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aerodynamics

Table of Contents
1.

2.

3.

Mathematical background: ................................................................................................................... 4


1.1

vector relations: ............................................................................................................................ 4

1.2

coordinate systems ....................................................................................................................... 4

1.3

gradient of a scalar field................................................................................................................ 5

1.4

Divergence of a vector field .......................................................................................................... 5

1.5

Curl of a vector field ...................................................................................................................... 6

1.6

Line, Surface and Volume Integrals .............................................................................................. 6

1.7

substantial derivative: ................................................................................................................... 7

Fundamental Equations: ....................................................................................................................... 8


2.1

Continuity:..................................................................................................................................... 8

2.2

Momentum: .................................................................................................................................. 8

2.3

Energy: ........................................................................................................................................ 10

Flow parameters: ................................................................................................................................ 12


3.1 streamlines........................................................................................................................................ 12
3.2 angular velocity, vorticity .................................................................................................................. 12
3.3 circulation ......................................................................................................................................... 13
3.4 stream function ................................................................................................................................. 14
3.5 velocity potential .............................................................................................................................. 14
3.6 stream function, velocity potential relationship .............................................................................. 15
3.7 boundary layer: ................................................................................................................................. 16

4.

Fundamental flow: .............................................................................................................................. 17


4.1Bernoulli ............................................................................................................................................. 17
4.2 pressure coefficient .......................................................................................................................... 17
4.3Laplace equation ................................................................................................................................ 17
4.4 boundary conditions ......................................................................................................................... 17
4.5 uniform flow...................................................................................................................................... 18
4.6 source flow ........................................................................................................................................ 19
4.7 doublet flow ...................................................................................................................................... 21
4.8 Vortex flow ........................................................................................................................................ 22
4.9 Half Rankine oval .............................................................................................................................. 23
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4.10 Rankine oval .................................................................................................................................... 24


5.

Flow over a cylinder: ........................................................................................................................... 25


5.1

Aerodynamic forces and moments ............................................................................................. 25

5.2 Non lifting flow over a circular cylinder ............................................................................................ 27


5.3 lifting flow over a circular cylinder: the Magnus effect .................................................................... 28
5.4 Kutta-Joukowski theorem ................................................................................................................. 29
5.5 The numerical Source Panel method ................................................................................................ 30
5.6 Airfoil section .................................................................................................................................... 34
5.7 Airfoil characteristics ........................................................................................................................ 34
6.

Theoretical Solutions .......................................................................................................................... 34


6.1 Vortex Sheet...................................................................................................................................... 34
6.2 Kutta condition.................................................................................................................................. 35
6.3 Kelvins circulation theorem ............................................................................................................. 36
6.4 Thin airfoil theory: the symmetric airfoil .......................................................................................... 37
6.5 The cambered airfoil ......................................................................................................................... 41
6.6 The Aerodynamic Center: ................................................................................................................. 43
6.7 Lifting flows over arbitrary bodies: the vortex panel numerical method ......................................... 44

7.

Methods for increased lift .................................................................................................................. 47

8.

Finite wing analysis ............................................................................................................................. 49


8.1 Downwash and induced drag............................................................................................................ 50
8.2 vortex filament, Biot Stuart, Helmholtz ............................................................................................ 51
8.3 Prandtl lifting line theory .................................................................................................................. 52
8.4 elliptical lift distribution .................................................................................................................... 56
8.5 general lift distribution ..................................................................................................................... 58
8.6 Aspect Ratio Effects .......................................................................................................................... 60

9.

Boundary Layer ................................................................................................................................... 62


9.1

boundary layer assumptions ....................................................................................................... 62

9.2

Boundary Layer equations: ......................................................................................................... 64

9.3

laminar boundary layer ............................................................................................................... 66

9.4

Transitional ................................................................................................................................. 68

9.5

Turbulent Boundary layer ........................................................................................................... 68

9.6

Boundary Layer separation ......................................................................................................... 68

9.7

Interactive Boundary Layer theory (IBL) ..................................................................................... 69


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1. Mathematical background:
1.1 vector relations:
Vector summation:

Vector Products:
Scalar Product
Vector Product

1.2 coordinate systems


Cartesian

Position Vector

General Vector

Cylindrical
Position Vector

Transformation

Spherical
Position Vector

Transformation

1.3 gradient of a scalar field


we consider a scalar field in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates:

The gradient of the scalar field P at a given point in space is defined as a vector.
a. Its magnitude is the maximum rate of change of P per unit length of the coordinate space at
the given point.
b. Its direction is that of the maximum rate of change of P at the given point.
Directional derivative in s direction
Cartesian gradient
Cylindrical gradient
Spherical gradient

1.4 Divergence of a vector field


we consider a vector field in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates at Point P:

Cartesian gradient

Cylindrical gradient

Spherical gradient

1.5 Curl of a vector field


we consider a vector field in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates at Point P:

Cartesian gradient
Cylindrical gradient

Spherical gradient

1.6 Line, Surface and Volume Integrals


We consider the open 3D surface area S bounded by the closed curve C, the volume V enclosed
in the surface area S and 52681 S.

Stokes Theorem
Divergence theorem
Gradient theorem

1.7 substantial derivative:

Suppose two density


scaler functions:
We expand point 2 in a
Taylor function around
point 1.
We divide by the time
difference
We take the limit as t2
approaches t2
Expanded form
Differential form
Local derivative
Convective derivative

2. Fundamental Equations:
2.1 Continuity:
Model: control volume
Volume
Mass
Mass
rate
Mass
flux

Divergence theorem:
Sub in divergence theorem
Final Form
Substantial derivative form

2.2 Momentum:
Model: control volume
Newton II
Body Force
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Pressure
Force

Gradient theorem
Linearity time differential
Divergence theorem

Final form

Steady state,
inviscis,
No body forces

Substantial derivative form

2.3 Energy:
Model: control volume
Thermodynamics I
Rate of volumetric heating
Total heat transferred into control
volume
Rate of work done on fluid inside
C.V. due to pressure force on S

Rate of work done on fluid inside


C.V. due to body forces

Net rate of flow of total energy


across control surface
Total energy in control volume
Time rate of change of total energy
inside v due to transient variations
of flow field variables

The rate of heat added to the fluid plus the rat of work done on the fluid is equal to the rate of
change of total energy of the fluid as it flows through the control volume

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Integral form

Differential form
Calorically perfect gas
Ideal gas

Steady state,
inviscis,
No body forces

Substantial derivative form

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3. Flow parameters:
3.1 streamlines
Streamline: a curve whose tangent at any point is in the direction of the velocity vector at that point

dy v

dx u

3.2 angular velocity, vorticity

Displacement slope x direction:


Small angle approximation
Displacement slope y direction:
Small angle approximation
Angular velocity of AB

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Angular velocity of BC
Z direction angular velocity is the average
of AB angular velocity and BC angular
velocity
3d angular velocity vector
Vorticity: 2

V
Irrotational condition

3.3 circulation
Consider a closed curve C in a flow field. Let V and ds
be the velocity and directed line segment at a point
on C. the circulation is defined as:

Circulation vorticity relation


Point circulation

13

3.4 stream function


The derivation of the stream function yields flow field velocity

Consider a 2d stream

Streamline differential equation:


Streamline function is a general solution
to the streamline differential equation
We consider the streamlines ab and cd
close together. The mass flow through
the ab-cd streamtube per unit depth is
given by
The limit as delta n tends to zero

General stream function velocity


derivatives

Incompressible stream function velocity


derivatives

v
x

3.5 velocity potential


Irrotational condition
Vector identity for the scaler function phi
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The curl of the gradient of a scaler function is


zero
Scaler function whos gradient is the velocity.
This is a lot easier to work with since its one
function instead of three.
Cartesian velocity potential

Cylindrical velocity potential


Spherical velocity potential

3.6 stream function, velocity potential relationship


We consider a two dimensional irrotational
incompressible flow in Cartesian coordinates.
For a streamline (, ) = . Such that
Differential form
Given the slope of the streamline
Equipotential line (, ) = .
Differential form
Slope of the equipotential line
Such we see that streamlines and equipotential
lines are negative reciprocal in slope and
mutually perpendicular

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3.7 boundary layer:


Newtonian liquid shear stress
Shear force in the vertical direction

2
x2 2 x2
x2
x2
Shear diffusion

u1 2u1

t x22

Dimensional analysis results:


Boundary layer height:
Kinematics: t

0 x D

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x
U

2 D
2
D
U
Re

2t

du1
dx2

4. Fundamental flow:
4.1Bernoulli
general
Along the streamline

4.2 pressure coefficient


Pressure coefficient

Cp

p p
q

Dynamic pressure

1
U 2
2

V
Cp 1
V

Velocity form

4.3Laplace equation
Incompressible flow
Existence of velocity
potential or
irrotational
We combine both
these conditions
Laplacian
Harmonic functions
Laplacian in
Cartesian
coordinates
Laplacian in
cylindrical
coordinates
Laplacian in
spherical
coordinates
The stream function
also satisfies the
Laplacian

4.4 boundary conditions


Two types of boundary conditions exist: infinity boundary conditions and wall boundary conditions.

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Infinity boundary conditions are given by:

The wall boundary condition is given by the


conditions:

Suppose a body of a shape described:

4.5 uniform flow


V

Consider a uniform flow with velocity V


incompressibility
irrotational flow
we can define a velocity potential

V 0
V 0
V

Using the infinity boundary conditions, we can show:


Boundary condition 2

Boundary condition 1

Integrating with respect to x


Integrating boundary condition 2 with respect
to y

g ( x) V x

We compare both equipotential results

f y const

result

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We derive the stream function


We can show the stream
function in polar coordinates

Circulation

Laplace

4.6 source flow


Consider a 2d incompressible flow where all the streamlines are straight lines emanating from a central
point O. let the velocity along each of the streamlines vary inversely with the distance from point O.

incompressibility
irrotational flow
we can define a velocity potential

V 0
V 0
V

C is a constant related to the volume flow from the source.


If we consider a line source:

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elemental
mass flow
across the
surface
element
the total
mass flow
across the
surface of
the cylinder

m V dS Vr rd L

volume rate
Volume rate
per unit
length
Radial
velocity

Using the infinity boundary conditions, we can show:


Boundary condition 2

Boundary condition 1

We use polar coordinates:


We use potential analysis to determine the potential function:

We derive the stream function

Circulation

Laplace

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4.7 doublet flow


A specific case of a source sink pair that leads to a singularity.
We consider a source of strength and a sink of strength , separated by a distance l

Stream function at any point P

Process: we show the limit as l tends to zero but the product


Doublet Stream Function

l remains constant,

Doublet Strength
Doublet stream function

Doublet velocity potential

Doublet radius

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4.8 Vortex flow


We consider a polar coordinate system where all streamlines are concentric circles about a given
point.

Velocity vector by definiton

Circulation
Velocity as a function of circulation

Strength of vortex
Vortex potential
Streamline function

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4.9 Half Rankine oval


We consider a polar coordinate system with a source of strength located at the origin and
superimposed on this flow, a uniform stream of velocity V

Stream Function

Velocity vector

0 rstag
V cos
2 V
V0

2 r
V sin 0
stag 0,

Stagnation point

Streamline at the stagnation point


Shown by curve ABC

Interpretation: this models a semi-infinate solid body

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4.10 Rankine oval


We consider a polar coordinate system with a source of strength located at a distance b from the
origin and sink of strength , located at a distance b from the origin. superimposed on this flow, a
uniform stream of velocity V

Stream Function

Velocity vector
Stagnation point

Hard to find

Streamline at the stagnation point


Shown by curve ABC
Interpretation: this models a semi-infinate solid body

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5. Flow over a cylinder:


5.1 Aerodynamic forces and moments
Aerodynamic forces can be
attributed to
1. Pressure distribution:
over the body surface
2. Shear stress
distribution over the
body surface
The net effect of the pressure p
and shear stress distributions
is a resultant aerodynamic
force R, and moment M.

These effects can be split into


normal and axial component
coordinates or Cartesian lift
and drag component
coordinates
The transformation between
Cartesian and body coordinate
systems is given:
L N cos A sin
D N sin A cos

Surface is denotated by the letter s, the sub letters u,l denote upper and lower edges of the airfoil

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Elemental normal and axial


forces acting on the elemental
surface ds on the upper and
lower body surface
Note the prime indicates per unit
span
Total normal and axial forces per
unit span

dN u' Pu dsu cos u dsu sin


dN l' Pds
l
l cos l dsl sin
dAu' Pu dsu sin u dsu cos
dAl' Pds
l
l sin l dsl cos
N ' Pu cos u sin dsu
TE

TE

LE

LE

A ' Pu sin u cos dsu


TE

TE

LE

LE

Pl cos l sin dsl

Pl sin l cos dsl

Moment about the leading edge

Dynamic pressure
Lift,Drag,Normal, Axial, moment
coefficient for wing span area S,
and chord length l
Pressure, skin friction coefficient

CL

L
D
N
A
M
CD
CN
CA
CM
q S
q S
q S
q S
q Sl
Cp

Cn

Normal force coefficient


Axial force coefficient
Moment about the leading edge

1
V2
2

Ca

P P

cf
q
q

1 c
cP , L cP ,u dx
c 0

dyu
dyL
1 c
1 c
c

c
dx

cP,u cP,L dy
P ,u
P,L
c 0
dx
dx
c 0

CM ,LE

c
dy
dy
1 c
c cP, L dx cP,u u cP, L L dx
2 0 P ,u
0
c
dx
dx

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drag

Lift

function integration identities

5.2 Non lifting flow over a circular cylinder


We consider the superposition of a uniform flow with velocity V and doublet of strength , with
the direction of the doublet in opposition with the uniform flow.

Stream Function

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Velocity vector

Stagnation point

Streamline at the stagnation point


Shown by curve ABC
the velocity vector is symetric about the rotational axis, such we expect the pressure distribution to
be symetric about the rotational axis due to its dependence on velocity, and cancle all lift and drag
Pressure coefficient

5.3 lifting flow over a circular cylinder: the Magnus effect


Consider the flow synthesized by the superposition, of non-lifting flow over a cylinder and a vortex of
strength .

Stream Functions

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Constant value arbitrary


Stream function superposition
Velocity vector

Stagnation point

Surface Velocity
Pressure coefficient

Drag coefficient
Lift coefficient
Lift

1
V 2 SCl
2
1
L ' V
2

Lift per unit span (kutta jakowsky)

5.4 Kutta-Joukowski theorem


Consider the incompressible flow over an airfoil section. Let curve A be any curve in the flow
enclosing the airfoil. If the airfoil is producing lift, the velocity field around the airfoil will be such that
the line integral of velocity around A will be the circulation

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Circulation

L ' V

Lift per unit span

5.5 The numerical Source Panel method


We extend the concept of source and sink points to a sheet of source and sink points

Edge view of a source sheet: let s be the distance measured along the source sheet

s source strength per unit length along s or volume flow rate per unit depth

We consider point P(x,y) located at a distance r from sheet section ds, the section ds of strength ds
induces a small potential d at point P.
Induced potential
ds
d
ln r
2

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ln r
ds
2
a

Velocity potential induced at point P from the entire source


sheet from a to b

x, y

We wish to find the proper source strength parameter to properly model flow over an arbitrary body,
we approximate the source sheet with panels, and solve for the strength parameter. We approximate
the source strength constant per panel like 1 , 2 ,..., n for panels 1 through n. the flow over the
body is then calculated through a superposition of uniform flow and source sheet on the body surface

We define a midpoint of each panel called a control point:


Let P be a point located at (x,y) in the flow,
let

rpj be the distance from any point on the jth panel to P.

let

be the velocity potential induced at P due to the jth panel

the velocity potential induced at P due to the jth


panel, where the integral is taken over panel j, for

j constant over panel j

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j
ln rpj ds j
2 j

the potential at P due to all the panels as:

j
ln rpj ds j
j 1 2 j

P j
j 1

the distance from any point on the jth panel to P.

x x y y
2

rpj

j
ln rij ds j
j 1 2 j

we evaluate the potential of all the panels at the


ith control point

xi , yi

x x y y
2

rij

Boundary condition

V,n Vn 0

the normal component of free stream velocity

V,n V ni V cos i

The normal component of velocity induced by the


source panels

Vn
Vn

Explicit form boundary condition:

xi , yi
ni

i
2

V cos i

j
ln rij ds j
j 1 2 j ni
n

i
2

j i

j
ln rij ds j 0
j 1 2 j ni
n

j i

Using this condition, we can solve the above system of equations for all the strength parameters,
using these parameters we can sub in to solve for the stream solution
n
Tangential velocity at the control point of the ith

j
V

ln rij ds j

panel induced by all the panels


s
j 1 2 j s

j
j 1 2

Total surface velocity at the ith control point

Vi V ,s Vs V sin i

The pressure coefficient at the ith control point

V
C pi 1 i
V

Non penetration condition


The sum of all sources and sinks should be zero

S
j 1

Example: numerical source panel method applied to a cylinder:

32

s ln r ds
ij

Normal force component

Vn

Distance

i
2

rij

We derive the distance:

1 rij
ln rij

ni
rij ni

2 xi x j

dxi
dy
2 yi y j i
dni
dni

x j yi y j
2

xi x j cos i yi y j sin i

ln rij

2
2
ni
xi x j yi y j

33

j
ln rij ds j
j 1 2 j ni
n

j i

x x y y
2

5.6 Airfoil section

5.7 Airfoil characteristics

6. Theoretical Solutions
6.1 Vortex Sheet
Consider a vortex sheet made up vortex
filaments.
We can define s as a length variable,
We define

s as the strength of the

vortex sheet per unit length along s.


Consider point P in the flow located a
distance r from ds.

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Small velocity at point P induced by


small vortex at ds, perpendicular to r
Increment in velocity potential induced
at point by by the elemental vortex ds
Velocity potential at P
Circulation around the vortex sheet

ds
2 r
ds
d

dV

x, y

1
2

ds

ds
a

Consider the rectangular dashed path


enclosing a section of the sheet of
length ds.
The circulation around the path:

This analysis shows:


The local jump in tangential velocity
across the vortex sheet is equal to the
local sheet strength

v2 dn u1ds v1dn u2 ds
u1 u2 ds v1 v2 dn
ds

ds u1 u2 ds v1 v2 dn
lim ds u1 u2 ds

dn 0

u1 u2
The idea:
Replace an airfoil surface with a vortex sheet of variable strength s

Calculate the induced velocity field from the vortex sheet when added to the uniform velocity
of V

The circulation around the vortex sheet will be given

The lift will be given by Kutta Jakowski: L ' V

ds
a

6.2 Kutta condition


The goal of the Kutta condition is to determine the exact circulation value such that the lift may be
calculated using the Kutta Jakowski equation. Analytical analysis results in infinite possible circulation
results. Below two possible results are shown but we know that nature prefers 2 . We can

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characterize the circulation based on the position of stagnation points. If we can place the stagnation
point 2 at the trailing edge point than the circulation can accurately be calculated analytically.

There are infinite possible trailing edge shapes, two are shown below:

The following reasoning is applied to prove that all possible trailing edge shapes result in Vu Vl . If the
trailing edge ends at a finite angle, this results in two velocities in two different directions, which is
impossible. The only possible solution is that Vu Vl 0 . If the trailing edge ends in a cusp, than nonzero velocity is possible however using Bernoulli we can show that

Pa

1
1
Vu 2 Pa VL 2 Vu VL
2
2

Such using vortex sheet analysis we can show that TE Vu VL 0


Which functions as a boundary condition to properly achieve the correct solution. This boundary
condition is a physical property of friction because of the viscous boundary layer at the edge.

6.3 Kelvins circulation theorem


The main question is what generates the circulation.

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Consider an arbitrary non-viscous,


incompressible flow. Assume that all body
forces f are zero. Choose an arbitrary curve
C1 containing fluid elements at time t1.
Circulation around C1 : 1 V ds
C1

At time t2 the same fluid elements will have


a circulation around curve C2 :

2 V ds
C2

Such we can see that the circulation is


conserved

1 2
D
0
Dt
Kalvin states that the circulation is
conserved.
The circulation starts at 0
As the flow is started, a powerful counter
vortex called the starting vortex is formed
downstream such the circulation is
preserved as zero. This also explains the
kutta condition because the flow is forced to
figure 8 around both vortices 3,4 which
tends to the Kutta flow type.

6.4 Thin airfoil theory: the symmetric airfoil


We deal with thin airfoils simulated by a vortex sheet placed along the camber line.

37

Our purpose is to calculate the variation of s such that the camber line because a streamline of the
flow which satisfies the Kutta condition TE 0 , such we can calculate the circulation around the
airfoil, and use Kutta Jakowski to calculate the lift.
Consider a vortex sheet placed on the camber
line of an airfoil with freestream velocity V
and angle of attack . The distance measured
along the camber line is denoted by s, the
camber line is given by z z x . We can
show the component of velocity normal to the
camber line induced by the vortex sheet
w ' w ' s .
If we place the vortex sheet on the chord line,
such that x with Kutta condition

c 0 . For the camber to be the streamline


the velocity normal to the camber line must be
zero.

V,n w ' s 0

We can calculate the free stream normal


component using:

dz
dx

dz
V sin arc tan

dx

The slop of the camber line:

V,n

Using small angle approximation:

dz

V,n V
dx

We approximate the normal component


velocity to the camber line as to the chord line

w' s w x

We can calculate w x or the normal


component of velocity as a result of the
vortices. Consider an elemental vortex d
located at a distance along the chord line.
The velocity dw at point x induced by the
vortex at point

dw

38

d
,
2 x

w x

d
2 x

We sub in the freestream velocity normal component, and the normal component of the velocity due to
vorticity to show the condition that the camber line will be the stream line:

dz c d

V ,n w ' s 0 V
0
dx 0 2 x

c d
dz

V
dx 0 2 x

We have achieved the fundamental equation of thin airfoil theory which is just a condition for which the
camber line is a stream line over a sheet of vortices on the chord line.

We start solving this equation by simplification called the symmetric airfoil in which the camber line is
parallel to the chord line such that

dz
0 in which case the thin airfoil theory fundamental equation
dx

can be rewritten to satisfy the symmetric airfoil simplification:

d
2 x

We use the following variable transformation to simplify the integral

1 cos

c
x 1 cos 0 1
2

2
c
d sin d

sin d
V
cos cos 0

The solution is given as: 2V

1 cos
sin

This solution also satisfies the Kutta condition:

lim 2V

1 cos
sin

Le ' hopital

2V

sin
0
cos

Such using the Kutta Joukowski theorem we can calculate the lift generated on the symmetric airfoil.
We first calculate the total circulation:

d
c

39

We transform using the variable transformation

c
1 cos
2

c
sin d
2 0

We sub in the vortex strength term

c
2V 1 cos d cV
2 0

We sub this into the Kutta-Joukowski theorem

L ' V cV2

cV2
L'
cl

2
q s 1 V 2 c 1

2
s c 1
dcl
2
d
Which matches the experimental data

The total moment about the leading edge due to the entire vortex sheet can be shown

M 'LE dL V d
c

We use the same transformation and integration and achieve the following results

M 'LE q c 2

M 'LE

q Sc
2 cm ,le l
4

cl 2

c
cm,c/4 cm,le l 0
4
cm,le

Such we have found the center of pressure, or the point in which the moments are zero at a quarter of
the chord length.

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6.5 The cambered airfoil


We return to the fundamental equation of thin airfoil theory
c d
dz

V
dx 0 2 x

We transform the dummy variable

1 cos

c
x 1 cos 0 1
2

2
c
d sin d

sin d
dz

V
cos cos 0
dx

The solution to the above integral is given as:

2V A0

1 cos

An sin n
sin
n 1

We substitute the solution term back into the integral equation to solve for the coefficients.

A0

1 cos
1
sin n sin
dz
d An
d
cos cos 0
0 cos cos0
dx

The integrals can be solved, and the equation can be simplified to the following equation:

dz
A0 An cos n0
dx
n 1
c
x 1 cos 0
2

Using the general Fourier form, we take the camber line

dz
as the function f , we apply the Fourier
dx

coefficient solutions to the above equation

f B0 Bn cos n
n 1

B0
Bn

f d

f cos n d

1
dz
d A0

dx
2 dz
An cos n 0 d 0
0 dx

A0

41

dz
d
dx

Such we have effectively solved the thin airfoil problem with the flow line over the general camber line
as an infinite series of sinusoidal terms in the form of a Fourier series which incidentally solves the Kutta
condition.

1
dz
d A0
0 dx


2 dz
An cos n 0 d 0
0 dx

A0

2V A0

dz
d
dx

1 cos

An sin n
sin
n 1

We can now determine the aerodynamic parameters needed to calculate the forces and moments.
The total circulation due to the entire vortex sheet
c

dx sin d

1 cos

2V A0
An sin n sin d 2V A0 1 cos d An sin n sin d
0
0
0
sin
n 1
n 1

/ 2 n 1
1

cos

0
0 sin n sin d 0 n 1

cV A0 1
2

We can determine the lift using Kutta Joukowski

L ' V cV2 A0 1
2

L'
cl
2 A0 A1
1
q c 1
2

1 dz

cl 2 cos 0 1 d 0
0 dx

dcl
2
d

From this result we can calculate the zero lift angle of attack:

42

y mx b
dc
cl l L 0
d
cl 2 L 0

1 dz

cl 2 cos 0 1 d 0
0 dx

1 dz
L 0 cos 0 1 d 0
0 dx
Such we can see that the integral term represents the zero lift angle of attack
The moment coefficient is given as

cm,le

A2
A0 A1
2
2
c

l A1 A2
4 2

cm,le

A2 A1
4
c c c

M 'LE
xcp
m ,le 1 A1 A2
L'
cl
4 cl

Cm ,c /4

6.6 The Aerodynamic Center:


The aerodynamic center is the point on a body about which the aerodynamically generated moment is
independent of angle of attack. Such we can display the aerodynamic forces acting on an airfoil through
the aerodynamic center:

How to determine the aerodynamic center:

43

cxac - the aerodynamic center length from the


leading edge,
Moment about ac:

M ac L ' cxac c / 4 M 'c /4

M ac
M 'c /4
L'

cxac 1/ 4
q Sc q S
q Sc

cm ,ac cl xac 0.25 cmc/4

dcmc/4
dcl
xac 0.25
d
d
d
dcmc/4
dcl
a0
m0
d
d
dcm ,ac

xac

m0
0.25
a0

0 a0 xac 0.25 m0

6.7 Lifting flows over arbitrary bodies: the vortex panel numerical method
We want to approximate the vortex panel sheet wrapped around an arbitrary shape with a series of
straight vortex sheet panels of finite length. The vortex strength per unit length, is constant per panel
but vary between panels.

44

We wish to solve for the vortex strength per unit length of each panel such that the body can be
modeled as a stream line of flow that satisfies the Kutta condition. To ensure non penetration condition
the normal component of velocity at all the control points should be zero. As before we model point

p x, y at a distance of rpj from any point on panel j at angle .


The velocity induced at point p due to the
vorticity at panel j
Angle expression

The potential P due to all panels, summed over


all the panels
We evaluate P as the ith control point

1
pj j ds j j pj ds j

2 j
2 j
y yj
xx
j

pj arctan

j
pj ds j
j 1 2 j

P j
j 1

yi y j
x x
j
i

ij arctan

j
ij ds j
j 1 2 j
n

xi , yi j
j 1

Free stream normal component

Vtot n 0
V,n V cos i

Vortex panels induced velocity normal


component

Vn

non-penetration condition

xi , yi
n j
n j

n j

d
s

j 1 2 ij j
j

j
ij ds j
j 1 2 j n j
n

Vn

j
ij ds j
j 1 2 j n j

Super-position

Vtot ,n V ,n Vn V cos i

Non penetration condition

V cos i

We define variable J as the solution to the


integral

Ji, j

Vortex panel method system of equations

V cos i

j
ij ds j 0
j 1 2 j n j
n

ij ds j
n j
j

j
Ji, j 0
j 1 2
n

We apply the Kutta condition:

45

The Kutta condition is dependent on the trailing edge panel geometry. Considering the trailing edge
panels small at panels i and i-1, the condition is given by

i i 1
Which imposes a canceling of vortex strength at the trailing edge.
Note: it is important to pick a control point, to not evaluate and solve such that the system is not overdetermined given n+1 equations and n variables.

Such we can determine the local velocities on the outside of the airfoil such that:

a Va , b Vb , ..., n Vn
We obtain circulation, and lift using the following analysis
Let s j be the length of panel j,
The circulation due to panel j

j jsj

Total circulation due to all the panels

j j s j

j 1

Lift per unit span Kutta Joukowski

j 1

L ' V j s j
j 1

46

7. Methods for increased lift


The characteristics of the lift
profile are influenced by the
following factors:
LE curvature
Reynolds number
Surface finish
Turbulence

Methods for increasing lift


Flaps: to angle the
trailing edge tip at 0.10.3 of the chord length
Circulation control
mechanisms

47

48

8. Finite wing analysis

The flow of air over the finite wing is three dimensional such that at the wing tips, high pressure air
rushs around the tip to the low pressure region above and such causes air in the wing span direction.
Such the streamlines above and below the wings are pushed sideways, and a wing tip vortex is created
downstream.

49

8.1 Downwash and induced drag


The wing tip vortices tend to drag the surrounding air with them inducing a small velocity component in
the downward direction at the wing called downwash w . The downwash and the freestream velocity
produce a local relative wind called the induced angle of attack. This induced angle of attack lowers the
geometric angle of attack and the wing feels the effective angle of attack.

eff geo ind


The induced angle of attack, radially displaces the local lift vector and such a small component of lift in
the same direction as the freestream velocity is felt as drag called induced drag Di

We define the following drag coefficients:


Profile drag
Friction drag D f

cd

D f Dp
q S

Pressure drag (flow separation) D p


Induced drag coefficient

Di
q S
CD cd CD,i

CD ,i

Total drag coefficient for finite wing

50

8.2 vortex filament, Biot Stuart, Helmholtz


We introduced the general curved vortex filament. If the circulation is taken about any path enclosing
the filament a constant value is obtained. Such the strength of the vortex filament is defined as .

Consider a directed sement of filament dl. The radius vector from dl to an arbitrary point p in space is r.
the induced velocity at p as a result of the vortex from segment dl is given by:
Biot-Savart Law

dV

dl r
4 r 3

We want to apply a map of curved vortex filaments to calculate finite wing circulation, and velocity we
start by calculating an infinite straight vortex filament using Biot-Savarts Law.
Suppose a straight vortex filament of
strength . The velocity induced at
point P, by the entire vortex filament is

dl r

3
4
4
r

dV

sin
dl
r2

Given height h
We show the following transformation:

h
sin
h
l
tan
r

h
d
sin 2
sin

V
dl

sin d
4 r 2
4 h 0

V
2 h
dl

51

Helmholtzs vortex theorems:


1. The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length
2. A vortex filament must extend to the boundary fluid or form a closed path
Lift distribution:

Consider a given span wise location y1 where the local chord is c. the local geometric angle of attack is

. The lift per unit span at this location is given by L ' y1 . We consider the lift per unit span at a
different location with different geometric characteristics L ' y2 which will therefore be different from

L ' y1 . Such we propose that the lift per unit span of the wing is distributed as a function of y along
the wing L ' L ' y and such according to Kutta Joukowski so is the circulation y

L ' y
.
V

The lift distribution is influenced by local chord length, airfoil thickness, local camber, geometric twist,
washout, wash in, and aerodynamic twist. The determination of the lift distribution is a central problem
in finite wing theory.

8.3 Prandtl lifting line theory

A bound vortex of strength or a vortex filament bound to a fixed location will experience a force
L V according to Kutta-Joukowski.

52

We consider replacing a finite wing of span b with a bound vortex extending from

b
b
y . Using
2
2

Helmholtzs second vortex law, we continuous the vortex filament as two free vortices trailing
downstream from the wing tips to infinity. This vortex filament consisting of two bound vortices and
two free vortices is called a horseshoe vortex.

We consider a single horseshoe vortex, including the downwash w induced along the bound vortex from

b
b
y . We see that the trailing vortices both contribute to the induced velocity along the bound
2
2

vortex and both contributions in the downward direction. If the origin is taken at the center of the
bound vortex, then the velocity at any point y along the bound vortex induced by the trailing semiinfinite vortices is taken from biot savarts law.

53

w y

4 b / 2 y 4 b / 2 y 4 b / 2 2 y 2
b /2 side trailing vortex

b /2 side trailing vortex

Note that as y approaches b / 2 w approaches negative infinity


The downwash distribution due to the single horse vortex does not realistically simulate the downwash
distribution of a finite wing.

The solution to this problem was a superposition of a large number of horseshoe vortices each with a
different length of the bound vortex, with all the bound vortices coincident along a single line called the
lifting line. This is shown in the picture above, the first horseshoe vortex of strength d1 spans from
point A to F, the second horseshoe vortex of strength d 2 spans from point B to point E and d 3 spans
from point C to point D. the strength is summed as a superposition of horseshoe vortex strengths. The
strength of each trailing vortex is equal to the change in circulation along the lifting line.

54

If we extrapolate and fill in an infinite amount of horseshoe vortices on the span of the finite wings, we

achieve a continuous distribution of y along the lifting line with the value of circulation at the origin

0 . The trailing vortices have become a continuous vortex sheet, parallel to V . The total strength of
the sheet integrated across the span is zero because it consists of pairs of trailing vortices of equal
strength but in opposite directions.
If we take a small segment of the lifting line dy ,
The circulation at y is

The change of circulation over the segment

d
d
dy
dy
d
dy dy

dw
4 y0 y

The downwash velocity dw at random point yo


along the lifting line induced by the entire semiinfinite trailing vortex located at y

d
dy
1

dy
w y0

b
/2
4
y0 y

The total velocity w induced at yo by the entire


trailing vortex sheet is the summation of the
downwash element over the entire wing span.

b /2

w y0 w y0 V w y0

V
V

Induced angle of attack

i y0 arctan

Induced angle of attack (explicit)

d
dy
b /2
1

dy
i y0

b
/2
V 4
y0 y
55

a0 eff y0 L 0 2 eff y0 L 0

Lift coefficient at point y=y0

cl

Local lift coefficient

1
V2c y0 cl y0 V y0
2
2 y0
cl y0
V c y0

effective angle of attack

Geometric angle of attack


Geometric angle of attack (explicit)

y y0

L ' y0

cl y0 2 eff y0 L 0

y0
L 0
eff y0
2 y0
V
c
y

cl y0

V c y0

geo eff i
d
dy
b /2
y0
1

dy
geo y0
L 0

b
/2
V c y0
V 4
y0 y

This represents the fundamental equation of Prandtl lifting line theory, which allows the calculation of
the circulation given the angle of attack distribution. Such we can calculate the following aerodynamic
characteristics:
Kutta Joukowski

L ' y0 V y0

Total lift

b /2

b /2

L ' y0 dy V

b /2

Lift coefficient

CL

Induced drag per unit span

Di' L'i sin i

Total induced drag

Di

CD

y0 dy

L
2 b /2

y0 dy
q S V S b /2
b /2

b / 2

Induced drag coefficient

b /2

small angle

L'i i

Di' dy

b /2

b /2

L'i i y0 dy V

b /2

b /2

y0 i y0 dy

D
2 b /2

y0 i y0 dy
q S V S b /2

8.4 elliptical lift distribution


Consider a circulation distribution

Lift per unit span

Wing tip condition

y 0

2y
1
b

L ' y0 V 0

2y
1
b

b
2 b
L ' V 0 1
0
2
b 2

56

downwash

Integration substitution
Downwash solution

2
d d
y
2 y 4 0

0 1 2
dy dy
b b
y2

1 4 2
b
b /2
y
w y0 02
dy
b b /2
y2
y0 y 1 4 2
b
b
b
y cos dy sin d
2
2

0
cos
w y0
d
2 0
2 b
cos cos 0

w 0
Induced angle of attack
Lift

Integration substitution
Lift solution
Circulation at the center point
Circulation at the center point in terms of
the lift coefficient
Induced angle of attack (explicit)
Aspect Ratio
Induced angle of attack in terms of aspect
ratio

i y0

0
2bV
2

2y
1 dy
b /2
b
b
b
y cos dy sin d
2
2

b
b
L V 0 sin 2 d V 0
0
2
4
4L
0
V b
2V SC
2V bC
0 L L
b
AR
sC L
i y0 2
b
2
b
AR
S
C
i y0 L
AR
L V 0

Induced drag coefficient

C D ,i

Induced drag coefficient explicit

0
2b
w y0

2
i
V S

2
b/ 2 y dy Vi S 0

C D ,i

b i 0
V S

C D ,i

CL2
AR

57

b /2

b/ 2

sin 2 d

b/ 2

b / 2

b i 0
2V S

2y
1 dy
b

Consider a wing with no geometric twist, and no aerodynamic twist. We have seen that the induced
angle of attack is constant along the span. Such the effective angle of attack in constant along the span.
We can show
local lift coefficient

cl a0 eff L0 2 eff L0

Local lift per unit span

L ' y q ccl

Chord length

c y

L ' y

cl q

2y

V 0 1
b
cl q

Such we can see that the chord length is also elliptical

8.5 general lift distribution


b
2
distribution can be written 0 sin . To generalize the result, we can use a Fourier series to

By applying the transformation y cos to the elliptical circulation distribution, the transformed

represent a general lift distribution


General circulation distribution

2bV An sin n
n 1

Fundamental equation of Prandtl lifting


line theory

d
dy
y0
1

dy
geo y0
L 0

b
/2
V c y0
V 4
y0 y
b /2

We wish to satisfy Prandtl fundamental lifting line equation such we start by differentiating
Differentiating

N
d d d
d

2bV nAn cos n


dy
d dy
dy
n 1

58

General lifting distribution


satisfies Prandtl lifting line
equation

2b

geo y0

c 0

An sin n L0
n 1
N

2b

A sin n
c

geo y0

n 1

nA cos n
cos cos 0

L 0

n 1

nAn
n 1

sin n0
sin 0

This equation shows a system of N unknowns for all the coefficients and geometric constants at given
cross sections of the wing span. If N cross sections are chosen, than a system of N equations with N
unknowns is achievable and the Fourier coefficients can be determined.
Lift coefficient

2 b /2
2b 2 N

CL

Induced angle of attack

b /2

y dy

A
n 1

n 0

sin n sin d

i y0

1
4 V
N

i nAn
n 1

Induced drag coefficient


(explicit)

/ 2 n 1
sin n sin d

0
n 1
0
b2
CL A1
A1 AR
S
2 b /2
2b 2 N
C D ,i

y
d
y

i
An sin n i y sin d
V S b / 2
S 0 n 1

Induced drag coefficient

V S

C D ,i

b /2

b / 2

d / dy dy ... 1

sin n
sin

y0 y

An sin n nAn
n 1

n 1

nA

n 1

sin n
sin d
sin

m k
0
sin m sin k

0
/ 2 m k
2
N
N

An
2
2
CD ,i AR nAn ARA1 1 n
n 1 A1
n 1

2
C
CD ,i L 1
AR

A
n n
n 1 A1
N

We define span efficiency


factor
Induced drag coefficient

e 1

C D ,i

CL2
eAR

59

n 0

cos n
d
cos cos 0

8.6 Aspect Ratio Effects

Note that

0 0.2
such the aspect ratio has a much higher influence on the drag ratio than the
6 AR 22

delta term

C D ,i

CL2
1
AR

We can show Prandtls experiment with variable aspect ratio

60

Such the larger the aspect ratio, the less drag is felt and the more lift is generated.
We can show how the lift line of a finite wing is always less than an airfoil using the following analysis:

dCL
a0
d i
CL a0 i L 0
C

CL a0 L L 0
AR

a0
dCL
a
a
d
1 0 1
AR
0.05, 0.25

61

9. Boundary Layer
9.1 boundary layer assumptions
consider the viscous flow over a flat plate. The fluid satisfies the no-slip and wall temperature boundary
conditions:

V (wall) 0
. The fluid above the boundary layer has properties equal to the free stream
T(wall) Tw

properties. The boundary layer defined as

: u 0.99 V
, inside the boundary layer, both the velocity
T : T 0.99T

and temperature change as functions of x and y.

Boundary layer relative thickness can be shown by:

Pr 1 T
Pr 1 T
Pr 1 T
Pr

viscous diffusion rate / c p

thermal diffusion rate k / c p


k
u

The velocity gradient at the wall generates shear


stress at the wall

w y 0
y w
y w

The temperature gradient at the wall generates


heat transfer

T
T
qw k
q y 0 k

y w
y w

Displacement thickness

y1

* 1
0

y1

62

u
dy
eue

Mass flow in boundary layer

y1

m udy eue *
0

Displacement thickness is the distance by which an external flow streamline is displaced by the presence
of the boundary layer
Iterative solution idea:
1. carry out an inviscid solution for the body shape ab, evaluate e , ue , Te along curve ab
2. using these values to solve the boundary layer equations
3. obtain a displacement thickness term * , and calculate an effective body given by a curve ac
4. carry out an inviscid solution for the effective body ac, and evaluate new e , ue , Te terms along
this curve.
5. Reiterate steps 3,4 until the solution converges on finite values
Note: the results pertain to flow over the actual body surface ab
Momentum thickness

y1

u u
1 dy
eue ue

y1

63

Consider the mass element flow across


segment dy
Momentum flow across dy associated with
mass element dm
Momentum flow at freestream velocity
associated with mass element dm
Decrement in momentum flow associated
with mass element dm
Total decrement in momentum flow

dm udy

A dm u u 2 dy

B dmue u dy ue
B A u ue u dy
y1

u u

u dy

eue 2

Missing momentum flow as a function of


height
Total decrement in momentum flow as a
result of missing momentum

y1

eue u ue u dy
2

y1

u u
1 dy
eue ue

Such the free stream momentum height functions as an index proportional to the decrement in
momentum due to boundary layer effects.

9.2 Boundary Layer equations:


We consider a two dimensional steady flow form of the x momentum equation (Navier Stokes)

du
dv
1 p
1 v u
v


2
dx
dx M x Re y x y

We consider a long flat plate, very thin with respect to the body scale

64

Consider the continuity equation

We understand that x O 1 ,

u v

0
x
y

y O

Such we apply this to the momentum equation in the x direction

du
dv
1 p
1 v u
v


2
dx
dx M x Re y x y

1 v u
1
O 1 O 2
Re y x y

du
dv
1 p
1
2u
u v

dx
dx M 2 x Re y 2
If we reproduce the same analysis in the y direction:

v
v
1 p
1 v u
v


2
x
y M y Re x x y
1 p

1
O O
O 2 O O
2
M y

1 p
p
0
0
2
M y
y
Such we have achieved that the pressure is only a function of x and constant throughout the
height of the boundary layer.
We achieve the following boundary layer equations:
continuity
u v

x
Momentum x direction

du
dv
1 p
1
2u
v

dx
dx M 2 x Re y 2

Momentum y direction

p
0
y

Energy conservation

u
pe
h
h T
u v k

u
x
y y y
x
y
65

Ideal gas
Enthalpy

p RT
h c pT

Boundary conditions

Wall: y 0 u 0 v 0 T Tw
Boundary: y u ue
Unknowns: u , v, , h

variables

T Te

Known: p pe x , , k

We solve the boundary layer to obtain the velocity and temperature at the wall of the body, and
such we can solve the shear and heat transfer distributions:

y w

shear stress at the wall

T
qw k

y w

heat transfer

9.3 laminar boundary layer


we wish to solve the x direction momentum equation all in terms of u, such we will make an effort to
substitute in terms to isolate a PDE in terms of u

u
dy
x

integrating the continuity equation


over y

Bernulli

p U 2

const
2
dU
1 dp
U
dx
dx

Bernulli differential form


Momentum in the x direction in terms
of u
Blasius Equation
Blasius assumption
Blasius proposed similarity variable

dU
u u u
2u
dy U
2
x y x
dx
y

U / x 0
y
U

y
( x)
2 x

Blasius proposed stream function

( x) 2 x / U
2Ux f ( )

Velocity components of stream


function

u( x, y)

U
Uf ( ) v( x, y)

( f f )
y
x
2x

66

Substitution of
similarity
variable and
velocity
components
into the
momentum in
the x direction
Boundary
conditions

2 Uf ( )
Uf ( ) Uf ( ) Uf ( )
dU U

dy

f
)

x
x
y
dx 2 x
y 2

2 Uf ( )
U
( f f )
2x
y 2

f f 0

Uf ( )

No slip: u ( x, 0) 0 f (0) 0
Wall non penetration: v( x, 0) 0 f (0) 0
Free stream velocity: u ( x, ) U f () 1

results

vx
U

* 1.721

vx
U

0.664

vx
U

Falkner-Skan generalization:
Considering a wedge at
angle of attack

,
2

From freestream velocity,


We estimate the outer
flow to be of the form

x
ue x U
L
2m

m 1

Such Blasius applies to


zero angle of attack m=0
Falkner-Skan generalized
similarity variable
Falkner-Skan generalized
stream function
Falkner-Skan generalized
momentum in the x
direction
Nonlinear ODE form

U 0 (m 1) x

2 L L

2 U 0 L x
U ( x) ( x) f ( )

m 1 L

u
u
2u
v
c 2 mx 2 m1 2
x
y
y

f ff 1 ( f )2 0

67

( m 1)/2

( m 1)/2

f ( )

Results table

9.4 Transitional
The Reynolds number can be given as Re

inertial forces vL vL

viscous forces

9.5 Turbulent Boundary layer

9.6 Boundary Layer separation


As the boundary layer increases in thickness the flow in the boundary layer downstream may become
reversed causing boundary layer separation, associated with the formation of vortices. The separation

u
0
y w

condition is given as

The influence of sepperation bubble on performance:

68

9.7 Interactive Boundary Layer theory (IBL)


1. Determine the pressure distribution using the vortex panel method
2. Determine the velocity profile and the displacement thickness using integral and differential
equations as a function of the pressure gradient.
3. Thicken the body by the displacement thickness and using the displacement thickness as the
new boundary condition for non-penetration.
4. Iterate until the solution converges

69