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EMT212/4

OP-AMP oscillator

KOLEJ UNIVERSITI KEJURUTERAAN UTARA MALAYSIA

ANALOG ELECTRONICS 2
EMT 212
EXPERIMENT # 6
(OP-AMP OSCILLATOR)

MARKS
T1

T2

Total

12

14

34

100

NAME

signature
MATRIK #

PUSAT PENGAJIAN KEJURUTERAAN MIKROELEKTRONIK

PROGRAMME

GROUP
DATE

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EMT212/4

OP-AMP oscillator

EXPERIMENT #6
TITLE
OSCILLATORS
OBJECTIVE
1.
To demonstrate the Wien bridge oscillator
2.
To demonstrate the RC phase-shift oscillator
EQUIPMENTS & COMPONENTS
DC Power Supply, Oscilloscope, LM 741 OP-AMP, Breadboard, Resistors : 10 M
(1), 100 k (1), 10 k (2), 1 k (3), 560 (2), Potentiometers : 500 k (1), 1 k
(1), Capacitors : 0.47 F (3), 0.22 F (3), 0.1 F (2) (25V).
INTRODUCTION
Oscillators are circuits that spontaneously generate a periodic output voltage due to
positive feedback. Two important types of sinusoidal oscillators are the Wien bridge
and the RC phase-shift oscillator. An operational amplifier is ideal for use in oscillator
circuits because of its large input impedance, large gain, and the ease with which
positive feedback can be introduced around it. The positive feedback required for
oscillation is specified by the Barkhausen criterion:
(i)
the total gain from input to output and back through the feedback circuitry
must equal at least one, and
(ii)
the total phase shift from input to output and back through the feedback
circuitry must equal 0, or a multiple of 360.
A Wien bridge oscillator is shown in Figure 1. It may be regarded as a bridge whose
two branches are the resistive voltage divider across the inverting terminal and the
reactive voltage divider across the non-inverting terminals of the operational
amplifier. The circuit oscillates at the frequency at which the ac voltages at the two
input terminals are equal. If R1 and R2 (see Figure 1) are made equal-valued resistors
and C1 and C2 are made equal-valued capacitors, then the ratio of RF to Rin must be 2:1
to satisfy the Barkhausen criterion. The oscillation frequency for the Wien bridge
oscillator, given these stipulations, can be calculated from:
f

1
where R = R1 = R2 , C = C1 = C2
2RC

An example of an RC phase-shift oscillator is shown in Figure 2. The RC phase-shift


oscillator uses three cascaded stages of RC high-pass filters, with the output of the last
stage fed back to the inverting input of the operational amplifier. The purpose of the
RC filters is to provide a phase shift of 180. Since the output of these filters is fed
back to the inverting terminal, the amplifier itself provides another phase shift of
180. The total phase shift of the circuit is therefore 360 or 0. Given the stipulation
that R1, R2, and R3 are equal-valued resistors, and that C1, C2, and C3 are all equal-

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EMT212/4

OP-AMP oscillator

valued capacitors, the oscillation frequency of the RC phase-shift oscillator can be


calculated using the following equation:
f

where R = R1 = R2 = R3, C = C1 = C2 = C3

2RC 6

This equation is exact only if the input resistor on the inverting terminal (100 k in
Figure 2) is large enough to prevent any loading of the cascaded RC stages.

PROCEDURE
1.

To demonstrate the Wien bridge oscillator, connect the following circuit:


1.5 k 1 k

1k
741

C2
C1

R2

Vout

R1

GND
Figure 1: Wien bridge Oscillator
2.

Connect an oscilloscope set to ac input coupling so that Vout can be viewed. With
R1 = R2 = 10 k and C1 = C2 = 0.1 F, carefully adjust the 1 k potentiometer
until the output waveform has the least amount of distortion. Measure and
record the frequency of this waveform in Table 1.

3.

Repeat procedure step 2 using the values in Table 1.

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EMT212/4

OP-AMP oscillator

Table 1
R1 = R 2
(ohms)

C1 = C 2
(microfarad)

f (Hz)

1
2RC

(pre-calculate)

0.1 F
0.22 F

10 k

0.47 F
0.1 F
0.22 F

1 k

0.47 F
4.

To demonstrate the RC phase-shift oscillator, connect the following circuit.


500 k

10 k
741

C1
Vout R1

C2
R2

C3
R3
GND

Figure 2: RC phase-shift oscillator


5.

Connect an oscilloscope set to ac input coupling so that Vout can be viewed. With
R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 k and C1 = C2 = C3 = 0.22 F, carefully adjust the 500 k
potentiometer until the output waveform has the least amount of distortion.
Measure and record the frequency of this waveform in Table 2.

6.

Repeat procedure step 5 using values in Table 2.

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EMT212/4

OP-AMP oscillator

Table 2
R1 = R 2 = R 3
(ohms)

1 k

560

C1 = C 2 = C 3
(microfarad)

f (Hz)

1
2RC 6

(pre-calculate)

0.22 F
0.47 F
0.22 F
0.47 F

QUESTIONS
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EMT212/4

OP-AMP oscillator

mark
(2)

Q1

What are the basic components of an oscillator circuit?

Q2

What are the requirements of an oscillation?

(2)

Q3

How to vary the frequency of Wien bridge oscillator?

(2)

Q4

Based on the circuit in Figure 1, design a Wien bridge oscillator which will oscillate at a
frequency of 1 kHz.

(4)

Q5

Based on the circuit in Figure 2, design an RC phase-shift oscillator which will oscillate at
a frequency of 1 kHz.

(4)

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