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# Linear Systems Bridge Course

## Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Field

Definition A field is a set which has two binary operations 0 +0 (addition) and 0 .0 (multiplication)
defined on it and following properties are satisfied:
Axioms
1. Additive Identity - There is an element 0 F , such that 0 + a = a for any a F
2. Additive Inverse - For any element a F , there is an element a F such that (a)+a =
0
3. Associativity over Addition - For any a, b, c F , (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
4. Commutativity over Addition - For any a, b F , a + b = b + a
5. Multiplicative Identity - There is an element 1 F with 1 6= 0 such that 1.a = a for any
aF
6. Multiplicative Inverse - For any element 0 6= a F , there is an element a1 F such
that a1 .a = 1
7. Associativity over Multiplication - For any a, b, c F , (a.b).c = a.(b.c)
8. Commutativity over Multiplication - For any a, b F , a.b = b.a
9. Distributive Law - For any a, b, c F , a.(b + c) = (a.b) + (a.c)
Therefore, provided a and b are in a field, a + b and a.b must also lie in the field.
Fields can be seen as scalars.
e.g. Set of all real numbers R, Set of complex numbers C Set of integers I is, however, not
a field since multiplicative inverse does not exist in the field for some elements.

Vector Space

Definition A vector space V is a set of objects which can be added and multiplied by numbers,
in such a way that the sum of two elements of V is again an element of V , the product of an
element of V by a number is an element of V , and the following properties are satisfied:

Axioms
1. Given the elements u, v, w of V , we have
(u + v) + w = u + (v + w)
2. There is an element of V , denoted by O, such that
O + u = u + O = u for all elements u of V
3. Given an element u of V , the element (1)u is such that
u + (-1)u = O
4. For all elements u, v of V , we have
u+v =v+u
5. If c is a scalar, then c(u + v) = cu + cv
6. If a, b are two scalar elements, then (a + b)v = av + bv
7. If a, b are two scalar elements, then (ab)v = a(bv)
8. For all elements u of V , we have 1.u = u (1 here is the number one)

## Vector Space Tutorial

Q. Verify whether the entities described below are vector spaces.
1. Real numbers.
 
x
2.
defined over two-dimensional real co-ordinate space R2 .
y

x1
x2
n

3.
: defined over n-dimensional real co-ordinate space R .
xn

x

## 4. y |x + y + z = 0, where x, y, z are integers.

z
5. The set of all m n matrices, where m and n are positive integers.

x

## 6. y , where x, y, z are integers.

z
7. The range set of zero function defined over Rn . Recall that a function is mapping defined
from one set called domain to another set called range. Zero function is a function of the
form f (x) = 0.
8. The set of all polynomials in x.
9. The set of all polynomials with degree greater than two.
10. The set of all polynomials with degree equal to ten.

11. The set of all polynomials with degree less than m, where m is a positive inetger.
12. The set of all finite duration signals.
13. The set of all causal signals. Recall that causal signal is the one which exists only for
positive time and has zero value before t = 0.
14. The voltages v1 and v2 such that v is dc electrical voltage and can take any value ranging
from to + in voltage divider circuit shown in fig.1.

## Figure 1: Variable DC Voltage Divider Circuit

 
v1
in above example provided v is ac voltage that can take any value from to +
15.
v2
with phase [0, 360).
 
v1
in circuit shown in fig.2 provided v is ac voltage that can take any value from
16.
v2
to + with phase [0, 360). Consider the circuit to be in steady state condition.

## Figure 2: RLC Circuit

Q. In the network graph shown in fig.3, verify whether the following are vector spaces.

va
vb

1.
vc |va , vb , vc , vd , ve satisfy KVL.
vd
ve

## Figure 3: Directed network graph

i1
i2

i3

i4

2.
i5 |i1 , i2 , i3 , i4 , i5 , i6, i7 , i8 satisfy KCL.

i6

i7
i8