
2

1
1
1
1

1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1

F1

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
01

6/28/2011

6:43

14-20

NNW

None

Hairy Woodpecker

Picoides villosus

01

6/28/2011

6:43

14-20

NNW

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

01

6/28/2011

6:43

14-20

NNW

None

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

01

6/28/2011

6:43

14-20

NNW

None

Northern Parula

Parula americana

01

6/28/2011

6:43

14-20

NNW

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

01

6/28/2011

6:43

14-20

NNW

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

01

6/28/2011

6:43

14-20

NNW

None

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

03

6/15/2009

8:19

20

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

03

6/15/2009

8:19

20

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

03

6/15/2009

8:19

20

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

03

6/15/2009

8:19

20

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

03

6/15/2009

8:19

20

100

Fog

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Archilochus colubris

03

6/15/2009

8:19

20

100

Fog

Swainson's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus

03

6/15/2009

8:19

20

100

Fog

Winter Wren

Troglodytes troglodytes

03

7/1/2009

7:26

15

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

03

7/1/2009

7:26

15

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

03

7/1/2009

7:26

15

100

Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

03

7/1/2009

7:26

15

100

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

03

7/1/2009

7:26

15

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

03

7/1/2009

7:26

15

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

03

6/7/2011

8:47

NNE

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

03

6/7/2011

8:47

NNE

100

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

Counts
1st 5 Minutes

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>100m

50 to 100m

>100m

50 to 100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Appendix F

1
1
2

1
1

1
1
1

1
2
1
1
2

1
1

1
1

F2

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
03

6/7/2011

8:47

NNE

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

03

6/7/2011

8:47

NNE

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

03

6/7/2011

8:47

NNE

100

Fog

Swainson's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus

03

6/7/2011

8:47

NNE

100

Fog

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Dendroica coronata

03

6/28/2011

6:16

14-20

NNW

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

03

6/28/2011

6:16

14-20

NNW

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

03

6/28/2011

6:16

14-20

NNW

None

Brown Creeper

Certhia americana

03

6/28/2011

6:16

14-20

NNW

None

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

03

6/28/2011

6:16

14-20

NNW

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

03

6/28/2011

6:16

14-20

NNW

None

Northern Parula

Parula americana

03

6/28/2011

6:16

14-20

NNW

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

03

6/28/2011

6:16

14-20

NNW

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

05

6/15/2009

7:50

14

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

05

6/15/2009

7:50

14

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

05

6/15/2009

7:50

14

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

05

6/15/2009

7:50

14

Fog

Pileated Woodpecker

Dryocopus pileatus

05

6/15/2009

7:50

14

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

05

6/15/2009

7:50

14

Fog

Winter Wren

Troglodytes troglodytes

05

6/15/2009

7:50

14

Fog

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

05

7/1/2009

7:50

15

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

05

7/1/2009

7:50

15

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

05

7/1/2009

7:50

15

100

Fog

Brown Creeper

Certhia americana

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

2
1

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

2
1

1
1

F3

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
05

7/1/2009

7:50

15

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

05

7/1/2009

7:50

15

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

05

7/1/2009

7:50

15

100

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

05

7/1/2009

7:50

15

100

Fog

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

05

6/7/2011

9:15

NNE

100

Fog

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

05

6/7/2011

9:15

NNE

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

05

6/7/2011

9:15

NNE

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

05

6/7/2011

9:15

NNE

100

Fog

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

05

6/7/2011

9:15

NNE

100

Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

05

6/7/2011

9:15

NNE

100

Fog

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

05

6/7/2011

9:15

NNE

100

Fog

Northern Parula

Parula americana

05

6/7/2011

9:15

NNE

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

05

6/28/2011

5:50

14-20

NNW

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

05

6/28/2011

5:50

14-20

NNW

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

05

6/28/2011

5:50

14-20

NNW

None

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

05

6/28/2011

5:50

14-20

NNW

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

05

6/28/2011

5:50

14-20

NNW

None

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

05

6/28/2011

5:50

14-20

NNW

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

05

6/28/2011

5:50

14-20

NNW

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

05

6/28/2011

5:50

14-20

NNW

None

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

07

6/15/2009

6:51

14

Fog

Alder Flycatcher

Empidonax alnorum

07

6/15/2009

6:51

14

Fog

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

1
1

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1

1
1

2
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

F4

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
07

6/15/2009

6:51

14

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

07

6/15/2009

6:51

14

Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

07

6/15/2009

6:51

14

Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

07

6/15/2009

6:51

14

Fog

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

07

6/15/2009

6:51

14

Fog

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

07

6/15/2009

6:51

14

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

07

6/15/2009

6:51

14

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

07

6/15/2009

6:51

14

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

07

7/3/2009

6:11

14

SE

30

Light Fog

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

07

7/3/2009

6:11

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

07

7/3/2009

6:11

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

07

7/3/2009

6:11

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Cedar Waxwing

Bombycilla cedrorum

07

7/3/2009

6:11

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

07

7/3/2009

6:11

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

07

7/3/2009

6:11

14

SE

30

Light Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

07

6/7/2011

6:25

NNE

(blank)

Fog

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

07

6/7/2011

6:25

NNE

(blank)

Fog

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

07

6/7/2011

6:25

NNE

(blank)

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

07

6/7/2011

6:25

NNE

(blank)

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

07

6/7/2011

6:25

NNE

(blank)

Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

07

6/7/2011

6:25

NNE

(blank)

Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

07

6/7/2011

6:25

NNE

(blank)

Fog

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
2
1

F5

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
07

6/7/2011

6:25

NNE

(blank)

Fog

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

07

6/7/2011

6:25

NNE

(blank)

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

07

6/7/2011

6:25

NNE

(blank)

Fog

Purple Finch

Carpodacus purpureus

07

6/7/2011

6:25

NNE

(blank)

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

07

6/28/2011

8:30

14-20

NNW

None

Alder Flycatcher

Empidonax alnorum

07

6/28/2011

8:30

14-20

NNW

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

07

6/28/2011

8:30

14-20

NNW

None

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

07

6/28/2011

8:30

14-20

NNW

None

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

07

6/28/2011

8:30

14-20

NNW

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

07

6/28/2011

8:30

14-20

NNW

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

07

6/28/2011

8:30

14-20

NNW

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

07

6/28/2011

8:30

14-20

NNW

None

White-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta carolinensis

07

6/28/2011

8:30

14-20

NNW

None

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

09

6/16/2009

7:55

15

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

09

6/16/2009

7:55

15

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

09

6/16/2009

7:55

15

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

09

6/16/2009

7:55

15

None

Blue Jay

Cyanocitta cristata

09

6/16/2009

7:55

15

None

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Contopus virens

09

6/16/2009

7:55

15

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

09

6/16/2009

7:55

15

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

09

7/9/2009

6:05

10

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

09

7/9/2009

6:05

10

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
2
1

2
1
2
1

F6

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
09

7/9/2009

6:05

10

None

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

09

7/9/2009

6:05

10

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

09

7/9/2009

6:05

10

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

09

7/9/2009

6:05

10

None

Red-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta canadensis

09

7/9/2009

6:05

10

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

09

7/9/2009

6:05

10

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

09

6/8/2011

7:48

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

09

6/8/2011

7:48

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

09

6/8/2011

7:48

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

09

6/8/2011

7:48

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

09

6/8/2011

7:48

None

Purple Finch

Carpodacus purpureus

09

6/8/2011

7:48

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

09

6/8/2011

7:48

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

09

6/29/2011

7:03

14-17

90

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

09

6/29/2011

7:03

14-17

90

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

09

6/29/2011

7:03

14-17

90

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

09

6/29/2011

7:03

14-17

90

None

Hairy Woodpecker

Picoides villosus

09

6/29/2011

7:03

14-17

90

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

09

6/29/2011

7:03

14-17

90

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

09

6/29/2011

7:03

14-17

90

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

11

6/16/2009

6:45

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

11

6/16/2009

6:45

None

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

Counts
1st 5 Minutes

2nd 5 Minutes

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

<50m

>100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

Appendix F

1
1

2
1
2

1
1

1
1
1

2
1

1
1

2
1

F7

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
11

6/16/2009

6:45

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

11

6/16/2009

6:45

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

11

7/6/2009

6:16

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

11

7/6/2009

6:16

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

11

7/6/2009

6:16

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

11

7/6/2009

6:16

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

11

7/6/2009

6:16

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

11

7/6/2009

6:16

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

11

7/6/2009

6:16

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

11

7/9/2009

7:12

10

None

(blank)

(blank)

11

7/9/2009

7:12

10

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

11

7/9/2009

7:12

10

None

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

11

7/9/2009

7:12

10

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

11

7/9/2009

7:12

10

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

11

7/9/2009

7:12

10

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

11

6/8/2011

6:40

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

11

6/8/2011

6:40

None

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

11

6/8/2011

6:40

None

Black-capped Chickadee

Poecile atricapillus

11

6/8/2011

6:40

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

11

6/8/2011

6:40

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

11

6/8/2011

6:40

None

Common Raven

Corvus corax

11

6/8/2011

6:40

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

<50m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

1st 5 Minutes
50 to 100m

Appendix F

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
2
1

1
1

F8

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

11

6/8/2011

6:40

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

11

6/29/2011

7:55

14-17

90

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

11

6/29/2011

7:55

14-17

90

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

11

6/29/2011

7:55

14-17

90

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

11

6/29/2011

7:55

14-17

90

None

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

11

6/29/2011

7:55

14-17

90

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

11

6/29/2011

7:55

14-17

90

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

13

6/16/2009

5:58

None

(blank)

(blank)

13

6/16/2009

5:58

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

13

6/16/2009

5:58

None

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

13

6/16/2009

5:58

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

13

6/16/2009

5:58

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

13

6/16/2009

5:58

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

13

6/16/2009

5:58

None

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

13

7/9/2009

6:50

10

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

13

7/9/2009

6:50

10

None

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

13

7/9/2009

6:50

10

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

13

7/9/2009

6:50

10

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

13

7/9/2009

6:50

10

None

Hairy Woodpecker

Picoides villosus

13

7/9/2009

6:50

10

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

13

7/9/2009

6:50

10

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

13

7/9/2009

6:50

10

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

Counts
1st 5 Minutes

2nd 5 Minutes

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

<50m

>100m

Scientific Name
50 to 100m

Common Name

<50m

Wind Direction

Site #

Survey #

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Survey Date

Appendix F

1
1

1
2
1

1
1

1
1
1

1
2
1

F9

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
13

6/8/2011

5:44

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

13

6/8/2011

5:44

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

13

6/8/2011

5:44

None

Blue Jay

Cyanocitta cristata

13

6/8/2011

5:44

None

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

13

6/8/2011

5:44

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

13

6/8/2011

5:44

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

13

6/8/2011

5:44

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

13

6/8/2011

5:44

None

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

13

6/29/2011

8:43

17

90

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

13

6/29/2011

8:43

17

90

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

13

6/29/2011

8:43

17

90

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

13

6/29/2011

8:43

17

90

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

13

6/29/2011

8:43

17

90

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

15

6/16/2009

7:08

None

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

15

6/16/2009

7:08

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

15

6/16/2009

7:08

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

15

6/16/2009

7:08

None

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

15

6/16/2009

7:08

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

15

6/16/2009

7:08

None

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

15

6/16/2009

7:08

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

15

6/16/2009

7:08

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

15

6/16/2009

7:08

None

Rose-breasted Grosbeak

Pheucticus ludovicianus

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

<50m

Appendix F

1
1
1
1

1
1

2
1

1
1
1

1
1
2

F10

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
15

7/6/2009

5:53

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

15

7/6/2009

5:53

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

15

7/6/2009

5:53

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

15

7/6/2009

5:53

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

15

7/6/2009

5:53

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

15

7/6/2009

5:53

12

NW

100

Light Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

15

7/6/2009

5:53

12

NW

100

Light Fog

White-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta carolinensis

15

7/9/2009

7:36

10

None

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

15

7/9/2009

7:36

10

None

Black-capped Chickadee

Poecile atricapillus

15

7/9/2009

7:36

10

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

15

7/9/2009

7:36

10

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

15

7/9/2009

7:36

10

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

15

7/9/2009

7:36

10

None

Northern Flicker

Colaptes auratus

15

7/9/2009

7:36

10

None

Northern Parula

Parula americana

15

7/9/2009

7:36

10

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

15

7/9/2009

7:36

10

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

15

7/9/2009

7:36

10

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

15

6/8/2011

7:07

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

15

6/8/2011

7:07

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

15

6/8/2011

7:07

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

15

6/8/2011

7:07

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

15

6/8/2011

7:07

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
2
1
2
1
1

1
1

1
1

2
1

F11

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
15

6/29/2011

7:33

14-17

90

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

15

6/29/2011

7:33

14-17

90

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

15

6/29/2011

7:33

14-17

90

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

15

6/29/2011

7:33

14-17

90

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

17

6/16/2009

6:21

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

17

6/16/2009

6:21

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

17

6/16/2009

6:21

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

17

6/16/2009

6:21

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

17

6/16/2009

6:21

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

17

6/16/2009

6:21

None

Wilson's Snipe

(blank)

17

6/16/2009

6:21

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

17

7/9/2009

6:30

10

None

(blank)

(blank)

17

7/9/2009

6:30

10

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

17

7/9/2009

6:30

10

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

17

7/9/2009

6:30

10

None

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

17

7/9/2009

6:30

10

None

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

17

7/9/2009

6:30

10

None

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

17

7/9/2009

6:30

10

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

17

7/9/2009

6:30

10

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

17

7/9/2009

6:30

10

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

17

7/9/2009

6:30

10

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

17

6/8/2011

6:12

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

Counts
1st 5 Minutes

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

<50m

50 to 100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1
1

1
1

1
3

1
1
1

1
2

2
1

F12

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
17

6/8/2011

6:12

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

17

6/8/2011

6:12

None

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

17

6/8/2011

6:12

None

Hairy Woodpecker

Picoides villosus

17

6/8/2011

6:12

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

17

6/8/2011

6:12

None

Northern Flicker

Colaptes auratus

17

6/8/2011

6:12

None

Northern Parula

Parula americana

17

6/8/2011

6:12

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

17

6/8/2011

6:12

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

17

6/29/2011

8:20

17

90

None

(blank)

(blank)

17

6/29/2011

8:20

17

90

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

17

6/29/2011

8:20

17

90

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

17

6/29/2011

8:20

17

90

None

Northern Parula

Parula americana

17

6/29/2011

8:20

17

90

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

17

6/29/2011

8:20

17

90

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

19

6/18/2009

5:44

10

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

19

6/18/2009

5:44

10

None

Brown Creeper

Certhia americana

19

6/18/2009

5:44

10

None

Cedar Waxwing

Bombycilla cedrorum

19

6/18/2009

5:44

10

None

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

19

6/18/2009

5:44

10

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

19

6/18/2009

5:44

10

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

19

6/18/2009

5:44

10

None

Swainson's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus

19

6/18/2009

5:44

10

None

Winter Wren

Troglodytes troglodytes

Counts
1st 5 Minutes

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

>100m

50 to 100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Appendix F

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1
1

1
2
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

F13

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
19

7/8/2009

7:37

13

20

None

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

19

7/8/2009

7:37

13

20

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

19

7/8/2009

7:37

13

20

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

19

7/8/2009

7:37

13

20

None

Common Raven

Corvus corax

19

7/8/2009

7:37

13

20

None

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

19

7/8/2009

7:37

13

20

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

19

7/8/2009

7:37

13

20

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

19

7/8/2009

7:37

13

20

None

Ruffed Grouse

Bonasa umbellus

19

7/8/2009

7:37

13

20

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

19

6/11/2011

7:44

5-8

NNE

None

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

19

6/11/2011

7:44

5-8

NNE

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

19

6/11/2011

7:44

5-8

NNE

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

19

6/11/2011

7:44

5-8

NNE

None

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

19

6/11/2011

7:44

5-8

NNE

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

19

6/11/2011

7:44

5-8

NNE

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

19

6/11/2011

7:44

5-8

NNE

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

19

6/11/2011

7:44

5-8

NNE

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

19

6/11/2011

7:44

5-8

NNE

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

19

7/2/2011

6:05

15

SE

100

Fog

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

19

7/2/2011

6:05

15

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

19

7/2/2011

6:05

15

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

19

7/2/2011

6:05

15

SE

100

Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

Counts
1st 5 Minutes

2nd 5 Minutes

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

<50m

>100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

Appendix F

1
1

1
1
2
1

1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1

F14

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
19

7/2/2011

6:05

15

SE

100

Fog

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

19

7/2/2011

6:05

15

SE

100

Fog

Hairy Woodpecker

Picoides villosus

19

7/2/2011

6:05

15

SE

100

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

19

7/2/2011

6:05

15

SE

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

19

7/2/2011

6:05

15

SE

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

21

6/18/2009

6:47

10

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

21

6/18/2009

6:47

10

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

21

6/18/2009

6:47

10

None

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

21

6/18/2009

6:47

10

None

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

21

6/18/2009

6:47

10

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

21

6/18/2009

6:47

10

None

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

21

6/18/2009

6:47

10

None

Northern Parula

Parula americana

21

6/18/2009

6:47

10

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

21

6/18/2009

6:47

10

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

21

7/8/2009

6:41

13

20

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

21

7/8/2009

6:41

13

20

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

21

7/8/2009

6:41

13

20

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

21

7/8/2009

6:41

13

20

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

21

7/8/2009

6:41

13

20

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

21

7/8/2009

6:41

13

20

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

21

6/11/2011

6:45

5-8

NNW

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

21

6/11/2011

6:45

5-8

NNW

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

50 to 100m

<50m

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
2
1

1
1
1
1

2
1

F15

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
21

6/11/2011

6:45

5-8

NNW

None

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

21

6/11/2011

6:45

5-8

NNW

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

21

6/11/2011

6:45

5-8

NNW

None

Purple Finch

Carpodacus purpureus

21

6/11/2011

6:45

5-8

NNW

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

21

7/2/2011

6:50

15

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

21

7/2/2011

6:50

15

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

21

7/2/2011

6:50

15

SE

100

Fog

Chimney Swift*

Chaetura pelagica

21

7/2/2011

6:50

15

SE

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

21

7/2/2011

6:50

15

SE

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

23

6/18/2009

7:14

10

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

23

6/18/2009

7:14

10

None

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

23

6/18/2009

7:14

10

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

23

6/18/2009

7:14

10

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

23

6/18/2009

7:14

10

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

23

7/8/2009

6:17

13

20

None

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

23

7/8/2009

6:17

13

20

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

23

7/8/2009

6:17

13

20

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

23

7/8/2009

6:17

13

20

None

Common Raven

Corvus corax

23

7/8/2009

6:17

13

20

None

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

23

7/8/2009

6:17

13

20

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

23

7/8/2009

6:17

13

20

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

23

7/8/2009

6:17

13

20

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

<50m

Appendix F

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

F16

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
23

7/8/2009

6:17

13

20

None

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Archilochus colubris

23

7/8/2009

6:17

13

20

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

23

6/11/2011

6:20

5-8

NNW

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

23

6/11/2011

6:20

5-8

NNW

None

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

23

6/11/2011

6:20

5-8

NNW

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

23

6/11/2011

6:20

5-8

NNW

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

23

7/2/2011

7:12

15

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

23

7/2/2011

7:12

15

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

23

7/2/2011

7:12

15

SE

100

Fog

Brown Creeper

Certhia americana

23

7/2/2011

7:12

15

SE

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

23

7/2/2011

7:12

15

SE

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

25

6/18/2009

7:40

10

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

25

6/18/2009

7:40

10

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

25

6/18/2009

7:40

10

None

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

25

6/18/2009

7:40

10

None

Northern Parula

Parula americana

25

6/18/2009

7:40

10

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

25

6/18/2009

7:40

10

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

25

6/18/2009

7:40

10

None

Swainson's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus

25

6/18/2009

7:40

10

None

White-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta carolinensis

25

7/8/2009

5:55

13

20

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

25

7/8/2009

5:55

13

20

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

25

7/8/2009

5:55

13

20

None

Common Raven

Corvus corax

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
2

1
2
1

2
1

1
1
1
1

F17

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
25

7/8/2009

5:55

13

20

None

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

25

7/8/2009

5:55

13

20

None

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Contopus virens

25

7/8/2009

5:55

13

20

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

25

7/8/2009

5:55

13

20

None

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

25

7/8/2009

5:55

13

20

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

25

7/8/2009

5:55

13

20

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

25

7/8/2009

5:55

13

20

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

25

6/11/2011

5:55

5-8

NNW

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

25

6/11/2011

5:55

5-8

NNW

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

25

6/11/2011

5:55

5-8

NNW

None

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

25

6/11/2011

5:55

5-8

NNW

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

25

6/11/2011

5:55

5-8

NNW

None

Northern Parula

Parula americana

25

6/11/2011

5:55

5-8

NNW

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

25

6/11/2011

5:55

5-8

NNW

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

25

6/11/2011

5:55

5-8

NNW

None

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

25

7/2/2011

7:37

15

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

25

7/2/2011

7:37

15

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

25

7/2/2011

7:37

15

SE

100

Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

25

7/2/2011

7:37

15

SE

100

Fog

Hairy Woodpecker

Picoides villosus

25

7/2/2011

7:37

15

SE

100

Fog

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

25

7/2/2011

7:37

15

SE

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

25

7/2/2011

7:37

15

SE

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

50 to 100m

<50m

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1
2

1
1
1

1
2

1
1

1
1
1

F18

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

25

7/2/2011

7:37

15

SE

100

Fog

White-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta carolinensis

27

6/18/2009

6:17

10

None

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

27

6/18/2009

6:17

10

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

27

6/18/2009

6:17

10

None

Brown Creeper

Certhia americana

27

6/18/2009

6:17

10

None

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

27

6/18/2009

6:17

10

None

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Regulus satrapa

27

6/18/2009

6:17

10

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

27

6/18/2009

6:17

10

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

27

6/18/2009

6:17

10

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

27

6/18/2009

6:17

10

None

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Dendroica coronata

27

7/8/2009

7:10

13

20

None

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

27

7/8/2009

7:10

13

20

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

27

7/8/2009

7:10

13

20

None

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Regulus satrapa

27

7/8/2009

7:10

13

20

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

27

7/8/2009

7:10

13

20

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

27

7/8/2009

7:10

13

20

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

27

7/8/2009

7:10

13

20

None

White-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta carolinensis

27

6/11/2011

7:14

5-8

NNW

None

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

27

6/11/2011

7:14

5-8

NNW

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

27

6/11/2011

7:14

5-8

NNW

None

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Regulus satrapa

27

6/11/2011

7:14

5-8

NNW

None

Northern Parula

Parula americana

27

6/11/2011

7:14

5-8

NNW

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

Counts

>100m

50 to 100m

<50m

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

<50m

Scientific Name

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

Precipitation

Site #

Survey #

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Survey Date

Appendix F

1
1

1
1
1

2
1

1
1
1
1

2
1
2

F19

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
27

7/2/2011

6:27

15

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

27

7/2/2011

6:27

15

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

27

7/2/2011

6:27

15

SE

100

Fog

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Regulus satrapa

27

7/2/2011

6:27

15

SE

100

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

27

7/2/2011

6:27

15

SE

100

Fog

Northern Parula

Parula americana

27

7/2/2011

6:27

15

SE

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

27

7/2/2011

6:27

15

SE

100

Fog

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Dendroica coronata

28

6/16/2009

8:11

15

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

28

6/16/2009

8:11

15

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

28

6/16/2009

8:11

15

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

28

6/16/2009

8:11

15

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

28

7/4/2009

6:39

14

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

28

7/4/2009

6:39

14

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

28

7/4/2009

6:39

14

SE

100

Fog

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

28

7/4/2009

6:39

14

SE

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

28

7/4/2009

6:39

14

SE

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

28

7/4/2009

6:39

14

SE

100

Fog

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

28

6/8/2011

8:15

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

28

6/8/2011

8:15

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

28

6/8/2011

8:15

None

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

28

6/8/2011

8:15

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

28

6/8/2011

8:15

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

<50m

Appendix F

1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

F20

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
28

6/29/2011

6:44

14-17

90

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

28

6/29/2011

6:44

14-17

90

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

28

6/29/2011

6:44

14-17

90

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

28

6/29/2011

6:44

14-17

90

None

Hairy Woodpecker

Picoides villosus

28

6/29/2011

6:44

14-17

90

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

28

6/29/2011

6:44

14-17

90

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

28

6/29/2011

6:44

14-17

90

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

29

6/16/2009

8:35

15

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

29

6/16/2009

8:35

15

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

29

6/16/2009

8:35

15

None

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

29

6/16/2009

8:35

15

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

29

6/16/2009

8:35

15

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

29

7/4/2009

6:11

14

SE

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

29

7/4/2009

6:11

14

SE

100

Fog

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Contopus virens

29

7/4/2009

6:11

14

SE

100

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

29

7/4/2009

6:11

14

SE

100

Fog

Northern Parula

Parula americana

29

7/4/2009

6:11

14

SE

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

29

7/4/2009

6:11

14

SE

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

29

6/8/2011

8:36

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

29

6/8/2011

8:36

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

29

6/8/2011

8:36

None

Brown Creeper

Certhia americana

29

6/8/2011

8:36

None

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

Counts
1st 5 Minutes

2nd 5 Minutes

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

<50m

>100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

Appendix F

1
1

1
1
2
1

2
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

F21

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
29

6/8/2011

8:36

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

29

6/8/2011

8:36

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

29

6/29/2011

6:25

14-17

90

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

29

6/29/2011

6:25

14-17

90

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

29

6/29/2011

6:25

14-17

90

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

29

6/29/2011

6:25

14-17

90

None

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

29

6/29/2011

6:25

14-17

90

None

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

29

6/29/2011

6:25

14-17

90

None

Northern Parula

Parula americana

29

6/29/2011

6:25

14-17

90

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

29

6/29/2011

6:25

14-17

90

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Contopus virens

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Regulus calendula

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

32

6/15/2009

10:04

20

100

Fog

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

2
1
1
1
1
1

2
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1

F22

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
32

7/1/2009

6:06

15

100

Fog

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

32

7/1/2009

6:06

15

100

Fog

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

32

7/1/2009

6:06

15

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

32

7/1/2009

6:06

15

100

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

32

7/1/2009

6:06

15

100

Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

32

7/1/2009

6:06

15

100

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

32

7/1/2009

6:06

15

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

32

7/1/2009

6:06

15

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

32

7/1/2009

6:06

15

100

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

32

7/1/2009

6:06

15

100

Fog

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

32

6/7/2011

5:55

NNE

Fog

Alder Flycatcher

Empidonax alnorum

32

6/7/2011

5:55

NNE

Fog

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

32

6/7/2011

5:55

NNE

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

32

6/7/2011

5:55

NNE

Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

32

6/7/2011

5:55

NNE

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

32

6/7/2011

5:55

NNE

Fog

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

32

6/7/2011

5:55

NNE

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

32

6/7/2011

5:55

NNE

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

32

6/7/2011

5:55

NNE

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

32

6/28/2011

8:55

14-20

NNW

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

32

6/28/2011

8:55

14-20

NNW

None

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

32

6/28/2011

8:55

14-20

NNW

None

Black-and-white Warbler

Mniotilta varia

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

50 to 100m

<50m

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1

1
1
1

1
1

1
1

2
2
1
1

F23

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
32

6/28/2011

8:55

14-20

NNW

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

32

6/28/2011

8:55

14-20

NNW

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

32

6/28/2011

8:55

14-20

NNW

None

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

32

6/28/2011

8:55

14-20

NNW

None

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

32

6/28/2011

8:55

14-20

NNW

None

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

32

6/28/2011

8:55

14-20

NNW

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

32

6/28/2011

8:55

14-20

NNW

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

32

6/28/2011

8:55

14-20

NNW

None

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

33

6/15/2009

6:23

14

Fog

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

33

6/15/2009

6:23

14

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

33

6/15/2009

6:23

14

Fog

Cedar Waxwing

Bombycilla cedrorum

33

6/15/2009

6:23

14

Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

33

6/15/2009

6:23

14

Fog

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Contopus virens

33

6/15/2009

6:23

14

Fog

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

33

6/15/2009

6:23

14

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

33

6/15/2009

6:23

14

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

33

6/15/2009

6:23

14

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

33

7/3/2009

6:35

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

33

7/3/2009

6:35

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

33

7/3/2009

6:35

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

33

7/3/2009

6:35

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

33

7/3/2009

6:35

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

F24

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
33

7/3/2009

6:35

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Contopus virens

33

7/3/2009

6:35

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

33

7/3/2009

6:35

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

33

7/3/2009

6:35

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

33

7/3/2009

6:35

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

33

7/3/2009

6:35

14

SE

30

Light Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

33

6/7/2011

6:55

NNE

Fog

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

33

6/7/2011

6:55

NNE

Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

33

6/7/2011

6:55

NNE

Fog

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

33

6/7/2011

6:55

NNE

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

33

6/7/2011

6:55

NNE

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

33

6/7/2011

6:55

NNE

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

33

6/28/2011

8:03

14-20

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

33

6/28/2011

8:03

14-20

None

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

33

6/28/2011

8:03

14-20

None

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

33

6/28/2011

8:03

14-20

None

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

33

6/28/2011

8:03

14-20

None

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

33

6/28/2011

8:03

14-20

None

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

33

6/28/2011

8:03

14-20

None

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

33

6/28/2011

8:03

14-20

None

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

33

6/28/2011

8:03

14-20

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

33

6/28/2011

8:03

14-20

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

Counts
1st 5 Minutes

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

<50m

50 to 100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1
1
2
1
1

2
1
1

1
1
1

F25

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
33

6/28/2011

8:03

14-20

None

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

34

6/15/2009

7:20

14

Fog

Alder Flycatcher

Empidonax alnorum

34

6/15/2009

7:20

14

Fog

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

34

6/15/2009

7:20

14

Fog

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

34

6/15/2009

7:20

14

Fog

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

34

6/15/2009

7:20

14

Fog

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

34

6/15/2009

7:20

14

Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

34

6/15/2009

7:20

14

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

34

6/15/2009

7:20

14

Fog

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

34

6/15/2009

7:20

14

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

34

6/15/2009

7:20

14

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

34

6/15/2009

7:20

14

Fog

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

34

7/3/2009

5:45

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Alder Flycatcher

Empidonax alnorum

34

7/3/2009

5:45

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

34

7/3/2009

5:45

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Cedar Waxwing

Bombycilla cedrorum

34

7/3/2009

5:45

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

34

7/3/2009

5:45

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

34

7/3/2009

5:45

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

34

7/3/2009

5:45

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Lincoln's Sparrow

Melospiza lincolnii

34

7/3/2009

5:45

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

34

7/3/2009

5:45

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

34

7/3/2009

5:45

14

SE

30

Light Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1

1
1

1
2
2

2
1
2

2
2
1

F26

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
34

7/3/2009

5:45

14

SE

30

Light Fog

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

34

6/7/2011

7:25

NNE

Fog

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

34

6/7/2011

7:25

NNE

Fog

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

34

6/7/2011

7:25

NNE

Fog

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

34

6/7/2011

7:25

NNE

Fog

Lincoln's Sparrow

Melospiza lincolnii

34

6/7/2011

7:25

NNE

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

34

6/7/2011

7:25

NNE

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

34

6/28/2011

7:35

14-20

NNW

None

Alder Flycatcher

Empidonax alnorum

34

6/28/2011

7:35

14-20

NNW

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

34

6/28/2011

7:35

14-20

NNW

None

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

34

6/28/2011

7:35

14-20

NNW

None

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

34

6/28/2011

7:35

14-20

NNW

None

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

34

6/28/2011

7:35

14-20

NNW

None

Lincoln's Sparrow

Melospiza lincolnii

34

6/28/2011

7:35

14-20

NNW

None

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

34

6/28/2011

7:35

14-20

NNW

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

34

6/28/2011

7:35

14-20

NNW

None

Song Sparrow

Melospiza melodia

34

6/28/2011

7:35

14-20

NNW

None

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

35

6/15/2009

9:21

20

100

Fog

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

35

6/15/2009

9:21

20

100

Fog

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

35

6/15/2009

9:21

20

100

Fog

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

35

6/15/2009

9:21

20

100

Fog

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

35

6/15/2009

9:21

20

100

Fog

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Contopus virens

Counts

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

<50m

Appendix F

1
3
1

2
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1

F27

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
35

6/15/2009

9:21

20

100

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

35

6/15/2009

9:21

20

100

Fog

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

35

6/15/2009

9:21

20

100

Fog

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

35

6/15/2009

9:21

20

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

35

6/15/2009

9:21

20

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

35

6/15/2009

9:21

20

100

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

35

7/1/2009

6:37

15

100

Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

35

7/1/2009

6:37

15

100

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

35

7/1/2009

6:37

15

100

Fog

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

35

7/1/2009

6:37

15

100

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

35

7/1/2009

6:37

15

100

Fog

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

35

7/1/2009

6:37

15

100

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

35

6/7/2011

7:52

NNE

Fog

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

35

6/7/2011

7:52

NNE

Fog

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

35

6/7/2011

7:52

NNE

Fog

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

35

6/7/2011

7:52

NNE

Fog

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

35

6/7/2011

7:52

NNE

Fog

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

35

6/7/2011

7:52

NNE

Fog

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

35

6/7/2011

7:52

NNE

Fog

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

35

6/28/2011

7:08

14-20

NNW

None

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

35

6/28/2011

7:08

14-20

NNW

None

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

35

6/28/2011

7:08

14-20

NNW

None

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

Counts
1st 5 Minutes

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

>100m

50 to 100m

<50m

50 to 100m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

2nd 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1
2

1
1

1
1

1
2

1
2

1
1

F28

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Survey Date

Survey #

Survey Start

Temp. (C)

Wind Speed (beaufort-low)

Wind Speed (beaufort high)

Wind Direction

Cloud Cover (%)

Precipitation

Results of 2009/2011 Breeding Bird Surveys

Site #
35

6/28/2011

7:08

14-20

NNW

None

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

35

6/28/2011

7:08

14-20

NNW

None

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

35

6/28/2011

7:08

14-20

NNW

None

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

35

6/28/2011

7:08

14-20

NNW

None

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

35

6/28/2011

7:08

14-20

NNW

None

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

35

6/28/2011

7:08

14-20

NNW

None

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

35

6/28/2011

7:08

14-20

NNW

None

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

Counts

>100m

50 to 100m

2nd 5 Minutes

<50m

Scientific Name
<50m

Common Name

50 to 100m

1st 5 Minutes

>100m

Appendix F

1
1
1
1

* flyover

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

F29

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

APPENDIX G
Breeding Bird Summary of Species by Point Count Location

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM

Appendix G Breeding Bird Summary of Species by Point Count Location


Distance to
Turbine (m)

150

160

160

170

210

210

230

240

330

350

380

400

410

440

520

560

580

620

710

770

Site No:

34

21

27

25

19

32

35

33

15

23

17

11

29

28

13

Bird Species Common Name

Year

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

2009

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

2009
2011

Downy Woodpecker

2009

2011
Hairy Woodpecker

2009

Alder Flycatcher

2009

2011

2009

3
1

2
1

1
1

Black-capped Chickadee

2009
2009

White-breasted Nuthatch

2009

2
3

2
1

13
1

4
1

41

42
1
2

1
1

1
2

2011

Winter Wren

2009

Golden-crowned Kinglet

2009

2011

Swainson's Thrush

2009

Hermit Thrush

2009

1
1

1
1

2011

2009

Northern Parula

2009
1

2011

4
4
2

7
1

1
2

1
1

1
1

2009

1
1

Cedar Waxwing

2011

1
1

2011

Chestnut-sided Warbler

2009

2009

2011

American Robin

5
6

2011
Red-breasted Nuthatch

2
1

2011
2009

2009

Blue Jay

2011

Brown Creeper

2011

2009

13

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Red-eyed Vireo

2009
1

Blue-headed Vireo

1
1

2011

Least Flycatcher

Total
count

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

7
9

12

G1

KENT HILLS WIND FARM EXPANSION 2011 POST-CONSTRUCTION MONITORING PROGRAM


Appendices
March 6, 2012

Appendix G Breeding Bird Summary of Species by Point Count Location


Distance to
Turbine (m)

150

160

160

170

210

210

230

240

330

350

380

400

410

440

520

560

580

620

710

770

Site No:

34

21

27

25

19

32

35

33

15

23

17

11

29

28

13

Total
count

33

28

Bird Species Common Name

Year

Black-throated Blue Warbler

2009

2011

Yellow-rumped Warbler
Black-throated Green Warbler

2009

2011

2009

2011
Blackburnian Warbler

2
1

1
1

1
2

2009

2011

American Redstart

2009

2011

22

29

2009
2011

Common Yellowthroat

2011

Mourning Warbler

Black-and-white Warbler

Ovenbird

18

49

45

2011

2009

2011

10

2009

1
1

Song Sparrow

2011

Lincoln's Sparrow

2009

2011

2009

2011

2009

White-throated Sparrow
Dark-eyed Junco

1
1
1

2011
Rose-breasted Grosbeak

2009

Purple Finch

2011

Grand Total

11

1
1
31

23

1
26

32

33

29

31

34

1
1

36

25

gamj \\cd1181-f01\workgroup\01218\active\121810397\1_environmental\8_report\3_regulatory_review\rpt_20120306_khwf_2011_pcmp_rev1.docx

12

30

3
27

25

21

24

22

24

27

24

25

G2

549