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Soluble

Group 1, ammonium, nitrate, acetate,
bicarbonate (HCO3-) salts
Chloride, bromide and iodide salts
[B.I.C]
Sulfate salts

Insoluble
Hydroxide salts

silver, mercury, lead
[P.M.S
S.M.L]
silver, mercury, lead, barium,
strontium, calcium [P.M.S BAtman
CAtwoman STRONg]

Solution
colourles

PO4 (3-)
white (s)

SO4 (2-)
white (s)

CO3 (2-)
white (s)

colourles

white (s)

white (s)

colourles

white (s)

white
slightly
white (s)

blue
pale
green
colourles
s
yellow

blue (s)
green (s)

blue (aq)
green (aq)

green (s)
grey (s)

yellow (s)

white (s)

yellow (s)

s
Ca (2+)
s
Pb (2+)

OR

Exceptions
group 1 and ammonium
Batman and Catwoman are slightly soluble
group 1 and ammonium

Carbonate and phosphate
salts
Ion
Ba (2+)

Exceptions
none

white (s)

Clwhite
(aq)
white
(aq)
white (s)

OHwhite
slightly
white
slightly
white (s)

blue (aq)
green
(aq)
white (s)

blue (s)
green (s)

brown
(aq)

brown (aq)

s
Cu (2+)
Fe (2+)
Ag+
Fe (3+)

Indicator

pink
slightly

yellow (aq)

not stable
reduces to
2+

yellow (s)

Methyl
orange
3.1-4.4

Bromothymol
blue
6.0-7.6

Litmus

Phenolphthal
ein
8.2- 10.0

Colour
change
(acid → base)
Type of
reaction
Colour at end
point
Best for

Red → yellow

Yellow → blue

Red → blue

Colourless →
red

Strong acid +
weak base
Orange

Strong acid +
strong base
Green

Distinguishing
strongly acidic
from rest

Distinguishing
between acidic
and basic

Limitations

Can’t tell
between
weakly acidic/
neutral/ basic

Can’t tell
between
neutral/weakly
acidic/ weakly
basic

pH range

Weak acid +
strong base
Pale pink/
colourless
Distinguishing
between
strongly basic
from rest
Can’t tell
between
weakly basic/
neutral/ acidic