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Monastery Decani, Kosovo & Metohija, Serbia




Category: Timeline (/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/)

THE EARLY CENTURIES (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/timeline/the-early-centuries.html)

Settlement, conversion, organization (ca. 500 - ca. 1000). By crossing

Sts. Cyriacus and

Julitta, Martyrs; St.
Thu. 28 Jul, 2016
Old Calendar:
Prolog: Sts.
Cyriacus and
Julitta, Martyrs; St.

the Carpathian range and the Danube at the dawn of the Middle Ages,
the Serbs and South Slavs in general enter their present homelands and
the historical scene at large. At the same time, they are drawn into the
complex process of establishing themselves, coexisting with their
numerous neighbors, and maturing politically and spiritually.


THE FIRST KINGDOM (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/timeline/the-first-kingdom.html)

The preeminence of Zeta and the rise of Raska (ca. 1000 - 1168). The
emergence of new geopolitical realities following the 11th century decline
of the Byzantine state leads to the rise of Zeta (Duklja) - the first Serb
state with wider international recognition and more prominent cultural
monuments. While not surviving the Komnenian Byzantine revival of the early 12th c., it
was to lay foundation for the rise of its more centrally located neighbor, Raska - hence
the dominant Serbian entity of the Middle Ages.


THE BALKAN POWER (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/timeline/the-balkan-power.html)

Establishment of the Nemanjic state as a Balkan power (1168-1321). The
remarkable statesmanship and spirituality of the early Nemanjic dynasts
- above all, the canonized trio of its founder Stefan Nemanja, the father
of the Serbian Church St. Sava, and the "Holy King" Milutin - lay the
foundation not only for a viable, prosperous and cultured medieval state, but also for a
national consciousness that was to survive long beyond it.
THE PINNACLE (/serbian-history/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/thepinnacle.html)
The Empire of Stefan Dusan (1321-1366). Reaping the benefits of an
existing solid foundation, yet adding a statesman prowess all his own Stefan Dusan, precedeed by his able father, elevates the Nemanjic
monarchy to a dominant regional position. Territorial expansion is
accompanied by major advances in legal codification, ecclesiastic organization and
artistic expression.
THE DECLINE (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/timeline/the-decline.html)
Fragmentation of the empire and the arrival of the
Ottomans (1366-1402). Despite efforts to maintain central
authority within a modern and efficient state, Dusan's
successors are unable to assert collective interests over the
petty feudal ones - at the crucial point of grave threat from
an organized eastern invader. While the ensuing military
showdowns were to mortally cripple the state, they also will have spawned a spiritual
legacy that was instrumental in further shaping the national identity in the centuries to
THE FINAL CHAPTER (/serbian-history/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/the-finalchapter.html)
The restored Despotate and its successors (1402 -1496). The Battle of Kosovo marks
the traditional end of medieval Serbian statehood, but the 15th century saw a
meaningful revival and unification of the land under the able Despots. While no longer a
major regional power and wedged between the advancing Ottomans and opportunistic
Hungarians, this state managed nevertheless to produce lasting legacies in areas as
diverse as the arts,legislation and chivalry.

The Early Centuries (ca. 500 - ca. 1000) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/the-earlycenturies.html)

Category: Timeline (/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/)

Serbian Medieval History, The Early Centuries (ca. 500 - ca.

VIc South Slavs reach the Danube and make
incursions into the Balkan peninsula,
which they settle in the course of this
Slavs reached Adriatic coast. Fall of
Salona (near Split) (614).
623 Prince Samo (623-658) unites Slavic
tribes defending against the Avars.

Arabians (Mores) conquer Iberian



Bulgarians take Sofia (809).

VIII- First Serbian princes: Viseslav,
IXc. Radoslav, Prosigoj.
Methodios (bef. 820-885) and
Constantine-Cyrill (826-869),
missionaries, "Slavic apostles", founders
of Slavic literacy.
Norman conquest of England begins.

850 Prince Vlastimir (840s - ca. 860)
Vlastimir's sons, Mutimir, Strojmir, and
Gojnik, defeat Bulgarian army (852857).
867 Serban conversion to Christianity

Pope John VIII (872-882).

First mention of Belgrade (former
Singidunum) in the April 16th letter of
Pope John VIII (878).
891 Prince Pribislav, inherits throne from
father Mutimir, but is soon overthrown by
cousin Petar Gojnikovic.

Bulgarian emperor Symeon, the most

important ruler of the First Bulgarian
empire, raises to throne.

892 Prince Petar Gojnikovic (892-917).

Caught by Bulgarians by deception, dies
in banishment.

Kliment and Naum, missionaries in

Macedonia, spread Cyrillic literacy
among Serbs (893).
X-XI c. - establishes the foundation
of Serbian literature.
Constantine VII, Byzantine emperor
and scholar, publishes important
data about the South Slavs in his
work "De administrando imperio."


917 Prince Pavle Branovic (917-920),

Mutimir's grandson and Hungarian vassal.
920 Prince Zaharije Pribisavljevic (920924)overthrows Pavle.
Bulgarian occupation of Serbian lands

Otto I the Great, king of Germany and

first Holy Roman emperor.

927 Prince Caslav Klonimirovic (927 - ca.

960) (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/rulers/prince-caslavklonimirovic.html)
Ruler of Raska (Serbia), Duklja
(Montenegro), Travunija (East
Hercegovina) and Bosnia.
976 Samuilo, ruler of Macedonian Slavs and
Bulgarian emperor. Byzantine emperor
Basil II Bulgaroktonos defeats Samuilo's

army at Belasica in 1014, and annexes

his state.
Hugh Capet, king of France, founds
the Capet dynasty (ruled until 1348).


Next: The First Kingdom (1000 - 1168) (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/timeline/the-first-kingdom.html)

The First Kingdom (1000 - 1168) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/the-firstkingdom.html)

Serbian Medieval History, The First Kingdom (1000 - 1168)

990 Prince Jovan Vladimir (990-1016) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medieval-history/rulers/jovanvladimir.html) in Duklja.
Founding of the archbishopric of Ohrid (1019).
Founding of the bishopric of Ras (1020).
Founding of the archibishopric of Dubrovnik (1022).
1035 Prince Vojislav (1035-1051) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medieval-history/rulers/stefanvojislav.html) in Duklja.
Prince Vojislav liberates Duklja and annexes
Travunija and Zahumlje (modern Hercegovina)
Uprising of Macedonian Slavs under Peter Odeljan
Definite schism between
Eastern and Western
Seljuq Turks conquer


1055 King Mihailo (1051-1081) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medievalhistory/rulers/mihailo.html) in Zeta.

The first Serbian king, under whom Duklja (later
Zeta) was the first Serbian state to achieve
international recognition, concludes favorable treaty
with Byzantines (1052).

Battle of Hastings, William 1066

the Conqueror begins
Norman domination in
First Catholic bishop in Bar (Zeta) (1067).
Insurrection of Mihailo's son Bodin and Djordje
Vojteh in Macedonia (1072).
Seljuq Turks take

Pope Gregory VII gives Mihailo title of king (1077).

Erection of St. Mihailo's church in Ston (near

Dubrovnik) (1080).

Henry IV conquers Rome.

1080 Grand zupan of Raska Vukan (1083-1122)

1081 King Konstantin Bodin (1081-1101) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medieval-history/rulers/konstantinbodin.html) in Zeta.
Bishopric of Bar elevated to archibishopric (1089).
Vukan attacks Byzantine's possessions. Clashes
around city of Zvecan in Kosovo (1093).

The First Crusade.

Crusaders found the
Jerusalem kingdom.
Hungaria annexes Croatia. 1102
Vukan advances against Byzantine lands (1106).
1122 Grand zupan of Raska Uros I (1122-1143)
Serbs take the city of Ras (1127).
1143 Grand zupan of Raska Uros II (1143-1156)
Clashes with Byzantines in alliance with Hungary.
First mention of Moscow.

Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos destroys
Serbian towns Ras and Galic (1149).
Battle between Serbs and Byzantines at river Tara,
near modern Valjevo (1150).

Holy Roman emperor

Frederick I Barbarossa.

1155 Grand zupan of Raska Desa (1155)
Sucession of several zupans on Raskan throne under
Byzantine influence.

Byzantium defeats
Hungary and conquers
Srem, Bosnia, Dalmatia,
and Croatia.


Next: The Balkan Power (1168 - 1321) (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/timeline/the-balkan-power.html)

The Balkan Power (1168 - 1321) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/thebalkan-power.html)

Category: Timeline (/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/)

Serbian Medieval History, The Balkan Power (1168 - 1321)

1168 Grand zupan of Raska Stefan Nemanja (1168-1196)
Founder of the Nemanjic dynasty.
Nemanja defeats brother Tihomir at battle of

Pantino (1170).
Nemanja accepts overlordship of Byzantine emperor
Manuel I (1172).
Hungarian king Bela III
recovers Srem, Croatia and
Beginnings of Inquisition.

1175 Birth of Rastko Nemanjic (Saint Sava).
Serbs allied with Hungary against Byzantines,
reached and ravaged Sofia (1182). Serbia gains
full independence.
Nemanja attempts to conquer Dubrovnik and island
of Korcula (1184), takes Duklja and town of Kotor,
renews peace settlement with Dubrovnik (1186).
Serbian envoys in Nurenberg, negotiating with
Barbarossa on the upcoming Crusade (1186).

Third Crusade (11891192).


Richard the Lionheart

Nemanja and Barbarossa meet in Nis as crusaders
pass through Morava valley (1189).
Trade agreement between Bosnia and Dubrovnik,
one of the first written documents in vernacular
Serbian (1189).
Rastko Nemanjic becomes prince in Hum (1190).
Serb advance checked by Byzantines at Southern
Morava (1190).
Stefan Nemanjic, Nemanja's middle son, marries
Byzantine princess Eudokia (1191).
Nemanja abdicates and withdraws as monk, first to
monastery Hilandar, and later to monastery
Studenica (1196).
1196 Grand zupan of Raska Stefan Nemanjic (11961227) (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/rulers/stefan-prvovencani.html)
King from 1217.
Nemanja, as monk Simeon, dies in monastery
Hilandar (1200).
Stefan overthrowned by elder brother Vukan
Hungarians ravage Serbia (1203). Stefan and Vukan
reconcile and Stefan becomes Grand zupan again
Fourth Crusade. Crusaders


conquer Constantinople and

found Latin empire.
Nemanja's body transferred from Hilandar to
Studenica (1206).
Sava Nemanjic becomes archbishop and settles in
monastery Studenica (1206).
Stefan Nemanjic marries Anna Dandolo, Venitian
doge's granddaughter (1207).
Stefan Nemanjic liberates Nis, Vranje and Prizren
Children Crusade.

Stefan Nemanjic fights wars against Bulgarians,
Hungarians, and Byzantines (1216).

1217 Stefan Nemanjic becomes the first Serbian king

in Raska, thus called "Prvovencani" (the FirstCrowned).
Sava Nemanjic withdraws to Mt. Athos (1217).
Radoslav, Stefan's eldest son, marries Ana,
daughter of the despot of Epirus (1219).
1219 Serbian church becomes independent, with
Sava as first Archbishop

French king Louis IX (Saint- 1226

Louis) (1226-1270).
Sixth crusade, led by Holy

1228 King Radoslav Nemanjic (1228-1233).


Roman emperor Frederick

II, conquest of Jerusalem
Archbishop Sava travels to Palestine (1229).
Pope Gregory IX formally
establishes the Holy


1232 Bosnian ban Matija Ninoslav (1232-1250)
Hungarian vassal, Catholic flirting with "heresy",
provokes crusade against Bosnia.
King Radoslav overthrown by his brother (1233).
1234 King Stefan Vladislav I (1234-1243)
Married to Bulgarian emperor's daughter, rules under
strong Bulgarian influence.
Serbian archbishop Arsenije I (1234-1263)
takes seat from retired Sava.
Second great voyage of Sava, who dies in Trnovo,
Bulgaria (1236).
German Saxon miners come to Serbia (1241).
1243 King Stefan Uros I Nemanjic (1243-1276)
Turks conquer Jerusalem,
now lost for ever for
Seventh crusade (1248-



Stefan Uros marries Helen d'Anjou (1250).
Clashes between Serbia and Dubrovnik (1251-1255)
1250 Ban Prijezda (1250-1278) in Bosnia
Founder of the Kotromanic dynasty.
King Uros takes Skoplje, Prilep and Kicevo (1258).
Michael VIII liberates
Constantinople and restores
Byzantine empire.
1263 Archbishop Sava II (King Stefan's son) (12631271).
Charles d'Anjou (1265-


1285), king of Sicily and

King Uros I unsuccessfully attacks Hungerians in
Macva (1267).

Eighth crusade. Louis IX

dies outside of Tunisia.


Archbishop Ioanikije I (1272-1276).

King Uros I besieges Dubrovnik (1275).

1276 King Stefan Dragutin Nemanjic (1276-1282)

Dragutin abdicates following hunting accident in
favor of his brother Milutin at council in Dezeva
(1282) and retires to govern northern Serbia and
Serbs retake Skoplje, Polog and areas around
Belasica (1282).
1282 King Stefan Uros II Milutin Nemanjic (12821321) (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/rulers/stefan-uros-ii-milutin.html)
Serbs clash with Byzantines, reach Hilandar and the
Aegeian (1283).
Milutin marries Elizabeth, daughter of Hungarian
king Stefan V (1283).
Serbs take Porec, Kicevo and Debar in Macedonia
Dragutin receives concessions from Hungarians,
Belgrade for the first time under direct Serbian
rule (1284).
Mongols (Tatars) ravage Bulgaria, Hungaria and
parts of Serbia, and burn monastery Zica (1285).
Osman I, Turkish sultan


(1288-1326), founder of
the Ottoman dynasty.
1290 Ban Stjepan Kotromanic (1290-1310) in Bosnia
Married to king Dragutin's daughter Jelena.
Dragutin takes Branicevo (eastern Serbia) (1291).
Hungarian king Andrew III gives Slavonija to
Dragutin's son Vladislav (1292).
Archbishop Jevstatije (1292-1309).
Milutin takes Drac (Albania) (1296).
Peace settlement between Serbia and Byzantium,
Milutin marries Simonida, daughter of emperor
Andronikos II. Pec becomes seat of the Serbian
archbishopric (1299).
First assembly of the


General states in France.

Beginnings of conflict between brothers Milutin and
Dragutin (1301).
Milutin gives Zeta to son Stefan to administrate
Archbishop Sava III (1309-1316), Milutin's
close associate, renews churches and monasteries
Milutin sends 2,000 warriors to aid Byzantines in
fight against the Turks (1313).
Stefan revolts against father Milutin. Milutin wins
and has his son blinded and sent to Constantinople
(1314). Queen-mother Helen (Jelena) dies (1314)
and king Dragutin (1316).
War between Serbia and Dubrovnik (1317).
Archbishop Nikodim (1317-1324), monk and

Hungary temporarily captures northern Serbia,
including Macva and Belgrade (1319).
Milutin's son Stefan back from Constantinople
King Milutin dies (1321). Stefan claims miraculous
return of eyesight, assumes the throne, and
embarks on fight with rival contenders.

Next: The Pinnacle (ca. 1321 - 1366) (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/timeline/the-pinnacle.html)

The Pinnacle (1321 - 1366) (/serbian-history/serbianmedieval-history/timeline/the-pinnacle.html)

Category: Timeline (/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/)

Serbian Medieval History, The Pinnacle (1321 - 1366)

1321 King Stefan Uros III, Decanski (1321-1331) (/serbian-history/serbianmedieval-history/rulers/stefan-uros-iii-decanski-king.html)
1322 Ban Stjepan II Kotromanic (1322-1353) (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/rulers/stjepan-ii-kotromanic-ban.html) in Bosnia
Economic and political rise of Bosnia with the support of Hungary; conflicts with
Serbia; Franciscans spread their mission.


married to
Archbishop Danilo II (1324-1337), diplomat and statesman, famous
biographer of Serbian kings and archbishops
Bosnia annexes part of Hum (1326).
Bulgarian emperor Michael Shishman attacks Serbia with Byzantine help. Stefan
decisively defeats them near Velbuzd (1330).
Stefan's son Dusan overthrows father (1331).
Stefan dies in imprisonment (1331).
1331 Emperor Stefan Uros IV Dusan Nemanjic (1331-1355) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medieval-history/rulers/stefan-dusan.html) king and
emperor (1345) of Serbia.
Dusan marries Jelena, sister of Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria (1332).
Dusan grants Adriatic coastline through Ston and Peljesac peninsula to
Dusan takes Prilep, Ohrid, Strumica (1334) from Byzantines.
Hungarian attacks Serbia and are repelled; Serbs take Macva (1335).
years war

1337 Archbishop Joanikije (1337-1354), first patriarch of Serbia.

John Cantacuzenus, Byzantine emperor, seeks alliance with Dusan in Pristina
Serbs drawn into Byzantine civil war, take advantage of the conflict (1344).

and France

Dusan takes the important city of Serres in eastern Macedonia and Mount Athos


Dusan assumes title of emperor on Christmas day (1345).
1346 Serbian church elevated to Patriarchy on Easter in Skoplje. Patriarch
Joanikije crowns Dusan as Emperor of Serbs and Romans (Greeks).
Dusan and Jelena visit Mount Athos (1347).
Dusan annexes Epirus and Thessaly (1348).

Death", the
1349 Dusan's Zakonik (state law code) published.
council in Skoplje immediately promulgates the Law code.
Byzantine anathema on Serbian church. Dusan partially recaptures Hum area
Dimotika battle; Cantacuzenus, allied with Turks, defeats rival emperor John V,
backed by Serbs and Bulgarians (1352).
1353 Ban Tvrtko I Kotromanic (1353-1391) (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/rulers/tvrtko-i.html) in Bosnia.
Assumes, based on Nemanjic lineage, title king Stefan of Serbia in 1377.
John V
restored on
Galipoli and
Dusan sends embassy to pope Innocence VI, attempting to unite the Christian
powers against the Turks (1354).
Papal embassy on Serbian court (1355).
Emperor Dusan dies at age 48 (1355).
1355 Emperor Stefan Uros V Nemanjic (1355-1371) (/serbian-history/serbianmedieval-history/rulers/stefan-uros-v.html)
Dubrovnik rejects Venice and accepts Hungarian suzerainty. Power divided
between the Rector and three councils (1358).
Simeon-Sinisa Palaeologos, Dusan's half brother, establishes virtually independent
rule in Epirus and Thessaly (1359).
Serbian nobility increasingly ignores central authority (1360).


Murad I.
Charles V,
king of



Next: The Decline (1366 - 1402) (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/timeline/the-decline.html)

The Decline (1366 - 1402) (/serbian-history/serbianmedieval-history/timeline/the-decline.html)

Category: Timeline (/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/)

Serbian Medieval History, The Decline (1366 - 1402)

1366 Nobleman Vukasin Mrnjavcevic (1366-1371)
Crowned by Uros as king and made co-ruler with great
Despot Ugljesa, Vukasin's brother, rules easternmost
provinces of the Empire around Serres.
The battle of Marica (1371). Vukasin and Ugljesa move
east to preempt Ottoman advance, but are defeated and
Emperor Uros V dies (1371).
1371 Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic (1371-1389) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medieval-history/rulers/lazarhrebeljanovic.html)
Defeats rival nobleman Nikola Altomanovic and emerges
as key ruler in central Serbia (1373).
Patriarch Jefrem (1375-1379). Reconciliation
between Serbian and Byzantine patriarchies (1375).
1377 Tvrtko I Kotromanic of Bosnia assumes royal Serbian
name Stefan and is crowned king of Serbia in Mileseva.
German emperor
Charles IV dies. The

Lazar officially crowned as "Lord of the Serbs and the

beginning of the "Great

schism" in the Catholic

Danube, Stefan Prince Lazar, autocrat of all the Serbs"

Patriarch Spiridon (1379-1389)
First Turkish incursion checked by Lazar at Paracin

Charles VI, king of


Lazar sheds Hungarian vassalage (1382).
Turks take city of Serres from Byzantines (1383).
Lazar's son-in-law, Djuradj (George) II Stracimirovic
Balsic (1385-1403), ruler of Zeta, recognizes Lazar's
suzerainty; Lazar adds "and the Coast" to his title
Turks invade Toplica and take Nis (central Serbia)
Serbs defeat large Turkish raid at Bileca (Hercegovina)
1389 The Battle of Kosovo
Major battle between invading Turks under sultan Murad
I and Lazar's Serbian-led Christian army. Technically a
draw, as both forces retreat and both commanders
killed. Lazar's widow Milica becomes regent for young
son Stefan.

Patriarch Jefrem, elected Patriarch for the second

time (1389)
Hungarians under Sigismund raid Serbia from the north
Decline of Bosnian state after Tvrtko's death (1391).
Turks take Skoplje, former Serbian capital (1392).
Nobleman Vuk Brankovic (1371-1397), Lazar's sonin-law, retains southern Serbian possessions as Turkish
vassal (1392).
Turks take Skadar (1393).
Turkish siege of
Constantinople (1394-


Djuradj Balsic recovers Skadar (1395).
Battle of Rovine (1395), Serbian king Marko Mrnjavcevic
and noble Konstantin Dejanovic die as Turkish vassals
against Wallachian prince Mircea.
Venice takes possession of Skadar by agreement with
Djuradj Balsic.
The end of the Vidin
empire (Bulgaria).
Truce between France


Turks route Hungarian crusaders at Nikopolis (1396);

Prince Stefan Lazarevic fights as a vassal of sultan
Bayezid I.

and England.

Vuk Brankovic deposed by Turks, dies in Turkish

banishment; his lands pass to Stefan Lazarevic (1397).
1398 Despot Stefan Lazarevic (1389 - 1402) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medieval-history/rulers/stefan-lazarevicprince.html)
Prince Lazar's son, reconciles with the sultan.
Dethroned Richard III:
the end of Plantagenet
dynasty in England.


Next: The Final Chapter (1402 - 1499) (/serbian-history/serbian-medievalhistory/timeline/the-final-chapter.html)

The Final Chapter (1402 - 1496) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/the-finalchapter.html)

Category: Timeline (/serbian-medieval-history/timeline/)

Serbian Medieval History, The Final Chapter (1402 - 1496)


Battle of Angora between Mongols and Turks with

Stefan as vassal. Mongols victorious, Bayezid
captured, Stefan retreats (1402).
Stefan Lazarevic obtains title of Despot from
Byzantine emperor (1402).
Patriarch Sava V (1400-1406)
Belgrade becomes capital of Serbia (1403).
Rebellion of Orthodox citizens in Skadar against

Venetian rule, helped by nobleman Balsa III Balsic of

Zeta (1405).
Patriarch Cyril (1407-1409)
Prince Louis de Orleans


killed. Civil war in France.

Despot becomes first member of new Hungarian
Order of the Dragon (1408).
Vuk Lazarevic, despot's brother, and brothers
Brankovic rebel against the despot. Rebels and Turks
take Pristina (1408).
Temporary division of Serbia between brothers
Lazarevic (1409).
Vuk Lazarevic and Lazar Brankovic executed; despot
Stefan restores southern part of Serbia (1410).
Despot Stefan actively involved in Ottoman civil war
. Sultan Suleiman killed, Stefan strengthens ties with
Hungary (1411).
Sultan Musa attacks Serbia. Reconciliation between
despot and Djuradj Brankovic, who is declared heir
to throne (1412).
Battle of Mt. Vitosa, Christian-supported Mehemmed
victorious, Musa beheaded, end of Ottoman civil war
Kotor surrenders to Venice (1420).
Patriarch Nikon (1420-1435).
Balsa III Balsic of Zeta (Montenegro) dies,
bequeathing his lands to uncle Stefan (1421).
Turkish siege of


Despot Stefan supports new sultan Murad II in

Turkish civil, gains alliance. Peace in Skadar between
Serbia and Venice (1423).
Turkish advance on Serbia, diplomatically neutralized
by Stefan with Hungarian help. Bosnian attack on
Srebrnica repulsed (1425).
Stefan picks Djuradj as successor at council at
Srebrnica. Agreement between despot Stefan and
Hungarian king Sigismund in Tati (1426).
Despot Stefan dies (1427).

1427 Despot Djuradj Brankovic (1427 - 1456)

King Sigismund recognizes Djuradj as new ruler of
Serbia and vassal (1427).
Turks attack Serbia, take some towns, repulsed from
mining center Novo Brdo. Construction of
Smederevo, strongly fortified new Serbian capital on
the Danube, begins. Djuradj accepts formal Turkish
overlordship (1428).
1429 Djuradj reconferred title of Despot by Byzantine
emperor John VIII.

Construction of Smederevo, new Serbian capital,

mostly complete. The Konavle war between
Dubrovnik and Serbian nobleman Radoslav Pavlovic.

War between Bosnia and Serbia (1431-1433), Serbia

gains control of Usora region including towns of
Zvornik and Teocak.
Patriarch Nikodim II (1433-1455).
Contract in Arasse, the end 1435
of civil war in France.

Peace between Serbia and Venice. Despot's daughter

Mara married to Turkish sultan Murad.
Battle of Godomine field (near Smederevo). Despot
Djuradj cedes Danube fotress Branicevo (1437).
First fall of Smederevo to Ottomans (1439).

Florentine union between

Roman and Byzantine


First Turkish siege of Belgrade fails, repulsed by
Hungarian noble Janos Hunyady. Despot Djuradj
moves to Zeta (1440).
Turks blind despot's sons Grgur and Stefan (1441).
Bosnian nobleman Stefan Vukcic Kosaca takes
coastal town of Bar, Venetians Drivast and Budva
Stefan Vukcic takes title "Herceg (duke) of Saint
Sava", invoking Serbian Nemanjic tradition; his main
realm henceforth known as Hercegovina.
Pope declares crusade
against the Turks.
Venetians takes Bar.

1443 Christian Crusade ledby Hungarian king Vladislav,

Hunyadi and Djuradj moves south, liberates most of
Serbia and reaches Sofia.

Skender-beg in Albania

Turkish sultan Murad formally recognizes

restored Serbia with 24 towns. Hungarian
crusaders defeated at Varna (1444).
Despot Djuradj restores Srebrenica (1445), his son
Lazar receives hereditary rights to Despot title
Hostilities between Serbia and Venice over coastal
Zeta. Hunyady defeated by Turks in second Kosovo
battle (1448).

Death of sultan Murad, return of Mara Brankovic to

Serbia (1451).
Peasant rebellion in Grbalj (Zeta coast) against
Venice (1451-1452).
End of Hundred Years' War. 1453
Fall of Constantinople,
end of the Byzantine

Turkish raids on Serbia resume; siege of Smederevo.

Hunyady defeats Turks near Krusevac.

Turks take Novo Brdo. Zeta lost to Serbian

despotate, divided by Turks, Venetians and
semi-autonomous rule of Stefan Crnojevic
Stefan Crnojevic (1455-1465), Great Vojvoda
in Zeta.
Patriarch Arsenije II (1455-1463).
Two Roses War in England


Failed Turkish siege of Belgrade; defending leaders,

Hunyady and Cardinal John Capistrano, die in

ensuing outbreak of plague. Despot Djuradj
Brankovic dies at 82 (1456).
1456 Despot Lazar Brankovic (1456 - 1458)
Serbian-Turkish peace (1457). Despot Lazar
Brankovic makes limited advances north of the
Danube, taking Kovin.
Turks conquer all of northern Serbia except
Smederevo. Death of despot Lazar (1458).
1459 Despot Stefan Tomasevic, despot of Serbia
(1459), king of Bosnia (1461-1463).
Final fall of Smederevo to Turks, central
Serbian state disappears. Stefan returns to
Bosnia (1459).
1465 Ivan Crnojevic (1465-1490) (/serbianhistory/serbian-medieval-history/rulers/ivancrnojevic.html), semi-independent ruler in Zeta
Turks take Bosnia (1463), king Stefan
Turks take large parts of Hercegovina. Herceg
Stefan dies, succeded by son Vlatko (1466).
Turkish advance against Zeta and Albania,
Ivan Crnojevic flees to coastal lands (1477).
Final Turkish attack on Hercegovina, fall of
Herceg-Novi. Ivan Crnojevic returns to Zeta
as semi-autonomous ruler (1481).
Establishment of Cetinje as capital of Zeta
and seat of Orthodox Metropolitanate
The Spanish capture
Alhambra, final Muslim
stronghold in Spain.
Expulsion of Jews from
Spain (1492).
Cristopher Columbus

1490 Djuradj Crnojevic (1490-1496), ruler in



reaches America
Treaty of Tordesillas

Openning of first South Slavic Cyrillic printing

press in Obod (1494).

(1494) dividing the New

World between Spain and

Turks force Djuradj to flee, final Serbian land

of Montenegro formally incorporated into
Ottoman Empire (1496).

Vasco de Gama sails to

India around Africa




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