You are on page 1of 73

University of Kansas, E213

Electrical System Form FSAE-E2013


University of Kansas - Jayhawk Motorsports - Electric Team

Car Number:

E213

Main Contact:

Andrew Mertz

Contact Email:

a.r.mertz@gmail.com

2013 Formula SAE Electric

ii

University Name, Car Number

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................... iii
I

List of Figures........................................................................................................................... 7

II

List of Tables...................................................................................................................... xxxvi

III

List of Abbreviations .......................................................................................................... xxxvii

System Overview ..................................................................................................................... 2

Electrical Systems .................................................................................................................... 3


2.1

Shutdown Circuit ............................................................................................................... 3

2.1.1

Description/concept.................................................................................................... 3

2.1.2

Wiring / additional circuitry ......................................................................................... 3

2.1.3

Position in car ............................................................................................................ 4

2.2

IMD ................................................................................................................................... 4

2.2.1

Description (type, operation parameters) ................................................................... 4

2.2.2

Wiring/cables/connectors/ .......................................................................................... 5

2.2.3

Position in car ............................................................................................................ 5

2.3

Inertia Switch .................................................................................................................... 5

2.3.1

Description (type, operation parameters) ................................................................... 5

2.3.2

Wiring/cables/connectors/ .......................................................................................... 5

2.3.3

Position in car ............................................................................................................ 5

2.4

Brake Plausibility Device ................................................................................................... 6

2.4.1

Description/additional circuitry ....................................................................................... 6

2.4.2

Wiring ............................................................................................................................ 6

2.4.3

Position in car/mechanical fastening/mechanical connection ......................................... 6

2.4.4

Wiring/cables/connectors/ .......................................................................................... 6

2.4.5

Position in car ............................................................................................................ 6

2.5

Reset / Latching for IMD and BMS .................................................................................... 7

2.5.1

Description/circuitry .................................................................................................... 7

2.5.2

Wiring/cables/connectors ........................................................................................... 7

2.5.3

Position in car ............................................................................................................ 7

2.6

Shutdown System Interlocks ............................................................................................. 7

2.6.1
Description/circuitry .................................................................................................... 7
2013 Formula SAE Electric
iii

2.6.2

Wiring/cables/connectors ........................................................................................... 7

2.6.3

Position in car ............................................................................................................ 8

2.7

2.7.1

Description/circuitry .................................................................................................... 8

2.7.2

Wiring/cables/connectors ........................................................................................... 8

2.7.3

Position in car ............................................................................................................ 8

2.8

Measurement points.......................................................................................................... 9

2.8.1

Description ................................................................................................................. 9

2.8.2

Wiring, connectors, cables ......................................................................................... 9

2.8.3

Position in car ............................................................................................................ 9

2.9

Pre-Charge circuitry .......................................................................................................... 9

2.9.1

Description ................................................................................................................. 9

2.9.2

Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors ......................................................... 9

2.9.3

Position in car .......................................................................................................... 10

2.10

Discharge circuitry........................................................................................................... 10

2.10.1

Description ............................................................................................................... 10

2.10.2

Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors .......... Error! Bookmark not defined.

2.10.3

Position in car .......................................................................................................... 11

2.11

HV Disconnect (HVD)...................................................................................................... 12

2.11.1

Description ............................................................................................................... 12

2.11.2

Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors ....................................................... 12

2.11.3

Position in car .......................................................................................................... 12

2.12

Tractive system active light ............................................................................................... 8

Ready-To-Drive-Sound (RTDS) ...................................................................................... 12

2.12.1

Description ............................................................................................................... 12

2.12.2

Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors ....................................................... 12

2.12.3

Position in car .......................................................................................................... 12

Accumulator ........................................................................................................................... 13
3.1

Accumulator pack 1......................................................................................................... 13

3.1.1

Overview/description/parameters ............................................................................. 13

3.1.2

Cell description ........................................................................................................ 13

3.1.3

Cell configuration ..................................................................................................... 13

3.1.4

Cell temperature monitoring ..................................................................................... 14

2013 Formula SAE Electric

3.1.5

Accumulator insulation relays ................................................................................... 14

3.1.6

Fusing ...................................................................................................................... 15

3.1.7

Battery management system.................................................................................... 16

3.1.8

Accumulator indicator............................................................................................... 16

3.1.9

Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors ....................................................... 17

3.1.10

Charging .................................................................................................................. 18

3.1.11

Mechanical Configuration/materials.......................................................................... 18

3.1.12

Position in car .......................................................................................................... 18

3.2
4

Energy meter mounting .......................................................................................................... 19


4.1

Description ...................................................................................................................... 21

4.2

Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors .............................................................. 21

4.3

Position in car ................................................................................................................. 21

Motor controller ...................................................................................................................... 22


5.1

Description, type, operation parameters ................................................................... 22

5.1.2

Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors ....................................................... 22

5.1.3

Position in car .......................................................................................................... 23

Motor 1............................................................................................................................ 24

6.1.1

Description, type, operating parameters ................................................................... 24

6.1.2

Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors ....................................................... 25

6.1.3

Position in car .......................................................................................................... 25

6.2

Motor controller 2 ............................................................................................................ 23

Motors .................................................................................................................................... 24
6.1

Motor controller 1 ............................................................................................................ 22

5.1.1

5.2
6

Accumulator pack 2......................................................................................................... 19

Motor 2............................................................................................................................ 25

Torque encoder ...................................................................................................................... 26


7.1

Description/additional circuitry......................................................................................... 26

7.2

Wiring.............................................................................................................................. 26

7.3

Position in car/mechanical fastening/mechanical connection........................................... 26

Additional LV-parts interfering with the tractive system........................................................... 27


8.1

LV part 1 ............................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

8.1.1

Description ............................................................................................................... 27

2013 Formula SAE Electric

8.1.2

Wiring, cables, ......................................................................................................... 27

8.1.3

Position in car .......................................................................................................... 27

8.2
9

LV part 2 ............................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

Overall Grounding Concept .................................................................................................... 31


9.1

Description of the Grounding Concept............................................................................. 31

9.2

Grounding Measurements ............................................................................................... 31

10

Firewall(s) ........................................................................................................................... 34

10.1

10.1.1

Description/materials................................................................................................ 34

10.1.2

Position in car .......................................................................................................... 34

10.2
11

Firewall 1......................................................................................................................... 34

Firewall 2......................................................................................................................... 34

Appendix ............................................................................................................................ 35

University Name, Car Number

Error! Reference source not found.

List of Figures

Figure 1.1 Block diagram of the tractive system


The section pertaining to the system overview of the tractive system and control system can be
found here.

Figure 1.2 Block diagram of the control system.


2013 Formula SAE Electric

Figure 1.3 - Figure 1.2 Block diagram of the shutdown system


The section pertaining to the system overview of the shutdown system can be found here.

Figure 2.1 - CAD rendering showing position in car of HV system shutdown box
The section pertaining to the HV shutdown box can be found here.

Figure 2.2 Schematic: IMD


The section pertaining to the wiring of the IMD can be found here.

Figure 2.3 CAD rendering showing location of IMD box


The section pertaining to the location of the IMD can be found here.

Figure 2.4 Schematic: Inertia Switch


The section pertaining to the wiring of inertia switch can be found here.

Figure 2.5 CAD Rendering showing Inertia Switch


The section pertaining to the location of inertia switch can be found here.

Figure 2.6 CAD Rendering showing Brake Pressure Sensor


The section pertaining to the wiring and position of the brake pressure sensor can be found here.

Figure 2.7 CAD rendering showing Brake Plausibility Device Electrical Housing
The section pertaining to the location of the brake plausbility device can be found here.

Figure 2.8: Schematic - IMD


The section pertaining to the wiring of the IMD can be found here.

Figure 2.9: Schematic - BMS


The section pertaining to the wiring of the BMS can be found here.

Figure 2.10 CAD Rendering showing housing for IMD and BMS
The section pertaining to the location of the BMS and IMD can be found here.

Figure 2.11 CAD rendering showing reset buttons for IMD and BMS
The section pertaining to the location of the BMS and IMD can be found here.

Figure 2.12: Schematic Shutdown System Interlocks

The section pertaining to the wiring of the shutdown circuits can be found here.

Figure 2.13 CAD rendering showing tractive and control system master switches
The section pertaining to the location of the master switches and shutdown buttons can be found
here.

Figure 2.14 CAD Rendering of Shutdown switches on roll-hoop


The section pertaining to the location of the shutdown buttons can be found here.

Figure 2.15 CAD Rendering of Shutdown switch on dash


The section pertaining to the location of the shutdown buttons can be found here.

Figure 2.16 Wiring diagram: TSAL


The section pertaining to the wiring of the TSAL can be found here.

Figure 2.17 CAD rendering showing Tractive System Active Light


The section pertaining to the location of the TSAL can be found here.
2013 Formula SAE Electric

16

Figure 2.18 TSMP housing and bannana jack connector


The section pertaining to the wiring and housing of the measuring points can be found here.

Figure 2.19 CAD rendering showing housing for Tractive and Control system Measuring Points
The section pertaining to the location of the measuring points can be found here.
2013 Formula SAE Electric

17

Figure 2.20: Schematic Pre-charge Circuit


The section pertaining to the wiring of the pre-charge circuit can be found here.

Figure 2.21: Pre-charge Voltage vs. Time


The section pertaining to the voltage calculations for the pre-charge circuit can be found here.

Figure 2.22: Pre-charge Current vs. Time


The section pertaining to the current calculations of the pre-charge circuit can be found here.

Figure 2.23 CAD Rendering showing Pre-charge and Discharge Circuits


The section pertaining to the location of the pre-charge circuit can be found here.

Figure 2.24 - Schematic of the discharge circuit


The section pertaining to the wiring of the dis-charge circuit can be found here.

Figure 2.25: Plot Discharge Voltage vs. Time


The section pertaining to the voltage calculation for the dis-charge circuit can be found here.

Figure 2.26: Plot Discharge Current vs. Time


The section pertaining to the current calculations for the pre-charge circuit can be found here.

Figure 2.27 Figure showing snap and lock connector for High Voltage Disconnect
The section pertaining to the description of the HVD can be found here.

Figure 2.28 CAD Rendering showing location of High Voltage Disconnect


The section pertaining to the location of the HVD can be found here.

Figure 2.29 Wiring Diagram for RTDS


The section pertaining to the wiring of the RTDS can be found here.

Figure 2.30 CAD Rendering showing location of Ready-to-Drive-Sound


The section pertaining to the location of the RTDS can be found here.

Figure 3.1 Haiyin Lithium Polymer Cell & Model


The section pertaining to the depiction of the battery cells can be found here.

Figure 3.2 Entire Accumulator (Left and Right Sides)


The section pertaining to the configuration of the battery cells can be found here.

Figure 3.3 Wiring diagram of BMS


The section pertaining to the configuration of the BMS can be found here.

Figure 3.4 1s4p pack with spacers in between the tabs.


The section pertaining to the wiring of the accumulator system can be found here.

Figure 3.5 Battery Pack Model showing mechanical housing


The section pertaining to the mechanical structure for the accumulator system can be found here.

Figure 3.6 CAD Rendering showing mechanical structure to protect accumulator system
The section pertaining to the location of the accumulator system can be found here.

Figure 4.1 CAD Rendering showing placement of Energy Meter


The section pertaining to the location of the energy meter can be found here.

Figure 5.1 CAD Rendering showing location of motor controller


The section pertaining to the location of the motor controller can be found here.
2013 Formula SAE Electric

26

Figure 6.1 Plot of power vs. Rpm for Emrax Motor LC


The section pertaining to the description of the motor parameters can be found here.

Figure 6.2 Plot of torque vs. Rpm for Emrax motor LC


The section pertaining to the description of the motor parameters can be found here.

Figure 6.3 CAD rendering showing position of motor.


The section pertaining to the location of the motor can be found here.

Figure 7.1 Wiring Diagram: Torque Encoder


The section pertaining to the wiring of the torque encoder can be found here.

Figure 7.2 CAD rendering showing Torque encoder fixture and placment
The section pertaining to the location of the torque encoder can be found here.

Figure 8.1 Wiring diagram of 300V to 12V DC-DC converter


The section pertaining to the wiring of the 300V to 12V DC-DC converter can be found here.
2013 Formula SAE Electric
29

University Name, Car Number


source not found.

Error! Reference source not found. Error! Reference

Figure 8.2 CAD Rendering showing location of 300V-12V DC-DC Converters


The section pertaining to the location of the 300V to 12V DC-DC converter can be found here.

Figure 8.3 Wiring diagram depicting the 12VDC battery

The section pertaining to the wiring of the 12VDC battery can be found here.

Figure 8.4 CAD Rendering showing location of 12 V battery


The section pertaining to the location of the 12VDC battery can be found here.

University Name, Car Number


List of Figures

9.2

Figure 8.5 Wiring diagram of 5V to 12V DC-DC converter


The section pertaining to the wiring of the 12V to 5V DC-DC converter can be found here.

Figure 8.6 CAD Rendering showing location of 12V-5V DC-DC Converter


The section pertaining to the location of the 12V to 5V DC-DC converter can be found here.

2013 Formula SAE Electric

xxxii

Figure 8.7 Wiring diagram shown LV fuse boxes and the ground plane
The section pertaining to the wiring of the LV fuse boxes and ground plane can be found here.

Figure 8.8 CAD rendering show location of LV Ground plane.


The section pertaining to the location LV fuse boxes and ground plane can be found here.
2013 Formula SAE Electric
333
33333

Figure 8.9 Wiring diagram for the PCM


The section pertaining to the wiring of the PCM can be found here.

Figure 8.10 CAD rendering showing location of the PCM housing


2013 Formula SAE Electric

343
434

The section pertaining to the location of the PCM can be found here.

2013 Formula SAE Electric

3535

Figure 10.1 CAD rendering showing location of firewall


The section pertaining to the location of the firewall can be found here.

Has to be hyperlinked!

University Name, Car Number


Reference source not found.

Error! Reference source not found. Error!

II List of Tables
Table 1.1 General parameters................................................................................................2
Table 2.1 List of switches in the shutdown circuit ...................................................................3
Table 2.2 Wiring Shutdown circuit .......................................................................................4
Table 2.3 Parameters of the IMD............................................................................................5
Table 2.4 Parameters of the Inertia Switch .............................................................................5
Table 7.1 Torque encoder data ..............................................................................................6
Table 2.6 Parameters of the TSAL .........................................................................................8
Table 2.7 General data of the pre-charge resistor ................................................................10
Table 2.8 General data of the pre-charge relay ....................................................................10
Table 2.9 General data of the discharge circuit ....................................................................11
Table 3.1 Main accumulator parameters ..............................................................................13
Table 3.2 Main cell specification ...........................................................................................14
Table 3.3 Basic AIR data......................................................................................................15
Table 3.4 Basic fuse data .....................................................................................................16
Table 3.5 Wire data of company A, 0.205 mm.....................................................................17
Table 3.6 General charger data............................................................................................18
Table 5.1 General motor controller data ...............................................................................22
Table 6.1 General motor data...............................................................................................24
Table 7.1 Torque encoder data ............................................................................................26
Table 7.1 Torque encoder data ...............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Has to be hyperlinked!

2013 Formula SAE Electric

xxxvii

III List of Abbreviations


AC

Alternating Current

ADC

Analog to Digital Converter

AIR

Accumulator Isolation Relay

AMS

Accumulator Management System

BMS

Battery Management System

BOT

Brake Over Travel BPS

Brake Panic System CAD


Computer Aided Design CS
Control System
CSMS

Control System Master Switch

CSMP

Control System Measuring Points

DC

Direct Current

GFD

Ground Fault Detection

GLV

Grounded Low Voltage

GPIO

General Purpose Input/Output

HV

High Voltage

IMD

Insulation Monitoring Device

LED

Light Emitting Diode

LV

Low Voltage

PCM

Power train control module

RTDL

Ready to Drive Light

RTDS

Ready to Drive Sound

2013 Formula SAE Electric

383
83838

University Name, Car Number


Reference source not found.

Error! Reference source not found. Error!

TSMS

Tractive System Master Switch

TSMP

Tractive System Measuring Points

2013 Formula SAE Electric

393
939

1 System Overview
The electric system of the vehicle is divided into two major categories. The tractive system
includes the motor, the motor controller, main fuses, AIRs, batteries and energy monitoring device.
The Control system involves one Arduino Mega that takes throttle and brake input and sends it to
the motor controller, two Arduino Megas that read data from the sensor banks of the car and
format it, a raspberry pi that reads the formatted sensor data and performs calculations for traction
management and launch control and sends it to the Ardunio Mega in charge of throttle. If there is
a sensor error the throttle Arduino falls back to a default setting that provides direct throttle control.
In addition a shutdown circuit on the control system controls the IMD, AMS, BPS and BOT fault
sensing and controls the AIRs through a set of relays.
Block diagrams of the tractive system, control system, and shutdown system are shown in Figure
1.1, Figure 1.2, and Figure 1.3.
Maximum Tractive-system voltage:

302.4 VDC

Nominal Tractive-system voltage:

266.4 VDC

Control-system voltage:

12VDC, 5VDC

Accumulator configuration:

72s4p

Total Accumulator capacity:

5114 kWh

Motor type:

Permanent excitated synchronous motor

Number of motors:

Total 1

Maximum combined motor power in kW

75

Table 1.1 General parameters

2013 Formula SAE Electric

University of Kansas ELECTRIC, Car Number

2 Error! Reference source not found.

2 Electrical Systems
2.1

Shutdown Circuit

2.1.1 Description/concept
The shutdown circuit consists of a milled board that accepts input from the master switches,
shutdown buttons and inertia switch to control the 12V input to the AIRs as well as a pair of relays.
In addition the shutdown circuit accepts input from the IMD, BMS, BPS and brake over travel
switch which is controlled using 5V logic circuits using a pair of MOSFET transistors to control a
pair of relays which control the ground terminal of the DC+ and DC- AIRs independently. In any
fault condition the shutdown circuit opens the circuit to the AIRs until it is reset. All logic systems
default open when starting the car until reset.
Part

Function

Main Switch (for control and tractive-system; Normally open


CSMS, TSMS)
Brake over travel switch (BOTS)

Normally open

Shutdown buttons (SDB)

Normally open

Insulation Monitoring Device (IMD)

Normally open

Battery Management System (BMS)

Normally open

Inertia Switch

Normally closed

Interlocks

Closed when circuits are connected

Brake Panic Switch

Normally Open

Table 2.1 List of switches in the shutdown circuit


2.1.2 Wiring / additional circuitry
The shutdown circuit integrates the different sections of the shutdown system onto one milled
board located inside of the HV shutdown box with the entire circuit is shown in Figure 2.1.2. The
HV shutdown box accepts input from all shutdown systems and has individual outputs for the HV
DC+ and DC- connectors. This is accomplished by the HV shutdown box carries the direct acting
current from the CSMS, TSMS, Master buttons and inertia switch while separate relays control the
IMD, Brake plausibility, Brake over travel and AMS systems. In addition the DC+ AIR has a

software control so that the motor controller or other software systems can shut down the system.
Additional features of the HV shutdown system includes LED indicators for all systems involved
such that quick troubleshooting can be accomplished in the event of failure.
Total Number of AIRs:

Current per AIR:

0.13A

Additional parts consumption within the


shutdown circuit:

1.4A

Total current:

1.92A

Cross sectional area of the wiring used:

0.326 mm (22 AWG)

Table 2.2 Wiring Shutdown circuit


2.1.3 Position in car
See figure 2.1 for CAD rendering.

2.2

IMD

2.2.1 Description (type, operation parameters)


The IMD used is the Bender A-Isometer IR155-3203 and will run off the 12V supply. The IMD
indicator light is placed on the dash of the car and is controlled by the latching portion of the
shutdown circuit.
Supply voltage range:

10..36VDC

Supply voltage

12VDC

Environmental temperature range:

-40..105C

Selftest interval:

Always at startup, then every 5 minutes

High voltage range:

DC 0..1000V

Set response value:

150k (500/Volt)

Max. operation current:

150mA

Approximate time to shut down at 50% of the 26s


response value:

Table 2.3 Parameters of the IMD


2.2.2 Wiring/cables/connectors/
The IMD is wired using 22 AWG wiring from its location shown in the CAD rendering. This wiring
o
from BMRS is M22759 Mill spec wire with the insulation rated to 150 C and 600V. The HV wires
run into the accumulator pods after the AIRs. The power, GLV and Chassis ground wires are
wired into the control system wiring. The connector used for the IMD are supplied by the
manufacture and the team made connections are ring terminals to the fuse block and ground
planes. The IMD is wired from the manufacturers schematics as shown in Figure 2.2.
2.2.3 Position in car
Please refer to figure 2.3.

2.3

Inertia Switch

2.3.1 Description (type, operation parameters)


Inertia Switch type:

Sensata 6-11g

Supply voltage range:

10..36VDC

Supply voltage:

12VDC

Environmental temperature range:

-40..105C

Max. operation current:

500mA

Trigger characteristics:

6g for 50ms / 11g for 15ms

Table 2.4 Parameters of the Inertia Switch


2.3.2 Wiring/cables/connectors/
The inertia switch is wired using 22 AWG wiring from the HV Shutdown box to the switch and back
o
to the box. This wiring from BMRS is M22759 Mill spec wire with the insulation rated to 150 C and
600V. The wiring will be connected using a HD34-24-47PN from BMRS with the wires being bundled
into a wiring harness. For a schematic please refer to Figure 2.4.

2.3.3 Position in car


Please refer to Figure 2.5.

2.4

Brake Plausibility Device

2.4.1 Description/additional circuitry


The brake plausibility section of the shutdown circuit takes input from the EB100 then passes it
through a LM339 comparator to determine if a hard brake is being applied. In addition to this data
from HTFS 200-P/SP2 is also passed into the shutdown circuit through a LM339 comparator to
determine if a current above 5kW (17A). After the signals are fed through the comparators they
pass through a AND gate and into a 4 bit shift register with a clock of 8.3Hz. The output of each bit
is fed into a quad NAND gate such that if the fault condition persists for four clock cycles (.48s) a
fault condition is thrown and the AIRs are opened until reset by the driver.
Brake sensor used:

EB100 High Accuracy Miniature Pressure


Transducer

Torque encoder used:

Strain Gage

Supply voltages:

12V

Maximum supply currents:

<5mA

Operating temperature:

-40..125 C

Output used to control AIRs:

Latch a fault condition and open a pair of


relays.

Table 2.5 Torque encoder data


2.4.2 Wiring
The brake plausibility device is wired using 22 AWG wiring from the HTFS 200-P/SP2 to the signal
processing board and then to the HV shutdown box. Additionally the signal from the EB100 is
wired using 22 AWG to the HV box. This wiring from BMRS is M22759 Mill spec wire with the
o
insulation rated to 150 C and 600V.

2.4.3 Position in car/mechanical fastening/mechanical connection


Please refer to Figure 2.6.
2.4.4 Wiring/cables/connectors/
The wiring will be connected using a HD34-24-47PN from BMRS with the wires being bundled into
a wiring harness.

2.4.5 Position in car


Refer to Figure 2.7.

2.5

Reset / Latching for IMD and BMS

2.5.1 Description/circuitry
The latching circuit for the IMD and BMS systems are implemented using SR latches on the
shutdown circuit board. The GFD signal is passed through a comparator buffer, through an
inverter and into the S pin of the SR latch. The BMS signals are passed through a pair of
comparator buffers, through an AND gate and into the S pin of the SR latch. On the output of the
SR latch the Q terminal (fault) pin controls the lighting of the individual LEDs while the Q terminal
(no fault) is fed through a quad AND gate to control the AIRs.
2.5.2 Wiring/cables/connectors
The latching circuit is located in the HV shutdown box with the reset buttons and LED indicators
being wired suing 22 AWG. This wiring from BMRS is M22759 Mill spec wire with the insulation
o
rated to 150 C and 600V. The wiring will be connected using a HD34-24-47PN from BMRS with the
wires being bundled into a wiring harness. The schematic for the IMD can be found in Figure 2.8. The
schematic for the BMS can be found in Figure 2.9.

2.5.3 Position in car


Please refer to Figure 2.10 and Figure 2.11.

2.6

Shutdown System Interlocks

2.6.1 Description/circuitry
The interlock section of the shutdown circuit consists of two keyed master switches that sit outside
the car on the passenger side. The first switch (CSMS) controls the low voltage systems and
controls, the second switch (TSMS) enables power to the high voltage section of the shutdown
circuit. Once the TSMS has power three emergency shutdown buttons are placed that carry the
current directly with one rougher at head level of the driver on either side of the vehicle and the
other on the dash within reach of the driver. The two master switches are part# MD-2 from BMRS
and the master buttons are model XB2-ES542.
2.6.2 Wiring/cables/connectors
The CSMS is wired using 16 AWG wire connected to the 12V battery and the HV shutdown box.
The TSMS is wired using 22 AWG from the HV shutdown box and returns to the shutdown box.
The master buttons are wired in series using 22 AWG wire from the HV shutdown box and
terminating again in the HV shutdown box. This wiring from BMRS is M22759 Mill spec wire with
o
the insulation rated to 150 C and 600V. The wiring will be connected using a HD34-24-47PN from
BMRS with the wires being bundled into a wiring harness.
The schematic is shown in Figure 2.12.

2.6.3 Position in car


Please refer to Figure 2.13 , Figure 2.14 , and Figure 2.15.

2.7

Tractive system active light

2.7.1 Description/circuitry
The Tractive system active light is the Ecco Short Hide A LED with Amber Lens. It is connected
directly to a 12 V fuse, and so will be active as while the LV system is powered. A switch will also
be included in the power line, to allow the light to be deactivated if necessary.
Supply voltage:

12VDC

Max. operational current:

350 mA

Lamp type

LED

Power consumption:

4W

Brightness

100 Lumen

Frequency:

1.5Hz

Size (circumference x height):

38.1mm x 22.23mm

Table 2.6 Parameters of the TSAL

2.7.2 Wiring/cables/connectors
The wiring diagram from the TSAL can be found in Figure 2.16.
The Light is connected (using 22 gauge wire) directly to the LV fuse block and ground plane. It will
be active for as long as the LV system is powered.

2.7.3 Position in car


Please refer to Figure 2.17.

2.8

Measurement points

2.8.1 Description
The housing will be made from plastic, which is a non-conductive as specified by the rules. Three
measurements points will be available, each of which connected to with a 4mm banana jack. The
measurement points will include HV positive, HV negative, and LV ground. To access the housing
hand-turn screws will be used.
2.8.2 Wiring, connectors, cables
The enclosure and connectors is shown in
2.18.

Figure

2.8.3 Position in car


Please refer to Figure 2.19.

2.9

Pre-Charge circuitry

2.9.1 Description
The pre-charge circuit used is the recommended configuration listed in the manual of the motor
controller used. The pre-charge circuit consists of a pre-charge fuse, a 600 resistor and a precharge relay. The circuit operates by charging the contollers internal 280uF internal capacitors to
the operate voltage. The pre-charge process begins once the shutdown circuit clears all faults and
the DC- AIR is closed. Once pre-charging is complete pin J2-7 of the motor controller is used as
an indicator to the LV controlls to close the DC+ AIR putting the vehicle into ready to trive mode.
2.9.2 Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors
The wiring diagram of the Pre-charge circuit is shown in Figure 2.9.2. Once the shutdown circuit
clears all faults the circuit from the DC- terminal of the battery array is closed to the DC- terminal of
the motor controller. The pre-charge current flows through the main fuse, through the pre-charge
fuse, resistor and relay into the DC+ terminal. All pre-charge circuitry wiring is 16 AGW and from
o
BMRS type M22759 Mill spec wire with the insulation rated to 150 C and 600V.
The schematic for the pre-charge circuit can be found in Figure 2.20.
A plot showing the pre-charge voltage vs. time is provided in Figure 2.21.
The equation used for Figure 2.21 is given in Equation 2.1
%V=1-e^((-t)/(600*500F))

Equation. 2.1

A plot showing the pre-charge current vs. time is provided in Figure 2.22.
The equation used for Figure 2.22 is given in Equation 2.2.
i=(300/600)* e^((-t)/(600*500F))

Equation 2.2

Resistor Type:

RMS p/n 53-0006

Resistance:

600

Continuous power rating:

50W

Overload power rating:

200W for 30 sec

Voltage rating:

1500V

Cross-sectional area of the wire used:

0.205 mm

Table 2.7 General data of the pre-charge resistor

Relay Type:

RMS p/n 77-0026

Contact arrangment:

SPST

Continuous DC current:

30A

Voltage rating

2000VDC

Cross-sectional area of the wire used:

0.205 mm

Table 2.8 General data of the pre-charge relay


2.9.3 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 2.23.

2.10 Discharge circuitry


2.10.1 Description
The discharge circuit functions by placing a 600 resistor in series with two normally closed relays.
The relays are opened when the AIRs close to prevent wasting power during nominal operation of

the vehicle. Once the power to the AIRs is lost during shutdown the discharge relays will close
allowing the HV system to discharge through the 600 resistor.

Resistor Type:

RMS p/n 53-00006

Resistance:

600

Continuous power rating:

50W

Overload power rating:

200W for 20 sec

Voltage rating:

1500V

Maximum expected current:

0.5A

Average current:

0.26A

Cross-sectional area of the wire used:

0.205 mm

Table 2.9 General data of the discharge circuit


2.10.2 Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors
The wiring of the discharge circuit is shown in Figure 2.10.2.1. The relays are driven from signals
out of the HV shutdown box. All pre-charge circuitry wiring is 16 AGW and from BMRS type
o
M22759 Mill spec wire with the insulation rated to 150 C and 600V
The schematic for the dis-charge circuit can be found in Figure 2.24.
A plot showing the dis-charge voltage vs. time is provided in Figure 2.25.
The equation used for Figure 2.25 is given in Equation 2.3
v=(300)* e^((-t)/(600*500F))

Eq. 2.3

A plot showing the pre-charge current vs. time is provided in Figure 2.26.
The equation used for Figure 2.26 is given in Equation 2.4.
i=(300/600)* e^((-t)/(600*500F))
2.10.3 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 2.23.

Eq. 2.4

2.11 HV Disconnect (HVD)


2.11.1 Description
The high voltage disconnect can be disengaged by a snap and lock mechanism. The vehicle will
contain two of these high voltage disconnects located adjacent to the battery housing sidepods.
The accumulator system will be wired in a series configuration therefore disengaging one of the
high voltage disconnects will disconnect the accumulator system from the high voltage system.
2.11.2 Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors
We will be using Deutsch brand snap and lock connectors, an example is shown in Figure 2.27.
The Deutsch brand connector for 0 gauge wire size is rated for a continuous of 300 amps. The
control system will however have a hard-limit of 75kW anyways, therefore using the nominal
voltage rating of 280 V, the maximum continuous current the high voltage system will see is 270 A,
which is within the rating for the connector.
2.11.3 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 2.28.

2.12 Ready-To-Drive-Sound (RTDS)


2.12.1 Description
The RTDS is produced by a Hella Supertone 12 V air horn. The horns power is controlled by a
solid state relay, which is manipulated using a control signal from the PCM Arduino to sound for
one second after the contacts have engaged.
2.12.2 Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors
The Ready to Drive Sound is connected to the 12 V fuse block and to the ground plane via a solid
state relay. The relay is controlled by a signal from the power train control module, which causes it
to sound for 1 second when the car is activated. The Ready to Drive sound uses 16 gauge wiring,
as it has a relatively high power drain for the low voltage system.
The wiring schematic is provided in Figure 2.29.
2.12.3 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 2.30.

3 Accumulator
3.1

Accumulator pack 1

3.1.1 Overview/description/parameters
The vehicle contains two side pods that contain shutdown protection circuitry, fusing, GFD, AIRs,
and an accumulator containing 144 cells. Accumulator 1 (left side) and Accumulator 2 (right side)
are identical, as is everything in the side pods. Each accumulator contains four (4) battery packs.
Each pack contains 36 cells wired 9s4p. Each battery pack has a nominal voltage of 33.3 V.
Maximum Voltage:

151.2 VDC

Nominal Voltage:

133.2 VDC

Minimum Voltage:

108 VDC

Maximum output current:

402 A for 15s

Maximum nominal current:

248 A

Maximum charging current:

50 A

Total numbers of cells:

144

Cell configuration:

36s4p

Total Capacity:

2557 kWh

Number of cell stacks < 120VDC

Table 3.1 Main accumulator parameters

3.1.2 Cell description


The cell type chosen for the electric car is the Haiyin lithium polymer pouch cell. It has dimensions
of 100 mm x 120 mm x 6.35 mm. The weight of each cell is 150 g, and for all the cells in one
accumulator is 21.6 kg. The following table lists all the parameters for the cell. The Haiyin brand
cell is depicted in Figure 3.1.

Cell Manufacturer and Type

Haiyin Lithium Polymer Pouch Cell

Cell nominal capacity:

6 Ah

Maximum Voltage:

4.2 V

Nominal Voltage:

3.7 V

Minimum Voltage:

2.8 V

Maximum output current:

66.6C for 15s

Maximum nominal output current:

50C

Maximum charging current:

5C

Maximum Cell Temperature (discharging)

50C

Maximum Cell Temperature (charging)

55C

Cell chemistry:

Lithium Polymer

Table 3.2 Main cell specification


3.1.3 Cell configuration
There are a total of 144 cells in Accumulator 1 (left side), as well as in Accumulator 2 (right side).
Each accumulator contains four (4) battery packs. Each pack contains 36 cells wired 9s4p. Each
battery pack has a nominal voltage of 33.3 V. The schematic for the cells is shown in Figure XX of.
Every pack of 4 cells is monitored by one (1) BMS module, and is discussed in 3.1.4. It is attached
via a 1/8 self-tapping machine screw to the spacer.
A schematic of entire accumulator system (both left and right sides) is shown in Figure 3.2.
Each 9s4p battery pack is assembled inside of a custom Kevlar box housing. The Kevlar box is
secured to the battery pod using 4 bolts, and further discussed in 3.1.10.
3.1.4 Cell temperature monitoring
A BMS module can monitor one or more cells if they are connected in parallel. The battery packs
have 4 cells in parallel, which allows our BMS system to monitor the 4 cells with one BMS module.
There are 9 battery modules per battery pack, and 36 total battery modules for each accumulator
system. This battery module monitors the temperature of the 4 cells and is placed directly over the

cells. All 72 series batteries (containing 4 cells in parallel) from both accumulators are monitored by
the one BMS system.
3.1.5 Accumulator insulation relays
The Accumulator insulation relays are Tyco branded single pole single throw high voltage
contactors. They are contained in the safety circuitry box, along with the fusing, GFD, and the
shutoff circuit. There are 2 relays per accumulator box, 1 connected to the HV high side, and 1 to
the high voltage negative side. These are normally open type relays and only ever engaged when
the car is operational and no errors are found. At any time there is an error for the BMS, shutdown
circuit or safety interlock switch, the relays will dis-engage.
Relay Type:

Tyco

Contact arragment:

SPST

Continous DC current rating:

500 A

Overload DC current rating:

200 A for 10 sec

Maximum operation voltage:

900 VDC

Nominal coil voltage:

12 VDC

Normal Load switching:

Make and break up to 500 A

Maximum Load switching

1 times at 2000 A

Table 3.3 Basic AIR data

3.1.6 Fusing
The primary tractive system fuse is a Bussman LPJ-250SPI. This fuse is rated below the
maximum current defined for the 0 gauge cable used for the tractive system and is designed with a
10s delay at 500% overcurrent. This fuse is selected to provide the safety required but remain
flexible if small amounts of overcurrent occur.
Additionally fill out the following table:
Fuse type:

Bussman LPJ-250SPI

Continous current rating:

250A

Maximum operating voltage

300VDC

Type of fuse:

Slow Blow

I2t rating:

1500A2s at 450VDC

Interrupt Current (maximum current at which 100000A


the fuse can interrupt the current)

Table 3.4 Basic fuse data


A table of all the components that the fuse protects as well as continuous current ratings are
shown in Table 3.5

Component:

Continuous current rating

Rinehart PM 100DX

300A

KILOVAC EV200

500A

1/0 AWG EXRAD XLE 1000 Volt Shielded


Cable

339A

3.1.7 Battery management system


The BMS system we have selected to use is Elektromotus Battery Management System. The
system is a distributed type system where the battery modules are physically apart from the main
control unit. The control unit will be placed under the seat and powered by the 12 V low voltage
system. This BMS system can monitor a voltage range of 2-5 VDC and can be programmed
exactly to the type of batteries used. Lithium polymer has a maximum voltage of 4.2 V and
minimum of 3.0 V, which will be programmed into the control unit.
The cell temperature capabilities of the BMS system can detect a range of temperatures from 060 C. This can be changed to reflect different types of cells in the software just as the voltages
were. For lithium polymer cells the minimum allowed temperature is 0C and the maximum is 50C.
These temperatures can be adjusted to fit our needs, and if an over temperature event takes
places it disables the AIR and the cells will have to cool down before they can be used.
Each BMS module will monitor 4 cells connected in parallel. One battery pack will have 9 BMS
modules on it, as shown in the schematic in Figure 3.3. The cells are arranged in a 36s4p
configuration for each accumulator. Half the cells are located in the left accumulator pod, and the
other half in the right one. The BMS control unit watches over 72 batteries. There are four data
lines that run from the control unit to the cells. There is a positive and negative transmit line, and
positive and negative receive line. The transmit pair connects to the positive most battery terminal,

while the negative connects to the negative most battery terminal. Then in between each of the
modules there is a single data line running from chip to chip, completing the data line loop.
The wiring diagram for the BMS is provided in Figure 3.3.
If a series error occurs (cell over voltage, cell over current, cell over temperature, etc.) the BMS will
throw an error, which is passed onto the shutdown circuit telling it that the BMS is not active. The
shutdown circuit will then have the AIRs disengage. From here the BMS can be hooked up to a
computer to figure out the error for troubleshooting.
3.1.8 Accumulator indicator
The accumulator indicator is located with other indicators on the shutdown box. This indicator is
and LED that gets pulled to ground through a 680 resistor connected directly from the BMS
control unit. In addition there is a charging indicator that uses the same setup as the accumulator
indicator and is also mounted on the shutdown box.
3.1.9 Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors
The car is equipped one 75 kW motor, which limits the maximum draw at full charge to 250 A. The
wiring is sized for up to 300 A continuous.
The lithium polymer pouch batteries are connected together with diameter aluminum tubing
(see Figure XX). The tubing has a cross-sectional area of 182.4 mm^2, allowing an ampacity of
over 300 A. The tubing is cut into spacers between each of the tabs, these spacers are used to
make the series and parallel connections to the cells. The cells are then connected with the proper
length AN6 bolt (AN6H-14A - 3/8" 1.5" bolt or AN6H-24A - 3/8" 2.5" bolt depending on the
number of tabs), washer (AN970-616) and self-locking nut (AN365B624A).
A 1s4p pack with spacers is shown in Figure 3.4.
Wire type

Deutsch SuperASHD contact,

Continuous current rating:

300 A

Cross-sectional area

70 mm

Maximum operating voltage:

? VDC

Temperature rating:

175 C

Wire connects the following components:

Battery Pack to Battery Pack, and Battery


Pack to shutdown box.

Table 3.5 Wire data of Deutsch, 70 mm

3.1.10 Charging
The entire accumulator (both left and right sides) will be charged using the ElCon PFC 2500
Charger which has a maximum voltage of 306 V. The charger is externally located and be on site
to charge the accumulators. The charger is connected to the side pod via a deutsch connector.
When charging the accumulators the car and BMS will be turned on to monitor the entire process
and provide data about the process. If there is a fault due to over charging a cell, then the BMS will
issue a fault and the shutdown circuit will dis-engage the AIRs.
Charger Type:

ElCon PFC 2500 Charger

Maximum charging power:

3.3 kW

Maximum charging voltage:

306 V

Maximum charging current:

10 A

Interface with accumulator

CAN-Bus, direct connect.

Input voltage:

120/230 VAC

Input current:

20 A

Table 3.6 General charger data

3.1.11 Mechanical Configuration/materials


The battery pack that was constructed to hold the cells, was designed with safety and
functionality in mind. It was designed to hold 36 Lithium-polymer cells securely as well as
provide minimal effect on the battery pod's structural integrity. Kevlar was chosen due to its
light weight, non-conductive nature, as well as it's strength and rigidity. The battery packs had
to be constructed to be small enough to fit in the battery pod, as well as provide a secure
container to protect the Lithium Polymer battery cells from damage. The battery pack was
designed in Solidworks, and tested by simulation for strength and stress. A three dimensional
model of a battery pack is shown in Figure 3.5.
3.1.12 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 3.6.

3.2

Accumulator pack 2

3.2.1 Overview/description/parameters
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.1 above.
3.2.2 Cell description
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.2 above.
3.2.3 Cell configuration
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.3 above.
3.2.4 Accumulator insulation relays
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.4 above.
3.2.5 Fusing
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.5 above.
3.2.6 Battery management system
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.6 above.
3.2.7 Accumulator indicator
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.7 above.
3.2.8 Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.8 above.
3.2.9 Charging
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.9 above.
3.2.10 Mechanical Configuration/materials
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.10 above.
3.2.11 Position in car
See figure 3.1.12.1
3.3.1 Both Accumulators
Maximum Voltage:

302.4 VDC

Nominal Voltage:

266.4 VDC

Minimum Voltage:

216 VDC

Maximum output current:

402 A for 15s

Maximum nominal current:

248 A

Maximum charging current:

50 A

Total numbers of cells:

288

Cell configuration:

72s4p

Total Capacity:

5114 kWh

Number of cell stacks < 120VDC

Table 3.7 Both accumulator parameters

1.1.1 University Name, Car Number


3.2.1 Overview/description/parameters
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.1 above.
1.1.2 Cell description
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.2 above.
1.1.3 Cell configuration
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.3 above.
1.1.4 Accumulator insulation relays
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.4 above.
1.1.5 Fusing
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.5 above.
1.1.6 Battery management system
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.6 above.
1.1.7 Accumulator indicator
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.7 above.
1.1.8 Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.8 above.
1.1.9 Charging
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.9 above.
1.1.10 Mechanical Configuration/materials
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.10 above.

4 Energy meter mounting


4.1

Description

The energy meter will be mounted in the rear section of the right battery box using zip ties. The zip
ties will be attached to the hull with inserts bonded to the carbon fiber of the battery box.

4.2

Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors

The 1/0 gauge wire from the batteries will be connected to the HV+ terminal using the mating
connector. The energy meter will be connected to the 1/0 AWG cable from the motor controller
using a 1/0 AWG lug. Data for these connection can be found in the table below.
Wire type:

1/0 AWG EXRAD XLE 1000 Volt Shielded


Cable

Current rating:

339A

1.1.6 Battery management system


Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.6 above.
1.1.7 Accumulator indicator
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.7 above.
1.1.8 Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.8 above.
1.1.9 Charging
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.9 above.
1.1.10 Mechanical Configuration/materials
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.10 above.
Maximum operating voltage:

1000V

Temperature rating:

70C to 150C

Table 4.1 Wiring information


Calculations are provided in Equations 4.1 and 4.2 below.
Maximum continuous power:
Equation 4.1
Maximum rated power:

Equation 4.2

1.1.6 Battery management system


Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.6 above.
1.1.7 Accumulator indicator
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.7 above.
1.1.8 Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.8 above.
1.1.9 Charging
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.9 above.
1.1.10 Mechanical Configuration/materials
Same as Accumulator 1, see Section 3.1.10 above.

4.3

Position in car

Please refer to Figure 4.1.

University Name, Car Number

Error! Reference source not found.

5 Motor controller
5.1

Motor controller 1

5.1.1 Description, type, operation parameters


The motor controller takes a 300 VDC input from the batteries and converts it to a three phase AC
output for the motor. The frequency is controlled by the digital input from the throttle encoder.
Motor controller type:

RMS PM 100

Maximum continous power:

50kW

Maximum peak power:

100kW for 2min

Maximum Input voltage:

360VDC

Output voltage:

250VAC

Maximum continuous output current:

120A

Maximum peak current:

220A for 2min

Control method:

Analog signal

Cooling method:

Water

Auxiliary supply voltage:

12VDC

Table 5.1 General motor controller data


The datasheet for the PM100 can be found in appendix 11.5.1.1.
5.1.2 Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors
The motor controller is connected to the batteries and the motor using shielded 1/0 gauge cables.
Wire type:

1/0 AWG EXRAD XLE 1000 Volt Shielded


Cable

Current rating:

339A

Maximum operating voltage:

1000V

Temperature rating:

70C to 150C

Table 5.2 Wiring information


5.1.3 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 5.1.

5.2

Motor controller 2

The tractive system will be implemented using a one motor and one motor controller.

University Name, Car Number

6 Error! Reference source not found.

6 Motors
6.1

Motor 1

6.1.1 Description, type, operating parameters


The motor used is a permanently excitated synchronous motor Emrax brand and is also liquid
cooled. The motor controller connects to the motor controller via a 3 phase AC input.
Additionally fill out table:
Motor Manufacturer and Type:

Enstroj EMRAX LC

Motor principle

synchronous, permanently excitated

Maximum continuous power:

50kW

Peak power:

100kW for 5s

Input voltage:

300VAC

Nominal current:

170A

Peak current:

330A

Maximum torque:

195Nm

Nominal torque:

100Nm

Cooling method:

Water

Table 6.1 General motor data


A link to the datasheet for the Emrax LC can be found here.
A plot of power vs. Rpm is shown in Figure 6.1, and a plot of torque vs. Rpm is shown in
Figure 6.2.

The maximum continuous torque could not be achieved during testing due to limitations in the test
equipment. The rated maximum continuous torque is 235 Nm and the maximum instantaneous
torque is 370 Nm for 10 seconds.

6.1.2 Wiring, cables, current calculations, connectors


The motor is connected to the batteries and the motor using shielded 1/0 gauge cables.

Wire type:

1/0 AWG EXRAD XLE 1000 Volt Shielded


Cable

Current rating:

339A

Maximum operating voltage:

1000V

Temperature rating:

70C to 150C

Table 6.2 Wiring information


The datasheet for the HV cables can be found in appendix 11.6.1.2.
6.1.3 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 6.3.

6.2

Motor 2

The tractive system will be implemented using a one-motor design.

University Name, Car Number

9 Overall Grounding Concept

7 Torque encoder
7.1

Description/additional circuitry

The torque encoder used is a standard rotary potentiometer. Changes in our supplied 5V will be detected by
a micro-controller system that is dedicated to core car control systems. This micro-controller uses a built in
analog to digital converter to interpret the supplied voltage from the torque encoder. This will then be
translated to a power request signal that is transmitted to the motor controllers. The signal from the throttle is
converted proportionately to the power applied signal with no modifications at this point. These are third
party
motor controllers that supply three phase AC to the tractive system.

Torque encoder manufacturer and type:

CTS Electrocomponents

Torque encoder principle:

Potentiometer

Supply voltage:

5V

Maximum supply current:

1mA

Operating temperature:

-30..105 C

Used output:

0-5V

Table 7.1 Torque encoder data


7.2

Wiring

The wiring diagram is shown in Figure 7.1. The diagram shows the interconnection of the critical
low-voltage components. The torque encoders portion is in the lower right hand corner where you
can see the actual sensors (potentiometer) being supplied with a 5V power supply and ground.
Their wires are connected to a dedicated sensor box in the front of the car where a microcontroller
puts the sensor data onto a CAN bus for logging. The signal wires are then passed on to the PCM
module for actual power control.

7.3

Position in car/mechanical fastening/mechanical connection

Figure 7.2 shows the way in which a D-shaft rotary potentiometer will be mounted to our throttle
fixture mechanically. Complete depression of the throttle will cause an approximately 23 rotation
of the potentiometer. Being consequently read from a 10-bit ADC this will yield approximately 78
detectable throttle positions in the control board.

8 Additional LV-parts interfering with the tractive system


The LV system is comprised mainly of 3 separate boxes (PCM, Front and Rear sensors). Data is
gathered by a sensor grid attached to each wheel and processed before being sent back to the
PCM module.

8.1

300V to 12V DC-DC Converter.

8.1.1 Description
Once the HV contactors switch on, power for the LV system is provided by this converter.
Converter manufacturer and type:

Vicor Micro Brick (V300C12C150BL)

Supply voltage:

180 375 V

Current Limit:

16.3 A

Operating temperature:

-55..100 C

Output Voltage Range:

-0.5 16.1 V

Table 8.1: HV to LV converter data


8.1.2 Wiring and Cables
The 300 V to 12 V converter draws its power from the 300 V line that tells the high voltage control
board when the high voltage system has activated. When this occurs, the control board switches
the 12 V battery off and the 300 V to 12 V converter on. The converter then supplies power directly
to the 12 V fuse box. It is connected (via the control board) to both the 12 V fuse box and ground
plane using 16 gauge wiring.
A wiring schematic for the 300V to 12 V DC-DC converter can be found in Figure 8.1.
8.1.3 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 8.2.

8.2

12 V Battery

8.2.1 Description
The battery is needed to activate the HV contactors. The 300 V to 12 V converter will be set to
provide an output voltage slightly above 13.3 V. This should maintain the charge on the 12 V
battery.

Battery manufacturer and type:

Braille G4

Full charge voltage:

13.3 V

Amp Hours (AH):

2.33

Table 8.2: 12 V Battery Data


The datasheet for the 12V battery can be found in appendix 11.8.2.1.
8.2.2 Wiring and Cables
The 12 V battery is connected to the High voltage control board and the ground plane via 16 gauge
wiring.
The wiring diagram for the 12VDC battery is shown in Figure 8.3.
8.2.3 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 8.4.

8.3

12V to 5V DC-DC Converter

8.3.1 Description
This converter will source power to most of the sensors. The majority of sensors on the vehicle
require a 5 VDC supply.
Converter manufacturer and type:

Castle Creations CC Bec 10A 6S Switching


Regulator

Supply voltage:

5 25.2 V

Output Voltage:

5.1 V

Maximum continuous current draw:

7A

Table 8.3: HV to LV converter data


The link to the datasheet is available in appendix 11.8.3.1.
8.3.2 Wiring and Cables
The wiring diagram of the 12V to 5V DC-DC converter can be found in Figure 8.5.

This converter draws its power (via 16 gauge wiring) from the 12 V fuse box and supplies power
(via 16 gauge wire) to the 5 V fuse box. The 12 V and 5 V power rails use the same ground plane,
so both sides of the converter are connected to it.

8.3.3 Position in car


Please refer to Figure 8.6.

8.4

LV Fuse Boxes/Ground Plane

8.4.1 Description
Two fuse boxes are implemented (one with 12 fuses for 12 V power, one with 6 fuses for 5 V
power). These fuse boxes have no ground plane, so instead an external ground plane (consisting
of a copper plate attached to the dividing wall that separates the motor controller from the LV
systems) will be implemented.
8.4.2 Wiring and Cables
The 12 V draws power from the high voltage control board via 16 gauge wiring and delivers power
to the tractive system active light, the ready to drive sound, and the 12 V to 5 V converter (all via
16 gauge). The 5 V fuse block delivers power to the two throttle encoders, the brake pressure
transducer, the front sensor box, and the PCM (all via 22 gauge wiring). The ground plane is
connected to virtually every system in the car via wiring of the same gauge as that systems power
line.
The wiring of the LV fuse boxes and the ground plane is shown in Figure 8.7.
8.4.3 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 8.8.

8.5

Power-train Control Module (PCM).

8.5.1 Description
The PCM contains an Arduino with CAN-shield to gather data sent by the two sensor boxes and a
Raspberry Pi that sends a control signal to the motor controllers.
8.5.2 Wiring and Cables
The PCM is powered by 22 gauge wiring from the 5 V fuse block and ground plane. It receives
CAN-Bus data from the front sensor box as well as a special dedicated throttle line, all via 22
gauge wires. Finally, the PCM sends control signals directly to the motor controller via 22 gauge
wires.

The wiring diagram for the PCM is shown in Figure 8.9.


8.5.3 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 8.10.

9 Overall Grounding Concept


9.1

Description of the Grounding Concept

The chassis will be made entirely of carbon fiber. For areas of the chassis that are within 100 mm
of the tractive system components or GLV components there will exist special connections to
ground the chassis to the LV system and testing will be performed to ensure a resistance of less
than 5 Ohms. To further reduce the resistance more intermittent connections to the LV system
ground can be made. The rear-sub frame will consist of anodized metal, and will be directly
connected to the low voltage ground.

9.2

Grounding Measurements

The measurements will be taken within 100 mm of any tractive system component or GLV
component on the carbon fiber chassis and to pass must be have less than 5 Ohms of resistance
to LV ground. For anodized metals the resistance must be less than 300 mOhms to LV ground
within 100 mm of any tractive or GLV component.

University Name, Car Number

10 Firewall(s)

10 Firewall(s)
10.1 Firewall 1
10.1.1 Description/materials
The seat back is to be used as the firewall. The seat back is composed of carbon fiber which will
achieve the required scratch and puncture resistance to meet UL94-V0 standards. The seat back
will be coated in gold reflective tape to improve the fire resistance. The firewall will be conductive
and shorted to the low voltage ground through the chassis.
The datasheet for the gold reflective tape can be found in appendix 11.10.1.1
10.1.2 Position in car
Please refer to Figure 10.1.

10.2 Firewall 2
Only one firewall is needed to protect the driver from the tractive system, which is encapsulated
behind the seat.

University Name, Car Number

11 Appendix
11.5.1.1 PM100 Motor Controller
Datasheet available at the following link:
http://www.rinehartmotion.com/products.html
The section pertaining to the PM100 motor controller can be found here.

11.6.1.1 Emrax motor LC


Datasheet available at the following link:
http://www.enstroj.si/Electric-products/emrax-motors.html
The section pertaining to the Emrax motor can be found here.

11.6.1.2 HV Cables
Datasheet available at the following link:
http://www.champcable.com /product/exrad-xle-1000-volt-shielded-cable#

The section pertaining to the HV cables can be found here.

11.10.1.1 Datasheet for Gold Reflective Tap used as firewall


Datasheet available at the followng link:
http://www.grainger.com/Grainger/REFLEXITE-Reflective-Tape-4LGL6

The section pertaining to the reflective tape can be found here.

11

11.8.1.1 300V to 12V DC-DC converter


Datasheet available at the following link:
http://cdn.vicorpower.com/documents/datasheets/ds_300vin-micro-family.pdf
The section pertaining to the 300V to 12V DC-DC converter can be found here.

11.8.2.1 12V Battery


Datasheet available at the following link:
http://www.braillebattery.com/index.php/braille/product_batteries/g4
The section pertaining to the 12 V battery can be found here.

11.8.3.1 12V to 5V DC-DC converter


Datasheet available at the following link:
http://www.dimensionengineering.com/datasheets/Sabertooth2x12.pdf
The section pertaining to the 12V to 5V DC-DC converter can be found here.