You are on page 1of 5

!"#$%& '"() *+"(),-"+.

# #$/0%($
'"() */"(1+%

!" #$%$&"'( ))

!"#$%"&#
'()"%"(&

*+,,"&#
-%./&#%$

Dachengquan

!"#$%"&
'(()*+)
of Wang Xiangzhai
!"#$# %& ' &'(%)* %) +"%)#&# ,'$-%'. '$-& -"'- /0.. "#$1#&
"'2# -"# &',# %3#'&45 6) 31%)* &1,# $#&#'$7" %)-1 3%88#$#),'&-#$ ')3 819)3#$& 18 &-(.#& -"%& &##,& -1 "1.3 2#$( -$9#4 :9'.-"19*" -"# %3#'& ,%*"- ;# -"# &',#< -"# ='( %) ="%7" -"#( ,'>#
-"#, %)-1 $#'.%-( 7') ;# 3%88#$#)-4

+"'(,( -$./"$0 $./, $.( 1$,2"'$/"'%3 4+(5 26'/$"' -$'5


7'7,7$0 -68(-('/, /+$/ 567 9"00 '6/ 1"': $'59+(.(
(0,( "' /+( 96.0:3 ;8(' <6005966: -68"(, /6:$5= 0">(
!"##"$% &'($##")*+= ,-+ !./0"1= 2-.0*"+3# 4%5+*#= (/23
+$8( $00 ?((' "'107('2(: ?5 @+"'(,( -$./"$0 $./, $':
-68(-('/3 4+(5 +$8( 105"'% >"2>,= /7-?0"'% $': 6/+(.
$2.6?$/"2, $': "' /+(,( 567 2$' ,(( /+( ,+$:69 61 @+"'(,(
-$./"$0 $./,3 A6-( B(6B0( 9"00 ,$5 /+(.( ", $0,6 $ C$B$'(,( $':
D6.($' -$./"$0 $./, "'107('2( $, 9(00= ?7/ :6 '6/ 16.%(/= /+(,(
6."%"'$005 2$-( 1.6- @+"'(,( -$./"$0 $./, $, 9(00= $0/+67%+
/+(5 (8('/7$005 :(8(06B(: "'/6 /+(". 69' ,/50(,3 E1 267.,(= /+(.(
9"00 ?( 6/+(. B(6B0( 9+6 9"00 ,$5 /+( -68"(, $0,6 +$8( F.$&"0"$'=
4+$" $': G+"0"BB"'( ,/50(, "' /+(- $, 9(003 4+", ,+69, /+$/ 1"0-

-$>(., 9"00 /$>( $00 :"11(.('/ ,/50(,


$': -68(-('/, /6 2.($/( $' $2/"6'
-68"( $': "/, 1"%+/ ,2('(,3 <69(8(.=
/+( :((B(. "'107('2( ,/"00 26-(, 1.6/+( @+"'(,( -$./"$0 $./,3 H1 /+( -68"(,
>(B/ /6 /+(". 60: 9$5, /6 -68"( 1"%+/"'%=
6'05 B7'2+"'% $': B(.+$B, ?6I"'%= H
:6 '6/ /+"'> /+( $7:"('2( 9670: 0">(
"/3
H1 567 $,> 567.,(01 9+6 +$,
+$: /+( -6,/ "'107('2( 6' -$./"$0
$./, -68"(,= 567. $',9(. 9"00 -6,/
0">(05 ?( F.72( J((3 <", B6B70$."/5 ",

0$/& 1"$23 3 )%+4/&% (5


63)%/. 73&# 8+3&9"/

!" #$%$&"'( )*

+,"-- %./0"'% ,/1$2 $'1 3 1/ '/, ,4"'5 ", 0"-- (6(. +,/78 9"':( 4"+
1($,4; 4"+ +5"--+ $'1 74"-/+/742 4$6( $,,.$:,(1 ,4( '(0(.
%('(.$,"/' $'1 ,4( /-1(. %('(.$,"/' +,"-- -/6( 4"<; <$2=( (6('
</.( ,4$' =(>/.(8
?4$, <$1( @.A:( B((C+ >"%4,"'% +,2-( 1">>(.(', ,/ ,4(
,.$1","/'$- <$.,"$- $.,+ 0$+ ,4( >$:, 4( +$"1 ,4$, "' <$.,"$- $.,+
2/A +4/A-1 =( $=-( ,/ >.((-2 (D7.(++ 2/A.+(->8 E/A +4/A-1 =(
-"5( 0$,(.; 04(' 0$,(. "+ 7/A.(1 "',/ $ :A7; ", =(:/<(+ ,4(
:A7 $'1 04(' ", "+ "' $ ,($7/,; ", =(:/<( ,4( ,($7/,8 F./< ,4"+
2/A :$' +(( 4"+ >"%4,"'% +,2-( G((, HA'( I/ "+ $=/A, >.((1/<
$'1 >.((1/< /> (D7.(++"/'8 E/A $.( '/, :/',./--(1 $'1 1/ '/,
'((1 ,/ >/--/0 $ ,.$1","/'$- +,2-(; ,4A+; 4"+ >"%4,"'% +,2-( :/A-1
=( $'2 +,2-( $'1 $'2,4"'%8 J4"+ "+ 04$, <$1( 4"< +/ 7/0(.>A-8
K/0(6(.; 4/0 :$' 2/A =( >.(( $'1 '/, >/--/0 $'2 +2+,(<;
0",4/A, -($.'"'% $'2,4"'% >".+,L 3' +/<( 0$2; =(%"''(.+ '((1
,/ -($.' +/<(,4"'% >".+,; $'1 ,4$, +/<(,4"'% "+ >"D(18 M,4(.0"+(;
"> 2/A 4$1 +/<( /'( 04/ 4$1 -($.'(1 +/<( <$.,"$- $.,+ $'1
+/<(/'( 04/ 4$1 '/, -($.'(1 $'2,4"'%; ,4(.( 0/A-1 =( '/
1">>(.(':( =(,0((' ,4(<8 3> ,4(+( +$<( 7(/7-( 0(.( ,/ >"%4,
$'1 $+ -/'% $+ /'( 7(.+/' 1(>($,+ ,4( /,4(.; ,4(' ,4$, +/A'1+
/5$28 @A, "> 2/A ,4"'5 $=/A, 4/0 "'NA.(1 ,4(2 0"-- =( $'1 ,4$,
,4( -/'%(. ", ,$5(+ ,/ 0"' ,4( </.( ,".(1 ,4(2 0"-- =(; ,4('
>"'$--2 2/A 0"-- +(( ,4$, 2/A '((1 ,/ -($.'
> . / <
+/<(/'( 04/ 4$+ </.( (D7(."(':( />
>"%4,"'%8
9/ ,4(.(>/.(; (6(' @.A:( B((C+
G((, HA'( I/ +,"-- 4$+ $ 0$2 ,/ ,($:4
2/A 4/0 ,/ >"%4,8 M> :/A.+(; $, ,4( ('1;
04(' 2/A 4$6( -($.'(1 ('/A%4; ,4(' 2/A
:$' >.((-2 (D7.(++ 2/A.+(->8 ?4(' 2/A >"%4,;
2/A 0"-- 4$6( 2/A. /0' +,2-(8 9/ (6(.2/'(
04/ +,A1"(+ G((, HA'( I/ 0"-- =( 1">>(.(', ,/
($:4 /,4(. =(:$A+( (6(' ,4( ,($:4(.+ 0"-- 4$6(
,4(.( /0' +,2-( $'1 0$2 ,/ "',(.7.(, @.A:( B((C+
G((, HA'( I/8 @A, "> >"%4,"'% "+ .($--2 $=/A, O>.((
>"%4,"'%P; ,4(' +4/A-1 0( ,4(' +$2 ,4$, ,4(
,4/A+$'1+ /> 2($.+ /> <$.,"$- $.,+ 1(6(-/7<(',
"' Q4"'$ 4$+ =((' $ 0$+,( /> ,"<(L
3' ,4( RS)TC+ ,4(.( 0$+ $ >$</A+
<$.,"$- $.,+ <$+,(. 04/ 4$1 6(.2 +"<"-$.
,4"'5"'% ,/ @.A:( B((8 K( :/<="'(1 $-- 4"+
<$.,"$- $.,+ +,A1"(+ "',/ /'( +,2-(8 3' 7$.,":A-$.;
4( 0$+ 6(.2 %//1 $, U"'%2"VA$'; 04":4 "+ $ 6(.2
7/0(.>A- $'1 7/7A-$. <$.,"$- $., +,2-( "' Q4"'$8

W(/7-( $-0$2+ ,$-5 $=/A,; J$"N"; U"'%2" $'1 @$%A$ ,/%(,4(. $+


"',(.'$- <$.,"$- $.,+; $-,4/A%4; 7(.+/'$--2 3 1/ '/, -"5( ,/
+(7$.$,( <$.,"$- $.,+ +,2-(+ "',/ "',(.'$- $'1 (D,(.'$- +,2-(+ $+
$-- Q4"'(+( <$.,"$- $.,+ 4$6( "',(.'$- $'1 (D,(.'$- ,.$"'"'%8
M'-2 ,4( ,.$"'"'% "+ 1">>(.(',8 X+ -/'% $+ ,4(2 1(6(-/7 !"; ,4('
", "+ "',(.'$- ,.$"'"'%8
J4"+ >$</A+ <$+,(.C+ '$<( 0$+ ?$'% U"$'%&4$"8 ?$'%
U$'%&4$" +,$.,(1 4"+ <$.,"$- $.,C+ ,.$"'"'% 04(' 4( 0$+ >/A.,(('
A'1(. ,4( %A"1$':( /> ,4( >$</A+ U"'%2" <$+,(.; !A/ EA'+4(';
04/ 4$1 $ 6(.2 4"%4 -(6(- /> +5"-- $'1 0$+ 6(.2 $ ,.$1","/'$,($:4(.8 ?$'% U"$'%&4$" "'4(.",(1 4"+ ,($:4(.C+ +5"--; $'1 04('
4"+ ,($:4(. 1"(1; 4( ,.$6(--(1 $-- /6(. Q4"'$ <((,"'% <$+,(.+
/> 1">>(.(', <$.,"$- $.,+ +,2-(+8
M' /'( /> 4"+ N/A.'(2+; 4( <(, $ @A114"+, </'5 >./<
94$/-"' J(<7-( '$<(1 U"'% B"' 04/ 4$1 $ 6(.2 4"%4 -(6(- />
94$/-"' #$.,"$- X.,+ +5"--8 J4(2 :/<7$.(1 ,4(". +5"--+ 0",4 ($:4
/,4(.; +4$.(1 ,4(". 5'/0-(1%( $'1 4$1 >."('1-2 1"+:A++"/'+
$=/A, ,4( 1">>(.(':(+ =(,0((' ,4(". <$.,"$- $.,+ +5"--8 J4(2
=(:$<( ($:4 /,4(.C+ ,($:4(. $'1 $-+/ %//1 >."('18 Y6(' U"'%
B"'C+ ,($:4(.; @(' H/'% 94$'% Z('; 04/ 0$+ $-.($12 '"'(,2
2($.+ /-1; -"5(1 ?$'% 6(.2 <A:48 K( $-+/ 7$++(1 +/<( /> 4"+
+5"-- /' ,/ ?$'%8 ?$'% U"$'%&4$" +,$2(1 $, 94$/-"' J(<7-( >/.
$ 04"-( $'1 $=+/.=(1 </.( <$.,"$- $.,+ 5'/0-(1%(8
X>,(.0$.1+ ?$'% :/',"'A(1 ,/ ,.$6(- ,/ 1">>(.(',
$.($+; 7./6"':(+; :","(+ $'1 6"--$%(+ ,/ <((, >$</A+
<$.,"$- $.,+ <$+,(.+8 3' [4(N"$'% 4( <(, $ >$</A+
<$+,(.
'$<(1;
F$'%
94"&4A$'%; 04/ 0$+ 6(.2
>$</A+ >/. 4"+ +5"-- $, OF"6(
K$'1+ J(:4'"VA(P 04":4
:/',$"'(1 +/<( 6(.2
%//1
>"%4,"'%
,(:4'"VA(+8
3' U"$' 4(
<(, #$+,(. B"A
W("D"$' 04/ 0$+

!"#$%&'()*
+#$%, -.#$ )#&'()*
/)0 ,&%/0()%,, (,
&'% $#&'%. #$#1%$%)&23
!" #$%$&"'( )*

+(,- .$/012 .0, 3"2 1'4,(5"67$89( :"6:"'% 7(63'";1(< =' >1?"$' 3( /(7
$ .$/012 @15$'% /$,7"$9 $,7A2 /$27(,B C"( D"( >1< C"( D$" >1 3$5 $
+(,- 90'% 8($,5 $'5 4(049( 6$99(5 3"/ EF"% F($,5 C"(G< H( I$2 .$/012
.0, 3"2 J,$'( >"27 I3"63 I$2 I(99 ,(24(67(5 "' K0173(,' J3"'$< F073
@$'% $'5 F"% F($,5 C"( 60/4$,(5 73(", 27-9(2 $'5 9($,'(5 70%(73(,B
'07 0'9- 8$,( 3$'5 7(63'";1(2B 817 $920 I($40'2B (24(6"$99- 73( 2I0,5<
=' 73( ('5 73(- 3$5 $ %,($7 ,(24(67 .0, ($63 073(,A2 27-9(2B 2:"99 $'5
:'0I9(5%(<
@$'% C"$'%&3$" 3( $920 /(7 0'( 0. L0'% H$"
J31$'A2 M73( 6,($70, 0. F$%$1 N$9/O 2715('72B
J3('% P"$'3I$< D3(- 2715"(5 70%(73(, $'5
@$'% ,($9"2(5 73$7 3$'5 7(63'";1(2 "'
F$%1$ I(,( +(,- 2/0073B $'5 60195
7I"27 "' $99 5",(67"0'2 $'5 $'%9(2 $'5
60Q0,5"'$7(5 I"73 73( .$27 $'5
71,'"'% .007I0,:< R99 73"2 /($'7
-01 60195 ,($99- 7$:( -01,
0440'('7 8- 21,4,"2(<
=' F("?"'% @$'% +"2"7(5
73( .$/012 S$'% K7-9( D$"?"
/$27(, S$'% K301301<
#((7"'% $99 :"'52 0. 5"..(,('7
/$27(,2 $'5 9($,'"'% $8017
5"..(,('7 27-9(2 %$+( @$'% $
907 0. :'0I9(5%( $'5 $920
/$5( 3"/ 1'5(,27$'5 3"2
0I' 27-9(B C"'%-";1$'B
/0,(<
EC"'%G /($'2 23$4(
$'5 ,(.(,2 70 (T7(,'$9
/0+(/('72B E S"G /($'2
/"'5 $'5 ,(.(,2 70 73(
"'7(,'$9 /"'5< E!1$'G /($'2
."27< D3( I309( '$/( /($'2
EUT7(,'$9 K3$4( $'5 ='7(,'$9
#"'5G /$,7"$9 $,7< H0I(+(,B
I3(' @$'% I('7 8$6: 70 F("?"'%B
3( ,($9"2(5 73$7 /$'- 4(049( 0'960'6('7,$7(5 0' 73( (T7(,'$9 23$4(2
$'5 /"22(5 73( "'7(,'$9 /"'5< V,"%"'$99C"'%-";1$' I$2 6$99(5 C"'-";1$'< EC"'G
/($'2 3($,7B $'5 20 73( '$/( /($'7 EH($,7
$'5 #"'5 >"27G< D3"2 /($'7 73( 3($,7 $'5 /"'5
I(,( /0,( "/40,7$'7 73$' 73( (T7(,'$9 23$4(2<
#$27(, @$'% 3$5 2((' $'- 5"..(,('7 /$,7"$9 $,72 27-9(2 "' J3"'$
$'5 .01'5 73$7 /027 4(049( 0'9- 60'6('7,$7(5 0' 73( (T7(,'$9 23$4(2
$'5 .0,/2 $'5 /"22(5 73( "'7(,'$9 24","7< @3(' 73(- I(,( 60'.,0'7(5
I"73 $'073(, 3"%3 9(+(9 /$,7"$9 $,7"27 73(- I(,( 9027B 8(6$12( 73(0'9- 60'6('7,$7(5 0' 73( (T7(,'$9 23$4(2 $'5 5"5 '07 24('7 700 /163
7"/( 0' 73(/ "' 0,5(, 70 5(+(904 73( "'7(,'$9 P"'%B !" $'5 K3('< P"'%B
!"B K3(' "2 73( /$,7"$9 $,72 /($'"'% 0. "'7(,'$9 24","7<
K0 3( 8(%$' 70 63$'%( 3"2 C"'%-";1$' $'5 6$99(5 "7 S";1$'<
D3"2 I('7 8$6: 70 73( "'7(,'$9 24","7B $'5 3( 2$"5 73$7 2715-"'% /$,7"$9
$,72 I$2 .0, 5(+(904"'% 7,1( 24","7 $'5 73( /"'5 $'5 '07 (T7(,'$9
23$4(2< #$27(, @$'% .01'5 73$7 73( /027 "/40,7$'7 73"'% "' $99 /$,7"$9
$,72 2:"99 I$2 7,1( 24","7 $'5 /"'5 0, "'7(,'$9 24","7< R7 73( ('5 3( (+('
%$+( 14 73( (T7(,'$9 23$4(2 $'5 3$5 '0 .0,/2B 0'9- 60'6('7,$7"'% 0'
W3$'% W31$'% Q 27$'5"'% 402"7"0'2 $'5 D1" K301 X 4123"'% 3$'52
MR97301%3 73"2 "2 '07 (T$679- 73( 2$/( /(7305 $2 D$"?";1$'A2 4123"'%
3$'52B "7 "2 2"/"9$, B 817 73( /(7305 0. 7,$"'"'% "2 '07 73( 2$/( $97301%3
73( /($'"'% "2 73( 2$/(<O D3"2 '(I $,7 3( 6$99(5 EL$63('%;1$'G
I3"63 /($'2B EY,($7 K166(22 >"27G< =7 $920 /($'2 73( (22('6(
0. /$,7"$9 $,7<

Dachengquans Tui Shou Pushing Hands

The late Master


Wang Xiangzhai

!" #$%$&"'( )*

+,$'% +,-$'% .(/(0123 "'4(5'$0 216(57 4,( 8"'.7 !"7


32"5"47 5(0$9$4"1' $'. :5($4,"'%; <-" =,1- .(/(0123 >"%,4"'%
4(?,'"@-(37 :A 0($5'"'% ,16 41 5($. .">>(5('4 2(120(B3 ('(5%A
6,(' A1- ?18( "'41 ?1'4$?4 6"4, "47 $'. ,16 41 -3( A1-5 16'
('(5%A "' $00 .">>(5('4 C"'. 1> 4(?,'"@-(3;
#$34(5 D$'% ?18:"'(. $00 ,"3 C'160(.%( 1> E"'%A"@-$'7
<$"F"@-$'7 G$%-$&,$'% 41%(4,(5 6"4, 25"'?"20(3 1>
H1'>-?"$'"387 G-..,"387 !"%1'% 45$"'"'% $'. 2,"01312,A 41
?5($4( I$?,('%@-$'; J( -3(. E"'%A"@-$'B3 3451'% >1-'.$4"1'7
<$"F"@-$'B3 34"?C"'% $'. ?1'4$?4"'% 3C"0037 G$%-$&,$'%B3 >$34 $'.
46"34"'% :1.A 81/(8('43 $'. >114615C7 20-3 ,"3 16'
C'160(.%(;
<,( 25"'?"20( 1> I$?,('%@-$'7 #$34(5 D$'% 3$". "3 4,$4
K<,(5( "3 '1 8(4,1. >15 8$54"$0 $54; L/(' 6"4, $ 8(4,1. 4,(5(
"3 34"00 '14,"'%; M> 6( .1 '14 $??(24 $'A 8(4,1.7 4,(' 6( ?$'
,$/( $00 C"'.3 1> 8(4,1.3;N M' 4,"3 ?$3( 8(4,1. 8($'3 34A0(37
3C"003 $'. 4(?,'"@-(3; J( $031 3$".7 K=18(4,"'% ?18(3 >518
'14,"'% $'. 34($."'(33 "3 4,( 814,(5 1> 81/(8('4;N
I$?,('%@-$' ?1'?('45$4(3 1' .(/(012"'% 4,( 8"'. $'.
32"5"4; O5$?4"3"'% +,$' +,-$'% 6"00 .(/(012 4,( 8"'.7 ?$08'(337
5(0$9$4"1' $'. $ 3451'% >1-'.$4"1'; D,(' 4,( 32"5"4-$0 ('(5%A
"3 ,"%, $'. A1- '((. 41 .(>('. A1-53(0>7 A1- 6"00 :( $:0( 41
81/( '$4-5$00A7 216(5>-00A $'. "'34"'?4"/(0A; P-34 0"C( $' $'"8$0
0"/"'% "' 4,( '$4-5$0 6150. >"%,43 "'34"'?4"/(0A $'. 216(5>-00A;
L/(5A4,"'% ?18(3 >518 '$4-5$0 "'34"'?47 F-34 0"C( $ :$:A
'((.3 8"0C >518 "43 814,(5 $'. :((3 '((. ,1'(A; =18(4"8(3
(/(' $ /(5A 6($C 2(531'7 "> 4,(A ,$/( $ 3-..(' 8$. >"47 ?$' :(
/(5A 216(5>-0 $'. "4 ?$' 4$C( 8$'A 2(120( 41 ,10. 4,(8 .16';
<,"3 "3 32"5"4-$0 "'34"'?47 :-4 4,"3 216(5 '((.3 41 :( .(/(012(.
4,51-%, 34"00'(33 $'. $ ?$08 8"'.; <,"3 "3 6,$4 8(."4$4"1'
.(/(0123 $'. 31 6,(' A1- '((. 216(5 "4 6"00 ?18( '$4-5$00A;
!"#$ %&"'"#()* +,-,*.&/,0# #$,', )', #$',, /,#$.+%!
!" #$$% & #$'( )&* +,&* &'- ./012'344
<,"3 8($'3 A1- '((. 41 34$'. 34"00 $'. 011C $3 >$5 "'41 4,(
."34$'?( $3 2133":0(; Q11C $4 4,( 3CA7 4,( ?01-.3 $'. 4,(
:"5.3; L/(' 4,1-%, A1- 011C $4 4,(87 318(4"8(3 A1- 6"00
'14 3(( 4,(8; R1-5 6,10( :1.A 3,1-0. :( ?$08 $'. 5(0$9(.
$'. A1-5 3,1-0. ?$08 A1-5 8"'.;
5" #2413'2'( 1$ 163 7&2'
=4$'. 34"00 $'. >15%(4 $00 4,( 31-'.3 $51-'. A1-; M8$%"'(
4,( 31-'. 1> 4,( 5$"' >$00"'%; S((0 ?18>154$:0( $'. 5(0$9(.;
8" )&9/ :&16 $; )&139
M8$%"'( A1- $5( "' $ 6$58 :$4, 1> 6$4(5; M4 8$C(3 A1- >((0
6$58 $'. ?18>154$:0(7 6"4, '1 345(33 $'. A1-5 !" "3 >016"'%
$00 1/(5 A1-5 :1.A;
<1.$A I$?,('%@-$' "3 :(?18"'% 815( 212-0$5;
T04,1-%, #$34(5 D$'% E"$'%&,$" ,$3 2$33(. $6$A7 ,"3 3C"00 "3
34"00 .(/(012"'% $'. 31 I$?,('%@-$' "3 :(?18"'% :(44(5 $'.
815( (>>(?4"/(; =$.0A $'14,(5 >$81-3 I$?,('%@-$' 8$34(5
2$33(. $6$A 1' #$5?, 4,( *4, 4,"3 A($5; J( 6$3 #$34(5 D$'%
E-$'F"( 6,1 251814(. $'. 4$-%,4 I$?,('%@-$' $00 ,"3 0">(
$'. ,$3 34-.('43 $00 1/(5 4,( 6150.; <,1-%, $'14,(5 8$34(5
,$3 %1'(7 M :(0"(/( 4,$4 "> $ 3C"00 "3 %11. "4 6"00 0"/( >15(/(5
!" #$%&'() *+(
,&-.-+ -/ #'+.(0 1'23 4$'235&'$ '26 #'+.(0 1'23 47'28$( %-70.(+" -/
#'+.(0 1'23 47'28$(9+ !--: -/ ;'%&(23<7'2=
>-0 $2/-0?'.$-2 '!-7. ;'%&(23<7'2 %-2.'%.@
A&$2'@ B CDEFGHEDHIHIGH

!" #$%$&"'( )*

,(' D$'% E"$'%&,$" ?5($4(. I$?,('%@-$' ,$0>


$ ?('4-5A $%17 6-3,- 6,"?, 6$3 212-0$5 $81'%
4,( >10C 6$3 '14 ?013( 41 4,( 15"%"'$0 $'. ,$.
:(?18( $ 3,16 2"(?( 5$4,(5 4,$' $ >"4'(33
(9(5?"3( $'. ?18:$4 3C"00; <1 25(3(5/( 4,(
@-"'4(33('?( 1> 45$."4"1'$0 H,"'(3( 6-3,-7 4,(5( 6$3 (/(5A
'((. >15 $00 8$54"$0 $54"343 41 2$A $44('4"1' 41 4,( 25(/$"0"'%
.(/"$4"1' $'. 8$C( ?1'?(54(. (>>1543 >15 $ 5('(6$0; J"3
.(4(58"'(. 5(310-4"1' 345('%4,('(. $3 ,( 3$6 4,( P$2$'(3(
"'/$.(53 :($4"'% 4,("5 /"?4"8 1> 1??-2$4"1' >15 >-' "' G("F"'%;
KD( $5( $ %5($4 '$4"1'N7 ,( 3$". "'."%'$'40A; KJ16 ?$' 6( 2-4
-2 6"4, 3-?, "'3-043UN;
<,('7 6,"0( $:315:"'% 3451'% 21"'43 1> /$5"1-3 3?,1103
1> 6-3,-7 ,( ?5($4(. $ 34A0( 1> :$5(,$'.(. (9(5?"3(3 V
I$?,('%@-$'; <1 325($. 4,( '(60AW(8(5%"'% 51-4"'( >$5 $'.
6".(7 D$'% 5(?5-"4(. $ 0$5%( '-8:(5 1> A1-'%34(53 $'. %$/(
4,(8 0(331'3 2(531'$00A; J"3 $"8 6$3 /(5A ?0($5 $'. 4,$4 6$3
41 ,(02 :1134 4,( 815$0( 1> 4,( H,"'(3( 2(120( $'. ?1-'4(5
>15("%' 2-%"0"38; J( "33-(. $ 34$4(8('4 "' $ 01?$0 '(632$2(5
$'. .(?0$5(. 4,$4 ,( 6$3 5($.A 41 4$C( 1' $'A 5"/$03 "'?0-."'%
4,13( ?18"'% >158 >15("%' ?1-'45"(3;
D$'%B3 5(8$5C $'%(5(. X('"?," =$6$"7 $ P$2$'(3(
8$54"$0 $54"34 4,(' 0"/"'% "' G("F"'%; =$6$" 6$3 %11. $4 C$5$4(7
3615.20$A $'. F-.1; M' ,"3 (A(37 H,"'(3( 6-3,- 6$3 1'0A
318(4,"'% 0"C( %A8'$34"?37 ,$/"'% 0"440( /$0-( "' $?4-$0 >"%,43;
=17 1'( .$A ,( 6('4 41 ?$00 $4 D$'%B3 "' 4,( ,12( 1> 3,16"'%
1>> ,"3 2516(337 6,(' ,( 3$6 D$'% E"'%&,$"7 ,( >1-'. 4,$4
4,( H,"'(3( 3,$.16 :19(57 $ 8$' 1> 8"..0( 34$4-5( ?0$. "' $
01'% %16'7 011C(. /(5A %('40( $'. 3-$/(; J( 6$3 /(5A ,$22A
41 8((4 6"4, 3-?, $ 6($C0"'%7 4,"'C"'% 4,$4 ,( 61-0. 6"'
6"4,1-4 >$"0; T>4(5 "'451.-?"'% ,"83(0> $'. (920$"'"'% 6,A ,(
,$. ?18(7 ,( 251.-?(. $ '(632$2(5 6,"?, ?$55"(. D$'%B3
34$4(8('4 $'. 4133(. "4 1' 4,( 4$:0(;
KR1- $5( 5($.A 41 ,$/( $ .-(07 $5('B4 A1-UN $3C(. 4,(
P$2$'(3( C$5$4( 25$?4"4"1'(57 ,"3 >$?( 65($4,(. "'
?1'4(824-1-3 38"0(3; KR(37 M $8N7 5(4154(. 3'((5"'%0A 8A
"'345-?415; KM $06$A3 8($' 6,$4 M ,$/( 3$".; M 61-0. '(/(5 5(>-3(
$'A1'( 6,1 6$'43 41 ?182(4( 6"4, 8(; S15("%' 8$54"$0 $54"343
$5( (32(?"$00A 6(0?18(N; J($5"'% 4,$47 =$6$" 6('4 1-4 1> 4,(
.5$6"'% 5118 $'. 3411. "' 4,( ?1-54A$5. 6$"4"'% >15 $ .-(0;
D"4,1-4 $'A ,(3"4$4"1'7 D$'% ?$8( 1-4 6"4, ,"3 ,$'.3 20$?(.
:(,"'. ,"3 :$?C; I"5(?4"'% ,"3 345('%4, 41 :14, ,$'.3 4,51-%,
?1'?('45$4"1'7 =$6$" $33-8(. $ ,153(W5"."'% 34$'?( $'.
0$-'?,(. $ 3-..(' $44$?C 1' D$'%B3 >$?( 6"4, ,$'.3; =(("'%
4,"37 8A "'345-?4157 ,"3 0(>4 ,$'. 5(8$"'"'% 34"007 (94('.(. ,"3
5"%,4 >15($58 41 2$55A =$6$"B3 ,$'.3; <,(' 6"4, $ 30"%,4 (9(54"1'
1> 345('%4,7 D$'% 4,5(6 4,( P$2$'(3( 8-3?0(8$' YZ >((4 $6$A;
G(>15( 5($0"&"'% 6,$4 ,$. ,$22('(.7 =$6$" 6$3 $05($.A 0A"'%
1' 4,( %51-'. 1' ,"3 :$?C;
[14 $.8"44"'% .(>($47 =$6$" 6$'4(. 41 ,$/( $ 3615.20$A
?1'4(34 6"4, D$'% :(?$-3( ,( 6$3 31 3C"00(. $4 "4 4,$4 ,( ?1-0.
?-4 $' $220( 1' 4,( ,($. 1> $ 8$' "'41 461 6"4,1-4 ,-54"'%
4,( ,($.; H1'3".(5"'% 4,$4 =$6$" 3,1-0. %(4 $' ".($ 1> 6,$4
H,"'(3( 3615.20$A 6$37 D$'% $%5((. 41 ,$/( $'14,(5 ?1'4(34;
D"4, $ 3615. ,(0. 1/(5,($. "' ,"3 ,$'.37 =$6$" .(0"/(5(. $
,$5. :016 $4 D$'%B3 ,($.; D$'% 34(22(. $ :"4 41 4,( 5"%,4
$'. 6"(0.(. ,"3 3615. 41 :01?C 4,( 12213"'% 3615.; T3 4,(
461 3615.3 ?0$'C(.7 =$6$" 6$3 $031 4,516' 3(/(5$0 >((4 $6$A
$'. >0$44('(. 6"4, ,"3 2$083 :('-8:(.;
M55(?1'?"0(.7 =$6$" 513( 41 ,"3 >((4 $'. 21-'?(. -21'
D$'% 6"4, ,"3 3615. 416$5.3 4,( 4,51$4; <,"3 3C"00 "3 /(5A >$81-3
"' P$2$'(3( 3615.20$A7 6"4, 6,"?, 1'( ?$' ?$4?, ,"3 5"/$0 1>>