summery of airodynamics course

© All Rights Reserved

11 views

summery of airodynamics course

© All Rights Reserved

- xfoil data
- Aircraft-Basics
- helicpter
- Study of blended wing body air craft
- AUTO400 Homework Assignment 1 SOLUTION
- Ada 520249
- Unsteady Flow Phenomena Associated With Leading-edge Vortices
- Fan
- Gate Syllabus
- 4. CHAPTER 3- 1-12-11
- Coanda Effects
- Solution Practice Drag and Lift
- Bony Paper
- Flight Without Power
- Assignment#4 - Ornithopters - Process Description - Eng 1001 Final
- Flaps
- TK10_SC_white_paper_lores
- The Ahmed Body546
- 1-s2.0-S1270963818302359-main
- Scissor Lift Wind Load Analysis

You are on page 1of 69

Table of Contents

1.

2.

3.

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

2.1

Continuity:..................................................................................................................................... 8

2.2

Momentum: .................................................................................................................................. 8

2.3

Energy: ........................................................................................................................................ 10

3.1 streamlines........................................................................................................................................ 12

3.2 angular velocity, vorticity .................................................................................................................. 12

3.3 circulation ......................................................................................................................................... 13

3.4 stream function ................................................................................................................................. 14

3.5 velocity potential .............................................................................................................................. 14

3.6 stream function, velocity potential relationship .............................................................................. 15

3.7 boundary layer: ................................................................................................................................. 16

4.

4.1Bernoulli ............................................................................................................................................. 17

4.2 pressure coefficient .......................................................................................................................... 17

4.3Laplace equation ................................................................................................................................ 17

4.4 boundary conditions ......................................................................................................................... 17

4.5 uniform flow...................................................................................................................................... 18

4.6 source flow ........................................................................................................................................ 19

4.7 doublet flow ...................................................................................................................................... 21

4.8 Vortex flow ........................................................................................................................................ 22

4.9 Half Rankine oval .............................................................................................................................. 23

1

5.

5.1

5.3 lifting flow over a circular cylinder: the Magnus effect .................................................................... 28

5.4 Kutta-Joukowski theorem ................................................................................................................. 29

5.5 The numerical Source Panel method ................................................................................................ 30

5.6 Airfoil section .................................................................................................................................... 34

5.7 Airfoil characteristics ........................................................................................................................ 34

6.

6.1 Vortex Sheet...................................................................................................................................... 34

6.2 Kutta condition.................................................................................................................................. 35

6.3 Kelvins circulation theorem ............................................................................................................. 36

6.4 Thin airfoil theory: the symmetric airfoil .......................................................................................... 37

6.5 The cambered airfoil ......................................................................................................................... 41

6.6 The Aerodynamic Center: ................................................................................................................. 43

6.7 Lifting flows over arbitrary bodies: the vortex panel numerical method ......................................... 44

7.

8.

8.1 Downwash and induced drag............................................................................................................ 50

8.2 vortex filament, Biot Stuart, Helmholtz ............................................................................................ 51

8.3 Prandtl lifting line theory .................................................................................................................. 52

8.4 elliptical lift distribution .................................................................................................................... 56

8.5 general lift distribution ..................................................................................................................... 58

8.6 Aspect Ratio Effects .......................................................................................................................... 60

9.

9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4

Transitional ................................................................................................................................. 68

9.5

9.6

9.7

2

1. Mathematical background:

1.1 vector relations:

Vector summation:

Vector Products:

Scalar Product

Vector Product

Cartesian

Position Vector

General Vector

Cylindrical

Position Vector

Transformation

Spherical

Position Vector

Transformation

we consider a scalar field in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates:

The gradient of the scalar field P at a given point in space is defined as a vector.

a. Its magnitude is the maximum rate of change of P per unit length of the coordinate space at

the given point.

b. Its direction is that of the maximum rate of change of P at the given point.

Directional derivative in s direction

Cartesian gradient

Cylindrical gradient

Spherical gradient

we consider a vector field in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates at Point P:

Cartesian gradient

Cylindrical gradient

Spherical gradient

we consider a vector field in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates at Point P:

Cartesian gradient

Cylindrical gradient

Spherical gradient

We consider the open 3D surface area S bounded by the closed curve C, the volume V enclosed

in the surface area S and 52681 S.

Stokes Theorem

Divergence theorem

Gradient theorem

scaler functions:

We expand point 2 in a

Taylor function around

point 1.

We divide by the time

difference

We take the limit as t2

approaches t2

Expanded form

Differential form

Local derivative

Convective derivative

2. Fundamental Equations:

2.1 Continuity:

Model: control volume

Volume

Mass

Mass

rate

Mass

flux

Divergence theorem:

Sub in divergence theorem

Final Form

Substantial derivative form

2.2 Momentum:

Model: control volume

Newton II

Body Force

8

Pressure

Force

Gradient theorem

Linearity time differential

Divergence theorem

Final form

Steady state,

inviscis,

No body forces

2.3 Energy:

Model: control volume

Thermodynamics I

Rate of volumetric heating

Total heat transferred into control

volume

Rate of work done on fluid inside

C.V. due to pressure force on S

C.V. due to body forces

across control surface

Total energy in control volume

Time rate of change of total energy

inside v due to transient variations

of flow field variables

The rate of heat added to the fluid plus the rat of work done on the fluid is equal to the rate of

change of total energy of the fluid as it flows through the control volume

10

Integral form

Differential form

Calorically perfect gas

Ideal gas

Steady state,

inviscis,

No body forces

11

3. Flow parameters:

3.1 streamlines

Streamline: a curve whose tangent at any point is in the direction of the velocity vector at that point

dy v

dx u

Small angle approximation

Displacement slope y direction:

Small angle approximation

Angular velocity of AB

12

Angular velocity of BC

Z direction angular velocity is the average

of AB angular velocity and BC angular

velocity

3d angular velocity vector

Vorticity: 2

V

Irrotational condition

3.3 circulation

Consider a closed curve C in a flow field. Let V and ds

be the velocity and directed line segment at a point

on C. the circulation is defined as:

Point circulation

13

The derivation of the stream function yields flow field velocity

Consider a 2d stream

Streamline function is a general solution

to the streamline differential equation

We consider the streamlines ab and cd

close together. The mass flow through

the ab-cd streamtube per unit depth is

given by

The limit as delta n tends to zero

derivatives

derivatives

v

x

Irrotational condition

Vector identity for the scaler function phi

14

zero

Scaler function whos gradient is the velocity.

This is a lot easier to work with since its one

function instead of three.

Cartesian velocity potential

Spherical velocity potential

We consider a two dimensional irrotational

incompressible flow in Cartesian coordinates.

For a streamline (, ) = . Such that

Differential form

Given the slope of the streamline

Equipotential line (, ) = .

Differential form

Slope of the equipotential line

Such we see that streamlines and equipotential

lines are negative reciprocal in slope and

mutually perpendicular

15

Newtonian liquid shear stress

Shear force in the vertical direction

2

x2 2 x2

x2

x2

Shear diffusion

u1 2u1

t x22

Boundary layer height:

Kinematics: t

0 x D

16

x

U

2 D

2

D

U

Re

2t

du1

dx2

4. Fundamental flow:

4.1Bernoulli

general

Along the streamline

Pressure coefficient

Cp

p p

q

Dynamic pressure

1

U 2

2

V

Cp 1

V

Velocity form

4.3Laplace equation

Incompressible flow

Existence of velocity

potential or

irrotational

We combine both

these conditions

Laplacian

Harmonic functions

Laplacian in

Cartesian

coordinates

Laplacian in

cylindrical

coordinates

Laplacian in

spherical

coordinates

The stream function

also satisfies the

Laplacian

Two types of boundary conditions exist: infinity boundary conditions and wall boundary conditions.

17

conditions:

V

incompressibility

irrotational flow

we can define a velocity potential

V 0

V 0

V

Boundary condition 2

Boundary condition 1

Integrating boundary condition 2 with respect

to y

g ( x) V x

f y const

result

18

We can show the stream

function in polar coordinates

Circulation

Laplace

Consider a 2d incompressible flow where all the streamlines are straight lines emanating from a central

point O. let the velocity along each of the streamlines vary inversely with the distance from point O.

incompressibility

irrotational flow

we can define a velocity potential

V 0

V 0

V

If we consider a line source:

19

elemental

mass flow

across the

surface

element

the total

mass flow

across the

surface of

the cylinder

m V dS Vr rd L

volume rate

Volume rate

per unit

length

Radial

velocity

Boundary condition 2

Boundary condition 1

We use potential analysis to determine the potential function:

Circulation

Laplace

20

A specific case of a source sink pair that leads to a singularity.

We consider a source of strength and a sink of strength , separated by a distance l

Doublet Stream Function

l remains constant,

Doublet Strength

Doublet stream function

Doublet radius

21

We consider a polar coordinate system where all streamlines are concentric circles about a given

point.

Circulation

Velocity as a function of circulation

Strength of vortex

Vortex potential

Streamline function

22

We consider a polar coordinate system with a source of strength located at the origin and

superimposed on this flow, a uniform stream of velocity V

Stream Function

Velocity vector

0 rstag

V cos

2 V

V0

2 r

V sin 0

stag 0,

Stagnation point

Shown by curve ABC

23

We consider a polar coordinate system with a source of strength located at a distance b from the

origin and sink of strength , located at a distance b from the origin. superimposed on this flow, a

uniform stream of velocity V

Stream Function

Velocity vector

Stagnation point

Hard to find

Shown by curve ABC

Interpretation: this models a semi-infinate solid body

24

5.1 Aerodynamic forces and moments

Aerodynamic forces can be

attributed to

1. Pressure distribution:

over the body surface

2. Shear stress

distribution over the

body surface

The net effect of the pressure p

and shear stress distributions

is a resultant aerodynamic

force R, and moment M.

normal and axial component

coordinates or Cartesian lift

and drag component

coordinates

The transformation between

Cartesian and body coordinate

systems is given:

L N cos A sin

D N sin A cos

Surface is denotated by the letter s, the sub letters u,l denote upper and lower edges of the airfoil

25

forces acting on the elemental

surface ds on the upper and

lower body surface

Note the prime indicates per unit

span

Total normal and axial forces per

unit span

dN l' Pds

l

l cos l dsl sin

dAu' Pu dsu sin u dsu cos

dAl' Pds

l

l sin l dsl cos

N ' Pu cos u sin dsu

TE

TE

LE

LE

TE

TE

LE

LE

Dynamic pressure

Lift,Drag,Normal, Axial, moment

coefficient for wing span area S,

and chord length l

Pressure, skin friction coefficient

CL

L

D

N

A

M

CD

CN

CA

CM

q S

q S

q S

q S

q Sl

Cp

Cn

Axial force coefficient

Moment about the leading edge

1

V2

2

Ca

P P

cf

q

q

1 c

cP , L cP ,u dx

c 0

dyu

dyL

1 c

1 c

c

c

dx

cP,u cP,L dy

P ,u

P,L

c 0

dx

dx

c 0

CM ,LE

c

dy

dy

1 c

c cP, L dx cP,u u cP, L L dx

2 0 P ,u

0

c

dx

dx

26

drag

Lift

We consider the superposition of a uniform flow with velocity V and doublet of strength , with

the direction of the doublet in opposition with the uniform flow.

Stream Function

27

Velocity vector

Stagnation point

Shown by curve ABC

the velocity vector is symetric about the rotational axis, such we expect the pressure distribution to

be symetric about the rotational axis due to its dependence on velocity, and cancle all lift and drag

Pressure coefficient

Consider the flow synthesized by the superposition, of non-lifting flow over a cylinder and a vortex of

strength .

Stream Functions

28

Stream function superposition

Velocity vector

Stagnation point

Surface Velocity

Pressure coefficient

Drag coefficient

Lift coefficient

Lift

1

V 2 SCl

2

1

L ' V

2

Consider the incompressible flow over an airfoil section. Let curve A be any curve in the flow

enclosing the airfoil. If the airfoil is producing lift, the velocity field around the airfoil will be such that

the line integral of velocity around A will be the circulation

29

Circulation

L ' V

We extend the concept of source and sink points to a sheet of source and sink points

Edge view of a source sheet: let s be the distance measured along the source sheet

s source strength per unit length along s or volume flow rate per unit depth

We consider point P(x,y) located at a distance r from sheet section ds, the section ds of strength ds

induces a small potential d at point P.

Induced potential

ds

d

ln r

2

30

ln r

ds

2

a

sheet from a to b

x, y

We wish to find the proper source strength parameter to properly model flow over an arbitrary body,

we approximate the source sheet with panels, and solve for the strength parameter. We approximate

the source strength constant per panel like 1 , 2 ,..., n for panels 1 through n. the flow over the

body is then calculated through a superposition of uniform flow and source sheet on the body surface

Let P be a point located at (x,y) in the flow,

let

let

panel, where the integral is taken over panel j, for

31

j

ln rpj ds j

2 j

j

ln rpj ds j

j 1 2 j

P j

j 1

x x y y

2

rpj

j

ln rij ds j

j 1 2 j

ith control point

xi , yi

x x y y

2

rij

Boundary condition

V,n Vn 0

V,n V ni V cos i

source panels

Vn

Vn

xi , yi

ni

i

2

V cos i

j

ln rij ds j

j 1 2 j ni

n

i

2

j i

j

ln rij ds j 0

j 1 2 j ni

n

j i

Using this condition, we can solve the above system of equations for all the strength parameters,

using these parameters we can sub in to solve for the stream solution

n

Tangential velocity at the control point of the ith

j

V

ln rij ds j

s

j 1 2 j s

j

j 1 2

Vi V ,s Vs V sin i

V

C pi 1 i

V

The sum of all sources and sinks should be zero

S

j 1

32

s ln r ds

ij

Vn

Distance

i

2

rij

1 rij

ln rij

ni

rij ni

2 xi x j

dxi

dy

2 yi y j i

dni

dni

x j yi y j

2

xi x j cos i yi y j sin i

ln rij

2

2

ni

xi x j yi y j

33

j

ln rij ds j

j 1 2 j ni

n

j i

x x y y

2

6. Theoretical Solutions

6.1 Vortex Sheet

Consider a vortex sheet made up vortex

filaments.

We can define s as a length variable,

We define

Consider point P in the flow located a

distance r from ds.

34

small vortex at ds, perpendicular to r

Increment in velocity potential induced

at point by by the elemental vortex ds

Velocity potential at P

Circulation around the vortex sheet

ds

2 r

ds

d

dV

x, y

1

2

ds

ds

a

enclosing a section of the sheet of

length ds.

The circulation around the path:

The local jump in tangential velocity

across the vortex sheet is equal to the

local sheet strength

v2 dn u1ds v1dn u2 ds

u1 u2 ds v1 v2 dn

ds

ds u1 u2 ds v1 v2 dn

lim ds u1 u2 ds

dn 0

u1 u2

The idea:

Replace an airfoil surface with a vortex sheet of variable strength s

Calculate the induced velocity field from the vortex sheet when added to the uniform velocity

of V

ds

a

The goal of the Kutta condition is to determine the exact circulation value such that the lift may be

calculated using the Kutta Jakowski equation. Analytical analysis results in infinite possible circulation

results. Below two possible results are shown but we know that nature prefers 2 . We can

35

characterize the circulation based on the position of stagnation points. If we can place the stagnation

point 2 at the trailing edge point than the circulation can accurately be calculated analytically.

There are infinite possible trailing edge shapes, two are shown below:

The following reasoning is applied to prove that all possible trailing edge shapes result in Vu Vl . If the

trailing edge ends at a finite angle, this results in two velocities in two different directions, which is

impossible. The only possible solution is that Vu Vl 0 . If the trailing edge ends in a cusp, than nonzero velocity is possible however using Bernoulli we can show that

Pa

1

1

Vu 2 Pa VL 2 Vu VL

2

2

Which functions as a boundary condition to properly achieve the correct solution. This boundary

condition is a physical property of friction because of the viscous boundary layer at the edge.

The main question is what generates the circulation.

36

incompressible flow. Assume that all body

forces f are zero. Choose an arbitrary curve

C1 containing fluid elements at time t1.

Circulation around C1 : 1 V ds

C1

a circulation around curve C2 :

2 V ds

C2

conserved

1 2

D

0

Dt

Kalvin states that the circulation is

conserved.

The circulation starts at 0

As the flow is started, a powerful counter

vortex called the starting vortex is formed

downstream such the circulation is

preserved as zero. This also explains the

kutta condition because the flow is forced to

figure 8 around both vortices 3,4 which

tends to the Kutta flow type.

We deal with thin airfoils simulated by a vortex sheet placed along the camber line.

37

Our purpose is to calculate the variation of s such that the camber line because a streamline of the

flow which satisfies the Kutta condition TE 0 , such we can calculate the circulation around the

airfoil, and use Kutta Jakowski to calculate the lift.

Consider a vortex sheet placed on the camber

line of an airfoil with freestream velocity V

and angle of attack . The distance measured

along the camber line is denoted by s, the

camber line is given by z z x . We can

show the component of velocity normal to the

camber line induced by the vortex sheet

w ' w ' s .

If we place the vortex sheet on the chord line,

such that x with Kutta condition

the velocity normal to the camber line must be

zero.

V,n w ' s 0

component using:

dz

dx

dz

V sin arc tan

dx

V,n

dz

V,n V

dx

velocity to the camber line as to the chord line

w' s w x

component of velocity as a result of the

vortices. Consider an elemental vortex d

located at a distance along the chord line.

The velocity dw at point x induced by the

vortex at point

dw

38

d

,

2 x

w x

d

2 x

We sub in the freestream velocity normal component, and the normal component of the velocity due to

vorticity to show the condition that the camber line will be the stream line:

dz c d

V ,n w ' s 0 V

0

dx 0 2 x

c d

dz

V

dx 0 2 x

We have achieved the fundamental equation of thin airfoil theory which is just a condition for which the

camber line is a stream line over a sheet of vortices on the chord line.

We start solving this equation by simplification called the symmetric airfoil in which the camber line is

parallel to the chord line such that

dz

0 in which case the thin airfoil theory fundamental equation

dx

d

2 x

1 cos

c

x 1 cos 0 1

2

2

c

d sin d

sin d

V

cos cos 0

1 cos

sin

lim 2V

1 cos

sin

Le ' hopital

2V

sin

0

cos

Such using the Kutta Joukowski theorem we can calculate the lift generated on the symmetric airfoil.

We first calculate the total circulation:

d

c

39

c

1 cos

2

c

sin d

2 0

c

2V 1 cos d cV

2 0

L ' V cV2

cV2

L'

cl

2

q s 1 V 2 c 1

2

s c 1

dcl

2

d

Which matches the experimental data

The total moment about the leading edge due to the entire vortex sheet can be shown

M 'LE dL V d

c

We use the same transformation and integration and achieve the following results

M 'LE q c 2

M 'LE

q Sc

2 cm ,le l

4

cl 2

c

cm,c/4 cm,le l 0

4

cm,le

Such we have found the center of pressure, or the point in which the moments are zero at a quarter of

the chord length.

40

We return to the fundamental equation of thin airfoil theory

c d

dz

V

dx 0 2 x

1 cos

c

x 1 cos 0 1

2

2

c

d sin d

sin d

dz

V

cos cos 0

dx

2V A0

1 cos

An sin n

sin

n 1

We substitute the solution term back into the integral equation to solve for the coefficients.

A0

1 cos

1

sin n sin

dz

d An

d

cos cos 0

0 cos cos0

dx

The integrals can be solved, and the equation can be simplified to the following equation:

dz

A0 An cos n0

dx

n 1

c

x 1 cos 0

2

dz

as the function f , we apply the Fourier

dx

f B0 Bn cos n

n 1

B0

Bn

f d

f cos n d

1

dz

d A0

dx

2 dz

An cos n 0 d 0

0 dx

A0

41

dz

d

dx

Such we have effectively solved the thin airfoil problem with the flow line over the general camber line

as an infinite series of sinusoidal terms in the form of a Fourier series which incidentally solves the Kutta

condition.

1

dz

d A0

0 dx

2 dz

An cos n 0 d 0

0 dx

A0

2V A0

dz

d

dx

1 cos

An sin n

sin

n 1

We can now determine the aerodynamic parameters needed to calculate the forces and moments.

The total circulation due to the entire vortex sheet

c

dx sin d

1 cos

2V A0

An sin n sin d 2V A0 1 cos d An sin n sin d

0

0

0

sin

n 1

n 1

/ 2 n 1

1

cos

0

0 sin n sin d 0 n 1

cV A0 1

2

L ' V cV2 A0 1

2

L'

cl

2 A0 A1

1

q c 1

2

1 dz

cl 2 cos 0 1 d 0

0 dx

dcl

2

d

From this result we can calculate the zero lift angle of attack:

42

y mx b

dc

cl l L 0

d

cl 2 L 0

1 dz

cl 2 cos 0 1 d 0

0 dx

1 dz

L 0 cos 0 1 d 0

0 dx

Such we can see that the integral term represents the zero lift angle of attack

The moment coefficient is given as

cm,le

A2

A0 A1

2

2

c

l A1 A2

4 2

cm,le

A2 A1

4

c c c

M 'LE

xcp

m ,le 1 A1 A2

L'

cl

4 cl

Cm ,c /4

The aerodynamic center is the point on a body about which the aerodynamically generated moment is

independent of angle of attack. Such we can display the aerodynamic forces acting on an airfoil through

the aerodynamic center:

43

leading edge,

Moment about ac:

M ac

M 'c /4

L'

cxac 1/ 4

q Sc q S

q Sc

dcmc/4

dcl

xac 0.25

d

d

d

dcmc/4

dcl

a0

m0

d

d

dcm ,ac

xac

m0

0.25

a0

0 a0 xac 0.25 m0

6.7 Lifting flows over arbitrary bodies: the vortex panel numerical method

We want to approximate the vortex panel sheet wrapped around an arbitrary shape with a series of

straight vortex sheet panels of finite length. The vortex strength per unit length, is constant per panel

but vary between panels.

44

We wish to solve for the vortex strength per unit length of each panel such that the body can be

modeled as a stream line of flow that satisfies the Kutta condition. To ensure non penetration condition

the normal component of velocity at all the control points should be zero. As before we model point

The velocity induced at point p due to the

vorticity at panel j

Angle expression

all the panels

We evaluate P as the ith control point

1

pj j ds j j pj ds j

2 j

2 j

y yj

xx

j

pj arctan

j

pj ds j

j 1 2 j

P j

j 1

yi y j

x x

j

i

ij arctan

j

ij ds j

j 1 2 j

n

xi , yi j

j 1

Vtot n 0

V,n V cos i

component

Vn

non-penetration condition

xi , yi

n j

n j

n j

d

s

j 1 2 ij j

j

j

ij ds j

j 1 2 j n j

n

Vn

j

ij ds j

j 1 2 j n j

Super-position

Vtot ,n V ,n Vn V cos i

V cos i

integral

Ji, j

V cos i

j

ij ds j 0

j 1 2 j n j

n

ij ds j

n j

j

j

Ji, j 0

j 1 2

n

45

The Kutta condition is dependent on the trailing edge panel geometry. Considering the trailing edge

panels small at panels i and i-1, the condition is given by

i i 1

Which imposes a canceling of vortex strength at the trailing edge.

Note: it is important to pick a control point, to not evaluate and solve such that the system is not overdetermined given n+1 equations and n variables.

Such we can determine the local velocities on the outside of the airfoil such that:

a Va , b Vb , ..., n Vn

We obtain circulation, and lift using the following analysis

Let s j be the length of panel j,

The circulation due to panel j

j jsj

j j s j

j 1

j 1

L ' V j s j

j 1

46

The characteristics of the lift

profile are influenced by the

following factors:

LE curvature

Reynolds number

Surface finish

Turbulence

Flaps: to angle the

trailing edge tip at 0.10.3 of the chord length

Circulation control

mechanisms

47

48

The flow of air over the finite wing is three dimensional such that at the wing tips, high pressure air

rushs around the tip to the low pressure region above and such causes air in the wing span direction.

Such the streamlines above and below the wings are pushed sideways, and a wing tip vortex is created

downstream.

49

The wing tip vortices tend to drag the surrounding air with them inducing a small velocity component in

the downward direction at the wing called downwash w . The downwash and the freestream velocity

produce a local relative wind called the induced angle of attack. This induced angle of attack lowers the

geometric angle of attack and the wing feels the effective angle of attack.

The induced angle of attack, radially displaces the local lift vector and such a small component of lift in

the same direction as the freestream velocity is felt as drag called induced drag Di

Profile drag

Friction drag D f

cd

D f Dp

q S

Induced drag coefficient

Di

q S

CD cd CD,i

CD ,i

50

We introduced the general curved vortex filament. If the circulation is taken about any path enclosing

the filament a constant value is obtained. Such the strength of the vortex filament is defined as .

Consider a directed sement of filament dl. The radius vector from dl to an arbitrary point p in space is r.

the induced velocity at p as a result of the vortex from segment dl is given by:

Biot-Savart Law

dV

dl r

4 r 3

We want to apply a map of curved vortex filaments to calculate finite wing circulation, and velocity we

start by calculating an infinite straight vortex filament using Biot-Savarts Law.

Suppose a straight vortex filament of

strength . The velocity induced at

point P, by the entire vortex filament is

dl r

3

4

4

r

dV

sin

dl

r2

Given height h

We show the following transformation:

h

sin

h

l

tan

r

h

d

sin 2

sin

V

dl

sin d

4 r 2

4 h 0

V

2 h

dl

51

1. The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length

2. A vortex filament must extend to the boundary fluid or form a closed path

Lift distribution:

Consider a given span wise location y1 where the local chord is c. the local geometric angle of attack is

. The lift per unit span at this location is given by L ' y1 . We consider the lift per unit span at a

different location with different geometric characteristics L ' y2 which will therefore be different from

L ' y1 . Such we propose that the lift per unit span of the wing is distributed as a function of y along

the wing L ' L ' y and such according to Kutta Joukowski so is the circulation y

L ' y

.

V

The lift distribution is influenced by local chord length, airfoil thickness, local camber, geometric twist,

washout, wash in, and aerodynamic twist. The determination of the lift distribution is a central problem

in finite wing theory.

A bound vortex of strength or a vortex filament bound to a fixed location will experience a force

L V according to Kutta-Joukowski.

52

We consider replacing a finite wing of span b with a bound vortex extending from

b

b

y . Using

2

2

Helmholtzs second vortex law, we continuous the vortex filament as two free vortices trailing

downstream from the wing tips to infinity. This vortex filament consisting of two bound vortices and

two free vortices is called a horseshoe vortex.

We consider a single horseshoe vortex, including the downwash w induced along the bound vortex from

b

b

y . We see that the trailing vortices both contribute to the induced velocity along the bound

2

2

vortex and both contributions in the downward direction. If the origin is taken at the center of the

bound vortex, then the velocity at any point y along the bound vortex induced by the trailing semiinfinite vortices is taken from biot savarts law.

53

w y

4 b / 2 y 4 b / 2 y 4 b / 2 2 y 2

b /2 side trailing vortex

The downwash distribution due to the single horse vortex does not realistically simulate the downwash

distribution of a finite wing.

The solution to this problem was a superposition of a large number of horseshoe vortices each with a

different length of the bound vortex, with all the bound vortices coincident along a single line called the

lifting line. This is shown in the picture above, the first horseshoe vortex of strength d1 spans from

point A to F, the second horseshoe vortex of strength d 2 spans from point B to point E and d 3 spans

from point C to point D. the strength is summed as a superposition of horseshoe vortex strengths. The

strength of each trailing vortex is equal to the change in circulation along the lifting line.

54

If we extrapolate and fill in an infinite amount of horseshoe vortices on the span of the finite wings, we

achieve a continuous distribution of y along the lifting line with the value of circulation at the origin

0 . The trailing vortices have become a continuous vortex sheet, parallel to V . The total strength of

the sheet integrated across the span is zero because it consists of pairs of trailing vortices of equal

strength but in opposite directions.

If we take a small segment of the lifting line dy ,

The circulation at y is

d

d

dy

dy

d

dy dy

dw

4 y0 y

along the lifting line induced by the entire semiinfinite trailing vortex located at y

d

dy

1

dy

w y0

b

/2

4

y0 y

trailing vortex sheet is the summation of the

downwash element over the entire wing span.

b /2

w y0 w y0 V w y0

V

V

i y0 arctan

d

dy

b /2

1

dy

i y0

b

/2

V 4

y0 y

55

a0 eff y0 L 0 2 eff y0 L 0

cl

1

V2c y0 cl y0 V y0

2

2 y0

cl y0

V c y0

Geometric angle of attack (explicit)

y y0

L ' y0

cl y0 2 eff y0 L 0

y0

L 0

eff y0

2 y0

V

c

y

cl y0

V c y0

geo eff i

d

dy

b /2

y0

1

dy

geo y0

L 0

b

/2

V c y0

V 4

y0 y

This represents the fundamental equation of Prandtl lifting line theory, which allows the calculation of

the circulation given the angle of attack distribution. Such we can calculate the following aerodynamic

characteristics:

Kutta Joukowski

L ' y0 V y0

Total lift

b /2

b /2

L ' y0 dy V

b /2

Lift coefficient

CL

Di

CD

y0 dy

L

2 b /2

y0 dy

q S V S b /2

b /2

b / 2

b /2

small angle

L'i i

Di' dy

b /2

b /2

L'i i y0 dy V

b /2

b /2

y0 i y0 dy

D

2 b /2

y0 i y0 dy

q S V S b /2

Consider a circulation distribution

y 0

2y

1

b

L ' y0 V 0

2y

1

b

b

2 b

L ' V 0 1

0

2

b 2

56

downwash

Integration substitution

Downwash solution

2

d d

y

2 y 4 0

0 1 2

dy dy

b b

y2

1 4 2

b

b /2

y

w y0 02

dy

b b /2

y2

y0 y 1 4 2

b

b

b

y cos dy sin d

2

2

0

cos

w y0

d

2 0

2 b

cos cos 0

w 0

Induced angle of attack

Lift

Integration substitution

Lift solution

Circulation at the center point

Circulation at the center point in terms of

the lift coefficient

Induced angle of attack (explicit)

Aspect Ratio

Induced angle of attack in terms of aspect

ratio

i y0

0

2bV

2

2y

1 dy

b /2

b

b

b

y cos dy sin d

2

2

b

b

L V 0 sin 2 d V 0

0

2

4

4L

0

V b

2V SC

2V bC

0 L L

b

AR

sC L

i y0 2

b

2

b

AR

S

C

i y0 L

AR

L V 0

C D ,i

0

2b

w y0

2

i

V S

2

b/ 2 y dy Vi S 0

C D ,i

b i 0

V S

C D ,i

CL2

AR

57

b /2

b/ 2

sin 2 d

b/ 2

b / 2

b i 0

2V S

2y

1 dy

b

Consider a wing with no geometric twist, and no aerodynamic twist. We have seen that the induced

angle of attack is constant along the span. Such the effective angle of attack in constant along the span.

We can show

local lift coefficient

cl a0 eff L0 2 eff L0

L ' y q ccl

Chord length

c y

L ' y

cl q

2y

V 0 1

b

cl q

b

2

distribution can be written 0 sin . To generalize the result, we can use a Fourier series to

By applying the transformation y cos to the elliptical circulation distribution, the transformed

General circulation distribution

2bV An sin n

n 1

line theory

d

dy

y0

1

dy

geo y0

L 0

b

/2

V c y0

V 4

y0 y

b /2

We wish to satisfy Prandtl fundamental lifting line equation such we start by differentiating

Differentiating

N

d d d

d

dy

d dy

dy

n 1

58

satisfies Prandtl lifting line

equation

2b

geo y0

c 0

An sin n L0

n 1

N

2b

A sin n

c

geo y0

n 1

nA cos n

cos cos 0

L 0

n 1

nAn

n 1

sin n0

sin 0

This equation shows a system of N unknowns for all the coefficients and geometric constants at given

cross sections of the wing span. If N cross sections are chosen, than a system of N equations with N

unknowns is achievable and the Fourier coefficients can be determined.

Lift coefficient

2 b /2

2b 2 N

CL

b /2

y dy

A

n 1

n 0

sin n sin d

i y0

1

4 V

N

i nAn

n 1

(explicit)

/ 2 n 1

sin n sin d

0

n 1

0

b2

CL A1

A1 AR

S

2 b /2

2b 2 N

C D ,i

y

d

y

i

An sin n i y sin d

V S b / 2

S 0 n 1

V S

C D ,i

b /2

b / 2

d / dy dy ... 1

sin n

sin

y0 y

An sin n nAn

n 1

n 1

nA

n 1

sin n

sin d

sin

m k

0

sin m sin k

0

/ 2 m k

2

N

N

An

2

2

CD ,i AR nAn ARA1 1 n

n 1 A1

n 1

2

C

CD ,i L 1

AR

A

n n

n 1 A1

N

factor

Induced drag coefficient

e 1

C D ,i

CL2

eAR

59

n 0

cos n

d

cos cos 0

Note that

0 0.2

such the aspect ratio has a much higher influence on the drag ratio than the

6 AR 22

delta term

C D ,i

CL2

1

AR

60

Such the larger the aspect ratio, the less drag is felt and the more lift is generated.

We can show how the lift line of a finite wing is always less than an airfoil using the following analysis:

dCL

a0

d i

CL a0 i L 0

C

CL a0 L L 0

AR

a0

dCL

a

a

d

1 0 1

AR

0.05, 0.25

61

9. Boundary Layer

9.1 boundary layer assumptions

consider the viscous flow over a flat plate. The fluid satisfies the no-slip and wall temperature boundary

conditions:

V (wall) 0

. The fluid above the boundary layer has properties equal to the free stream

T(wall) Tw

: u 0.99 V

, inside the boundary layer, both the velocity

T : T 0.99T

Pr 1 T

Pr 1 T

Pr 1 T

Pr

k

u

stress at the wall

w y 0

y w

y w

heat transfer

T

T

qw k

q y 0 k

y w

y w

Displacement thickness

y1

* 1

0

y1

62

u

dy

eue

y1

m udy eue *

0

Displacement thickness is the distance by which an external flow streamline is displaced by the presence

of the boundary layer

Iterative solution idea:

1. carry out an inviscid solution for the body shape ab, evaluate e , ue , Te along curve ab

2. using these values to solve the boundary layer equations

3. obtain a displacement thickness term * , and calculate an effective body given by a curve ac

4. carry out an inviscid solution for the effective body ac, and evaluate new e , ue , Te terms along

this curve.

5. Reiterate steps 3,4 until the solution converges on finite values

Note: the results pertain to flow over the actual body surface ab

Momentum thickness

y1

u u

1 dy

eue ue

y1

63

segment dy

Momentum flow across dy associated with

mass element dm

Momentum flow at freestream velocity

associated with mass element dm

Decrement in momentum flow associated

with mass element dm

Total decrement in momentum flow

dm udy

A dm u u 2 dy

B dmue u dy ue

B A u ue u dy

y1

u u

u dy

eue 2

height

Total decrement in momentum flow as a

result of missing momentum

y1

eue u ue u dy

2

y1

u u

1 dy

eue ue

Such the free stream momentum height functions as an index proportional to the decrement in

momentum due to boundary layer effects.

We consider a two dimensional steady flow form of the x momentum equation (Navier Stokes)

du

dv

1 p

1 v u

v

2

dx

dx M x Re y x y

We consider a long flat plate, very thin with respect to the body scale

64

We understand that x O 1 ,

u v

0

x

y

y O

du

dv

1 p

1 v u

v

2

dx

dx M x Re y x y

1 v u

1

O 1 O 2

Re y x y

du

dv

1 p

1

2u

u v

dx

dx M 2 x Re y 2

If we reproduce the same analysis in the y direction:

v

v

1 p

1 v u

v

2

x

y M y Re x x y

1 p

1

O O

O 2 O O

2

M y

1 p

p

0

0

2

M y

y

Such we have achieved that the pressure is only a function of x and constant throughout the

height of the boundary layer.

We achieve the following boundary layer equations:

continuity

u v

x

Momentum x direction

du

dv

1 p

1

2u

v

dx

dx M 2 x Re y 2

Momentum y direction

p

0

y

Energy conservation

u

pe

h

h T

u v k

u

x

y y y

x

y

65

Ideal gas

Enthalpy

p RT

h c pT

Boundary conditions

Wall: y 0 u 0 v 0 T Tw

Boundary: y u ue

Unknowns: u , v, , h

variables

T Te

Known: p pe x , , k

We solve the boundary layer to obtain the velocity and temperature at the wall of the body, and

such we can solve the shear and heat transfer distributions:

y w

T

qw k

y w

heat transfer

we wish to solve the x direction momentum equation all in terms of u, such we will make an effort to

substitute in terms to isolate a PDE in terms of u

u

dy

x

over y

Bernulli

p U 2

const

2

dU

1 dp

U

dx

dx

Momentum in the x direction in terms

of u

Blasius Equation

Blasius assumption

Blasius proposed similarity variable

dU

u u u

2u

dy U

2

x y x

dx

y

U / x 0

y

U

y

( x)

2 x

( x) 2 x / U

2Ux f ( )

function

u( x, y)

U

Uf ( ) v( x, y)

( f f )

y

x

2x

66

Substitution of

similarity

variable and

velocity

components

into the

momentum in

the x direction

Boundary

conditions

2 Uf ( )

Uf ( ) Uf ( ) Uf ( )

dU U

dy

f

)

x

x

y

dx 2 x

y 2

2 Uf ( )

U

( f f )

2x

y 2

f f 0

Uf ( )

No slip: u ( x, 0) 0 f (0) 0

Wall non penetration: v( x, 0) 0 f (0) 0

Free stream velocity: u ( x, ) U f () 1

results

vx

U

* 1.721

vx

U

0.664

vx

U

Falkner-Skan generalization:

Considering a wedge at

angle of attack

,

2

We estimate the outer

flow to be of the form

x

ue x U

L

2m

m 1

zero angle of attack m=0

Falkner-Skan generalized

similarity variable

Falkner-Skan generalized

stream function

Falkner-Skan generalized

momentum in the x

direction

Nonlinear ODE form

U 0 (m 1) x

2 L L

2 U 0 L x

U ( x) ( x) f ( )

m 1 L

u

u

2u

v

c 2 mx 2 m1 2

x

y

y

f ff 1 ( f )2 0

67

( m 1)/2

( m 1)/2

f ( )

Results table

9.4 Transitional

The Reynolds number can be given as Re

inertial forces vL vL

viscous forces

As the boundary layer increases in thickness the flow in the boundary layer downstream may become

reversed causing boundary layer separation, associated with the formation of vortices. The separation

u

0

y w

condition is given as

68

1. Determine the pressure distribution using the vortex panel method

2. Determine the velocity profile and the displacement thickness using integral and differential

equations as a function of the pressure gradient.

3. Thicken the body by the displacement thickness and using the displacement thickness as the

new boundary condition for non-penetration.

4. Iterate until the solution converges

69

- xfoil dataUploaded byAasto Ashrita Aastikae
- Aircraft-BasicsUploaded byFozan
- helicpterUploaded byLaxmi Krishnadas
- Study of blended wing body air craftUploaded byAswith R Shenoy
- AUTO400 Homework Assignment 1 SOLUTIONUploaded byVinoliaEdwin
- Ada 520249Uploaded byPaulo Augusto Strobel
- Unsteady Flow Phenomena Associated With Leading-edge VorticesUploaded byBülent Yanıktepe
- FanUploaded byvisitabhinav
- Gate SyllabusUploaded byAmal Joy
- 4. CHAPTER 3- 1-12-11Uploaded byXulfiqar Ali
- Coanda EffectsUploaded byNeyMar
- Solution Practice Drag and LiftUploaded bymrm3za
- Bony PaperUploaded byinam vf
- Flight Without PowerUploaded bykurion
- Assignment#4 - Ornithopters - Process Description - Eng 1001 FinalUploaded bySimarpreet Singh
- FlapsUploaded bydex
- TK10_SC_white_paper_loresUploaded bymfpava
- The Ahmed Body546Uploaded byTristan Mazou Berges
- 1-s2.0-S1270963818302359-mainUploaded byFilipe Chaves
- Scissor Lift Wind Load AnalysisUploaded bymg504
- Schroeder Umi Umd 3015Uploaded byAlexandreSidant
- Basics in Aerodynamics Used in Aeroplanes (2)Uploaded bySheik Ufeefh
- b1 Flows Fluctuations and ComplexityUploaded byAndrew Orr
- Simulation and optimization of stall control for an airfoil with a synthetic jet.pdfUploaded byDrSrujana Reddy
- A 801293Uploaded bysyed
- 7-soeUploaded byKien Trung Nguyen
- VAWT_AirProfileStudyUploaded byMansanth Bose
- (PPT 3) Theory of Fight(2)Uploaded byInnocent12345
- optimizationsanaturbUploaded bysokak009
- Further Re nement of the Subsonic Doublet-Lattice MethodUploaded byMircea Bocioaga

- formula handbookUploaded byaugur886
- Result ReportUploaded byMicha Vardy
- Project ProposalUploaded byMicha Vardy
- ANSYS 10.0 Workbench Tutorial - Description of TutorialsUploaded bysangeethsreeni
- GT&DUploaded byMicha Vardy
- vibrations formulaUploaded bys593
- Vibration StudyUploaded byMicha Vardy
- Stepper Motor HelpUploaded byMicha Vardy
- Electronic Longboard DesignUploaded byMicha Vardy
- Foundations AD Circuits RealUploaded byMicha Vardy
- Motor Sizing CalculationUploaded bymithun46
- Computational IntellegenceUploaded byMicha Vardy
- SummeryUploaded byMicha Vardy
- Chemestry summery.pdfUploaded byMicha Vardy
- Gas Dynamics Equation sheetUploaded byMicha Vardy
- Mechanics of solids 2Uploaded byMicha Vardy

- Steam Heating ApplicationUploaded bybryandown
- Teach Me About SamplingUploaded byAnonymous dPUUgo
- Pressurised_Deaerator_Head-Technical_Information.pdfUploaded byel doctol
- 2009 Schorn, Continuous Pan BoilingUploaded bycumpio425428
- 2029-7806-1-PBUploaded bypatrickNX9420
- Offshore Heavy Oil Development SPE 2009Uploaded byMarcus Skookumchuck Vannini
- 2 Derivation Flow EquationsUploaded bySudharsananPRS
- W1V6-Origin of hydrocarbon resources2-V2016_Handout.pdfUploaded bySaraCaballero
- Waste Water WatcherUploaded byinbox012
- CFD Notes DetailsUploaded byAnonymous drYNHe
- Tungabhadra DamUploaded bykalkurshreyas
- Viscosity of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Liquids (Rotary Viscometer)Uploaded byJose Galvan
- Exact Local MethodUploaded byvaradu
- Design of UndersluicesUploaded byswabright
- API Plan_10_03_2012Uploaded bykamchem2002
- TallerUploaded bymafe vera
- pre_001bUploaded byisquare77
- Numerical Simulation of an Amphibious Vehicle Sailing ResistanceUploaded byfogdart
- Laminar and Turbulent Flow in a PipeUploaded byMan
- Kent Grand PlusUploaded byTejas Nale
- 1107MSSE09Uploaded byalikhan
- Chaophraya FinalUploaded bySudharsananPRS
- Barite Plugs (Drilling Engineering)Uploaded byexcalibur59
- Static Fluid Pressure and Fluid FlowUploaded byVivian Tran
- Hole Cleaning in Directional WellsUploaded byipm1234
- OvertoppingOfWallsAndStillingBasinFailureUploaded byYuver
- F1 15 Teaching Manual Issue4Uploaded byMaria Angelica Otero
- ICML MLA IUploaded byDeepak
- Artificial Lift IntroUploaded byAnonymous ntK705Rt
- Intake Manifold DesignUploaded byshubhaastro2827