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CHM170L Physical Chemistry 1 Laboratory

4th Quarter SY 2015-2016

Heat of Combustion
Marquez, Ariziel Ruth.1, (Nagayo, Juan Augustus A., Maquiling, Kenth Roger A., Martinez, Chelsea M., Ocado,
Patricia Andrea C.) 2
Professor, School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology; 2Students, CHM170L/B41, School of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and
Biotechnology, Mapua Institute of Technology
1

ABSTRACT
Heat of combustion is the amount of heat liberated after burning a specific substance that results to
breaking down into a simpler compound namely, CO2 and H2O. This experiment seeks to (i) familiarize
the calibration of bomb calorimeter, (ii) determine and compare the heat of combustion of a nonaromatic and an aromatic compound and (iii) to use calorimetry in studying compounds of differing
aromaticity. A bomb calorimeter was used to accurately determine the heat of combustion of benzoic
acid, naphthalene and sucrose. The obtained values of were 6359.498 cal/g, 9515.011 cal/g and
3956.569 cal/g respectively. The chemical reaction for combustion is typically that of a hydrocarbon
fuel reacting with oxygen derived from atmospheric air to form gaseous carbon dioxide, water vapor
and heat. These factors are molecular weight of the compound, number of carbons of the compound,
and Van der Waal’s forces. Most of the original error can be traced back to uncertainty in the quality of
the fits of the fore and afterdrift, as the original masses of sample and length of fuse wire both
contribute only minimally to the final error. Nevertheless, we received a fairly accurate measurement
with good precision, validating this experiment.
Keywords: Heat of combustion, Calorimetry, bomb calorimeter, Van der Waal’s forces
INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS

AND METHODS

Experiment 01│ Group No. 7│ June 15, 2016

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2016 2 of 4 . 7│ June 15.CHM170L Physical Chemistry 1 Laboratory 4th Quarter SY 2015-2016 RESULTS and DISCUSSIONS Experiment 01│ Group No.

This is because as the number of Carbon atoms increases. it can be inferred that aromatic compounds have generally higher value of heat of combustion. Sucrose had the lowest value of heat of combustion. On the other hand. it is associated to the energy released in a certain compound after breaking its bonds. as the carbon atoms are added into the chain. 2016 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In this experiment. The aromaticity of a compound which can be determined by its molecular structure affects the energy increments. Therefore. This will increase the Van der Waal’s forces amidst the compounds. naphthalene has heat of combustion higher than Experiment 01│ Group No. g Measured ∆H Benzoic Acid 0. comparing naphthalene and benzoic acid. Naphthalene has the largest molar mass because it has the greatest number of carbon atoms. while accounting for externalities like the vaporization of water or the PVwork that separates enthalpy from entropy. Iron wire in bomb calorimeter is used to initiate combustion by an external electrical leads. followed by Benzoic acid. If iron would be replace by another wire.CHM170L Physical Chemistry 1 Laboratory 4th Quarter SY 2015-2016 The heat of combustion is the energy released as heat when a substance undergoes complete combustion with oxygen. benzoic acid. compounds having more 3 of 4 . cal/g Actual value Percent Error 6317. which proves the success of carrying out the experiment.985 6359.011 0. are far from bad. Therefore. Heat of Combustion of Aromatic and Non-Aromatic Compounds It can also be inferred that the larger the number of carbon atoms in the sample corresponds to larger heat of combustion. This is indicated by the molar masses of the compounds. These values were then compared to their respective literature values.66 % Naphthalene Sucrose 0.94% and 0. Higher heat of combustion can be observed for compounds having more ringed structure. Accordingly. It is because more C=C bonds need to be cleaved or broken to produce the products. with respectable percent errors of 0. Comparing the values to their literature values yields very minimal percent errors. Also. it can be inferred that aromatic compounds have higher heat of combustion than that of non-aromatic compounds. The heat of combustion differs in terms of the structure for aromatic compounds. To conclude. Sample Mass. a spate CH3 molecule is being added in the chain. Referring to the data.41 % Table 1 reveals the values obtained pertaining to the heat of combustion of different compounds having different aromaticity. though not perfect. 7│ June 15.94 % 3940. Higher heat of combustion is greater for compounds having greater number of aromatic groups. which are more stable than cyclic alkanes contained in sucrose.66%. This observable difference can be explained by the difference in number of aromatic group and bond dissociation energy. It is much harder to break up a longer hydrocarbon chain than a shorter one as there are more bonds to break.44 0. Naphthalene and benzoic acid both contain aromatic groups. it must have specific heat capacity comparable to the iron at 25˚C and that it should completely combust at a range near to the sample’s.41% errors compared to their respective literature values. Hence. the extra energy is required to break apart this new molecule.498 9515.49 of 8 combustion. we can also consider Van der Waal’s forces.569 9604.32 0. the shape of the molecule differs and it results to longer hydrocarbon chain. the values of the heat of combustion of Benzoic acid. its mass increases. Table 1. 0. described by alternating single and double bonds ring formation. As we move down the homologous group. more energy is required to break a longer hydrocarbon.994 3956. Consequently. Naphthalene and Sucrose were obtained. Relating the results to aromaticity.49 0. this leads to an increase in the enthalpy of combustion of the compounds. Moreover. Our calculated values of the heat of combustion of our unknown sample. Naphthalene exhibited the highest value of heat of combustion. a bomb calorimeter was used and successfully calibrated. resulting to stronger intermolecular forces of attraction.

Boston. The reason is that the number of carbon atoms increase. New York. 8th ed. Caparanga. “Physical Chemistry. the molecule’s shape differs. Retrieved from: Experiment 01│ Group No. (1972). Part 1. Atkins. 7│ June 15. P. Having been able to efficiently perform the experiment.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion [2] infoplease (2000). Soriano. the extra energy is required to break apart this new molecule. 2006. Walter J.net/heat_transfer/heatof-combustion/ 1. Moore. Heat combustion.html [3] neutrum (2014). more energy is required to break a longer hydrocarbon.CHM170L Physical Chemistry 1 Laboratory 4th Quarter SY 2015-2016 carbon atoms have larger the enthalpy of combustion. Gilbert W.wikipedia. Therefore. Prentice-Hall. Freeman. Philippines..com/encyclopedia/science/heat -combustion. McGraw-Hill. it can be established that the objectives of this experiment were successfully met. 2016 4 of 4 . 3. Retrieved from: https://neutrium. This is due to the high energy released during the breaking of bonds in this aromatic compound.infoplease. Baluyut.” 4th Ed. (2009) “Physical Chemistry. The hydrocarbon chain becomes longer. W. This made naphthalene to have the largest heat of combustion among the three samples. Levine. Physical Chemistry. It is much harder to break up a longer hydrocarbon chain than a shorter one as there are more bonds to break. “Physical Chemistry.. Allan N. (1983). New Jersey. W. Heat of Combustion. As we move down the homologous group. H. Retrieved from: https://en. Castellan. Physical Chemistry Laboratory Manual.” 6th Ed.” 3rd Ed. 1994 2. http://www. 4-8 5. 4. Alvin R. a spate CH3 molecule is being added into the alcohol chain. Thus. REFERENCES [1] Wikipedia. Ira N. pp. John Ysrael G.. Addison-Wesley. Heat of combustion.