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Peter Stannard

BSc, DipEd

Ken Williamson
BSc (Hons), DipEd

Consultants
David Greig Brighton Secondary School
Margaret Shepherd Freeman Catholic College
Technical art
Brent Hagen Chris Dent
Cartoons
Chris Dent

ScienceWorld
for NSW

First published 2009

Visit our website at www.macmillan.com.au

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Chuck Forzatti of Siena College
for advice and suggestions, and those students from St. John’s
College who helped with photographs.

Associated companies and representatives
throughout the world.

The authors and publisher are grateful to the following for
permission to reproduce copyright material:

Copyright © Anteater Publications and K. L. Books 2009

AAP Image, 17 (right), /AFP Photo/Leslie E. Kossoff, 101,
/Wildlight, 268 (left); Anglo-Australian Observatory, 168, 169
(all), 170, 172 (top); ANT Photo Library, 260, 263 (bottom),
266, /Silvestris Fotoservice, 141 (top right); Anteater
Publications, 2, 4, 10, 11 (bottom right), 11 (bottom left), 11
(top), 12, 17 left), 21, 22, 27, 30, 32 (all), 32, 36, 57, 60, 73
(bottom right), 73 (left), 73 (top right), 77, 82 (all), 83, 84, 92,
95, 96, 97, 98 (left), 107 (right), 108, 110 (all), 115, 117, 128,
139, 141 (bottom right), 141 (left), 153, 182, 185, 199, 200,
201, 207, 210, 211, 215 (left & right), 216 (all), 234, 235 (left
& top), 239 (top), 253 (left & top), 255 (top & bottom right),
258, 263 (top), 267; Auscape International Photo Library, 79
(top right), /Clive Bromhall, 94, /Lindsay Cupper, 93 (bottom
right), /Jean Paul Ferrero, 93 (top right), /Pavel German, 253
(bottom right), /Brett Gregory, 98 (right), /David Hancock, 26,
/Dennis Harding, 52 (right), /C. Andrew Henley, 93 (left), /Steven
David Miller, 268 (right), /Reg Morrison, 259, /Tom and Therisa
Stack, 157; Australian Scenics, 252; BHP Science Awards, 43;
Dr J. A. Campbell, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, 143,
144; Coo-ee Historical Photo Library, 154; Corbis/Digital Art,
198, /Eye Ubiquitous/Paul Seheult, 189, /Eye Ubiquitous/Paul
Thompson, 179, /Lester Lefkowitz, 118; Rob Cruse, 8; CSIRO,
44; Digital Vision, 150; Fairfax photos/Jessica Hromas, 272
(top), /Dallas Kilponen, 271, /John Reid, 114, /Penny Stephens,
186; Getty Images, 52 (left), /David Robert Austen, 126,
/Gabriel M. Coven, 127, /Hulton Archive/Stringer, 76 (top),
/NASA JSC, 168 (top), /Oppurtunity-NASA, 158 (top left),
/Graeme Robertson, 225, /Paul Souders, 67, /Time Life
Pictures/Mansell 76 (bottom); Stockphoto/Björn Kindler, 125;
Marine Themes, 254; Josh Mylne, 28; NASA, 151; National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Department of
Commerce, 107 (left); Newsphotos, 232 (right); Photodisc, 89,
172 (bottom), 226; Photolibrary, 19, 29, 61, 79 (bottom right),
91 (right), 142, 219, 255 (left), 272 (bottom), /J Hester and
P Scowem, 171, /Phototake Science/Roland Birke, 78, /Science
Photo Library, 69, 85, 90 (left), 102, 109, 212, 256, 261,
/Science Photo Library/Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/
J-C Cuillandre, 172 (middle right), /Science Photo Library/Kim
Gordon, 172 (left), /Science Photo Library/Eric Grave, 79 (left),
/Science Photo Library/David A Hardy, 159 (top right),
/Science Photo Library/Peter Menzel, 228, /Science Photo
Library/MSSSO/ANU, 165 (right), /Science Photo Library/Nasa,
158 (bottom left), 158 (bottom right), 158 (top right), 159
(bottom right), 159 (left), 161, 164, 165 (left), 167,
/Science Photo Library/New York Public Library/Humanities &
Social Sciences Library, 184, /Science Photo Library/Novosti,
168 (bottom), /Science Photo Library/Philippe Plailly, 180,
/Science Photo Library/Chris Priest, 11 (middle), /Science
Photo Library/Detlev Van Ravenswaay, 166 (all), 177, /Science
Photo Library/Rosenfeld Images, 233, Science Photo Library/
Sheila Terry, 149, /Science Photo Library/Univ. of Birmingham
High TC Consortium/IMI/David Parker, 239 (bottom), /Science
Source/D. Phillips, 90 (right), /Richard Woldendorp, 14; Photos.
com, 91 (left), 176, 255 (middle), 269; Plastic Logic, 251;
Rubberball, 232 (left); Peter Stannard, 51; Professor Mike Tyler,
45; XTAL Enterprises /Duncan Waddell, 215 (left inset).

MACMILLAN EDUCATION AUSTRALIA PTY LTD

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National Library of Australia
cataloguing in publication data
Author:
Title:
ISBN:
Series:
Notes:
Target Audience:
Subject:

Williamson, Ken
ScienceWorld 8 for NSW / Ken Williamson, Peter Stannard.
9781420229127 (pbk.)
Williamson, Ken ScienceWorld.
Includes index.
For secondary school age.
Science—Textbooks.
Science—Study and teaching (Secondary)

Other Authors/
Contributors:
Stannard, Peter.
Dewey Number: 500
Publisher: Peter Saffin
Project editor: Hannah Koelmeyer
Technical illustrators: Guy Holt, Brent Hagen and Chris Dent
Cartoonist: Chris Dent
Cover and text designer: Dimitrios Frangoulis
Photo research: Lesya Bryndzia
Typeset in Sabon, Univers and Helvetica Condensed by Dimitrios Frangoulis
Cover image: Getty Images/Don Farrall
Title page image: Photodisc
Printed in Malaysia

While every care has been taken to trace and acknowledge
copyright, the publishers tender their apologies for any
accidental infringement where copyright has proved untraceable.
They would be pleased to come to a suitable arrangement with
the rightful owner in each case

Contents
Planning and safety check

1฀

Mixing฀and฀separating฀

v

2

1.1 What’s a mixture?
1.2 Solutions
1.3 Separating mixtures
Review
PFA: Forensic science

4
5
11
23
25

2฀ Science฀at฀work฀

26

2.1 What is science?
2.2 Experimenting
2.3 Solving problems
Review
PFA: Experimenting

3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of?฀
3.1 Properties of matter
3.2 Solid–liquid–gas
3.3 Using the particle theory
Review
PFA: From idea to theory

28
32
40
48
50

51
53
61
70
74
76

4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life฀

77

4.1 Cells
4.2 Growth and reproduction
4.3 Reproduction and survival
Review
PFA: Stem cell research

79
89
93
99
101

5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives฀
5.1 What is energy?
5.2 Forms of energy
5.3 Energy comes—energy goes
Review
PFA: Nuclear power station inquiry

6฀ Investigating฀heat฀
6.1
6.2

Heat and temperature
Heat transfer

102
104
107
116
123
125

126
128
134

6.3 Heat in everyday life
Review
PFA: How a theory was rejected

7฀ ฀฀Exploring฀space฀
7.1 Observing the night sky
7.2 Exploring the solar system
7.3 Stars and galaxies
Review
PFA: Colonising Mars

143
147
149

150
152
157
169
175
177

8฀ ฀฀Building฀blocks฀of฀matter฀ 178
8.1 Atoms and molecules
8.2 Elements and compounds
8.3 Chemical reactions
Review
PFA: Inside the atom

9฀ ฀฀Food฀for฀life฀
9.1 The need for food
9.2 Digesting food
9.3 Using food
Review
PFA: GM foods podcast

10฀ ฀Electricity฀

180
182
191
196
198

199
201
209
215
223
225

226

10.1 Electric charges
10.2 Electric currents
10.3 Electric circuits
Review
PFA: Conducting plastics

228
235
242
249
251

11฀ ฀Living฀systems฀

252

11.1 Survival
11.2 Physical factors
Review
PFA: Murray River crisis

254
262
273
275

Answers to Reviews

276

Glossary

285

Index

289

iv

ScienceWorld฀8

Planning and Safety Check
The best part of science is doing investigations
and experiments.
Flick through the book and find:
in Chapter 1 where you separate
mixtures by filtering and distillation

in Chapter 2 where you learn how to
design experiments

in Chapter 4 where you learn how to
use a microscope

on which pages you do investigations
with electric circuits.

p 140 Which type of material keeps you
warmest in winter?
6 You will of course need to discuss your
design with your teacher before you start.
There are risks involved in doing investigations
and experiments, but you can reduce the risks
to yourself and others if you follow simple safety
procedures.
Make sure you can answer these questions:
What are the safety rules for the
laboratory?

What safety procedures are necessary
when you see these symbols?

To get the most out of the investigations, you
must be well prepared, and you must consider
safety issues. This is why most investigations in
this book have a Planning and Safety Check
at the beginning. The first one is on page 6.
Before you start an investigation you should
follow these steps.

1 Read the investigation carefully and study the
diagrams. Make sure you know the aim of the
investigation, that is why you are doing it.

When should you use
safety glasses?

What should you do if you get a
chemical in your eyes or on your skin?

2 Make sure you know exactly what you will be
doing. You will be working in a group most of
the time so you will need to sort out who will
be doing what.
3 You need to know which materials you will be
using. You will also need to know how to use
the equipment.
4 You usually need to prepare a data table
in which to record your results. Sometimes
the textbook shows you how to do this and
sometimes you have to design it yourselves.
5 Experiments are open-ended investigations
where you have to design your own tests to
answer a question or solve a problem. Have a
quick look at these:
p 18

How can you make creek water pure
enough to drink?

p 30

How much weight will a paper bridge
support?

a
b
c
What special precautions are necessary
when you use a Bunsen burner?

Here’s all the
equipment we
need.

Why don’t you do
the experiment?
I’ll time it.

new cartoon
front iv

Yeah, and I
can record
the data.

ScienceWorld 7 and 8 for NSW, Stage 4 Syllabus Checklist
Prescribed focus areas
Students learn about:
4.1

the history of science

4.2

the nature and practice of science

4.3

the applications and uses of science

4.4

the implications of science for society and the environment

4.5

current issues, research and developments in science

ScienceWorld 7 for NSW
Chapter number

ScienceWorld 8 for NSW
Chapter number

6, 11

6, 10

2, 5, 7, 8, 10

2, 3, 7, 8

9

4
4, 5, 9, 11

1, 3, 4

1

Domains
4.6.1

the law of conservation of energy

4.6.2

forces

5
5, 9

4.6.3

electrical energy

4.6.4

sound energy

4

4.6.5

light energy

4

4.6.6

heat energy

4.6.7

frictional force

4.6.8

electrostatic force

4.6.9

magnetic force

4.6.10 gravitational force

10

6
5
5

10

5, 6
5, 9

4.7.1

the particle theory of matter

4.7.2

properties of solids, liquids and gases

3, 6
3

4.7.3

change of state

3

4.7.4

elements

8

4.7.5

mixtures

1

4.7.6

compounds and reactions

8

4.8.1

cell theory

4.8.2

classification

4.8.3

unicellular organisms

4.8.4

multicellular organisms

4.8.5

humans

4.9.1

Newtonian model of the solar system

4.9.2

components of the universe

4.9.3

the structure of Earth

11

4.9.4

the atmosphere

3

4.9.5

the hydrosphere

8

4.9.6

the lithosphere

11

4.10

ecosystems

10

11

4.11

natural resources

4.12

technology

4, 6, 9

5

4
7
7, 10

4

4, 7, 10

4, 9
9

8

7
7

5

Skills
4.13.1 identifying data sources
4.13.2 planning first-hand experiences
4.13.3 choosing equipment or resources

1, 2, 7
2, 6, 10, 11

2, 3, 6, 9

1, 6

1, 6, 8, 9, 10

4.14

performing first-hand investigations

1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10

1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9

4.15

gathering first-hand information

2, 7, 11

5, 8, 9, 11

4.16

gathering information from secondary sources

8, 9, 10

6, 7, 11

4.17

processing information

2

2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11

4.18

presenting information

2, 5, 7, 10

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11

4.19

thinking critically

3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 11

4.20

problem-solving

2, 5, 9

1, 6, 10

4.21

the use of creativity and imagination

4.22

working individually or in teams

5

6, 10

6, 9

1, 2, 9, 10, 11

For more details see the Course Construction Guide in the ScienceWorld 8 for NSW Teacher Resource Book.

2 Solutions page 5 Skillbuilder page 9 Concentrations Investigate 2 Filtering and decanting Investigate 3 Evaporating and distilling Experiment Water purification 1.2 1 Mixing฀and฀ Chapter฀฀ separating Title Planning page Getting started 1.1 What’s a mixture? page 4 Investigate 1 Soluble or insoluble? Activity page 8 1.3 Separating mixtures page 11 Investigate 4 Paper chromatography Animation Froth flotation Assessment task 1 Separating a mixture TRB Main ideas Chapter 1 crossword Review and Lab review Chapter 1 test Learning focus: Possible career paths in science Prescribed focus area Forensic Science TRB .

How can you get drinkable water from this damp sand? ●฀฀Your uncle has given you a large bottle of 5c. salt and iron filings into one jar! Until they are all back in separate containers. 10c. Someone has poured sand. Can you design a device to separate the coins? ●฀ Your science teacher is very angry with the class. no one can go to lunch. How can you separate this mixture? 3 . ● Your four-wheel drive has broken down in the middle of the Simpson Desert and you have no water to drink.Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating r you wil In this chapte t… l learn abou Learning฀Focus ● possible career paths in science (pages 19 and 25) Knowledge฀and฀Understanding ● mixtures Skills ● ● ● ● ● choosing equipment or resources (Investigate 2 and 3) performing first-hand investigations (Investigate 1–3) thinking critically—inferring and predicting (Activity page 8 and Investigate 2–3) problem-solving using creativity and imagination (Getting Started page 3 and Experiment page 18) working in teams (Experiment page 18) Work in a small group to solve one or more of these problems. You find a damp patch of sand near the base of a cliff. 20c and 50c coins.

soft drink is a mixture of water and carbon dioxide gas. Glass is transparent (you can see through it). 3 Explain why concrete is a mixture and not a pure substance. 21 • perfume Type of mixture solid in liquid gas with gas gas in liquid solid in gas The features by which a material can be identified are called ______. You can detect kerosene by its smell. smoke a mixture of gases b mixture of solids air c mixture of gas in liquid soil d mixture of solids in liquid muddy water e mixture of solids and gases lemonade . pure water and helium gas.1 What's a mixture? Different substances have different properties. And so on. Examples are air.4 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 1. Lipstick is a complex mixture. Diamond is extremely hard. they can be solids. concrete is a mixture of cement. But there are many other properties which allow you to tell one substance from another. you can detect sugar by its sweet taste. Pure substances contain only one substance. For example. They always have the same properties. match up the following types of mixtures with the examples. gravel and water. liquids or gases. Beetroot is a purple-red colour. liquids or gases. The amounts of each part of the mixture (called their proportions) can vary widely. The materials around you can be grouped into pure substances and mixtures. Examples are sugar. Materials that are made up of different substances are called ______. gold. no matter where they come from. Fig 3 The parts of mixtures can be solids. dust. For example. This changes the properties of the mixture. The properties of a mixture can ______. sand. etc in air alcohol in water copper and zinc Check! 1 Which of the following are mixtures. However. A piece of lead is very heavy. plus sweetener. and which are pure substances? a air e orange juice b petrol f sugar c polluted water g helium gas d gold h concrete 2 Copy and complete these sentences. soft drink. 4 In your notebook. concrete and lipstick. most materials around you are mixtures—several different substances mixed together. Mixing these four substances in different proportions will change the properties of the concrete. Examples black coffee air soft drink smoke wine brass liquid in liquid solid with solid Main parts of mixture coffee powder in water nitrogen and oxygen carbon dioxide in water tiny bits of soot. Lipstick normally contains: • castor oil • beeswax • carnauba (to stop it melting) • esters (to make it slippery) • anti-oxidant (to stop it going off) • aloe (to stop lips becoming dry) • mineral oil (to make lips glossy) • red dye No. flavouring and colouring. For a start. Materials that always have the same properties are called ______ substances. For example.

The substance that does the dissolving (the water) is called the solvent. If you shake up an insoluble solid (such as chalk dust) with water it may seem to dissolve at first. The food you eat is digested and dissolved in water. Water is an excellent solvent. It consists of a liquid and the dissolved substance which is spread evenly throughout it. For example. Some insoluble substances sink in water (settle out). The sugar and water have mixed to form a solution.2 Solutions When you stir sugar in a glass of water. Such a mixture is not a solution. forming a solution. 5 . solution In a solution. and others float on top. So the solute dissolves in the solvent. but to dissolve some things you have to use other solvents. Muddy water is another example of a suspension. Fuel for two-stroke motor mowers and outboard engines is a solution of oil in petrol. Some commonly used solvents are shown in the table below. A particular substance may not dissolve in every solvent. Solutions are very important to you. Consider what happens when instant coffee dissolves in hot water. but a suspension. We say it dissolves in the water. It is then carried around your body in the blood plasma. but insoluble in alcohol. The wastes produced by your body are also carried away in this solution. if you look closely you will see that the liquid is cloudy and the chalk settles when you let it stand for a while. A solution is a special mixture that looks and behaves like a single substance. the solid settles on standing.Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating 1. salt is soluble in water. A substance that will not dissolve is insoluble. it disappears into the water. solute (coffee) Two liquids can also form a solution. However. the solid does not settle on standing. which is a solution consisting of about 90% water. suspension In a suspension. Solute nail polish biro stains grease marks on clothes oil-based paint tar on car paintwork solvent (water) Solvent (dissolves the solute) nail polish remover methylated spirits eucalyptus oil turpentine kerosene solution When substances don’t dissolve A substance that dissolves is said to be soluble. because the mud settles to the bottom when you let it stand. For example. The substance that dissolves (the coffee) is called the solute. wine is a solution of alcohol (solute) in water (solvent).

฀ then฀prepare฀a฀data฀table฀like฀the฀one฀below. PART A I s i t s oluble i n wate r? Method Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ 1฀ Use฀the฀spatula฀to฀pick฀up฀a฀small฀amount฀of฀ salt—about฀the฀size฀of฀a฀grain฀of฀rice.฀Use฀the฀marking฀pen฀to฀label฀ the tube ‘salt’.฀if฀a฀solution฀was฀formed.) Record whether the substance฀is฀soluble. SALT test฀tubes฀(at฀least฀6) rubber฀stoppers฀to฀it฀test฀tubes test฀tube฀rack spatula marking฀pen alcohol or methylated spirits Flammable (in฀a฀dropping฀bottle) •฀ samples฀of: salt ฀ sugar ฀ coffee flour Toxic iodine (solid) jelly crystals grass฀(ground฀up) test tube rack Planning and Safety Check Before฀you฀start.฀ (You฀may฀need฀to฀practise฀this.6 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Investigate 1 SOLUBLE OR INSOLUBLE? Aim To test whether various substances are soluble in water and in alcohol. spatula Wear safety glasses.฀Hold฀the฀ tube฀irmly฀between฀ your฀thumb฀and฀ index฀inger.฀Then฀ tap฀the฀bottom฀of฀the฀ tube฀sharply฀with฀the฀ index฀inger฀of฀your฀other฀hand. 2฀ One-third฀ill฀the฀test฀tube฀ with฀water. Read฀through฀both฀parts฀of฀the฀investigation. For example.฀what฀colour฀ was฀it?฀Was฀a฀suspension฀formed? 3฀ Repeat฀Steps฀1฀and฀2฀for฀each฀of฀the฀other฀ samples. It is poisonous. Substance Soluble Soluble Observations in water? in alcohol? salt sugar coffee flour •฀ Why฀do฀you฀have฀to฀be฀careful฀when฀using฀ iodine?฀How฀do฀you฀dispose฀of฀leftover฀ iodine? Warning: Do not touch iodine with your fingers. Your teacher will tell you how to dispose of any leftover iodine.฀check฀that฀you฀know฀the฀ safety฀rules฀for฀your฀laboratory. Do not wash it down the sink. Record any other observations as well.฀slightly฀ soluble฀(a฀bit฀dissolves)฀or฀insoluble.฀Shake฀the฀ tube฀using฀the฀following฀ method. .฀Place฀this฀ salt฀in฀a฀test฀tube.

dilute concentrated the higher the concentration. at room temperature (around 20°C) you can dissolve about 2 kilograms of sugar in a litre of water. We say that their solubility increases as the temperature increases. There is a limit to the amount of solute that will dissolve in a solution. 7 . a Which substances were soluble in water but not in alcohol? b Which substances were soluble in alcohol but not in water? c Which substances did not dissolve in either water or alcohol? 4฀ Suppose฀you฀have฀a฀biro฀stain฀on฀your฀school uniform.Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating Discussion PART B I s i t so lub le i n alco hol? 1฀ How฀can฀you฀tell฀whether฀a฀substance฀has฀ dissolved or not? Repeat฀Part฀A. It comes in many different strengths. The amount of solute needed to saturate a solution depends on the temperature. Until it reaches this point. This is another generalisation. For example. A dilute solution contains only a small amount of solute in a given volume of solvent. If you like it weaker. it is unsaturated. add more coffee powder. These statements are generalisations. A concentrated solution contains a large amount of solute in the same amount of solvent. You may have used the terms weak cordial or strong coffee—but the correct scientific terms are dilute cordial and concentrated coffee. but when the water is boiling (100°C) you can dissolve almost 5 kilograms. When a solution will dissolve no more solute. it is said to be saturated. 2฀ Which฀substance฀dissolved฀most฀easily฀in฀ water? 3฀ Compare฀the฀solubilities฀of฀the฀substances฀in฀ water and in alcohol. We use the terms dilute (dye-LOOT) and concentrated (CON-cen-TRAY-ted) to help us compare solutions. Most solids are more soluble in warm water than in cold water. The colour of a solution gives you some idea of its concentration. The darker the colour. Or.฀using฀alcohol฀or฀methylated฀spirits฀ instead฀of฀water. If you add more solute to an unsaturated solution. a more dilute solution will be lighter in colour. If you like your coffee stronger.฀How฀could฀you฀remove฀it? dropping bottle Solubility A cup of coffee is like any liquid solution. it will dissolve. add less coffee.

forming what is called a colloid (COL-OID). Instead the clay particles are spread evenly throughout the water. This is because the clay in the water is so fine that it will not settle to the bottom. clouds. starch in water. foams and emulsions. jelly fog. The particles in a colloid may be tiny bits of solid. beer froth.) Write an inference to explain your observations. it is often hard to tell the difference between solutions and some types of colloids. A liquid-in-liquid colloid is called an emulsion (ee-MULL-shun). Can you see the beam in the solution when looking from the side? Now add a few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid and observe what happens to the beam. One way to do this is to shine a beam of light through them. the beam cannot be seen in a solution. The beam can be seen in the colloid because it bounces off the tiny particles. This is why the cream (the fat) doesn’t come to the top on standing. A common example is ordinary homogenised milk. clay in water. However. . Allow the mixture to stand again. A colloid has properties that are in between a solution and a suspension. Although it is easy to see fogs. where tiny globules of milk fat are spread throughout water. Do the olive oil and vinegar mix? Now add a pinch of mustard powder and shake. This is why you can see the headlights of a car in fog. meringues Activity A Forming an emulsion Shake up some olive oil with vinegar in a stoppered test tube. a liquid or a gas. It is processed by forcing the milk through small holes to break up the larger fat globules in the cow’s milk. milk cheese. Try to explain what has happened. Colloid Type sol or gel solid in liquid liquid in gas liquid in liquid liquid in solid gas in liquid gas in solid liquid aerosol liquid emulsion solid emulsion foam solid foam Examples most paints. The following table lists the common types of colloids. marshmallows. face cream whipped cream. and let it stand for a while. What do you observe now? (Salad dressing is made this way. sprays from spray cans mayonnaise. butter. soap suds pumice. liquid droplets or gas bubbles.8 ScienceWorld฀8 Colloids The Yarra River in Melbourne is well known for its brown colour. The colloid may also be a solid. B Solution or colloid? Dissolve a few crystals of hypo (sodium thiosulfate) in a beaker of water and shine a strong beam of light through it. as it would normally do in a suspension.

f A solution that can dissolve no more solute is ______. This means you need 5 parts of dogwash dissolved in enough water to make up a total of 100 parts. b Sand is ______ in water. the solution becomes more ______. a When sugar is mixed with water. and the water is the ______. That is. These chemicals can be dangerous. 2 Which of the following statements are true. Suppose you have to make up a 5% dogwash solution. e A mixture with properties in between a solution and a suspension is a ______. 4 How can you tell the difference between a solution and a suspension? 5 Imagine that while doing Investigate 1 (page 6) you noticed the following: a Nathan put his thumb over the mouth of a test tube to shake it. A 30% solution is concentrated. b Solutions are always coloured. and have to be mixed with water in the correct proportions. This is a 5% solution. For example. When more solute is added.Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating Check! Skillbuilder The concentration of a solution is often given as a percentage. you mix 5 parts of dogwash with 95 parts of water. a liquid or a gas. g Adding more water to a dilute solution will make it more concentrated. d Emulsions settle out on standing. 1 Copy and complete these sentences. you may sometimes wash it in a dog shampoo or flea-killing liquid. d The solute in a solution does not settle out. h A ______ solution is one which contains a small amount of solute. f More solute can be dissolved in an unsaturated solution. a 5% hydrochloric acid solution is dilute. If the bottle contains 200 mL of cleaner.5% solution. b Donna used her fingers to put a pinch of salt into a test tube. 3 Explain in your own words the difference between a solute and a solution. Questions 1 How could you tell the difference between a 1% red food colouring solution and a 5% solution? 2 The label on a bottle of cleaner says it contains 15% ammonia. it ______. and which are false? a Water dissolves everything. The instructions say to make up a 0. c Some gases dissolve in water. but the solid in a ______ does. 9 . how much ammonia is in the bottle? 3 You want to fill a 50 litre bath with dogwash solution. If you have a dog at home. g Most solids are more ______ in hot water than in ______. How much dogwash should you use? Explain to Nathan and Donna why their methods were unsafe. c In salt water. the salt is the ______. This shows that sugar is ______ in water. e A solute can be a solid.

10 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 6 In your notebook.฀You฀want฀to฀ make฀lavoured฀milk฀with฀the฀same concentration as c฀above.฀ Arrange฀them฀from฀the฀most฀concentrated฀to฀the฀ least concentrated.฀ how would you do it? 8฀ Design฀your฀own฀experiment฀to฀investigate฀ the฀factors฀that฀affect฀how฀quickly฀sugar฀will฀ dissolve in water. 9฀ The฀oceans฀at฀the฀poles฀contain฀2. complete the table below by putting in the names of the solute and solvent for each solution. b฀ The฀hotter฀the฀water฀the฀more฀sugar฀ dissolves. d฀ The฀hotter฀the฀water฀the฀more฀a฀substance฀฀฀ dissolves. Explain฀your฀choice. a฀ a฀฀glass฀of฀milk฀with฀one฀teaspoon฀of฀ lavouring b฀ a฀฀glass฀of฀milk฀with฀half฀a฀teaspoon฀of฀ lavouring c฀ a฀glass฀of฀milk฀with฀two฀teaspoons฀of฀ lavouring d฀ half฀a฀glass฀of฀milk฀with฀two฀teaspoons฀of฀ lavouring 5฀ A฀jug฀contains฀four฀glasses฀of฀milk. Suggest a reason for this. c฀ Sugar฀dissolves฀better฀in฀hot฀water฀than฀in฀ cold. .5%.฀ Suggest฀a฀reason฀for฀this. a What clue in the photo suggests that the solutions contain Condy’s crystals? b How do the three solutions differ? c How can you explain this difference? 8 The instructions on jelly crystals say to dissolve them in boiling water. 7฀ Describe฀how฀you฀would฀make฀a฀saturated฀ solution฀of฀sugar฀solution.฀Explain฀her฀observations.฀She฀could฀see฀the฀beam.9%฀salt.฀When฀ she฀tried฀this฀again฀the฀next฀day฀she฀could฀not฀ see฀the฀beam. challenge 1฀ You฀have฀painted฀something฀with฀an฀oil-based฀ paint. Solution Solute Solvent a sea water b hot chocolate c turpentine in which you have just cleaned a paint brush d bath water e soft drink 7 The photo below shows three different solutions of Condy’s crystals in water.฀How฀much lavouring฀would฀you฀need฀to฀add? 6฀ Which฀one฀of฀the฀following฀generalisations฀is฀the฀ most฀general? a฀ The฀hotter฀the฀solvent฀the฀more฀solute฀it฀ dissolves.฀If฀someone฀asked฀you฀ to฀check฀their฀solution฀to฀see฀if฀it฀was฀saturated.฀but฀ the฀oceans฀at฀the฀equator฀contain฀about฀3.฀Why฀can’t฀you฀clean฀the฀brushes฀with฀ water? 2฀ Is฀fog฀a฀solution. 3฀ Katy฀shone฀a฀beam฀of฀light฀through฀some฀ muddy฀water.฀ 4฀ The฀following฀solutions฀vary฀in฀concentration.฀a฀suspension฀or฀a฀colloid?฀ Explain฀your฀answer.

is called decanting. Pouring off the liquid like this. unless you are very careful. The water passes through these holes.Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating 1. but the suspended chalk cannot. Some liquid is usually left behind. but the larger gravel particles do not. suspension of chalk in water Normal blood Centrifuged blood—the heavy blood cells have settled to the bottom residue (chalk) filtrate (clear water) 11 . This is similar to separating sand and gravel using a sieve. Fig 16 A high-speed centrifuge is used at the blood bank to separate the components of blood. A better way of separating suspensions is by filtering. You gently tip the saucepan so that the water runs out. The solution that passes through the filter paper and collects in the beaker is called the filtrate. This is a machine designed to separate mixtures by a spinning motion. while keeping the solid in the container.3 Separating mixtures Separating suspensions Suppose you are in the kitchen and have boiled some peas in water. The chalk can be separated from the suspension using filter paper. and red blood cells from plasma at the blood bank. If a suspended solid settles very slowly you can speed up the separation by using a centrifuge. Suppose you have a suspension of chalk in water. The plasma and red blood cells can then be separated by decanting. A spin-drier is one type of centrifuge. It is a way of separating the liquid part of a suspension from the solid part. leaving the peas in the saucepan. The filter paper has microscopic holes in it. but you don’t want the water. leaving the pale yellow liquid plasma on top. Also. The solid material that remains in the filter paper is called the residue. Centrifuges are also used to separate cream from milk. The small sand particles pass through. you are likely to pour off some solid with the liquid. Decanting is not a very good method for complete separation. When test tubes of blood are spun in a centrifuge (Fig 16) the heavier red blood cells settle to the bottom.

For example. wash bottle retort stand filtrate Fig 19 Filtration apparatus .฀This฀allows฀the฀water฀to฀low฀out฀evenly. Filters are used to purify the water we drink.฀Your฀ partner฀will฀then฀describe฀Part฀B฀to฀you. The hairs in your nose filter the dust from the air you breathe. There are filters in a car to clean the petrol. 2฀ Set฀up฀the฀iltration฀apparatus฀as฀shown฀below. air and oil. Investigate 2 FILTERING AND DECANTING Aim To฀separate฀a฀soil–water฀mixture฀by฀iltering฀and฀ by฀decanting.฀ without฀splashing. vacuum cleaners have a special bag that filters dust and dirt from the air that is drawn in. Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ soil three฀250฀mL฀beakers 2฀or฀3฀pieces฀of฀ilter฀paper ilter฀funnel retort฀stand฀and฀ring฀clamp glass฀stirring฀rod teaspoon wash฀bottle Planning and Safety Check Read฀through฀Part฀A฀and฀describe to your฀partner฀what฀you฀have฀to฀do.฀Pour฀half฀of฀this฀ suspension฀into฀a฀second฀beaker฀ and฀let฀it฀stand฀for฀about฀a฀day. stirring rod ring clamp beaker filter paper soil–water mixture filter funnel PART A Fi l te r i ng Method 1฀ Make฀a฀suspension฀by฀stirring฀ about฀4฀teaspoons฀of฀soil฀in฀a฀ beaker฀of฀water.12 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW In our day-to-day life we use filters to separate solids from liquids and gases. and to clean the water in swimming pools.฀ Adjust฀the฀height฀of฀the฀stand฀so฀that฀the฀spout฀ of฀the฀funnel฀touches฀the฀inside฀wall฀of฀the฀ beaker.

Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating

3฀ Fold฀the฀ilter฀paper฀and฀open฀it฀out฀into฀a฀cone฀
as shown.
1

Neatly฀add฀the฀following฀labels:

ilter฀funnel฀
residue฀

ilter฀paper฀
stirring฀rod

PART B

Pull this
single flap
away from
the other
three.

Dec a nt in g

Then fold
again.

1฀ Look฀at฀the฀beaker฀containing฀the฀soil–water฀
mixture฀that฀has฀been฀standing฀for฀a฀day.

4
This forms
a cone.

4฀ Place฀the฀cone฀into฀the฀funnel.฀Use฀the฀wash฀
bottle฀to฀wet฀the฀paper฀so฀that฀it฀sticks฀to฀the฀
sides฀of฀the฀funnel.

What do you notice?
2฀ Carefully฀decant฀the฀water฀into฀a฀second฀
beaker.฀To฀do฀this,฀hold฀a฀stirring฀rod฀over฀the฀
mouth฀of฀the฀beaker฀as฀shown฀below.฀This฀way฀
the฀liquid฀runs฀down฀the฀rod฀without฀splashing.

5฀ Hold฀the฀stirring฀rod฀as฀shown฀in฀Fig฀19,฀with฀its฀
lower฀end฀almost฀touching฀the฀ilter฀paper.฀This฀
will฀allow฀the฀water฀to฀low฀gently฀into฀the฀ilter฀
paper.

iltrate฀

2
Fold
in half.

3

Carefully฀pour฀some฀of฀the฀soil–water฀mixture฀
down฀the฀rod฀into฀the฀funnel.฀Don’t฀let฀the฀water฀
level฀reach฀the฀top฀of฀the฀ilter฀paper.

6฀ Use฀the฀wash฀bottle฀to฀rinse฀the฀remaining฀soil฀
from฀the฀beaker฀into฀the฀ilter฀funnel.฀Keep฀the฀
iltrate฀for฀Part฀B.
7฀ Draw฀a฀diagram฀of฀the฀iltration฀apparatus.฀Draw฀
a฀simple฀two-dimensional฀view฀as฀shown฀on฀the฀
right.฀Notice฀how฀
much฀simpler฀it฀is฀
than the threedimensional฀view฀
in฀Fig฀19.฀For฀
example,฀there฀
is no line across
the฀top฀of฀the฀
beakers,฀and฀the฀
ring฀clamp฀has฀
been฀simpliied.฀

Decanting

soil

water

Compare฀the฀decanted฀water฀with฀the฀
iltrate฀from฀Part฀A.฀Is฀it฀as฀clear?
3 Filter the decanted water.

Discussion
1฀ How฀easy฀was฀it฀to฀ilter฀the฀decanted฀water,฀
compared฀with฀the฀original฀soil–water฀mixture?฀
Suggest฀a฀reason฀for฀this.
2฀ Explain฀why฀you:
a฀ wet฀the฀ilter฀paper฀in฀Part฀A฀Step฀4
b฀ used฀the฀wash฀bottle฀in฀Step฀6
c฀ poured฀the฀suspension฀down฀a฀stirring฀rod฀฀
฀when฀iltering฀and฀decanting.

13

14

ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW

Fig 23

At this salt plant, sea water is run into large
ponds. Heat from the sun causes the water to
evaporate, leaving the salt behind.

Separating solutions
Once a solute has dissolved in a solvent to form a
solution, you cannot separate it by filtration. The
solution simply passes through the filter paper in
the same way that water does.
If a solution consists of a solid dissolved in
water, you can separate them by heating. The
water evaporates—turns into a vapour and
seems to disappear into the air—leaving the solid
behind. Salt can be obtained from sea water by
this method.
If you want the liquid you must somehow
trap it as it evaporates and condense it back
to a liquid. This process is called distillation.
In a solar distillation plant, the sunlight passes

through glass plates and the heat causes salty
bore water (from underground) to evaporate. The
water vapour condenses on the glass roof, and the
water droplets run down the inside of the glass
plates into the collection gutter. The water is pure,
because the salty solutes have been left behind.
Distillation can also be used to separate two
or more liquids with different boiling points,
eg water and alcohol. This process is used in
the making of whisky and brandy, and in the
separation of crude oil into petrol, kerosene,
diesel fuel and lubricating oil.

heat from the sun
glass plates

< WEB watch >
To find out how to make a simple solar
still, go to www.scienceworld.net.au
and follow the links to Solar still.

water
condenses
water evaporates

salty water

Fig 24

How a solar distillation plant works

collection gutter
(pure water)

Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating

Investigate

3 EVAPORATING AND DISTILLING
Aim

Method

To฀separate฀the฀solute฀and฀the฀solvent฀in฀a฀
solution฀by฀evaporation฀and฀by฀distillation.

1฀ Put฀the฀tripod฀and฀gauze฀mat฀on฀a฀heatproof฀
mat฀as฀shown฀below.
2฀ Half฀ill฀the฀beaker฀with฀water.฀Add฀some฀boiling฀
chips฀to฀prevent฀bumping฀(violent฀eruption฀of฀
bubbles฀from฀the฀bottom฀of฀the฀beaker).

PART A

Evap or at i o n
Materials
•฀
•฀
•฀
•฀
•฀
•฀
•฀
•฀

Toxic

copper sulfate solution฀(0.5M)฀
boiling฀chips฀(broken฀porcelain)฀
250฀mL฀beaker฀
Bunsen฀burner฀
heatproof฀mat฀
watch฀glass
gauze฀mat
Wear safety
glasses.
tripod

Planning and Safety Check
Read฀the฀Method฀for฀Part฀A.
•฀ Suggest฀why฀you฀put฀the฀watch฀glass฀on฀
top฀of฀the฀beaker฀of฀boiling฀water,฀instead฀
of฀directly฀on฀the฀gauze฀mat฀over฀the฀
burner.
•฀ Suggest฀why฀you฀don’t฀evaporate฀the฀
copper฀sulfate฀solution฀completely฀over฀
the burner.

3฀ One-third฀ill฀the฀watch฀glass฀with฀copper฀
sulfate฀solution.฀Place฀the฀watch฀glass฀on฀top฀of฀
the฀beaker฀as฀shown.
4฀ Light฀the฀burner฀and฀adjust฀to฀the฀blue฀lame.฀
Then฀put฀it฀under฀the฀tripod฀and฀boil฀the฀water฀
in฀the฀beaker.฀The฀copper฀sulfate฀solution฀will฀
evaporate฀slowly.
5฀ When฀almost฀all฀the฀copper฀sulfate฀solution฀has฀
evaporated,฀turn฀off฀the฀burner฀and฀let฀the฀
apparatus฀cool.฀(If฀you฀heat฀the฀solution฀any฀
longer฀it฀will฀start฀to฀splutter.)
6฀ Leave฀the฀remaining฀solution฀in฀the฀watch฀
glass฀in฀a฀warm,฀protected฀place฀to฀
inish฀evaporating.฀This฀process฀is฀called฀
crystallisation฀and฀may฀take฀a฀day฀or฀two.

watch
glass

copper sulfate
solution

water

E OF A BURNER
RULES FOR SAFE US
from books, and away
1 Keep the burner away
ch.
from the edge of the ben
the burner.
der
un
2 Use a heatproof mat
.
h
r wit the air hole closed
3 Always light the burne
ety flame when not
4 Switch to a yellow saf
heating.
r gets very hot. If you
5 The barrel of the burne
turn it off first. Move
have to move the burner,
the gas hose—not the
it by holding the base or
barrel.
off properly when you
6 Check that the gas is
have finished.

boiling
chips

gauze mat

tripod
Bunsen
burner

heatproof mat

15

16

ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW

Discussion
1฀ What฀was฀left฀in฀the฀watch฀glass฀after฀a฀day฀or฀
two?

3฀ What฀was฀the฀purpose฀of฀the฀gauze฀mat฀when฀
heating?

2฀ In฀your฀own฀words,฀explain฀how฀evaporation฀
caused฀the฀solute฀to฀be฀separated฀from฀the฀
solvent.

4฀ Why฀is฀it฀essential฀to฀wear฀safety฀glasses฀for฀
this฀investigation?

PART B

Dis t illa t ion
Materials
Same฀as฀for฀Part฀A,฀plus:
•฀ conical฀lask
•฀ one-holed฀stopper฀to฀it฀lask
•฀ length฀of฀glass฀tubing฀(at฀least฀40฀cm฀
long฀and฀bent฀as฀shown฀at฀right)
•฀ 2฀retort฀stands฀and฀clamps
•฀ test฀tube

Planning and Safety Check

retort stand
one-holed
stopper
glass tubing

clamp
conical flask
copper sulfate
solution

Read the instructions and study the
diagram.
•฀ What฀do฀you฀think฀is฀the฀purpose฀of฀the฀
glass฀tubing?
•฀ What฀safety฀precautions฀will฀
you฀need฀to฀take?

distilled
water

Fig 26

Method
1฀ Set฀up฀the฀distillation฀apparatus฀as฀shown.
2฀ One-quarter฀ill฀the฀lask฀with฀copper฀sulfate฀
solution.฀Add฀some฀boiling฀chips.
3฀ Put฀on฀your฀safety฀glasses.฀Light฀the฀Bunsen฀
burner,฀adjust฀it฀to฀the฀blue฀lame,฀and฀heat฀the฀
solution฀in฀the฀lask.
4฀ As฀the฀water฀boils,฀observe:
a฀ the฀water฀vapour฀rising฀in฀the฀lask฀and฀฀ ฀
฀moving฀through฀the฀glass฀tubing
b฀ the฀water฀vapour฀condensing฀back฀to฀
liquid฀and฀dripping฀from฀the฀glass฀tubing฀
into the test tube.

Distillation apparatus

5฀ Collect฀a฀sample฀of฀distilled฀water฀in฀the฀test฀
tube,฀then฀turn฀off฀the฀burner.

Discussion
1฀ Explain฀what฀happened฀in:
a฀ the฀conical฀lask
b the test tube.
2฀ The฀liquid฀you฀collected฀in฀the฀test฀tube฀is฀
called the distillate. Why is it clear, not blue?
3฀ The฀glass฀tubing฀is฀called฀an฀air-cooled
condenser.฀Suggest฀a฀reason฀for฀this฀name.
4฀ Design฀a฀water-cooled฀condenser.

Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating
3

Separating solids
Sometimes we need to separate a mixture of
solids from each other. The four methods below
all depend on differences in the properties of the
solids.
1 If one solid is soluble in water and the other
is insoluble, you can add water. When you
filter the mixture, the residue is the insoluble
solid. The filtrate contains the soluble solid in
solution. It can be recovered by evaporation.
The process can be summarised in a
flowchart.
MIXTURE OF SOLIDS

Add water to
mixture

Filter

INSOLUBLE SOLID
(residue)

Evaporate
filtrate

SOLUBLE SOLID

2

If one solid is attracted to a magnet and
the other is not, you can use magnetic
separation. This method is used in industry
to separate the magnetic minerals in mineral
sands.
Fig 27

A magnet will separate the magnetic
minerals in sand.

If one insoluble solid floats on water and
the other sinks, you can add water to the
mixture and skim off the floating solid. For
example, you can separate sawdust and sand
this way. Sometimes this method can be used
even if both solids normally sink in water. A
special chemical is dissolved in the water, and
air is bubbled into it. A froth of bubbles floats
to the top, taking one of the solids with it.
This method is called froth flotation. It was
invented in Australia, at Broken Hill, and is
often used to separate valuable minerals from
rock.
To see how froth flotation works, open the
Froth Flotation animation on the CD.

4 If one solid is heavier than the other, you
can use gravity separation. A good example
of this is gold panning. Here the water is
swirled about in the pan, allowing the heavy
gold to sink and the lighter mud and sand to
be washed off the top. This is like decanting.
Fig 28

When you pan for gold, you use gravity to
separate heavy gold particles from ‘lighter’
sand.

17

฀discuss฀ways฀of฀purifying฀the฀ water. The problem to be solved •฀ Which฀technique(s)฀will฀you฀use? The฀normal฀water฀supply฀has฀ broken฀down. Keep฀a฀record฀of฀what฀you฀did.฀You฀could฀prepare฀a฀poster฀ for฀presentation฀to฀the฀rest฀of฀the฀class. Writing your report Write฀a฀report฀describing฀what฀you฀did.฀eg฀twigs฀and฀mosquito฀ wrigglers.฀Include a discussion฀of฀how฀successful฀your฀method฀was.฀try฀another.฀for฀ someone฀else฀to฀read.฀ You฀may฀need฀to฀discuss฀the฀problem฀with฀your฀ teacher. How฀much฀puriied฀water฀did฀you฀recover? 6฀ If฀your฀technique฀isn’t฀successful. Method What฀was฀the฀water฀like฀after฀you฀puriied฀it? 1฀ Form฀a฀group฀with฀other฀students.฀The฀only฀water฀ available฀is฀creek฀water.฀Your฀task฀is฀to฀recover฀as฀ much฀pure฀water฀as฀possible.฀ and฀has฀all฀sorts฀of฀things฀ in฀it.18 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Experiment WATER PURIFICATION 4฀ Decide฀how฀you฀will฀attack฀the฀problem.฀which฀ is฀greenish฀in฀colour.฀You฀may฀also฀need฀to฀use฀the฀library.฀Your฀teacher฀ will฀give฀you฀a฀sample฀of฀about฀200฀mL฀of฀ impure฀creek฀water.฀smells. 2฀ Observe฀the฀creek฀water฀and฀record฀what impurities฀are฀in฀it. Which฀of฀the฀separation฀techniques฀you฀ have฀learnt฀in฀this฀chapter฀could฀you฀use? •฀ Is฀your฀method฀practical? The฀low฀diagram฀below฀shows฀how฀water฀ is฀puriied฀in฀a฀water฀treatment฀plant.฀How฀can฀you฀make฀ this฀water฀pure฀enough฀to฀drink? •฀ What฀equipment฀will฀you฀need? • Who will do what? •฀ How฀much฀time฀will฀you฀need? 5฀ When฀you฀and฀your฀teacher฀are฀happy฀with฀ your฀plan.฀put฀it฀into฀action. 3฀ In฀your฀group.฀Could฀you฀ modify฀this฀for฀use฀in฀the฀laboratory?฀How? screening (water passes through mesh) •฀ How฀long฀did฀it฀take? •฀ Would฀your฀method฀work฀for฀larger฀volumes฀of฀ water? alum sedimentation (letting the suspension settle) filtration sand pump storage tank flocculation (alum causes colloids to settle) gravel sludge drinking water chlorine added to kill germs Fig 30 A water treatment plant .

this method will separate the coloured substances in black ink. The peaks on the graph on the monitor in the photo are the different chemicals in the sample being tested. 3 With this ink there are three rings—blue. The ink spreads out into coloured rings. rs How to separate the colou in black ink pen filter paper 1 Science in action Gas chromatography is used in industry and in scientific research to detect very small amounts of chemicals in mixtures. This shows that the ink contains three different substances. red and yellow. one drop at a time. as shown below. coloured blue. (Chromos is the Greek word for ‘colour’. The yellow substance is the most soluble in water. beaker colours begin to separate 2 yellow ring blue ring red ring Drip water onto the spot. 19 . red and yellow. It is used to test the purity of medicines and to see if harmful pollutants are being released into the air.) For example. The blue is the least soluble. Use a black pen to place a spot in the centre of a piece of ilter paper. Forensic scientists use it to detect poisons and drugs in blood or traces of chemicals at crime scenes.Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating Separating colours Chromatography (CROW-ma-TOG-ra-fee) can be used to separate a mixture of coloured substances.

฀you฀may฀need฀to฀ use฀alcohol฀or฀methylated฀spirits฀instead฀of฀ water as the solvent.20 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Investigate 4 PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY Aim To฀plan฀and฀carry฀out฀an฀investigation฀to฀separate฀ the฀different฀coloured฀substances฀in฀inks฀or฀food฀ colourings฀using฀paper฀chromatography.฀Brush฀the฀jelly฀ bean฀with฀a฀small฀paint฀brush฀until฀the฀ colouring฀dissolves฀in฀the฀water.) •฀ food฀colourings •฀ 250฀mL฀beaker •฀ ilter฀paper฀or฀blotting฀paper •฀ dropper •฀ scissors •฀ adhesive฀tape •฀ jelly฀beans.฀eg฀biro.฀which฀ink฀ or฀jelly฀bean฀contains฀the฀most฀colours? You could use a digital camera to take photos of your results and use them in a PowerPoint presentation. •฀ Black฀and฀dark฀colours฀usually฀give฀good฀ results. Planning and Safety Check •฀ You฀can฀use฀one฀or฀more฀of฀the฀three฀ methods฀below. Method A Add solvent a drop at a time.฀felt฀pens฀or฀ marking฀pens฀(Indian฀ink฀works฀well. Materials •฀ various฀coloured฀inks฀from฀biros.฀ write฀a฀report฀describing฀in฀a฀few฀sentences฀ what฀you฀found฀out.฀put฀it฀in฀a฀watch฀glass฀and฀ add฀three฀drops฀of฀water. •฀ To฀remove฀the฀food฀colourings฀from฀a฀jelly฀ bean฀or฀similar. •฀ When฀you฀have฀inished฀the฀investigation. •฀ Allow฀the฀ilter฀papers฀to฀dry.฀For฀example.฀then฀label฀ them฀and฀stick฀them฀in฀your฀notebook. . •฀ For฀some฀inks. spot of ink or food colouring Method C beaker Method B filter paper Tape strip onto pencil filter paper strip solvent (1 cm below spot) spot (2 cm from end of strip) spot of ink or food colouring solvent Make two cuts in the filter to create a tongue.฀Smarties฀or฀similar฀sweets •฀ small฀paint฀brush Method Use฀the฀Planning฀and฀Safety฀Check฀and฀the฀ diagrams฀below฀to฀plan฀what฀you฀are฀going฀to฀do฀ and฀how฀you฀are฀going฀to฀do฀it.

apparatus filter funnel beaker laboratory dilute solubility distillation solute evaporation solution C D A Look at the food strainer below. sand. Which of these materials will be present in: a the residue? b the filtrate? 5 What is a centrifuge? Where is a centrifuge found in most homes? 6 Write a sentence or sentences using these words correctly: condensation. Correct any mistakes. three coloured spots appeared. 21 . 7 The diagram at the top of the page shows the apparatus used to distil salt water. dissolved salt and some plant materials. 8 B Go back to the three problems in Getting Started on page 3. a Why have the parts of the mixture separated? b Which coloured substance do you think is the most soluble in alcohol? Why? 11 solvent reached here green blue red original spot Draw a simple diagram of the apparatus needed to separate a mixture of sea water and sand so that you obtain clean sand. On your diagram label at least three pieces of equipment. Explain how it works. as shown. Can you now suggest other solutions? E 9 Which method would you use to do each of the following? a separate iron filings from sawdust b make fresh water from sea water c remove the water from wet clothes d remove the dust from the smoke going up a factory chimney e separate the coloured dyes in an ink f separate cream from milk g separate a mixture of salt and pepper 10 A dye is known to be a mixture. 3 Why is filtering usually a better method of separation than decanting? 4 Suppose you filter river water which contains mud. When a spot of the dye was put on a strip of filter paper and placed in alcohol. Write down the correct letter for each of the following: a Bunsen burner b where evaporation takes place c where the vapour changes to a liquid d distilled water e where the salt stays. distillation and evaporation.Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating Check! 1 2 Work with a partner and give each other a spelling test of these words. and show where the salt and sand end up.

฀Jade฀had฀more฀steps฀in฀ her฀experiment฀than฀Nathan฀did.22 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW challenge 1฀ In฀Investigate฀2฀(page฀12)฀you฀used฀iltration฀ apparatus. a฀ Which฀different฀coloured฀dyes฀did฀the฀ink฀฀ ฀ contain? b฀ Infer฀the฀colour฀of฀the฀ink.฀Kirk฀separated฀his฀ mixture฀by฀decanting฀it.฀inferior฀brand฀ instead฀of฀Smarties.฀ Which฀student฀separated฀which฀mixture? 6฀ After฀using฀an฀electric฀kettle฀with฀hard฀water฀for฀ some฀time฀an฀insoluble฀substance฀builds฀up฀ inside฀it.฀for฀example฀oil฀and฀water.฀sawdust. so that they can be recycled.฀Nathan.฀You฀suspect฀your฀ supplier฀is฀selling฀you฀a฀cheap.฀ Solvent reached this far.฀ Your฀task฀is฀to฀separate฀ as฀much฀of฀each฀ component฀as฀ you can. 9฀ Imagine฀you฀are฀a฀waste฀management engineer. ฀ Patsy’s฀irst฀step฀in฀her฀separation฀was฀to฀add฀ some฀water฀to฀her฀mixture.฀Explain฀how฀ you฀think฀it฀works.฀but฀charging฀you฀for฀the฀ real฀thing.฀Infer฀where฀this฀comes฀from. 4฀ A฀chemist฀used฀paper฀chromatography฀to฀ investigate฀some฀ink.฀ It฀can฀be฀used฀to฀separate฀two฀liquids฀that฀do฀ not฀mix. 8฀ The฀photo฀below฀shows฀a฀separating฀funnel. pure red dye pure blue dye pure yellow dye pure green dye ink mixture 5฀ Kirk. 10฀ Suppose฀you฀own฀a฀lolly฀shop.฀Patsy฀and฀Jade฀each฀had฀a฀ mixture฀to฀separate.฀How฀could฀you฀check฀this? .฀salt฀and฀water.฀You฀have฀been฀supplied฀with฀a฀ mixture฀that฀contains฀sand.฀explain฀how฀a฀ centrifuge฀works.฀iron฀ ilings฀and฀lead฀shot.฀Describe฀how฀you฀think฀it฀works. 7฀ Look฀at฀the฀photo฀of฀the฀swimming฀pool฀ilter฀on฀ page฀12.฀Her฀results฀are฀shown฀ below.฀The฀four฀mixtures฀(not฀in฀ order)฀were: a฀ mud฀and฀water b฀ mud฀and฀salt c salt and water d฀ mud.฀What฀is฀the฀difference฀between฀ equipment฀and฀apparatus? 2฀ Why฀is฀it฀important฀to฀replace฀the฀ilters฀used฀in฀ cars฀from฀time฀to฀time? 3฀ Using฀Fig฀16฀on฀page฀11.

Try doing the Chapter 1 crossword on the CD. solute solution 6 Separation techniques depend on differences in the ______ of solvent the substances in the ______. the solid settles to the bottom distillation when left standing. filtering 4 Many everyday substances are ______. Solvent water kerosene alcohol petrol Grams of solid that dissolved Solid A Solid B Solid C 5 1 4 1 6 1 3 0 0 5 4 6 a Which liquid is the best solvent for solid B? b If solid A was accidentally mixed with solid C. The missing words are on the right. 1 If you dissolve instant coffee in hot water. dissolves 3 In a ______ (eg muddy water). Georgia did the tests and recorded the mass of solid that dissolved in equal volumes of the liquids. which liquid could you use to separate them? Explain your answer. alcohol and petrol—were used to test the solubility of three unknown solids. suspension 7 Suspensions can be separated by ______. A. Solutions do not settle.Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating Copy and complete these statements to make a summary of this chapter. kerosene. A ______ solution contains a larger amount of solute. decanting 2 When a substance ______. the water is the: A solvent B solute C solution D suspension 2 If more water is added to a coloured solution it becomes: A more concentrated B more dilute C saturated D a darker colour 3 Water can be separated from alcohol by: A chromatography B filtration C evaporation D distillation 4 Four liquids—water. Substances dilute which do not dissolve are ______. with properties in insoluble between solutions and suspensions. it is said to be soluble. using a centrifuge or by ______. mixture 5 A ______ solution contains only a small amount of solute in a properties given volume of solvent. 9 A mixture of coloured substances can be separated by paper ______. 23 . chromatography 1 A ______ is a substance that dissolves in a ______ to form a concentrated colloids ______. B and C. 8 A dissolved solid can be separated from a solvent by evaporation or by ______.

How could they use paper chromatography to find out who wrote the ransom note? C E B A D 6 The apparatus below can be used to obtain pure water from salt water. They will discuss these with you when you have finished. a What are the pieces of equipment labelled A–E? b Label the filtrate and the residue. ice-cold water salt water heat pure water 7 When a can of fruit juice is left to stand. For Step 3 work with a partner. c What is the purpose of the ice-cold water? You have a mixture of salt and dirt that Ken collected on his recent trip to Lake Eyre. a suspension. a sediment forms on the bottom of the can.ScienceWorld฀8 24 c Is there any way of separating a mixture of A and B? REVIEW 5 Look at the diagram below. who will watch what you do and note any errors you make. 2 Make a list of the equipment you will need. Then swap jobs and check your partner’s skills. 3 Do the separation correctly and safely. a What is this separation method called? b Explain how the method works. Is fruit juice a solution. They also have felt pens from three suspects. Check your answers on pages 276–277. Your task is to separate the salt by removing the dirt. c There are two mistakes in the diagram. 8 a Write one complete and scientifically correct sentence using these words: colloid emulsion milk b Do the same for these words: concentrated dilute solution 9 The police receive a ransom note written using a felt pen. What are they? d Redraw the diagram correctly. . a colloid or a combination of these? Explain. 1 Work out a way of separating the salt.

2005 Pajeros registered within a 20 km radius of the accident. In this way the different components of the paint are separated.Chapter฀1฀ Mixing฀and฀separating Learning focus: Possible career paths in science US AREA C O F D E B I R C PRES Forensic science A 16-year-old girl has been killed in a hit-and-run accident. 3 5 1 4 2 paint chip crucible heater Paint A 6 capillary tube carrier gas 2 Time (min) 4 2 Time (min) 4 oven computer monitor Paint B detector Different car paints produce different chromatograms. Chromatogram B is of the paint from a suspect’s car. They send a sample of the dark-green paint to the forensic scientist. On the basis of this evidence the owner of the Pajero is arrested for the hit-and-run. where a forensic scientist finds a tiny chip of dark-green metallic paint on the right leg of the jeans. In the police garage they discover that the Pajero has been freshly painted and there is dark-green paint underneath the red. as indicated by the peaks of the chromatogram on the computer monitor. See the diagram below and the photo on page 19. She subjects the paint chip to extreme heat and allows the vapours to pass into a gas chromatograph. Eventually they find a red 2005 Pajero with damage to the front. They also visit panel beaters in the area. Questions 1 Chromatogram A is of the paint from a victim’s clothes. The different components of the paint vapour dissolve in the solvent to different extents. By contacting car manufacturers the scientist is able to identify the model (a 2005 Pajero) that used the paint found on the victim. Are the paints the same? Explain your answer. The ones that dissolve least are carried through by the gas. The inside of this tube is coated with a liquid solvent. The components reach the end of the tube at different times. The police then use this information to search for 2 How is gas chromatography similar to paper chromatography (page 20)? How is it different? 3 Would you like to be a forensic scientist? Why or why not? 25 . The ones that dissolve most are held back on the column. When she runs it through the gas chromatograph she obtains the same chromatograph as from the chip from the victim’s jeans. The police send the victim’s clothing to the police crime laboratory. A stream of inert carrier gas pushes the vapour through a long capillary tube which is heated in an oven.

1 What is science? page 28 Activity page 32 Experiment Which filter? Skillbuilder pages 35–36 Drawing graphs TRB 2.2 Experimenting page 32 Assessment task 2 Types of scientists Activity page 36 Investigate 5 Dissolving time Investigate 6 Stopping distance 2.3 Solving problems page 40 Experiment Science at work Main ideas Chapter 2 crossword Review TRB Chapter 2 test Learning focus: Carrying out investigations Prescribed focus area Experimenting .2 Science฀฀ at฀work Planning page Getting started Skillbuilder page 29 Writing reports Experiment Paper bridges 2.

and suggest how the problem could be fixed. Experiment page 42. You slide the DVD into the machine and nothing happens. Doing a project page 43) You and your friends sit down to watch a movie on DVD. Investigate 5) working individually and in teams (Investigate 6. Experiments pages 30 & 34. ● Make a list of all the possible reasons why your DVD doesn’t play. 27 . discuss how you could test whether it is right or wrong. Investigate 5 & 6) processing information—identifying relationships (Activity page 36) presenting information (Skillbuilders pages 29 & 35–36) thinking critically—inferring and generalising (Experiments pages 30 & 34. Work in a small group to complete the following tasks.Chapter฀2฀ Science฀at฀work r you wil In this chapte t… l learn abou Learning฀Focus ● carrying out investigations (page 50) Skills ● ● ● ● ● planning and performing first-hand investigations (Activity page 32. ● For each reason.

One is record ed in words. ng a ing t f maki n c o i s d s e e c io Pr the pro servat ure ob ting is ur Predic of what a fut based on yo now. For example.1 What is science? Finding out why your DVD doesn’t play involves asking questions like Is the DVD player plugged into the TV?.28 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 2. testing. Generalising Observing Observing is when you us e your senses to fin d out as muc h as you can about an obje ct or event. in a data tab Inferring Inferring is trying to explain your observations. e st foreca redictions ar you already k . Science is a way of finding out how or why things happen. you might say that there is a faulty connection between the DVD player and the TV. Recording rite down where you w Recording is this often record u o Y . Other o b servations involve takin g measurem ents. Both o b servations are called da ta. The test has a series of steps involving several different skills as shown below. but it could be tested by making further observations. two different factors. words exceptions to a generalisa often used. This inference may not be correct. he is linking drying temperature. like ‘most’ and ‘many’ are ks Often a generalisation lin am ex ple. and is called qualitative (Q UAL-i-tateive) observa tion.P at will be ions and wh t a observ . asking more questions and doing more tests. O bservations can lead to tw o different ty pes of description. to explain why the DVD doesn’t load. testing the question. asking more questions if the DVD still doesn’t work and doing more tests. For s that ‘the when a painter generalise the paint warmer the day the faster time to dries’. u write a Generalising is where yo e in most statement that seems tru many cases after you have made may be observations. Since there tion. You learnt previously that an experiment is a well thought out test. ta a d r you le. These are called qu antitative (QU ANT-i-tateive) observa tions. Science is all about asking questions.

a student investigating paper bridges concluded: The more folds the paper bridge has. and list any problems that you experienced. Data includes qualitative observations (words) and measurements (numbers). evaporating and distilling and paper chromatography. The Skillbuilder below shows you how to write up a report. For example. In this chapter you will be doing experiments where you have to design tests to answer questions or solve problems. However. TITLE AIM MATERIALS METHOD A very brief description of the investigation. Often your conclusion will contain a generalisation—one that seems true in most cases. DISCUSSION You try to explain your results. then writing full reports. CONCLUSION You answer the question posed in the aim. observing and recording data.Chapter฀2฀ Science฀at฀work Investigations and experiments In Chapter 1 you did some laboratory investigations involving filtering. You might also explain how you could improve the investigation. the more weight it can support. solubility. Experiments involve designing tests. your name and the date. This makes the data easier to read. neat diagram of the apparatus. A list of the equipment and chemicals you used in the investigation You say what you did in the investigation in numbered steps. Usually these are recorded in a data table. You record the data. an experiment is based on solving a problem or answering a question. What’s the difference between an investigation and an experiment? The terms mean much the same thing. Whenever possible include a large. RESULTS 29 . Skillbuilder Writing reports A report is organised using seven headings. You say why you did the investigation—sometimes this is a question. Both involve carefully planned laboratory or field work.

Aim. Results. . using the headings: Title. 3 Discuss how you are going to record your observations. If we increase the number of folds in a piece of paper. 1 Write a full report of your experiment. Extending the experiment You might like to extend your experiment by testing these predictions: 1 Two layers of folded paper will support twice the weight supported by a single piece of paper. Designing your experiment 1 Discuss what tests you will do to answer the question. you say! Well look at the paper bridge in the photo. It is a paper bridge. Method. and it can support a container with stones in it. Discussion and Conclusion. get started. 4 You might like to take a digital photo of your set-up and include it in your report. Will you take quantitative observations? 4 When you and your teacher are happy with your plan. Materials. How much weight will the paper support? None. 3 Dry paper is much stronger than damp paper. The problem to be solved 2 Your discussion should contain an inference that tries to explain your observations.30 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Experiment PAPER BRIDGES Suppose you suspend a piece of A4 photocopy paper between two blocks. 2 Heavier paper will support more weight than ordinary paper. 3 Your conclusion should contain a generalisation that links weight and the folds in the paper. 2 Make a list of the equipment you will need. will it support more weight? Your task is to work in a small group to design an experiment that will answer this question. Writing your report The paper has been folded many times.

inference. 2 For each statement below say whether it is an observation. b Suggest an inference that tries to answer this question. A generalisation… Predicting… An experiment… a ______ is a scientific test. 3 Ask other students in your group these questions: ฀•฀ Will฀it฀rain฀tomorrow? ฀•฀ Will฀it฀be฀a฀full฀moon฀tonight? ฀•฀ How฀fast฀can฀you฀swim฀50฀metres฀freestyle? a Decide whether the answers they gave you are predictions (based on observations and knowledge). e That colourless liquid must be an acid. or just guesses. 70 Bounce height (cm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 50 100 Drop height (cm) a Predict how high the ball will bounce if she drops it from 75 cm. What inferences could you make from this? 4 Cameron has a mouse in a cage. prediction or generalisation. a It tends to rain more in winter than in summer. a Predict what the counter reading for Day 4 should be (approximately). but the bottom of his results sheet has been torn off.Chapter฀2฀ Science฀at฀work Check! 3 You placed a young mouse in a cage with dishes containing three different foods. b ______ is a statement that is true in most cases. The mouse has an exercise wheel with a counter on it. b She must have eaten something that doesn’t agree with her. a Pose a question based on Mick’s observations. challenge 1 Heidi dropped a ball from two different heights and measured how high it bounced each time. 1 Use the following words to complete the sentences below. c ______ is saying what may happen in the future. After observing her for 30 minutes you noticed that she had eaten nothing. Later he discovered that the banana had turned brown and soft. day counter reading 1 49 2 100 3 152 4 b Predict the bounce height for a drop height of 150 cm. She used her data to draw a graph. b What information would you need to turn the guesses into proper predictions? 31 . d The leaves on this plant are turning yellow. c There should be a full moon next week. 2 Mick peeled a banana for lunch and left it in his bag when he went to play soccer. b Explain how you made this prediction. Cameron wrote down the counter reading each morning.

Use the questions below to design an experiment that will test the statement above. The shorter bridge can support more weight. You can make a pendulum by suspending a steel nut on a paper clip tied by cotton to a metal clamp and stand. Activity Fig 7 One paper bridge is longer than the other. Suppose your group wants to find out whether the mass of a pendulum makes any difference to the time it takes to do a complete swing (from start back to start again). These factors that could change the results of an experiment are called variables. There are at least three factors that could affect the results of this experiment: 1 the number of folds in the paper 2 the length of the paper between the supports 3 the shape of the weight container. . The test becomes a fair test when you control the variables. Look at the photos below.32 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 2. What are the variables in this experiment? Which variables will we purposely change? Which variables will we need to keep the same? How will we measure the swing time? Do the experiment. except one. Fig 8 The containers are different shapes. If you want to increase the number of folds in the paper. The paper bridge supports the rectangular container better than the circular one. if you have time. You should test only one variable at a time. You keep all the variables the same. Was your experiment a fair test? Did you consider the other factors that might have affected the result? Controlling variables There are other factors that could have affected the results of your paper bridge experiment.2 Experimenting In the paper bridges experiment. and keep the length of the bridge the same. This is then called a fair test. then you must keep the other two variables the same: use the same type of container. you tried to find out if the number of folds in the paper affected the weight the paper could support.

3 Based on his results he made this generalisation. Rosco recorded his observations of the effect of a magnet on various materials. He looked through his results. It explains a set of observations or gives a possible answer to a question. Things made of iron and steel are magnetic.Chapter฀2฀ Science฀at฀work Testing a hypothesis A hypothesis (high-POTH-e-sis) is a generalisation which can be tested. Because his prediction turned out to be wrong. I’ll have to modify my hypothesis. and they are all made of metal. I predict that a pin. a one dollar coin and a piece of aluminium foil will be attracted to a magnet. knife and paperclip are attracted to the magnet. 5 Rosco experimented further. 33 . That’s my hypothesis. The nail. he had to modify (change) his hypothesis. An example of a hypothesis is given on this page. Note that the plural of hypothesis is hypotheses (highPOTH-e-sees). I can generalise that the things made of metal are magnetic. Only the pin is attracted to the magnet. If my hypothesis is correct. 1 Material tested Magnetic ( ) Non-magnetic ( ) nail ✓ piece of glass ✗ wooden pencil ✗ knife paperclip 2 ✓ ✓ 4 From this generalisation he was able to make a prediction that could be tested.

. get started. Method. 3 Do your results support your hypothesis? If not. Adjust the folds so that the filter paper forms an eight-pointed star. Extending the experiment 4 Make a list of the safety precautions you will take.34 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Experiment WHICH FILTER? In Investigate 2 on page 12 you learnt how to filter some muddy water.. Refer to page 13 to recall how to make a folded filter paper. Making a fluted filter paper Fold here. using the headings: Title. . Materials. Writing your report 1 Write a full report of your experiment. In this experiment you will design tests to see whether folding a filter paper in different ways has any effect on the time it takes to filter some muddy water. then fold three more times. Aim. Designing the experiment 1 Work in a small group and discuss the tests you will do. Unfold the filter paper.. 5 Which variables will you control? Which variable are you going to change? 6 Discuss how you are going to record your observations. Discussion and Conclusion. . 3 Make a list of the equipment you will need.. 7 When you and your teacher are happy with your plan. write a better hypothesis. The problem to be solved To compare the time it takes to filter muddy water using filter papers folded in different ways. Follow the instructions below for making a fluted (folded many times) filter paper. Fold into quarters . Results. 2 Write a hypothesis for the experiment. 2 Your discussion should contain an inference that tries to explain your observations. You might like to test this prediction: A sixteen-fold fluted filter paper filters twice as fast as an eightfolded one.

A line graph shows you the relationship between two variables. because you can select any value for it. because it depends on the temperature. the dependent variable is plotted on the vertical axis. Skillbuilder Drawing graphs 1 On a piece of graph paper draw the horizontal axis and the vertical axis. open the Drawing a line graph animation on the CD. Label the vertical axis ‘Time (days)’. It may be a straight line or a curved line. x x 1 0 horizontal axis 2 4 independent variable 6 8 10 Temperature (°C) 12 14 16 35 . 9 x title for graph vertical axis 8 How long milk lasts at various temperatures 7 dependent variable Time (days) 6 5 x smooth pencil line through points 4 3 2 To see a step-by-step drawing of the line graph on this page. Look at this data from the side of a milk carton. eg brand of milk and type of container. The independent variable is plotted on the horizontal axis. The data was obtained by storing milk at various temperatures and recording the average time before it ‘went off’. The temperature was changed on purpose. The number of days the milk lasted is called the dependent variable. were controlled (kept the same). Label the horizontal axis ‘Temperature (°C)’.Chapter฀2฀ Science฀at฀work Independent and dependent variables Graphing A line graph is a way of displaying data so that it can be interpreted easily. All other variables. It is called the independent variable. 2 On a line graph.

cream and flavoured milks. Some people are allergic to certain antibiotics. 4 Look at the first pair of numbers in the data table. (This may take some practice. as shown. She works in the laboratory of a country milk factory that makes a range of full fat.36 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Activity 3 Select suitable scales for the two axes so that the graph fills most of the page. When farmers treat sick cows with antibiotics. but 61% of all the milk produced in Australia comes from Victoria. reduced fat and skim milks. as shown on the previous page. 6 Finally. The lower the temperature… . In this way she can tell that the pasteurisation process is working correctly. Milk is a very important food in most people’s lives. mark the point where the grid lines meet with a small neat cross. Then do the same with the other pairs of numbers. They are: temperature 4°C time 9 days In pencil. Most states have milk factories. 4 Complete this hypothesis. Use a pencil to draw a smooth curve through the crosses. She also samples the raw milk that comes in from dairy farms to make sure there are no antibiotics in the milk. the antibiotics pass into the milk. you can see that this graph is a curved line. write a title for the graph at the top. 1 How long does milk last when stored at 8°C? 2 A carton of milk lasted 1½ days. She routinely samples the pasteurised milk from the factory and tests for the presence of disease-causing bacteria. This tells others what the graph is about. Science in action Elaine Perriman is a food technologist. Use the graph on the previous page to answer these questions. At what temperature was it probably stored? 3 Describe in your own words what the shape of the graph tells you about the relationship (link) between the temperature of the milk and how long it lasts. 5 By looking at the four crosses you have drawn.) Don’t join the crosses with straight lines. so it is Elaine’s responsibility to make sure that the raw milk does not contain antibiotics.

how long before it disappears completely. and which is the dependent variable in this experiment? 2 What does your graph tell you about the relationship between temperature and dissolving time? 3 Do your results support (agree with) your hypothesis from the Planning and Safety Check? If not. Record your results. Do not stir. 5 Write a report of the investigation using the usual headings.Chapter฀2฀ Science฀at฀work Investigate 5 DISSOLVING TIME Aim To write and test a hypothesis about how temperature affects the time it takes an antacid tablet to dissolve in water.) 2 Prepare a data table like the one below in which to record your results. Record this time in your data table. 2 Drop in an antacid tablet.฀eg฀Alka-Seltzer hot฀water฀(from฀hot฀tap) ice฀water Note: Clear aspirin sheet฀of฀graph฀paper tablets can be used instead of Alka-Seltzer. write a better hypothesis. Draw a smooth curve through the four crosses. Which ones will you need to keep the same? Method 1 Fill the beaker with water from the tap. Hot water Discussion Write down all the variables that could affect the dissolving time. Record this temperature in your data table. Use the thermometer to measure the temperature of the water. 4 Plot a graph with water temperature on the horizontal฀axis฀and฀dissolving฀time฀on฀the฀ vertical axis. (Base your hypothesis on your previous experience of making hot and cold drinks or doing the washing up. 37 .฀eg฀250฀mL thermometer stopwatch฀or฀watch฀with฀a฀second฀hand 4฀antacid฀tablets. Temperature (°C) Time to dissolve (seconds) Ice water Room temperature Warm water 3 Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for the other temperatures. Planning and Safety Check 1 Write down your hypothesis about how you think temperature affects dissolving time. Time how long it takes for the tablet to dissolve: that is. Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ beaker. 1 Which is the independent variable. This line shows how the dissolving time depends on the temperature of the water. Remember to control the variables you listed in the Planning and Safety Check.

as shown below. explain how the test could be improved. You want to find out which one dissolves most rapidly in water. b Which measurement is the independent variable? And which is the dependent variable? 4 Age 6 8 7 Rebecca and Megan want to test whose bike has better brakes. They recorded these measurements on a graph. starting when he was two. b All things fall towards the Earth because of gravity. b Why did he plant 2 bean seeds in each pot and not just one? . d I think the wet road caused this accident. Rebecca 120 Alistair Height (cm) 38 Ian 110 100 x x 90 x x 80 2 2 What are the variables that affect how long it takes you to get to school? 3 You have three different powders. c Plants grow more in summer than in winter. c Can you predict how tall he will be when he is 20? Explain. Every three days he added water to the pots as shown below. a Design a data table for Dan’s results. 8 Ace planted 2 bean seeds in each of 4 pots of soil. when designing fair tests you: •฀ change฀something •฀ measure฀something •฀ keep฀everything฀else฀the฀same. Design a fair test for them. Pot 1 no water Pot 2 10 mL of water Pot 3 20 mL of water Pot 4 40 mL of water a Write a hypothesis for Ace’s experiment. a Which variables will you need to control in your test? b Which variable will you purposely change? c What will you measure? 4 Which of the following are inferences and which are hypotheses? a This piece of iron must be a magnet. Was this a fair test? If not. a How old was Paul when he was 100 cm tall? b Predict how tall he will be when he is eight. Alistair and Ian compared the hardness of three different types of wood. Remember. Justify your answers (explain why they are inferences or hypotheses). 5 Dan used a decibel meter to measure the noise given off by a car travelling at different speeds. They did this by measuring how far a dart went into the wood.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 6 1 Rebecca. Paul’s parents measured his height every year.

b Use the graph to find out approximately how long it took the melted ice to reach a temperature of 70°C. c What temperature would the water need to be for a tablet to dissolve in exactly one minute? 2 A group of students was investigating the growth of seedlings.Chapter฀2฀ Science฀at฀work challenge 4 Use the graph below to answer the following questions.0 2.0 5.6 3. What would you need to do to test this hypothesis? b Use the graph you drew to predict how long a tablet would take to dissolve in water at 35°C.8 5. b Is the graph a straight line or a curve? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Height (cm) 0 1. a What is the graph about? b Which is the independent variable? c Which is the dependent variable? d By what amount do the numbers on the vertical axis increase? e How much mass does each small grid line on the vertical axis represent? f By what amount do the numbers on the horizontal฀axis฀increase? g What was the mass of the baby at birth? h When did the baby reach a mass of 4000 grams? i What was the baby’s mass at the end of the seventh week? j During which week did the baby’s mass decrease? 1 The following questions refer to Investigate 5 Dissolving time on page 37. c What was the approximate temperature of the heated ice after three minutes? Time (min) Baby‘s mass Temperature (ºC) 0 5 30 75 93 98 Mass (grams) Time (days) x x x 4000 x 3500 x x x x 3000 2500 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (weeks) ฀ Use the ideas from Investigate 5 on page 37 to design an experiment to test the effect of stirring on dissolving time. 39 . a Suppose you wrote Antacid tablets dissolve faster in hot water for your hypothesis. They measured the average height of the seedlings every day.8 0 2 4 6 8 10 x x 5000 x 4500 3 Mark and Dylan used a datalogger and temperature probe to find out how quickly the temperature of ice-cold water changed as it was heated. a Draw a graph of their data.1 2. They obtained the data list below on their calculator screen. a Draw a graph to display their results.

In Investigate 6 you can try to solve a problem yourself. . BINGO!! What else can I predict? Back to the beginning! My results don't agree with my hypothesis.3 Solving problems Josh is playing a computer game in which he has to find the buried treasure. And you may have to do many experiments. He is using his science skills to solve this problem. STEP 6: THINK AGAIN My results agree with my hypothesis. Note that at Step 6 you should be prepared to change your hypothesis if necessary. STEP 3: TEST How can I test my hypothesis? I must be careful to control variables. Read carefully through the six steps on this page. You cannot ignore some data or change it to fit in with what you think should happen. If it is.40 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 2. not all problems are easy to solve. Also. STEP 4: RESULTS Record my observations. STEP 5: CHECK HYPOTHESIS Interpret the data. what predictions can I make? Try other tests I can't tell whether the results agree with my hypothesis. I need to modify it. STEP 1: THE PROBLEM How do I find the hidden treasure? STEP 2: HYPOTHESIS This could be the answer to the problem.

giving an answer to the question you investigated. times and calculate the nts you make.) Step 3: Test (experiment) In your group.Chapter฀2฀ Science฀at฀work Investigate 6 STOPPING DISTANCE Aim To investigate the variables that affect the distance it takes a moving vehicle to stop (stopping distance).) Using your hypothesis. Write a brief plan for your experiment. Method Step 1: The problem Form a group with other students. write a prediction you can test. measurements are us Step 5: Check hypothesis Do your results support your hypothesis? That is. and make a list of all the variables you think may affect a moving vehicle’s stopping distance. (See Step 4 on page 33 for an example. (This would be useful for showing to the rest of the class. This is control. You may need to do some trial runs before making any measurements.) rement Repeating the measu ment of the stopping If you repeat a measure bly get a slightly distance. Which variables did other groups investigate? What did they find? How do their results compare with yours? Step 6: Think again How accurate do you think your results are? Can you think of ways to improve your experiment? Write a report of your experiment using the usual headings. Show your plan to your teacher. you will proba because there are some different value. (Make sure your hypothesis is testable. Remember to control all variables except the one you are purposely changing. Step 4: Results Do your experiment. Write a hypothesis that says how this variable will affect the stopping distance. Record all your results in a data table. For the vehicle you could use a toy car or truck. the The more measureme ge will be. Or you could build one out of Lego or a similar building kit. but three more reliable the avera ually enough. Step 2: Hypothesis Decide which one of the variables from Step 1 you are going to test. was your prediction in Step 2 correct? Write a conclusion. Which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable? You may want to display your results on a graph. decide what equipment you will need to test your prediction. 41 . To get the vehicle moving you could run it down a ramp. eg whether the variables you cannot not. For this reason it vehicle runs straight or ch measurement three is a good idea to do ea average.

glycerine. sugary water … thistle funnel Does the shape of a boat’s hull affect its speed? stopwatch pulley cup for weights boat shapes plastic tubing dropper blocked section of drain PROBLEM C PROBLEM D Which colour cloth is the coolest in summer? Which is the warmest in winter? no cloth (control) black cloth white cloth Florists say that a vase of flowers will last longer if the stems of the flowers are crushed and if you add a little sugar to the water.42 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Experiment SCIENCE AT WORK It is fun to solve everyday problems by experimenting. Do these variables really affect the life of the flowers? . In designing your experiment. PROBLEM A PROBLEM B What sorts of liquids flow through the funnel most easily? Liquids you could try are water. use the six steps in investigating you used in Investigate 6. starting with a hypothesis you can test. Choose one or more of the problems below or think of your own problem. cooking oil.

scienceworld. Fig 28 Michael Morris won a BHP Billiton Science Award when he was in Year 8 for investigating ways of controlling house dust mites with tea tree oil. and many of the experiments can be extended into projects. . Check the websites on this page to see what other students have done. There are project ideas in some of the Challenges and Try this activities in this book. He has since gone on to win other awards for his science projects. Make sure your ideas are feasible. Science Fair Links This site has links to many other sites that have ideas for projects. 4 Prepare a report This may be a written summary. and be prepared to change your ideas in the light of your results.43 t c je o r p h c r a e s e r a g Doin Any of the problems on the previous page would make a good student research project. a short talk using overhead transparencies or a PowerPoint presentation. 2 Plan your project Write a brief outline of what you plan to do and discuss it with your teacher before you start. Put your notes straight into a special project logbook so that they are not lost. < WEB watch > Go to www.net. After each experiment ask yourself What would happen if … ? then try it. Repeat your experiments to make sure you always get the same results. The websites below give information if you want to enter your project in a science contest. a poster display. as you may not always get the answers you expect. Here are the steps you need to follow in doing a project. You can also publish your own. It is important to record your failures as well as your successes. 1 Choose a topic Pick something you are interested in. You can look up current and past projects and CREST schools in your state. Science Talent Search (Victoria) Young Scientist Awards (NSW) CREST CREST stands for Creativity in Science and Technology. Are there experiments you can do on this topic? Can you get the equipment and materials you need? Can you finish it in the time available? Talk with other people about your ideas. Sci-Journal On this site you can browse through research projects done by other students.au and follow the links to the websites below. entry requirements and details of last year’s winners. BHP Billiton Science Awards The site includes what you can win. 3 Do it Use the skills you have learnt in this chapter to carry out your project.

44 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Science in action Scientists are ordinary people who solve problems using the skills you have learnt in this chapter. George Bornemissza. Perhaps it would be sticky enough to make sticky bookmarks for his choir book.net. 3 Suggest uses for Post-it self-stick notes. Five of these are described on the following pages.au and follow the links to Inventions at play. Questions 1 Why is cattle dung such a problem? 2 Why was it necessary to introduce dung beetles to Australia when there were some here already? 3 How can the spread of dung beetles throughout Australia reduce the number of flies? 4 Suggest a plan to spread dung beetles more evenly across Australia. but he spent a year and a half modifying and testing it. are therefore still working on the problem. Scientists from CSIRO. 4 For information on Art Fry go to www. The first of these beetles were released in 1967. However. Questions 1 Use a dictionary to find the meaning of the word serendipity. The bits of paper he had put in his book to mark the hymns kept falling out. or serendipity. and today dung beetles are well established in some areas. He therefore suggested bringing dung beetles from other parts of the world to Australia. and flies are still a problem throughout Australia. He sang in the choir but he had a problem. Australia’s largest scientific research organisation. 5 What precautions must be taken when a foreign animal or plant is planned to be introduced to this country? . Select at least one of these and answer the questions about it. He found that Australia has dung beetles that can break down the dung of native animals such as kangaroos. It worked. We now have a problem of too much cattle dung. started studying the problem in 1951. Post-it self-stick notes Some discoveries in science are made by accident. It covers grazing land and flies breed in it. When he took it to the advertising department they weren’t very keen on his idea for sticky note pads. However. Art Fry was in church one Sunday in 1974. they put them on the market. Dung beetles Cattle were introduced to Australia over 200 years ago. and soon people around the world were buying Post-it self-stick notes. they have not spread far enough. Several years ago the 3M company where he worked had made a glue that was thrown out because it wasn’t sticky enough. very few of these beetles can break down cattle dung.scienceworld. 2 Did Art Fry work scientifically to make self-stick notes? Explain. Fry went back to his laboratory at 3M and tried the old glue. Suddenly he had an inspiration. Over the years scientists have made many important discoveries which affect our daily lives. However. who came to Australia from Hungary.

From a single ‘milking’ he could obtain up to 100 milligrams of secretions. Questions 1 Why do sheep farmers like twin lambs? 2 What is meant by ‘twinned’ parents and ‘single’ parents for sheep? 3 How did Dr Turner control the variables in her sheep breeding experiments? Questions 1 Dr Tyler discovered a new laboratory technique. without harming the frog. The secretions kill several different bacteria. scientists have recently isolated a pain-killer 200 times more powerful than morphine. 4 Suppose he identifies the virus-killing chemical. and without using needles. This caused him to wonder whether frogs would release their secretions when their skin muscles were twitched using a small electric current. Some of these are toxic. What do you think he should do next? Fig 34 Dr Tyler with one of his frogs 45 . and his recent work has been to find out which secretions kill which organisms. She then worked with a farmer near Cooma (NSW) and by 1972 his merino flock was producing 210 lambs each year for every 100 ewes! The sheep industry has benefited enormously from Dr Turner’s work. He found that these secretions contain as many as 30 different chemicals. For example. She knew that twin lambs were rare. She therefore set up a series of experiments with ewes that had produced twins and rams that had been twins. causing his skin muscles to twitch slightly. Her results showed that ‘twinned’ parents produced three times the number of sets of twin lambs as the ‘single’ parents. Dr Michael Tyler from the University of Adelaide has been studying frogs for 30 years. Why do you think he did this? 3 Suggest how he could find out which of the 30 chemicals in the secretions kills a particular virus. but others have been found to be useful as medicines. and wondered whether she could use the ewes to breed whole flocks of sheep that produce twins more often. Back in his laboratory Dr Tyler found that his idea worked. In 1951 someone sent her some ewes that produced twins much more often than usual. The acupuncturist inserted needles in his skin and passed a small electric current through him. What is it? 2 He repeated his tests several times. fungi and viruses.Chapter฀2฀ Science฀at฀work Twin lambs Medicines from frogs Dr Helen Newton Turner was experimenting with the breeding of sheep. At the same time she did similar experiments with single-bearing ewes mated with single-born rams. One day he was having acupuncture for a headache. The secretions produced by the skin of frogs contain many different chemicals. Dr Tyler wanted to find a way of extracting the secretions from the frogs without harming them.

For the first time in living memory there was lush vegetation across the Nullarbor Plain and in the Simpson Desert. Why did this happen? 3 Suggest why the Australian government was reluctant to introduce the myxoma virus into Australia. At first CSIRO scientists couldn’t get the virus to spread. and with few natural enemies there was soon a plague of rabbits. c Scientists don’t know the answers to some questions. because the disease is carried from one rabbit to another by mosquitoes. as the years passed the virus was less effective. what is the usual order for the following? e check hypothesis hypothesis predict f results test think again Which of the following are true. Myxomatosis killed up to 80% of the rabbits in most of Australia and as a result beef and wool production increased. 3 a b c In an experiment all variables must be kept the same. So in 1991 the CSIRO found another weapon against the rabbits—the calicivirus (cal-LEE-sea-virus) which doesn’t need mosquitoes to spread it. In one year Tom Austin shot over 14 000. what should the section headed ‘Aim’ tell the reader? What should the conclusion of a report tell you? Under which heading would you describe how you carried out the experiment? . By the 1940s the rabbit plague was out of control and Jean MacNamara. eventually convinced CSIRO to try the myxoma virus. Questions 1 Why was the rabbit plague such a disaster for sheep and cattle farmers. Check! 1 2 d When you are doing an experiment. So in 1859 he imported 24 rabbits from England to his property near Geelong in Victoria. A female rabbit can produce 40–50 young in one year. However the Australian government ignored his advice because people were making lots of money selling rabbit meat and using the fur to make hats. but they found that it spread more quickly in wet weather. Many of Australia’s wallabies and native rodents became extinct or endangered. an Australian expert on viruses. In 1919 a Brazilian scientist said he knew about a virus called myxoma which infected rabbits and gave them a disease called myxomatosis (MIX-a-mat-toe-sis). b Hypotheses are always correct. You should ignore data that does not agree with your hypothesis. A good hypothesis allows you to make predictions.46 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Rabbit plague Thomas Austin liked to go shooting at the weekends. and which are false? a An experiment is a test containing a series of steps used to solve problems. When you write a report of an experiment. and within 20 years or so the rabbits had spread to almost all parts of Australia. and for native plants and animals? 2 The rabbit plague resulted in severe soil erosion. with soil washed away during heavy rain. which breed when it is wet. Fences didn’t seem to keep them out. It was released in 1996 and one year later about 100 million of Australia’s 300 million rabbits had died. turning once green areas into deserts. However. They ate every blade of grass and stripped the bushes they could reach.

Once you have collected your information.) a b c What hypothesis were the students testing? Look at the students’ data and decide whether it supports their hypothesis. Visit their website.Chapter฀2฀ Science฀at฀work 4 Sometimes you have to modify a hypothesis. Name of scientist: Dates born (and died): Country of birth: Details of work: Any other interesting information: The Bright Sparcs site has information on more than three thousand Australian scientists. Then she remembered reading that insects are less attracted to yellow light. They wrapped can B (identical to can A) in a single layer of foil 1 mm thick. Write a conclusion for the experiment. Times (minutes) Can A (°C) Can B (°C) 0 2 4 6 8 10 90 87 85 84 84 83 90 87 84 82 80 78 < WEB watch > For the websites listed below. 6 An oil company claims you get more kilometres per litre from their petrol. prepare a three minute talk to the class about your scientist. Try doing the Chapter 2 crossword on the CD. You may like to use the plan below. They say this is because of an additive called Z. 1 What does CSIRO stand for? If there is a branch of CSIRO in your city or town. Perhaps your teacher could help you set up one at school. 47 .scienceworld. Collect articles about new discoveries in science and technology. When would you need to do this? 5 While cooking on the barbecue Tammy was annoyed by all the insects that were attracted to the light. see if you can find out what scientists do there. You can also check out the latest science news at these websites: Science Daily New Scientist Nova CNN 4 Use a library to find out about the life and work of one particular scientist.net. Your teacher may be able to arrange a visit or a scientist may visit your school to talk with you. Use the steps on page 40 to design an experiment to test Tammy’s idea. They filled both cans with hot water and recorded the temperature of each can every two minutes for 10 minutes. Discuss your design with others. go to www.25 mm thick. 2 Join a science club such as CSIRO’s Double Helix Science Club.au and follow the links. How could you test this claim? 7 A group of students collected the equipment shown below. 3 During the next few weeks check newspapers and magazines. Visit the CSIRO website. They wrapped can A in four layers of aluminium foil each 0. (The data table is shown below.

. A 1 hour C 4 hours B 2 hours D 8 hours 3 Sally and Bonita both bought the same kind of rubber ball. 7 A ______ is a way of displaying data. Sally said: My ball will bounce better than yours. science variable 5 A ______ is a generalisation which explains a set of observations or gives a possible answer to a question. D See which ball can be squeezed the most.48 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Copy and complete these statements to make a summary of this chapter. B Hit the balls against a wall and see how far each bounces off the wall. It can also be used to show the ______ REVIEW between two variables. This process is called ______ variables. What should they do to find out which ball bounces better? A Drop both balls from the same height and see which ball bounces higher. Substance Metal or non–metal? sulfur zinc copper iodine lead phosphorus steel non-metal metal metal non-metal metal non-metal metal Does it conduct electricity? ✗ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✓ ✗ ✓ a Use Tamika’s results to write down two specific observations about steel. Her results are shown below. 1 What name is given to a generalisation which a scientist can test? A experiment B hypothesis C inference D observation 2 Lim is checking the burning of a candle. If necessary they can be modified to explain further observations. controlling 1 ______ is a way of finding answers to questions by doing generalising experiments. C Throw the balls against the floor and see how high they bounce. Bonita answered: I’d like to see you prove that. The missing words are on the right. Predict how long it will take the whole candle to burn. relationship same 4 In an experiment you purposely change one variable and keep all the rest the ______. She also noted whether the substances were metals or non-metals. inferring. 4 Tamika tested a number of substances to see whether or not they conduct electricity (allow an electric current to pass through them). one-quarter of the candle has burnt. experiments graph 2 Solving ______ by doing experiments involves using skills such as observing. predicting and ______. 6 Hypotheses can be tested by doing ______. hypothesis problems 3 A ______ is something which can change the results of an experiment. He finds that after 2 hours.

5 The amount of salt that will dissolve in 100 mL of water is called its solubility. 6 The graph above right is from a TV news weather report. then more quickly. It shows the amount of UVB radiation received on a particular day. 600 Solubility 400 (g/100 mL) 200 0 SUDSO 20 40 60 Temperature (°C) 80 Which of the following statements best describes this graph? A As the temperature changes the solubility stays the same. a At what time did the UVB radiation reach its peak? b During what times of the day was the UVB reading in the very high range? washes brighter in hot or cold water You decide to do an experiment to see if Sudso is in fact better than other washing powders. 49 REVIEW Chapter฀2฀ Science฀at฀work . D As the temperature increases so does the solubility. a Write a brief plan for your experiment. extreme Intensity of UVB b Write a hypothesis about metals and non-metals and electricity. B As the temperature increases the solubility decreases. modify it. b Which variables will you need to control? c Which variable will you purposely change? d Which variable will you measure? Check your answers on page 277. C As the temperature increases the solubility increases slowly. slowly at first. very high high moderate 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 Time of day 7 You see this advertisement on TV.c In which range was the UVB reading at 10 am? d How could you explain the dip in the graph around 12 noon? Tamika tested two more substances: Substance Metal or non–metal? carbon tin non-metal metal Does it conduct electricity? ✓ ✓ c Do these results support your hypothesis? If not. This solubility was measured at different temperatures and the results graphed.

Mrs Brown didn’t have any—just a salad. Dr Singh thought their symptoms were like those of several other patients he had seen. Lachlan saw his little sister pouring rice through a funnel. and measured the time for it to flow through. 5 Use graph paper to draw a line graph of Lachlan’s results. Mr Brown. Mrs Brown was worried because Lia had been stung by a bee earlier in the day. who had had a recurring stomach ulcer. as shown below.50 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Learning focus: Carrying out investigations US AREA C O F D E B I R C PRES Experimenting Food poisoning Rice flow The Browns were on holidays when Mr Brown and the two children. He ordered several tests on the Browns and on samples of fish from the cafe. Lia said she was dizzy and had a headache. He wondered whether the size of the hole in the funnel makes any difference to how fast the rice flows out. Copy and complete the table below to show how Dr Singh used science skills to solve the problem. So he designed an experiment with a paper cone. rice flowing through Diameter of hole (mm) 4 6 8 10 12 Time taken (s) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 38 28 18 11 5 41 24 16 9 4 39 26 16 11 5 1 Which variable did Lachlan purposely change? 2 Which variable did he measure? 3 Which was the independent variable and which was the dependent variable? 4 List two variables that Lachlan controlled. He also asked a lot of questions. Mrs Brown didn’t think that had anything to do with the fact that all three of them were sick. For each cone he used the same amount of rice. 6 Write a generalisation that Lachlan could use as a conclusion for his experiment. paper cone 0 mm 10 20 30 Measure hole diameter. complained of pains in the stomach. including what they had eaten that day. When he got the tests back it was fairly obvious that they did have food poisoning. became ill. Ryan had been sick in the car and was badly sunburnt because he hadn’t put any sunscreen on that morning. Ryan and Lia. Here are his results. but she told the doctor they had fish at a café on the beach. He suspected food poisoning from the fish they had eaten for lunch. . Mrs Brown took them to the hospital where they saw Dr Singh. He used scissors to cut a bit off the bottom of the cone to make different-sized holes. Science skills 1 Identify the problem 2 Make observations 3 Make a hypothesis 4 Test the hypothesis 5 Make a conclusion What Dr Singh did Add rice. Dr Singh listened to the Browns’ problems and made notes.

2 Solid–liquid–gas page 61 Animation Particle theory Investigate 8 Melting and boiling TRB Assessment task 3 A particle model Activities page 70 Activities page 71 3.1 Properties of matter page 53 Activity page 58 Activity page 64 Activity page 65 3.3 What฀are฀฀ things฀made฀of ? Planning page Getting started Activities page 54 Investigate 7 Measuring density 3.3 Using the particle theory page 70 Activity page 73 Main ideas Chapter 3 crossword Review Learning focus: An idea can gain acceptance in the scientific community as either theory or law Chapter 3 test Prescribed focus area From idea to theory TRB .

2 and 3. ● Which of the things in the photos are solids? Which are liquids? Which are gases? ● Can you change the shape of solids. squeeze it into a smaller volume? Can you do this for liquids and gases? ● What do solids.2) Skills ● ● ● ●฀ planning and performing first-hand investigations (Investigate 7 and 8) processing information—using mathematics (Investigate 7) and identifying trends in data (Investigate 8) presenting information—tables and graphs (Investigate 8) thinking critically—inferring. liquids and gases change of state (Section 3. that is. predicting and generalising (Investigate 8 and Activities pages 71 and 73) Use the three photos on this and the previous page to help you to answer these questions. liquids and gases have in common? . liquids and gases? ● Can you compress a solid.3) properties of solids.52 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW t… l learn abou r you wil In this chapte Learning฀Focus ● an idea can gain acceptance in the scientific community as either theory or law (page 76) Knowledge฀and฀Understanding ● ● ● the particle theory of matter (Sections 3.

Liquids Water. A gas fills its container. Other common gases are helium and carbon dioxide. In fact. 53 . pour some milk from a carton into a glass. this book. These are usually called the three states of matter. Gases The air around us is a gas. Fig 5 Fig 4 The volume of a liquid does not change. but its shape may. If the balloon bursts. Solids Solids include such things as steel girders. For example. The gas can be let out through the tap to fill balloons of various shapes and sizes. And if the milk is spilt. it has another shape (Fig 4). and most of the objects you can see. The volume of the milk doesn’t change. even the air you breathe. but its shape does. They all have mass and occupy space. helium gas fills a metal gas cylinder. the hair on your head. Gases do not have a fixed shape or volume. The shape of most solids cannot easily be changed. milk and oil are all examples of matter in liquid form. For example. liquids and gases. The volume of a quantity of liquid does not change. You cannot do this with liquids and solids. no matter what the shape or size of the container. To find the amount of space occupied by something you measure its volume. the water in a swimming pool. mainly nitrogen and oxygen.Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? 3. but its shape can. Most matter can be classified into one of three main groups: solids. and nor can their volume. Gases do not have a fixed shape or volume. So all matter has mass and occupies space. All these gases have mass and occupy space. Powders are also solids but their shape can be changed. your shirt. and they all have mass. Solids. To find the mass you use a balance.1 Properties of matter What is matter? Everything around you is made up of matter—the desk. the gas will escape and spread out into the air. liquids and gases have two important properties—they all have mass and they all take up space. it is a mixture of gases. Gases can also be compressed (squeezed into a smaller volume like the helium in the cylinder).

Complete it by putting a 4 or a 8 in each box. C Place your finger over the end of a syringe containing air. Push the glass. State of matter Have mass solids ✓ liquids ✓ gases ✓ Occupy space Properties of matter Fixed Fixed shape volume Can be compressed . into a large container of water until most of the glass is under water. Can water be compressed? D To summarise what you know about solids. and fit it tightly into the bottom of a glass. What do you observe? Pull the glass out of the water and check whether the tissue is wet. tissue glass water B Use a balloon and an electronic balance to test whether air has mass. mouth down. Can air be compressed? Push in. Write an inference to explain your observations. copy the following table. Draw some water into the syringe.54 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Activities A Crumple a tissue. Try to push the plunger in. liquids and gases.

Which is heavier. that is 1 g/cm3. a kilogram of feathers or a kilogram of gold? The answer is neither—they both have the same mass.0 sea water aluminium granite iron nickel lead gold osmium FLOAT IN WATER helium gas air carbon dioxide gas polystyrene foam cork pine wood petrol polythene plastic ice 1. For those that float.9 0.0013 0.5 SINK IN WATER An important property of matter is its density. For example.4 g/cm3) floats in water. If they don’t keep swimming they sink to the bottom. The difference is that a one kilogram bar of gold would be about the size of a Mars bar. and this has a density less than water. so they both have the same volume (1 cubic centimetre). and that gases are much less dense than solids and liquids. a piece of pine wood (density 0. The mass of the gold is packed into a much smaller volume than the feathers. like most animals. but only just. Fruit and vegetables sometimes float and sometimes sink. 55 . However. Table of densities (g/cm3) more they stick out above the water. float in water.7 2. The density of iron is therefore greater than the density of wood.7 7. inside our bodies. Humans. We say that gold is much more dense than feathers.1 0. while one kilogram of feathers would fill a very large pillow. You can try this at home with a bowl of water. Both cubes take up the same amount of space. Why don’t we stop here for a bit and give these surfers a scare? Fig 9 It’s tempting Shazza. we have a layer of fat under our skin.Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? Density I don’t care if they DO weigh the same.7 0.002 0.9 water 1.00018 0.7 g/cm3) sinks. Anything will float in water if its density is equal to or less than the density of water. Density is how much mass is packed into a measured volume. such as lungs. Suppose you have a 1 cm cube of iron and a 1 cm cube of wood. I’m not swapping! Similarly. but we have to keep swimming.03 2.4 0. The iron cube has more mass packed into one cubic centimetre. A small volume of gold has a large mass. It is usually measured in grams per cubic centimetre (g/cm3).3 19. There are also air spaces. Sharks are unusual in that they are denser than water. but a piece of granite (density 2. Notice that the density of water is 1 g/cm3. Anything will float in water if its density is equal to or less than the density of water. This is because we are mostly water.2 0.9 11.3 22. iron is denser than wood. However. their masses are very different.8 8. The table at the top of the page shows the densities of some common substances. the lower their density the 0.

V2 (mL) water. Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ Check฀with฀your฀teacher฀if฀you฀have฀forgotten฀ how to do this. ฀Record฀this฀initial฀ volume฀(V1) in the data table. and measure the volume of water it displaces (pushes out). You then divide the mass by the volume to find the density. measuring฀cylinder.฀ind฀the฀mass฀of฀each฀object. Fig 10 One way to measure your volume Investigate 7 MEASURING DENSITY Aim To measure the density of two different objects. but how would you measure the volume of an irregularly shaped object such as your body? The secret is to drop the object into water. Record฀the฀masses฀in฀the฀data฀table.฀100฀mL balance piece฀of฀wire 2฀small฀objects—one฀that฀loats฀(eg฀wooden฀ cube)฀and฀one฀that฀sinks฀(eg฀marble) Planning and Safety Check 2฀ About฀half฀ill฀the฀measuring฀cylinder฀with฀water. 30 20 10 Method 1฀ Using฀the฀balance.฀ It฀is฀best฀if฀you฀ill฀it฀to฀a฀set฀mark.฀ Object Mass (g) Initial volume of Final volume of water.฀ Make sure the bottom฀of฀the฀meniscus฀(the฀ curved฀water฀surface)฀is฀exactly฀on฀the฀mark. In Investigate 7 you can use this method to find the density of a small object. density (g/cm3) = mass (g) volume (cm3) Measuring the volume of a regular solid such as a cube is easy. V1 (mL) Volume of object V2 – V1 (cm3) Density (g/cm3) .฀say฀30฀mL. This method was discovered by Archimedes in Greece about 250 bc. 50 40 ฀Read฀the฀six฀steps฀carefully฀and฀draw฀up฀ a฀data฀table฀like฀the฀one฀below.56 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Measuring density To find the density of something you must first measure its mass and volume.

Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? 3฀ Holding฀the฀cylinder฀at฀an฀angle. Record฀the฀water฀level฀for฀the฀second฀ object. and we grind up corn to make flour. Using materials All the materials around us are taken from or made from the Earth’s natural resources.฀carefully฀slide฀ in฀the฀irst฀object.) Record฀the฀water฀level฀in฀the฀cylinder฀with฀ the฀object฀completely฀under฀water฀(V2). Discussion 4฀ Take฀the฀object฀out฀of฀the฀cylinder.฀If฀it฀loats฀you฀will฀have฀to฀ hold฀it฀under฀the฀water฀with฀a฀piece฀of฀wire. we use cotton. nitrogen and argon. We breathe the air and extract various gases from it. copper and gold. paints and pesticides. In recent times we have made an incredible range of materials such as concrete. For example. Over the years. which we use to make bread.฀and฀repeat฀ Steps฀2฀and฀3฀for฀the฀other฀object. We eat seafood from the oceans and extract salt from seawater. volume of object = V2 – V1 6฀ Calculate฀the฀density฀of฀each฀object฀using฀the฀ formula: density thin wire ฀ = mass of object (g) volume of object (cm3) Give฀your฀answer฀to฀the฀nearest฀0. a gold nugget can be made into jewellery and wool can be woven into clothing. oil and limestone. we may treat the wool to make it shrink-resistant.1฀grams฀per฀ cubic centimetre. These materials do not occur naturally. plastics. and are said to be synthetic.฀as฀ shown. 57 . 2 Which object is more dense? 3฀ Suggest฀another฀way฀of฀inding฀the฀volumes฀of฀ the฀objects.฀and฀check฀your฀results. glass. however. 2000 years ago the Chinese discovered how to make paper from wood. For example. (Note:฀1฀millilitre฀=฀1฀cubic฀centimetre. we have made many totally new materials. 5฀ Calculate฀the฀volume฀of฀each฀object฀by฀ subtracting฀the฀initial฀volume฀of฀water฀(V1) from the฀inal฀volume฀(V2). ฀Record฀your฀results฀in฀the฀data฀table. For example. leather and silk from animals.฀Try฀it. eg oxygen. For example. wood and rubber from plants and wool. We use the rocks of the Earth and extract metals such as iron. Often we process these materials to improve or alter their properties.฀suggest฀possible฀ reasons.฀If฀they฀are฀different. and other useful materials like coal. Some of these materials we use in their natural state. These are processed materials. 1฀ Compare฀your฀results฀with฀those฀found฀by฀other฀ students.

It can soak up a large volume of urine. add one starch bead at a time. The secret of the disposable nappy This site has an experiment to test the superabsorbent powder in a disposable nappy. They can also be recycled to make compost bins. Reserve Bank of Australia This site has information on the famous Australians on our notes. Drills are sometimes diamond-tipped. how the notes are made and recycled. Nomex.scienceworld. it is virtually invisible. Tyvek. egan Ken b tific ien his sc ents at m i r expe arly age. Could you get the beads back again? How? 3 If you break open a disposable nappy.58 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Science in action The properties of a material determine what it can be used for. It is similar to zinc cream. stay cleaner and are very difficult to counterfeit. How many starch packing beads do you think will ‘disappear’ in two teaspoons of water? To test this. 2 In 1999 CSIRO developed a new sunscreen called Sunsorb. These last longer than paper notes. It is also used to prevent pot plants drying out. This makes sense because wheat and corn are renewable. Wool is used for winter clothes because it keeps your body heat in. These beads cause less damage to the environment since they form a suspension in water and are biodegradable. 1 Since 1996 Australia’s banknotes have been made from polypropylene plastic. . Activity For this activity you will need some peanutshaped starch packing beads. you will find a white powder called WaterSorb. Synthetic materials are continually being developed with special properties to do particular jobs. unlike polystyrene which is made from oil and is non-renewable. Here are four examples. e y a ver 4 Polystyrene packing beads are being replaced by ones made from wheat or corn starch. Teflon. stirring well to form a suspension. Try searching under the trade names of some of the newer synthetic materials.net. keeping the baby’s bottom dry. because diamond is much harder than most other substances. and how to detect counterfeit notes. but because the powder it is made from is so fine. eg Kevlar.au and follow the links to the websites below. plumbing fittings and other useful household and industrial products. Observe how the beads change and how the water changes. Keep notes on the properties and uses of each material you research. It forms a gel when water is added to it. and because it can be shaped to form wire. Mylar. < WEB watch > Go to www. Copper is used to make electric wires because it is a good conductor of electricity. Aircraft are made of aluminium metal because it is light.

Use your knowledge of density to explain this. 6. Suppose you keep your finger over the end of the syringe.7 kg? volume (cm3) 39 54 6 6 20 5 Which object has the greatest mass? Which object has the greatest density? Look at the diagrams below.Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? Check! 1 2 4 In which state would a substance be if it had: a no fixed volume? b a fixed volume and shape? c a fixed volume but took the shape of its container? Each of the cartoons below illustrates at least one property of matter. starting in position A. A 3 mass (g) B C 6 It is easier to float in sea water than in fresh water. 1530 g? How many grams are there in 2 kg. 8 In each of these pairs. Object A Object B Object C a b 5 a b How many kilograms are there in 2000 g. and which is the material it is made from? Describe the properties of each substance that make the object useful. which is the object. a window / glass b styrofoam / coffee cup c plastic / ruler d aircraft / aluminium e bank note / polypropylene plastic 59 . You push in the plunger to B. In which position is the air in the syringe most dense? Explain your choice. then pull it back to C. Which shows that: a a solid has a fixed shape? b a liquid can be made to have any shape? c a gas can be compressed? d a gas does not have a fixed volume? Look at the data table below. Explain the difference. A balloon filled with carbon dioxide sinks. 100 000 g. Record your answers in a table with three columns. ½ kg. 7 A balloon filled with helium rises when you let it go.

in addition to the ones on page 58. Now add salt to the water. as shown. Carefully pour an equal volume of coloured water down the inside of the vial so that it flows gently onto the glycerine.฀It฀has฀a฀mass฀of฀120฀g. and observe what happens. Explain your observation. 8฀ The฀balloons฀in฀the฀photo฀are฀made฀of฀a฀material฀ called฀Mylar. t r y t his 1 One-third fill a glass vial with glass vial glycerine.฀Suggest฀which฀ properties฀of฀Mylar฀make฀it฀suitable฀for฀use฀in฀ these฀special฀balloons.3฀kg/m3? 7฀ Suggest฀some฀uses฀for฀a฀plastic฀that฀dissolves฀ in water.฀ a What is its density? b฀ Would฀this฀block฀of฀wood฀loat฀in฀water? 10 Make a table listing the properties of the four synthetic materials described on page 58. What is its mass? 5฀ A฀rectangular฀block฀of฀wood฀has฀sides฀8฀cm฀by฀ 4฀cm฀by฀5฀cm. while stirring carefully.60 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 9 Classify the following materials as natural. 6฀ What฀is฀the฀mass฀of฀air฀in฀a฀room฀measuring฀ 10฀m฀×฀5฀m฀×฀3฀m฀if฀the฀density฀of฀air฀is 1. A rotten egg floats in fresh water. 4 a฀ A฀piece฀of฀copper฀has฀a฀mass฀of฀50฀g฀and฀ ฀ a฀volume฀of฀5. . coloured water glycerine 2 Does a fresh hen’s egg sink or float in water? Try it. Suggest why. Drop a small piece of perspex into the vial.฀aluminium฀or฀gold?฀Explain฀your฀ answer฀in฀terms฀of฀the฀properties฀of฀the฀three฀ substances.฀They฀are฀illed฀with฀helium฀gas฀ and฀stay฀inlated฀for฀months. What is its density? b฀ Another฀piece฀of฀copper฀has฀a฀volume฀of 7 cm3.฀What฀should฀they฀really฀say? 2฀ Which฀properties฀allow฀you฀to฀distinguish฀ between the substances in each of the following฀pairs? a฀ steel฀and฀aluminium b฀ lemonade฀and฀water c฀ salt฀and฀sugar d฀ wood฀and฀plastic e฀ polystyrene฀and฀starch฀packing฀beads 3฀ Which฀of฀the฀following฀would฀you฀use฀to฀make฀ the฀base฀for฀a฀stand-up฀sign฀outside฀a฀shop— concrete.6฀cm3. processed or synthetic: concrete milk petrol flour natural gas soft drink marble nylon superphosphate marijuana oxygen uranium challenge 1฀ Many฀people฀incorrectly฀say฀that฀lead฀is฀heavier฀ than฀steel. and try to explain it in terms of density. Observe what happens. 11 What is the difference between a renewable material and a non-renewable one? Give examples.

Cooling causes gases to condense and form liquids. when water is heated it evaporates to form water vapour. steam is invisible. the more quickly it evaporates. the water vapour condenses to form tiny evaporation or boiling Solid gold melts at about 1000°C. Some solids do not change to a liquid when they are heated. When bubbles of water vapour appear in the water it is said to be boiling. Molten metal can be poured into moulds to solidify into various shapes (see Fig 18). which is a gas. but boiling occurs only at the boiling point. The water vapour forms more quickly. Metals such as iron and gold also melt if you heat them enough. When it sits on the bench it soon warms up and changes directly into gaseous carbon dioxide. These changes are called changes of state. the boiling point of water. Water can evaporate at any temperature. To change state by going down the ladder. The liquid gold can then be poured into moulds. Cooling also causes water to freeze or solidify. A similar thing happens in the bathroom when you have a hot shower. This occurs naturally when snow and hail form. For example. Similarly. energy must be taken from the matter—it must be cooled. ENERGY IN (heating) Fig 18 drops of water which float in the air and ‘fog up’ the mirror. but when it meets cooler air it forms a cloud. This is because the steam condenses to form tiny droplets of water. 61 . Because the air in the bathroom is cooler. If you heat a solid it will form a liquid. We use the same process to make ice blocks and ice-cream. as water from the Earth’s surface evaporates it forms water vapour. As this water vapour rises it becomes cooler and may condense to form clouds and perhaps rain. energy must be added to the matter—it must be heated. which is invisible. Another way to look at changes of state is to think of the three states of matter as rungs on an energy ladder. ice melts to produce liquid water. The hotter the water gets. sublimation melting solidification or freezing ENERGY OUT (cooling) condensation Heating also causes evaporation of liquids to produce gases. and is now called steam.2 Solid–liquid–gas The three different states of matter can be changed from one to another by adding or removing heat. This occurs at 100°C. Instead they turn straight into a gas in a process called sublimation. For example. For example.Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? 3. ‘dry ice’ is solid carbon dioxide. For example. To change state by climbing up the ladder. Some of the hot water evaporates and changes into water vapour.

It is a way of representing something that is too small to be seen. His idea was that if you kept cutting something into smaller and smaller pieces you would eventually come to the smallest possible particles—the building blocks of matter. or too large or complicated to be studied easily. It is not the latest model car or a fashion model. Such a hypothesis that is supported by many experimental results is called a theory. the further apart the particles are.62 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW The particle theory More than 2000 years ago in ancient Greece a philosopher called Democritus suggested this hypothesis: all matter. For example. the class is a model for a solid. The weaker thes e forces are. We cannot see these invisible particles. 4 The particles are alway s mo ving.) Since then scientists have done many tests with matter. liquids and gases. 2 There are spaces betw een the particles. so they cannot leave their positions. and the results have always agreed with Democritus’ hypothesis. 3 There are attractive fo rces between particles. is made of tiny particles too small to be seen. There are strong forces called chemical bonds holding them together. A model is not the real thing. living and non-living. It is only a representation that helps you understand or explain something. The particle theory of matter 1 All matter is made up of tiny particles too small to see. So the hypothesis that matter is made up of tiny particles too small to see is now called the particle theory of matter. The only movements they make are tiny vibrations to and fro. This particle theory can be used to explain the properties of solids. 5 At high temperatures the particles move faster than they do at low temperatures. (You will learn about atoms in Chapter 8. This is where the word ‘atom’ comes from. we can represent the particles by the students in your class. but we can use a model. Solids The particles in a solid (eg steel) are packed tightly in a fixed pattern. The word model has a special meaning in science. . He used the word atomos (which in Greek means ‘cannot be divided’) to describe these tiniest particles. When everyone is sitting down.

The forces (bonds) that hold them together are weaker than those in a solid. HEAT Gases The particles in a gas (eg air) are far apart. 63 . When the students are moving about busily doing practical work. and they move about very quickly. the class is a model for a liquid. and bounce off in all directions. The particles collide with each other and the walls of the container. When the lesson is over students go in many different directions. There are still attractive forces between them but they are very weak. while others go to different parts of the school. Some may stay in the room.Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? Liquids HEAT The particles in a liquid (eg water) can move about and slide past each other. They are still close together but are not in a fixed pattern.

What do the ball bearings represent? What does the dish or box represent? Draw the arrangement of the ball bearings. its particles gain more energy and vibrate more. Explaining melting We can use the particle theory to explain changes of state. When this happens the solid becomes a liquid. What state of matter does this represent? 2 Shake the dish gently so that the ball bearings move about. . Describe the new arrangement. This makes the solid expand—get bigger. When a solid is heated. At the melting point the particles vibrate so much that they break away from their positions. heat at melting point A liquid is formed. Fig 24 The particle theory can be used to explain the melting of a solid. Teacher note: It is possible to buy special magnetic marbles for this activity. solid heat The particles vibrate more.64 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Activity 1 Make a model for matter by putting some ball bearings in a flat dish or box. Describe the new arrangement of ball bearings. What state of matter does it represent? Your teacher may demonstrate this model using a dish on an overhead projector. What state of matter does this represent? 3 Shake the dish vigorously.

Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? Activity Explaining boiling When a liquid is heated. Set up the apparatus shown below and observe carefully what happens. They work in field stations throughout Australia and its territories. its particles have more energy and move faster. heat at boiling point Science in action To see how this works. Where does evaporation occur? Where does condensation occur? Where does water exist in: a a solid state? b a liquid state? c a gaseous state? ice cubes watchglass beaker heat gauze mat Bunsen burner (or hotplate) water tripod As the liquid gets hotter. cyclones. This makes the liquid expand. At the boiling point all the particles have enough energy to evaporate. Meteorologists analyse and interpret weather data collected around Australia. from the tropics to Antarctica. They bump into each other more energetically and bounce further apart. including satellite photos. If you are fascinated by the weather. They break away from the liquid and form a gas. At low temperatures the particles in the liquid move slowly. Some have enough energy to break the bonds holding them together and escape (evaporate). floods and droughts. Fig 25 The particle theory can be used to explain the evaporation and boiling of a liquid. Meteorologists study how water evaporates from the Earth’s surface to form water vapour which rises into the atmosphere where it condenses to form tiny water droplets which we see as clouds. At the boiling point. They then prepare weather reports for TV and newspapers. you may be interested in becoming a meteorologist. and issue warnings for storms. open the Particle theory animation on the CD. the particles move more quickly. the particles have enough energy to break the bonds holding them together. 65 .

฀(Remember฀to฀wait฀ until฀the฀reading฀is฀steady. Record฀the฀data฀in฀the฀data฀table.฀What฀does฀it฀mean฀where฀the฀graph฀is฀ lat?฀On฀the฀graph.฀with฀columns฀for฀the฀ two฀variables฀to฀be฀measured. . 4฀ Measure฀the฀temperature฀every฀minute. Discussion 1฀ What฀caused฀the฀ice฀to฀melt? 2฀ What฀did฀you฀notice฀about฀the฀temperature฀as฀ the฀ice฀melted? 3฀ What฀did฀you฀notice฀about฀the฀temperature฀as฀ the฀water฀boiled? 4฀ Your฀graph฀has฀two฀lat฀sections฀joined฀by฀a฀ slope. •฀ thermometer฀ (–10฀to฀110°C)฀or฀ datalogger฀and฀temperature฀probe •฀ burner.฀ Put฀it฀under฀the฀beaker฀and฀immediately฀start฀ timing.) Record฀the฀temperature฀of฀the฀ice฀in฀your฀ data฀table. 6฀ Predict฀the฀temperature฀of฀the฀water 10฀minutes฀after฀it฀started฀to฀boil.฀Use฀the฀ stirring฀rod฀to฀stir฀gently฀before฀each฀reading.฀and฀ measure฀its฀temperature. Materials For information on using dataloggers. Planning and Safety Check Read฀through฀the฀Method. •฀ What฀safety฀precautions฀will฀be฀necessary? •฀ Which฀is฀the฀independent฀variable฀and฀ which฀is฀the฀dependent฀variable?฀How฀do฀ you know which is which? ฀Design฀a฀data฀table.฀gauze฀and฀heatproof฀mat •฀ stopwatch •฀ stirring฀rod •฀ retort฀stand฀and฀clamp •฀ stopper฀with฀hole฀to฀hold฀thermometer฀in฀clamp •฀ graph฀paper stirring rod thermometer crushed ice Wear safety glasses. 3฀ Light฀the฀burner฀and฀adjust฀it฀to฀a฀medium฀lame. 5฀ Graph฀your฀results฀or฀print฀them฀from฀the฀ datalogger.฀mark฀when฀the฀ice฀is฀melting. 7฀ The฀temperature฀did฀not฀increase฀while฀the฀ice฀ was฀melting฀and฀while฀the฀water฀was฀boiling— even฀though฀there฀was฀a฀constant฀supply฀of฀ energy฀from฀the฀burner.66 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Investigate 8 MELTING AND BOILING stopper with hole Aim To฀measure฀and฀graph฀the฀temperature฀ as฀ice฀melts฀to฀water฀and฀then฀boils.฀ Continue฀your฀measurements฀until฀the฀water฀has฀ been฀boiling฀for฀3฀or฀4฀minutes.฀tripod.฀Use฀the฀particle฀model฀ to฀explain฀where฀that฀energy฀was฀going.฀ Also฀mark฀where฀the฀water฀is฀boiling. 5฀ Use฀your฀graph฀to฀ind฀the฀temperature฀of฀the฀ water฀10฀minutes฀after฀you฀started฀heating. Method 1฀ Set฀up฀the฀apparatus฀as฀shown.฀eg฀250฀mL open the ICT •฀ crushed฀ice skillsheet on the CD. 2฀ Half-ill฀the฀beaker฀with฀crushed฀ice. •฀ small฀beaker.

2 Complete these sentences: a The melting point of ice is the temperature when it changes from a ______ to a ______. For each change decide whether heating or cooling is needed. rewrite it so that it is true. Heating Cooling solid to liquid liquid to gas gas to liquid liquid to solid solid to gas 6 Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false. i The particles of a solid do not move. 4 The table below lists five changes of state.Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? Check! LIQUID freeze 1 Copy the diagram above. Put one word in each box and on each arrow to summarise what you know about changes of state. e Water can evaporate at any temperature. h The particles of a gas are so far apart that they do not attract each other at all. e lava flows from a volcano and slowly forms a rock called basalt. d Solids have a definite shape because their particles are free to move around. c To change a liquid to a gas you have to cool it. If the statement is false. b All matter consists of particles. f If water boils for a long time. its temperature rises above 100°C. d The boiling point of water is ______°C. Choose from the words solid. a Melting occurs when a solid changes to a liquid. Copy the table and tick the correct columns. c The boiling point of water is the temperature when it changes from a ______ to a ______. 7 a Write your answers in complete sentences. d moth balls placed in a suitcase of clothes are gone after a few months. b The melting point of ice is ______°C. b c d In which state do the particles move fastest? In which state are the particles closest together? In which state are the particles close together but not arranged in a regular pattern? In which state of matter are the bonds between particles greatest? 67 . c a puddle of water on the road disappears when the sun shines. liquid or gas to say what type of substance will be formed when: a a gas condenses b a liquid freezes c a solid melts d a liquid boils 3 5 Changes of state a b c d e Name the change of state that occurs when— a dew forms on the grass b a bottle of perfume is opened and can be smelt on the other side of the room. g Condense is the opposite of evaporate.

฀ why฀are฀their฀properties฀so฀different?฀Explain฀in฀ terms฀of฀particles฀and฀bonds. 3฀ Answer฀these฀questions฀in฀complete฀sentences.฀He฀inds฀it฀hard฀to฀see฀ when he enters a hot steamy bathroom.฀ Why is this? 5฀ Use฀your฀knowledge฀of฀the฀particle฀theory฀to฀ explain฀each฀change฀in฀the฀diagrams฀below. 9฀ Why฀do฀clothes฀dry฀faster฀on฀a฀windy฀day฀than฀ they฀do฀on฀a฀calm฀day? .ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW challenge 6฀ Below฀is฀a฀graph฀showing฀the฀change฀in฀ temperature฀over฀time฀as฀wax฀is฀heated. Use what฀you฀have฀learnt฀in฀this฀chapter฀to฀explain฀ this. a฀ How฀can฀you฀make฀the฀particles฀in฀a฀solid฀ move faster? b฀ What฀are฀the฀particles฀doing฀if฀a฀liquid฀is฀ evaporating? c฀ What฀can฀happen฀to฀a฀gas฀if฀its฀particles฀ slow฀down? 4฀ When฀you฀cook฀food฀in฀a฀saucepan฀with฀a฀lid฀ on. D 100 Temperature (ϒC) 68 50 B C A 0 2฀ If฀gases฀and฀liquids฀are฀both฀made฀of฀particles.฀or฀water฀in฀an฀open฀bottle?฀Explain฀your฀ answer฀in฀terms฀of฀the฀particle฀theory. 1฀ Luigi฀wears฀glasses.฀you฀may฀notice฀water฀on฀the฀inside฀of฀the฀lid.฀It฀has฀ a฀melting฀point฀of฀–94°C฀and฀a฀boiling฀point฀of฀ 69°C.฀a฀liquid฀or฀a฀gas? 8฀ Which฀would฀evaporate฀more฀quickly:฀water฀in฀a฀ lat฀tray. a฀ Is฀hexane฀a฀solid. 10 20 Time (min) 30 a฀ Which฀part฀of฀the฀graph฀shows฀that฀a฀change฀ of฀state฀is฀taking฀place? b฀ What฀is฀the฀melting฀point฀of฀the฀wax? c฀ What฀is฀the฀state฀of฀the฀wax฀during฀the฀irst฀ 10฀minutes฀of฀heating? d What is the state of the wax between C and D? e฀ In฀which฀part฀of฀the฀graph฀are฀the฀bonds฀ between฀the฀wax฀particles฀greatest? 7฀ Hexane฀is฀used฀as฀an฀industrial฀solvent.฀a฀liquid฀or฀a฀gas฀at฀room฀ temperature฀(20°C)? b฀ If฀hexane฀is฀heated฀to฀90°C฀would฀you฀ expect฀it฀to฀be฀a฀solid.

Plasma consists of charged particles that are even further apart than the particles in a gas. go to www. a฀ Whose฀inference฀do฀you฀agree฀with?฀Why? b฀ Can฀you฀suggest฀a฀better฀inference? 11฀ Dry฀ice฀is฀sometimes฀used฀to฀create฀fog฀and฀ mist฀on฀stage.฀how฀ can฀you฀see฀the฀dry฀ice฀fog? 12฀ On฀a฀hot฀day฀you฀perspire฀(sweat). 69 . Water in Coldness comes the air through the glass sticks to and turns to water. However the sun is made of plasma. < WEB watch > To find out more about plasmas. They are trying to make a The jar must have leaked.net.฀Use฀the฀ particle฀theory฀to฀explain฀how฀evaporation฀ produces฀cooling. ฀ ฀ Everyone฀had฀a฀go฀at฀explaining฀what฀had฀ happened฀(see฀the฀cartoon). Water from the ice has come through the jar.Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? 10฀ Angie฀wanted฀to฀keep฀her฀yoghurt฀cool.฀As฀this฀ perspiration฀evaporates฀it฀cools฀you.scienceworld. it glows and looks like ‘bottled lightning’. However there is a fourth state of matter called plasma which makes up 99% of the universe. Jan an Se An gie h Ko fusion reaction that produces energy as the sun does. Because the particles in a plasma are charged. You don’t see much plasma on Earth because it requires very high temperatures. They use powerful electromagnets which create a ‘magnetic bottle’ to contain the superhot plasma. liquids and gases. Scientists are experimenting with plasmas as hot as 100 million degrees. as are all the stars.฀When฀she฀went฀to฀put฀it฀in฀her฀locker 15฀minutes฀later. A fourth state of matter We are familiar with the three states of matter we find on Earth—solids. the glass. Lightning is a type of plasma that occurs naturally on Earth. Plasmas also occur in neon signs and fluorescent bulbs.฀she฀saw฀that฀the฀outside฀of฀the฀ jar฀was฀quite฀wet. The glass sphere contains a gas at a very low pressure and when very high voltage passes through it. Loops of plasma erupt from the surface of the sun and follow the curved magnetic field of the sun.au and follow the links to Amazing Plasmas. they are affected by a magnetic field.฀so฀she฀ put฀it฀in฀a฀jar฀with฀some฀ice฀and฀screwed฀the฀lid฀ on฀tightly. You may have seen a plasma sphere in a science centre.฀If฀carbon฀dioxide฀is฀invisible.

(It helps to put a piece of white cardboard or paper behind the beakers.3 Using the particle theory We have used the particle theory to explain solids. Then leave the dish undisturbed overnight. moving away from the crowded bottle to places where there are fewer particles of perfume. Let it stand for a while to let the water become perfectly still.70 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 3. Observe what happens to the brown gas. The fragrance spreads through the air in all directions. and how they can change from one state to another. Since there are only weak forces between the particles. Let’s explain how perfume diffuses. When the lid is taken off. liquids and gases. they can spread out. Use a pair of tweezers to drop a single crystal of potassium permanganate (Condy’s crystals) down a drinking straw as shown. Place a few pieces of copper in a small beaker.) white Use a fume cupboard. This gradual mixing of substances is called diffusion. When the lid is on. Eventually the particles spread evenly throughout the air in the room. as shown. Pour a few drops of concentrated nitric acid on the copper and immediately cover the beaker with a larger beaker. cardboard beaker water white paper copper + nitric acid . Diffusion If someone opens a bottle of perfume in the middle of the classroom you soon smell it in other parts of the room. In this section we will try to use it to explain some other properties of matter. potassium permanganate crystal tweezers drinking straw B This activity involves the poisonous gas nitrogen dioxide and can only be done as a teacher demonstration—in a fume cupboard. the liquid perfume evaporates easily. the gas particles remain inside the bottle. Activities A Put a beaker on a sheet of white paper and half fill it with water. Explain what you observed in terms of particles.

This causes some particles to leave the crystal and move into the spaces among the water particles. Particles leave the crystal. put the ball through the ring. ball ring glass tube coloured water hot water 71 . Because the particles are all moving. Mark this level with a marking pen. This is the process of dissolving. then observe what happens and finally explain what happened. Heat the flask gently using a Bunsen burner. as shown below. when a crystal of potassium permanganate is placed in water. A Using a ball and ring apparatus (or other metal shapes). crystal Activities Your teacher may demonstrate the following activities. B Fill a flask with coloured water and fit a stopper with a piece of glass tubing through it. Both the crystal and the water are made of particles. in the crystal. Being in the liquid state. Put the flask in a container of hot water for a few minutes.Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? As you saw in the activity on the previous page. the water slowly turns purple. Then heat the ball strongly and try to put it through the ring again. What do you predict will happen if you heat the ring and try again? Try it. Now put it in a container of cold water. For each activity. the water particles are moving and bump into the particles The water particles are continuously moving. How could you use this apparatus to measure temperature? C Put a balloon over the mouth of a flask. predict what you think will happen. Write a generalisation to explain the results of all three activities. they diffuse throughout the water and the purple colour spreads evenly. they become evenly mixed. The coloured water in the tube should reach just above the stopper. As the particles continue to move.

Hence the air pressure is higher. You can now try to explain some other properties of matter for yourself. when they are cooled they contract (get smaller) and occupy less space. he discovers his car has a flat tyre. .72 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Expansion and contraction Air pressure As you saw in the activity. In solids the particles vibrate in fixed positions. and the pressure will return to normal. This causes them to move further apart so that they have more room for their violent vibrations. energy is lost. the particles will lose energy and slow down. An inflated tyre contains many air particles and the pressure is high. they occupy more space. he finds it has gone up. and air pressure. HEAT (expansion) COOL (contraction) Fig 43 Fig 42 In the cool balloon the air particles move slowly. When the solid is cooled. diffusion. Similarly. When Rhys pulls into the service station. In the warm balloon the faster-moving particles hit the walls of the balloon more violently. It is a hot day and Rhys drives non-stop for two hours to get to the beach. You have seen how the particle theory (page 62) can be used to explain changes of state. When the tyre cools down. There can’t be any more air particles in the tyre. A flat tyre contains few air particles and the air pressure is low. What has happened to Rhys is that some of the air has escaped from the tyre and there are not enough particles to give the pressure needed to keep the tyre inflated. That is. liquids and gases all expand (get larger) when they are heated. When he checks the tyre pressure. What has happened is that friction between the tyre and the road has caused the air inside the tyre to heat up. solids. As a result. vibrate more violently and start to bump into each other. Expansion and contraction of liquids and gases can be explained in a similar way. Rhys gets the tyre fixed and pumps it up with compressed air. expansion and contraction. Now the air pressure is back to normal. What keeps the tyre inflated is air pressure. The invisible particles of air are only tiny but they move very rapidly— about the speed of a rifle bullet. The particles slow down again and occupy less space (contract). As the solid is heated the particles absorb energy. the solid as a whole expands. This means the particles have more energy and are moving faster and hitting the walls of the tyre harder. pushing them out and causing the balloon to expand. These tiny bullets bombarding the walls of the tyre cause the air pressure.

Let go of the plunger and it moves back to where it came from. Draw a model to explain what is happening to the invisible particles. Question: Explain what happens. Question: Why does this happen? 73 . but honey is much harder to pour. with straight edges and sharp corners.Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? Activity For each observation below write an inference to answer the question in terms of the particle theory. Question: How can you explain this? 2 Observation: Add a teaspoon of sugar to a glass of water and stir. 1 Observation: Lead is four times denser than aluminium. Question: How can you explain these different shapes? 5 Observation: Hold your finger over the end of a bicycle pump and push in the plunger. Pull the thread to stretch the film. Question: What pushed the plunger back? 6 Observation: Make a soap film on a frame like the one shown below. 3 Observation: You can pour water from one container to another. while quartz crystals (below) are like pointed columns. For example. pulling back the thin wire. salt crystals are cubes. When you release the thread the film contracts. Question: How can you explain this? 4 Observation: Crystals have a definite shape. especially when it has been in the fridge.

4 Materials may be natural. From this information it would be correct to say that the substance is a: A gas B solid or liquid C liquid or gas D solid or gas 2 Copy the diagrams below and label them by replacing the letters (A–G) with one of these words: condensation. evaporation. heat energy 2 There are three common ______ of matter on Earth: solids.74 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Copy and complete these statements to make a summary of this chapter. D E G A F B C . liquids mass density moving and gases. melting. These particles: •฀ have฀______฀between฀them •฀ ______฀each฀other •฀ are฀constantly฀______฀ •฀ move฀faster฀as฀the฀temperature฀increases. 4 Give three examples of how the use of a substance depends on its properties. liquid. 5 Matter can be changed from one state to another when ______ is added or removed. attract 1 Matter has ______ and takes up space (its ______). processed or ______. 6 The particle ______ of matter states that all matter is made of properties spaces states synthetic theory volume particles too small to see. The missing words are on the right. solidification. What you use a material for depends on its ______. REVIEW Try doing the Chapter 3 crossword on the CD. 3 ______ is how much mass is packed into a measured volume. gas. 1 The statement All matter is made of particles is: A an observation B an inference C a prediction D a generalisation 3 A substance has no fixed shape. solid.

In your answer use these words: processed. paper and cotton canvas for making supermarket bags. He found the volume and mass of the crown. non-renewable. Which three properties would probably be true of its particles? c Petrol is a liquid. He also found the mass of an equal volume of pure gold. Which three properties would probably be true of its particles? d Steel cannot easily be compressed. Here are his results.3 21. Rate of movement A vibrating or moving very slowly B moving around freely but slowly C moving freely and rapidly Spaces between particles D very close together.7 11. renewable and synthetic.7 1. Which two properties above would best explain this? f Property E in the above list can sometimes be changed to property F by: A heating the substance B cooling the substance C putting it in another container D compressing the substance 9 Use the particle theory to explain each of the following questions: a Why do gases have much lower densities than solids and liquids? b Why do gases condense to form liquids when cooled? Check your answers on pages 277–278.Chapter฀3฀ What฀are฀things฀made฀of? Table of densities (g/cm3) aluminium lead platinum polystyrene foam petrol water 2. almost touching E fairly close together F wide spaces between them Forces between particles G very strong bonds H held together to some extent but free to move around I very weak bonds a Aluminium is a solid.1 0. SALE 8 The questions below refer to the following list of some of the possible properties of particles. Which description in Spaces between particles would best explain this? e Diamond is a very hard substance. Which three properties listed above would probably be true of its particles? b Ozone is a gas.0 6 Archimedes was asked to find out if the crown belonging to the king of Syracuse (in ancient Greece) was made of pure gold. Archimedes decided to use his knowledge of density to solve the problem. REVIEW 5 Mercury is a liquid with a density of 14 g/cm3.5 0. The king thought some silver may have been added to reduce the amount of gold needed. Use the table below to find something that would sink in water but float in mercury. volume of crown = 100 cm3 mass of crown = 1500 g mass of 100 cm3 of pure gold = 1930 g a What is the density of pure gold in g/cm3? b What was the density of the crown? c Was the crown made from pure gold? 7 Write a paragraph describing the advantages and disadvantages of plastic. 75 .

John Dalton (1766–1844) turned Democritus’ idea into a scientific theory. Because there are so many questions you may need to divide the task between different individuals or groups. He had the idea that everything is made of atoms.76 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Learning focus: An idea can gain acceptance in the scientific community as either theory or law US AREA C O F D E B I R C PRES From idea to theory Democritus (de-MOK-rit-us) was a Greek philosopher who lived from 460 to 357 BC. 11 When did people start doing proper scientific experiments? 12 What experiments were done by Dalton and other scientists around 1800? 13 What was Dalton’s atomic theory? Once you have finished your research. Then use what you have found out to discuss these final questions. You could search under ‘atomic theory history’. 2 Were Democritus’ particles all the same? Explain. Suggest a reason for this. 14 Why was Dalton able to convert Democritus’ idea into a scientific theory? Why did this process take more than 2000 years? 15 Do you think the atomic theory has changed since the time of Dalton? Explain. 10 Suggest why Democritus’ idea was not developed any further for 2000 years. 6 We know very little about Democritus and his ideas. Do this individually or in a group. There is more about Dalton on page 181. 3 How did Democritus explain the difference between a solid and a liquid? 4 Who was Leucippus? 5 Did the ancient Greeks do scientific experiments? Explain. Use the internet and other resources to research the following questions about Democritus and Dalton. Did he agree with Democritus’ ideas? Explain? 8 Were the Greeks the only ancient people to come up with the idea of atoms? 9 In the Middle Ages the church associated atomic thinking with Godlessness. 7 Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher. . Suggest a reason for this. share your findings with the class. 1 Why did Democritus use the Greek word atomos to describe invisible particles of matter? (see page 62).

4 Building฀฀ blocks฀of฀life Planning page Getting started Activity page 79 Skillbuilder page 80 Using a microscope Activity page 81 Skillbuilder page 83 Drawing cells 4.2 Growth and reproduction page 89 4.1 Cells page 79 TRB Assessment task 4 A model cell Investigate 9 Observing cells Activity page 87 Activity page 90 Investigate 10 Observing flowers Activity page 96 4.3 Reproduction and survival page 93 Main ideas Chapter 4 crossword Review and Lab review TRB Chapter 4 test Learning focus: The place of social and ethical considerations in science Prescribed focus area Stem cell research .

Activities pages 81 & 87. What does the x100 mean on the photo? Can you think of a way to find out how big these organisms are? . What does this mean? ● Another magnifying glass has x4 on it. Investigate 9 and 10) presenting information—drawing cells (Skillbuilder page 83) presenting information—using tables (Activity page 96) x100 ● You are using a magnifying glass to look at a tiny insect on a stick.78 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW t… l learn abou r you wil In this chapte Learning฀Focus ● ● the place of social and ethical considerations in science (page 101) positive and negative impacts of recent applications of science (page 101) Knowledge฀and฀Understanding ● ● cell theory unicellular and multicellular organisms (page 79) Skills ● ● ● safely use a microscope (Skillbuilder page 80. How is this different from the first one? What will you see if you look at the insect with this magnifying glass? ● The organisms in this photo live in freshwater ponds and creeks. The magnifying glass has x2 on it.

Chapter฀4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life 4. Activity x200 Fig 3 Euglena live in freshwater lakes and ponds. muscle cells contract and relax to move bones and organs. Then divide this by 200 (the magnification) and give your answer in millimetres. x4000 Fig 4 Red blood cells are specialised cells that carry oxygen around your body. and stomach lining cells make substances which help in the digestion of foods. You can use this information to find the actual sizes of the cells. flagella x500 Fig 5 Nerve cells have an irregular shape. nerve cells conduct nerve messages. such as birds’ eggs. which live in fresh water and contain chlorophyll to make their own food by photosynthesis. They carry nerve messages throughout your body. Multicellular organisms contain many different types of cells and each type of cell is specialised. Use this method to find the sizes of the other cells in the photos. red blood cells carry oxygen. The photos of the cells on this page are many times larger than the actual size of the cells. The emu egg is the largest single cell of all! Some organisms are unicellular.1 Cells All organisms are made of small building blocks called cells. in humans. Long. For example. However some cells. For example. This means that each type of cell has a different job to do in the organism. are large enough to be seen with your eye. whip-like ‘hairs’ called flagella at one end of the cell help it move through the water. Measure an average-sized euglena cell with your ruler. the x200 on the euglena photo means that the cells have been magnified 200 times. Most cells are very small and can be seen only with a microscope. 79 . Each photo shows the number of times that the cell has been magnified. The photo below shows unicellular organisms called euglena (you-GLEEN-a). These single cells are complete organisms. Your body contains over 3 billion of them.

eyepiece lens body tube Setting up a microscope 1 Rotate the objective lenses until the low power lens clicks into position directly above the hole in the stage.80 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Skillbuilder Using a microscope In this chapter you will be using a microscope to view different types of cells Parts of the microscope Study the diagram below which shows the parts of a microscope. and has the lowest number stamped on it. (You may need to use the fine focus knob to make the image clearer.) 2 Place a hair on a microscope slide and put it on the stage. 4 Now look through the eyepiece lens and move the objective lens away from the slide until the hair is in focus. If you are in doubt. Your microscope may be slightly different from this one.) objective lenses stage clips stage focusing knobs— coarse adjustment fine adjustment light source base . Rotate the higher power objective lens into place. the basic parts will be the same. eg ×4. turn the focusing knob to move the lens very close to the slide. However. 3 Looking from the side. (The low power objective lens is usually the shortest one. ask your teacher for advice.

How wide would it be if you looked at it with the lenses in Question 1? Activity Making a wet-mount slide 1 Place a drop of water in the middle of a microscope slide. tim microscope will magnify the object 100 Your teacher will give you a microscope slide containing some cells for you to practise your microscope technique. Observe the shapes and features of the cells.Chapter฀4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life Observing prepared slides What x10 means of a A microscope magnifies things. If the lens by the power of the objective lens then the ×10. (This stops air bubbles forming under the cover-slip. Questions 1 A microscope has a x4 eyepiece and a x10 objective. is e eyepiece is ×10 and the objectiv es. magnifies things to 10 times their orig same way. You may see lens this number ×10. 2 A cell is 0. e 5 Place the slide on the stage and observe the letter under low power. Cover the ‘e’ with another drop of water.02 mm wide. Record your observations. why do you turn the focusing knob so that the objective lens moves away from the slide? 3 A hair is 0. the Look at the eyepiece lens. Is the ‘e’ the right way up? Move the slide to the left. What is the total magnification of the microscope? 2 When focusing. The objective lenses are marked in the roscope The total magnifying power of the mic eyepiece is found by multiplying the power of the . 4 Lower the pencil slowly and let the coverslip fall flat on the slide.01 mm long and 0. and lean it on a pencil. as shown. Which way does the ‘e’ move when viewed through the lens? Questions 1 Suppose you place the number ‘5’ under the microscope. Explain your drawing. This means that inal size. Show your slide to your teacher. 2 Cut out a small lower case ‘e’ in the piece of newspaper and place it on the drop of water on the slide. Draw what you would expect to see through the lenses.) You should do this a few times to master the skill. Each lens ked microscope has its magnifying power mar on it.005 mm wide. How big would it be if you viewed it under a microscope with a ×10 eyepiece lens and ×4 objective lens? e 81 . 3 Place the edge of the cover-slip on the edge of the drop of water.

Animal cells Plant cells These cells are from the inside lining of a human cheek. These help to keep the cell functioning correctly. These cells are from the leaf of a plant.82 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Cells in organisms The cells of living things vary in shape and function. The diagram below will help you interpret the photo. This controls all the cell’s activities. which is needed for photosynthesis. The diagram below will help you interpret the photo. This is a thick. and without it the cell eventually dies. Plant cells also contain large liquid-filled spaces called vacuoles (VAK-you-oles) where water and dissolved substances are stored. Some animal cells have small vacuoles. dark-coloured object in the cells in the photos below is the nucleus (NEW-klee-us). but most have none at all. How are plant cells different from animal cells? Plant cells have a cell wall on the outside of the cell membrane. The cell membrane also helps to hold the cell together and to give it shape. Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts. The inside of cells is filled with a jelly-like substance called cytoplasm (SIGH-toe-plaz-um). Inside the cytoplasm of plant cells there are organelles called chloroplasts. The round. which acts like a fence controlling the movement of substances into and out of the cell. ×600 ×1200 cell wall nucleus cell membrane cell membrane vacuole cytoplasm chloroplasts cytoplasm nucleus . These contain the green pigment chlorophyll. but they do have features in common. The cytoplasm also contains many other small bodies and structures called organelles (OR-gan-els). This is where many chemical reactions take place. tough layer that protects the softer parts inside the cell and also provides stiffness that helps support the plant. All cells are surrounded by a thin covering called a cell membrane.

and have a clean eraser handy. How to draw cells 1 Always use a sharp HB pencil. Try to keep your drawings as simple as posssible. Carbon dioxide and alcohol are produced as waste products. sugar.Chapter฀4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life Science in action Shane is a baker. Don’t shade or colour the drawing. Label these structures. In these observations. the heat of the oven quickly evaporates the alcohol from the dough. the yeast cells grow and multiply rapidly using the sugar as a food. 83 . water and yeast—and mixes them together to form dough. When the bread is baked. During this time. glucose carbon dioxide + alcohol The carbon dioxide gas given off by the yeasts causes the bread to rise and makes the holes in the bread. The dough is then left for a while in a warm place. 3 Choose 2 or 3 cells to draw. This process is called fermentation. Yeast cells get the energy needed for growth and reproduction by breaking down the sugar. Skillbuilder Drawing cells In the next investigation you will be using the microscope to observe some animal and plant cells. 4 Make the drawing as large as possible. 2 The cells you see under the microscope are fairly complicated. Draw the lines and shapes. you should include drawings in your report. When making bread. Include only the structures you can identify. Shane adds the basic ingredients—flour. He makes different kinds of bread with the help of a unicellular organism called yeast.

Then add a cover-slip as shown below.฀mince฀meat.84 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Investigate 9 OBSERVING CELLS Aim To use a microscope to observe plant and animal cells.฀B฀and฀C. Add another drop of water on top of the onion skin. the nucleus and the cytoplasm.฀(You฀can฀use฀a฀drop฀of฀ water฀or฀the฀methylene฀blue฀stain฀if฀you฀wish. PART B L ook in g a t chloroplasts Method 1 Tear a small leaf from the top of the freshwater plant. Then place a cover-slip over the onion skin. Then you describe what฀you฀are฀going฀to฀do฀in฀Part฀B. 2 Put a drop of water on a slide then place the piece of onion skin on the drop. Use the photo of the plant cells on page 82 to help you identify the round chloroplasts. onion skin drop of water 3 Repeat Steps 1 and 2 with a second slide.) PART A O n i o n ski n ce lls Method 1 Remove one layer from the onion. the cell wall. How do these cells compare with the onion cells from Part A? . Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ microscope 2฀microscope฀slides฀and฀cover-slips piece฀of฀onion methylene฀blue฀stain leaf฀from฀a฀freshwater฀plant฀(eg฀elodea) small฀pieces฀of฀apple. Then peel a small piece of the very thin skin from inside the layer. 4 Observe both slides under low power. In which one are the cells more easily observed? Which parts of the cell can you easily see? Draw two or three stained cells.฀fresh฀ chicken. add one drop of methylene blue stain. then under higher power. the nucleus and the cytoplasm. moss. Record the differences between the two slides. but instead of adding water. 3 Observe the leaf under low power. 2 Prepare a slide as you did for the onion skin. Label the cell wall. but฀this฀time฀use฀the฀leaf.฀ and make a list of the materials you will need for each part. •฀ Ask฀a฀partner฀to฀describe฀what฀they฀are฀ going to do in Part A. potato. spirogyra etc Planning and Safety Check •฀ Carefully฀read฀through฀Parts฀A. Draw a labelled diagram of what you observe. then under higher power.

chicken. Draw and label two or three of the cells.Chapter฀4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life PART C O t her ce lls Method 1 For this part you will look at cells in apple. There are rod-shaped ones (bacilli). mince meat. Bacteria Sizes of cells You have seen that cells have a variety of shapes depending on their function.au and follow the links to Bacteria. This is the major difference between a bacterial cell and a plant or animal cell. Questions 1 What is the main difference between an animal cell and a bacterial cell? 2 What is the average diameter of an animal or plant cell? What is the average diameter of a bacterial cell? How much larger is an average animal cell than an average bacterial cell? < WEB watch > Go to www.0005 mm to 0. Use the websites to find out about different types of bacteria: the ones that cause disease and the ones that are useful to us. potato. 85 . Bacteria are usually classified by their shape. Scrape it onto a slide. A bacteria cell is usually smaller than other cells. the longest cell is a type of nerve cell found in the giant squid and can be up to 7 metres in length.005 mm to 0. spherical ones (cocci) and spirals (spirilli). 3฀ Add฀a฀drop฀of฀water฀and฀a฀cover-slip. 2 Place a small amount of material on the end of a toothpick.฀You฀can฀ add a drop of stain if you wish. Discussion 1 Why is a stain used when observing cells? 2 What general shape are the onion cells? Do other types of cells also have a regular shape? Do other cells have the same shape as onion cells? Video microscope: Your teacher may connect a camera to a microscope to show you different types of cells.02 mm in diameter. but no nucleus. Bacteria have a cell wall.003 mm. However. The largest single cell is the ostrich egg. duckweed etc. moss. which is about 15 cm long. ranging in size from 0.net. spirogyra.scienceworld. Bacteria are unicellular organisms and have a much simpler cell structure than animal and plant cells. Observe the cells. Most animal and plant cells are about 0.

the muscle tissue in the wall of your stomach and gut is made from muscle cells. the cells in large. transport tissue. muscle cell nerve cell Fig 17 muscle tissue nerve tissue Many cells of the same kind combine to form tissues in the body. tissues and organs Unicellular organisms such as euglena contain all the structures necessary to exist on their own and be independent from other cells. Support tissue The cells in this tissue have an irregular shape and act like a framework to support the leaf and help form its shape. An organ is a collection of specialised tissues that has a particular function. contains food-making tissue. They are flat and have a waxy coating to stop the leaf from losing water. support tissue and lining tissue. and therefore need to work together with other cells for the survival of the organism. However. a leaf whose main function is to make food. For example. For example. . multicellular organisms are generally specialised. Lining tissue The cells in this tissue act as a ‘skin’ for the leaf.86 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Cells. In multicellular organisms. A tissue is a group of similar cells organised to do a particular job. The leaf—a plant organ Food-making tissue The cells in this tissue contain many chloroplasts and are generally found underneath the top surface of the leaf. and nutrients from the leaves to other parts of the plant. various tissues are arranged into a structure called an organ. Transport tissue These cells form the tubes that carry water up from the roots. Cells of the same type are generally found together in tissues. For example. a single cheek cell cannot exist on its own for very long and will die after a short time outside the body. The nerve tissue in your brain and spinal cord is made from nerve cells.

some clear nail polish and a leaf. Gland Tissue The cells in this tissue make substances that help break down the food in the stomach. and muscle tissue moves the stomach to help mix the food. thus helping to mix and move the digestive food in the stomach. B Observing the cells on a leaf’s surface Brush some nail polish on the underside of a leaf. Write down the name of the tissue (this will be written on the slide). Peel the dried nail polish from the leaf and look at it under a microscope. stomach to small intestine Fig 20 stomach cut open to show lining The tissues in the stomach have a number of functions.Chapter฀4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life Activity You will need a microscope and slide. It contains glandular tissue which produces substances that chemically break down foods. What is their function? Connective Tissue This tissue is found between other tissues and helps to hold these tissues together. from the mouth Muscle Tissue The cells in this tissue contract and relax. Draw a sketch of the cells in a small section of the tissue (about six to ten cells). Cells in the gland tissue make chemicals that help digest foods. Find out from the library what these pores are called. The stomach is an organ whose function is to break down (digest) food. and connective tissue which holds the other tissues together. some prepared slides of various tissues. 87 . muscle tissue which churns the food. Let it dry for a few minutes. You will also see cells that form holes or pores in the surface of the leaf. so that it covers an area about the size of a 20 cent piece. You will see a copy of the surface cells on the leaf. A Looking at tissues Set up a microscope and ask your teacher for a prepared slide of a tissue.

8 Look at the diagram of the leaf on page 86. Give an example and use the words cells and function in your answer. b Cells in large organisms are called ______ cells. Where should you place your finger to prevent it from escaping from the slide? . What is the actual size of the specimen? 2 a What does the letter ‘F’ look like through a microscope? b Under a microscope you observe a tiny insect moving diagonally across a slide. using labelled drawings. d The cells in the support tissue fit together like trusses in a house frame. Draw up a table similar to the one below and list the features of plant and animal cells so you can compare them. c The lens that you look through at the top of a microscope is called the ______. 7 On page 79. and three objective lenses. then label the cell. a The lining cells are very flat and fit together like tiles.88 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 1 5 Copy the following sentences into your notebook. a What combination of lenses gives a ×160 magnifying power? b What are the lowest and highest magnifying powers of the microscope? c A specimen was photographed using the ×10 and ×10 lenses. Explain what this word means. ×4. Plant cells Have a nucleus Animal cells Have a nucleus 2 A microscope lens has ×10 marked on it. how to make a wet-mount slide. because they perform a particular function. Make an inference for each of the following observations. ×10 and ×40. then complete them using the words you have learnt in this section. ×4 and ×10. d Organelles are found in the ______ of a cell. e Chloroplasts are organelles that contain ______. as shown in the diagram. Try to explain. One feature has been done for you. On the photo the specimen measured 55 mm in diameter. What does this mean? 3 Copy the drawing of a cell below into your notebooks. c There are holes or pores in the underside of the leaf. b There are many chloroplasts in the food-making cells. 9 You are an illustrator for a Year 8 science textbook. challenge 1 A microscope has two eyepiece lenses. a Organisms are made of building blocks called ______. the word multicellular was used. 1 2 3 5 4 4 Describe the function of each of the five parts of the cell in Question 3. Use the information in the table above to determine whether it is a plant cell or an animal cell. 6 Explain the difference between a tissue and an organ.

The skin continually loses cells from its surface and replaces them with new ones. Your body grows rapidly in stages up to the age of about 15. as the bones and other parts of your body grow larger. your thigh bone (femur) grows to about three times the length it was when you were born. and sperm released by the male swim to the eggs. When a sperm and ovum meet. So. The female sex cell is called an ovum or egg cell. Sperm are made in organs called testes (TES-teez). Larger organisms reproduce sexually. Unicellular organisms do this by cell division. 89 . They then swim towards the ovum. Producing new life All organisms reproduce to make more of their own kind. Your skin grows in much the same way. and a new living thing is formed. cell division cell growth Fig 24 Fig 23 All living things grow when cells divide to make new cells. To do this. the nuclei of the two cells join together. reproduce by splitting in two. The male sex cell is called a sperm cell and is much smaller than ova. For example. Microscopic organisms. The male deposits the sperm inside the female’s body. They simply split in two to produce offspring that are identical to the original organism. your skin also grows.Chapter฀4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life 4. unlike bones. Ova (plural of ovum) are made in organs called ovaries (OH-var-ees). the roots begin to grow and become larger and longer. cell division continues in your skin until death. For example. Bone cells in the enlarged rounded ends of the femur divide to make new cells. These cells are different from other cells. which stop growing at adulthood. on the other hand. like these paramecia. All living things grow by making new cells. During this time your bones grow thicker and longer. However. Female frogs. They can combine to make a cell that eventually becomes a new and independent organism. This process is called fertilisation (FUR-til-eyes-AY-shun). Fertilisation can occur externally or internally. Each of these new cells then grows in size and becomes a mature cell. This growth occurs because certain cells in the roots multiply and make more cells by a process called cell division. release their eggs in the water. the two parents (one male and the other female) produce sex cells.2 Growth and reproduction When a bean seed is planted in moist soil. This is called asexual reproduction. Certain cells below the surface of the skin divide to make new cells. in humans internal fertilisation occurs. where fertilisation occurs.

They use their tail to swim through liquid. because the eggs develop internally and receive nourishment from the mother within a few days of fertilisation. They have only a small quantity of cytoplasm. Fig 26 A human ovum (×1000) with sperm cells on its surface. yolk nucleus of egg albumen . It is this part of the egg that develops into a young chicken. These make up the cytoplasm of the cell. Notice the yellow yolk and clear albumen (the ‘white’). Observe the ‘ropes’ in the albumen. Activity mullet frog hen human mouse Fig 27 The sizes and shapes of five different ova The eggs of mammals are small compared with the eggs of birds. amphibians and fish. the fertilised egg develops outside the mother’s body and must contain enough food for the whole period of growth. The ovum is much larger than a sperm cell. These keep the young chicken in place in the egg and stop it albumen ‘ropes‘ egg shell from rolling over. Fig 27 shows the actual sizes of ova from five different animals. The sex cells of organisms are not all the same size and shape. In birds and many other animals. This is the nucleus of the egg. reptiles. Break open a hen’s egg in a flat glass dish or petri dish. because it has much more cytoplasm. The cytoplasm contains food for the fertilised egg during the first few days of cell division and growth.90 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Fig 25 Human sperm cells (×2500) look like miniature tadpoles. The head of the sperm contains the nucleus and a small amount of cytoplasm. Look at the yolk carefully and you should see a tiny white patch.

and the female can give birth to as many as 15 puppies. At about 6 months old. this occurs somewhere between the ages 10 and 14. From the onset of puberty. The eggs you buy at the supermarket have not been fertilised by a rooster and therefore cannot develop into chickens. these eggs are usually used for food and not for producing more chickens. hens are born with many thousands of immature eggs in their ovaries. In girls. and it is a sign that she is ready to mate with a male dog. The present-day jungle fowl lays between 3 and 12 eggs a year. This is the period the female is said to be ‘on heat’. the female dog starts producing mature eggs. Chickens Like humans and dogs. The ancestor of the modern hen was the red jungle fowl. a baby girl at birth has ovaries that each contain about 200 000 eggs. Unlike in humans. These changes occur during a stage called puberty (PEW-ber-tee). However. a woman’s ovaries will produce usually one egg a month for about the next 40 years. so it is possible for dogs to have two litters of puppies in a year. This is called menopause. found in South-East Asia. The ovaries in a female dog contain thousands of immature eggs when it is born. It is believed that this bird was domesticated about 4000 years ago. Female dogs go ‘on heat’ about every 6 months. 91 . which is similar to the number of eggs laid by other birds. the ovaries stop producing eggs. the ovaries in dogs can release many eggs during this period. They have been bred to lay up to 200 eggs a year. At about age 50. These eggs do not begin to mature until certain changes take place in a young girl’s body. At 3 months of age.Chapter฀4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life Dogs Eggs and life cycles Humans In humans. The pregnancy lasts just over two months. hens start laying eggs.

b Why is it possible to have fraternal twins with quite different features? c Suggest why twin births are much less common than single births. Match the terms in the left-hand column with the meanings in the right-hand column. Name two places in the body of a 1-year-old child where cell division occurs. . a Identical twins are always the same sex and look almost exactly alike. Assuming one bacterium divides every 20 minutes. For example. draw up a table like the one below. and none die. Use a ruler and the information given in the captions to calculate the sizes of a sperm cell and an ovum. Look at the Term and Meaning lists top right. a How many of these sperm do you think usually fertilise the female’s ovum? Suggest a reason for your answer. 7 A male usually releases millions of sperm when it is mating with a female.92 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 1 2 3 Copy and complete the following sentences. how many bacteria would there be after six hours? 2 Women usually give birth to one child at a time. b Suggest why the male makes and releases so many sperm. bacteria can divide every 20 minutes. a ______ ______ is a process in which cells split into two. Use the information above to answer the following questions. Give a reason for your answer. Fraternal twins occur when two eggs are released from the ovary and each is fertilised by a different sperm. d In males the ______ produce sperm. To do this. Would this be the same for a 50-year-old person. 5 Why do sperm cells have tails while eggs do not? 6 External fertilisation occurs in frogs and mullet. Identical twins occur when the egg splits into two just after fertilisation and each develops separately. but multiple births do occur. and in females the ______ produce eggs. Why? Term Meaning ovary where sperm are made semen when the nuclei of a sperm and ovum join fertilisation a liquid containing sperm ova the organ that produces eggs testes female sex cells 4 Look at Figs 25 and 26 on page 90. Term Meaning challenge 1฀ Cell฀division฀in฀microscopic฀organisms฀can฀ occur rapidly if the conditions are suitable. b In organisms that reproduce sexually. the male produces ______ and the female produces ______. c Fertilisation occurs when the ______ of sex cells combine. Suggest why these animals produce many more eggs than humans or mice do.

In animals. but not all organisms do this in the same way. The table at the top of the next page compares the method of reproduction and the parental care of four different types of animals.3 Reproduction and survival All organisms reproduce. For example. Caring for offspring The young animals that hatch from eggs which are laid and fertilised externally are completely independent of each other and of their parents. The eggs of reptiles are fertilised internally. the tadpoles swim away from the leftover egg mass and have to find their own food and protect themselves from enemies. The eggs are covered up and left to incubate. Fig 34 These newly hatched birds are completely dependent on their parents for food. 93 . sea turtles lay their eggs in the sand on the beach. Newly hatched turtles scramble towards the water. For example. Many of the hatchlings die because there is no parental care and therefore no protection from enemies. many of the young turtles are eaten by birds and other animals. but most reptiles do not care for their young after the eggs hatch. while in most other animals the eggs are fertilised externally. newly hatched birds cannot fly and cannot feed themselves and would certainly die without the protection of one or both parents. When the young turtles hatch. This increases the chances of survival of the young. when a frog’s eggs hatch. For example. However. frogs and other animals.Chapter฀4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life 4. Fig 33 Fig 32 Fertilisation occurs externally in frogs. birds and reptiles fertilisation takes place internally. On their journey to the water. sperm can fertilise eggs inside the female’s body (internal fertilisation) or outside the female’s body after she has laid her eggs (external fertilisation). to make fertilisation more effective. warmth and protection from enemies. they dig their way to the surface and then scramble down the beach to the water. Young birds and mammals are generally dependent on their parents for food. warmth and protection from enemies. In mammals. Birds and mammals produce considerably fewer eggs than reptiles. the male clasps the female’s back and produces sperm while she lays her eggs. in some types of frogs.

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Bream
(fish)
Number of
eggs produced
each year
How eggs are
fertilised
Parental care

Green tree frog

Magpie
(bird)

Common wombat
(mammal)

about 5 million

up to 2000

three or four

one

externally in water
(sea)
None—the eggs are
left in the water, the
young hatch and
have to find food and
protection.

externally in water
(ponds and creeks)
None—the eggs
are protected by a
mass of jelly, but
after hatching the
tadpoles have to find
food and protection.

internally

internally

The female sits on
the eggs until they
hatch, then feeds
and protects the
young until they
can fly.

A bean-sized baby
is born, which
develops inside the
mother’s pouch for
up to 10 months.
It is then protected
by the mother for
another 10 months.

Parental care in seahorses
Many animals have peculiar reproductive
behaviours—the seahorse is one such animal.
The seahorse is a bony fish (as distinct from
non-bony fish such as sharks and rays), and in
most bony fish fertilisation occurs externally.
The female seahorse has a long, hollow
appendage called an ovipositor. In some types of
seahorses, she uses this to place her eggs in the
male’s front belly pouch. Here he fertilises the
eggs and protects them until they hatch (note the
belly pouches on the two male seahorses in the
photo).

< WEB watch >
Go to www.scienceworld.net.au and follow the
links to Wildlife Africa.
This is a commercial website, but it has
interesting information on the habits and
behaviour of many African animals.

Reproduction and survival in
flowering plants
Trees, shrubs, bushes, palms and grasses are
examples of flowering plants. All these plants
reproduce sexually. Flowers contain the
reproductive organs that make the sex cells.
Pollen contains sperm cells and is made in the
anthers. The ova, or eggs, are made in the ovaries.
Pollen lands on the stigma of the flower (part of
the female reproductive organs). The pollen tubes
carrying the sperm then grow down the style and
the sperm eventually fertilise the ova in the ovary.

Asexual reproduction

Some flowering plants are able to repr
oduce asexually
as well as sexually. For example, a stra
wberry plant
has flowers and produces fruit (strawb
erries)
containing seeds. The plant can also send
out runners
from which new strawberry plants grow
. This form
of asexual reproduction produces new
plants with
features identical to the original plan
t.

Chapter฀4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life

Investigate

10 OBSERVING FLOWERS
Aim

PART B

To dissect a flower and identify its parts.

Di s sect in g a f lowe r

Materials
•฀
•฀
•฀
•฀
•฀
•฀
•฀

a฀few฀different฀types฀of฀lowers,฀eg฀hibiscus
petri฀dish
small฀brush฀or฀toothpick
microscope฀and฀microscope฀slide
cavity฀microscope฀slide
single-edged฀razor฀blade
stereomicroscope฀or฀hand฀lens

Method
1 Touch the end of the stigma with your finger or
a pencil. Notice that it is sticky.
2 Use forceps to gently hold a flower while you
cut it in half by cutting down the stem.

Planning and Safety Check
Carefully฀read฀through฀Parts฀A฀and฀B,฀and฀
make a list of the materials you will need for
each part.
Make a list of the safety precautions you
will need to take in this experiment.

PART A

O bs er vi ng flo w er s
Method
1 Use the diagram of a flower below to identify
the following parts of one of your flowers—
petal, sepal, stigma, anther, filament and ovary.

pollen on stigma

petal
anther
stamen
filament

style

4 Use a stereomicroscope or hand lens to
observe the ovary and ovules.
Record your observations. Draw the
arrangement of the ovules in the ovary.
5฀ Cut฀an฀anther฀in฀half฀and฀observe฀the฀pollen฀
grains with the stereomicroscope. Repeat this
for other flowers.

2 Repeat for other flowers.
stigma

3 Look at the ovary. It contains a number of
rounded objects called ovules. Each ovule
contains฀an฀egg฀(ovum).

Record your observations.

Discussion
1 Why is the stigma sticky?
2 Different types of flowers have different shapes
and sizes of pollen. Suggest a reason for this.
3 Infer the functions of the sepals.

ovary
containing
ova

sepal

pollen tube
growing down
towards ova

4 The petals on most flowers are brightly
coloured. Suggest a reason for this.
5 What is meant by the word ‘pollination’. How is
it different from ‘fertilisation’?

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Seeds and dispersal
After the ova have been fertilised and the seeds
develop, the petals, sepals and stamens of the
flower wither and fall off. The ovary becomes
a fruit with the seeds inside it (or sometimes on
the outside of it, eg a strawberry). In some fruits,
such as apples, the wall of the ovary thickens to
form an edible fruit. In others, such as eucalypts,
it is hard and woody.
Seeds must be spread away from the adult
plant to give the plants that grow a better chance
of survival. This is called dispersal. There are four
main methods by which fruit disperse their seeds.
1 The seeds fall out of the fruit and are carried
away by the wind.
2 Animals eat the fruit, and the indigestible
seeds pass out of the animal in its droppings.
In this way the seeds can be spread many
kilometres away from the adult plant.
3 Some seeds are sticky or have hooks or
spikes which get caught in the fur or hair of
animals. These seeds may be carried a long
way before they fall off or are rubbed off.
4 Some fruit explode, throwing out the seeds.

Science
in action
Nick Hansa operates a large native plant nursery. For
many years he has studied plants, and their methods
of reproduction and seed dispersal.
He often goes looking for the seeds of rare or
endangered native plants. To do this, he needs to
know the type of seeds the plants produce.
For plants whose seeds are very small and are
normally dispersed by wind, he covers the seed pods
with special bags before the seeds mature. When the
seed pods open, the seeds fall into the bag and are
collected.
Larger seeds are collected on the ground after
they have fallen from the plants.

Activity
1 Collect about 10 different types of fruit or
the seeds from the fruit.
2 Draw up a data table and classify the
seeds into groups, depending on the way
you infer they are dispersed. Include a
brief description of the way each group
of seeds is dispersed in your data table.
3 Find more fruits or seeds, classify them
and add them to your table.
4 Take digital photos of the seeds or fruit
and present your report in a PowerPoint
presentation. Or design a poster to
record and display your results and talk
about your findings to the class.

< WEB watch >
Go to www.scienceworld.net.au and follow the
links to the websites below.
Fruit and seed dispersal
Has great photos and interesting descriptions.
Seed dispersal
Contains video clips showing types of seed
dispersal.

97

Growing plants from cuttings
Many plants, including flowering plants, are
able to reproduce from parts of the adult
plant. This is a form of asexual reproduction
called vegetative reproduction.
Strawberry plants send out runners which
produce new strawberry plants with leaves
and roots. Potatoes are actually underground
stems called tubers. The buds (‘eyes’) that
develop on a potato can grow into new
potato plants.
The advantages of vegetative reproduction
are that a plant can multiply quickly in a
place which suits it, and that it stops other
plants from growing near it.
You can try growing plants from cuttings
using the instructions opposite and the hints
below.

Leaf cutting
1

sealed plastic bag—
not touching the leaf

leaf stalk
moist propagating mix

Helpful hints
1 Plants that are suitable for leaf cuttings are
the ones which have soft, furry or velvety
leaves: for example, African violet and
coleus. You could also try begonia and
snowflake (Euphorbia leucocephala).
2 Many types of shrub or small tree are
ideal for growing plants from stem
cuttings.
3 Daisies, fuchsias and native correas
propagate easily from cuttings. For best
results use a good quality propagating
mix.
4 When growing plants from stem cuttings,
dip the stem into some plant cutting
powder (root growth powder). This will
promote root growth on the cutting.
5 Do not over-water the propagating mix.
It is best to add a little water often.
6 The plastic bag stops the plants from
drying out and dying from water loss. You
can also buy mini-hothouse trays at plant
nurseries to grow your plant cuttings in.

Place the cut end of the leaf stalk in a pot of
moist propagating mix. Then tie a large clear
plastic bag over the pot. Make sure the bag
does not touch the cutting.

2

If the leaf has large veins, use a sharp knife
to cut three or four of them as shown. Lay the
leaf flat on a pot of moist propagating mix.
sealed plastic bag
moist propagating mix
leaf
small cut in leaf vein

Stem cutting
Cut a stem about
10 cm long and remove
all but 2 or 3 of the
leaves at the top of
the stem. Dip the cut
end of the stem in
plant cutting powder.
Then tie a large clear
plastic bag over the
pot. Make sure the
bag does not touch
the leaves.

bamboo
stake for
support

sealed
plastic bag—
not touching
the leaf
moist
propagating
mix

98

ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW

Check!
1

Some of the following statements are false.
Choose the false ones and rewrite them to
make them correct.
a Pollen contains the male sex cells and is
produced in the ovary.
b Fertilisation in most reptiles occurs
externally.
c Young reptiles are dependent upon their
parents for food and protection.
d All flowering plants reproduce sexually.

2

Describe the degree of care given to their
young by most:
a fish
b frogs
c birds
d mammals

3

Suggest why the number of eggs produced
per year by different types of animal
decreases as the degree of parental care
increases.

4

About 3 in every 100 000 eggs laid by a
bream grow to be adult fish.
a Suggest why the survival rate of the
eggs is so low.
b Use the table on page 94 to work out
how many adult bream would be
produced from the eggs laid by a bream
in a year.

5

Use your own words to describe what the
word ‘disperse’ means on page 96.

6

Suppose a particular type of plant can
reproduce sexually (by seeds) as well as
asexually (by sending out runners). List the
advantages and disadvantages of each type
of reproduction for the plant.

7

The coconut is a fruit with a very hard
covering. It is hollow and does not sink
in water. Suggest how coconut seeds are
dispersed.

8

The photo shows
a close-up of the
seeds of the plant
called cobblers
pegs. Suggest how
these seeds are
dispersed.

challenge
1 Suggest why plants with bright flowers are
mainly insect-pollinated, while grass flowers are
usually wind-pollinated.
2 The seeds below are drawn at their actual size.
a฀ Which฀one(s)฀do฀you฀think฀would฀be฀฀

dispersed by the wind? Give a reason for
your answer.
b฀ Which฀one(s)฀might฀be฀caught฀on฀the฀fur฀฀ ฀
of animals. Give a reason.

seed A

seed B
seed C

seed D

3 In most types of frogs, the eggs are laid in the
water together in a mass of foul-tasting jelly,
whereas fish lay their eggs individually in the
water. Suggest how these two reproductive
behaviours help in the survival of each type of
animal.
4 Many types of animals show courtship behaviour
before they mate and produce offspring. Use
the internet and other library resources to find
out what courtship behaviour means. Write a
report of what you find out, giving examples.
How does courtship help in the survival of each
animal?
5 The ‘most devoted
parent’ award for
caring for offspring
should go to the male
emperor penguin.
Use library books
or the internet to find
out why the emperor
penguin would win
this award.

Try doing the Chapter 4 crossword on the CD.

The cell is: A definitely an animal cell. cell membrane. D Plant cells have cell walls. C All cells are rectangular or brick-shaped. B A nerve cell is an example of a specialised cell. A ______. B definitely a plant cell. cell division 1 All organisms are made of ______. The missing words are on the right. chloroplasts and vacuoles can be observed in plant cells. 3 Cells of the same type are generally found together in ______. Each tissue has a specific function in an organ. 99 . ______ and frogs). 3 Match the cell part in the list with the correct description below. cell membrane chloroplast cytoplasm nucleus vacuoles cell wall a an organelle that is involved in the process of photosynthesis b the jelly-like material that fills a cell c the part of the cell that controls its activities and keeps it alive d a covering that controls the movement of materials into and out of a cell e a thick. cytoplasm and organelles. with different shapes and different functions. cytoplasm and organelles. C either a plant cell or an animal cell. 2 A ______ can be used to identify the various parts of a cell: the nucleus. ______ occurs when the nucleus of a ______ cell joins with the nucleus of an ovum. 4 Tissues are arranged in structures called ______ in multicellular organisms. There are many different cells types of cells.Chapter฀4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life Copy and complete these statements to make a summary of this chapter. 5 An organism grows in size by making new cells in a process cell wall disperse fertilisation function mammals microscope organs reptiles sperm tissues called ______. REVIEW 1 2 A cell is observed under a microscope to have a nucleus. 6 In sexual reproduction. 7 Organisms that care for their young (birds and ______) generally produce fewer eggs than those whose young are independent (fish. Each type of tissue has a particular ______ in an organism. Which one of the following statements about cells is false? A Plant cells have large vacuoles. 8 Flowering plants show a variety of methods to ______ their seeds away from the adult plant. tough layer that helps support and protect the cell f liquid-filled spaces found in some cells.

b Less than 0. If you fail you must repeat the test until you pass. You will be working in pairs and assessing each other’s work in this practical test of microscope skills. Your teacher will also give you an assessment grid to help you assess your partner’s task.05 mm in diameter appear through the microscope? REVIEW 4 Kate labelled a drawing of a microscope.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 1 00 A microscope has a ×10 objective lens and a ×4 eyepiece lens. Remember. Infer the function of each tissue and where it might be found in your body. 5 1 2 4 5 Kate’s list 1 objective lens 2 body tube 3 focusing knob 4 eyepiece lens 5 stage 6 light 7 stage clips 10 The fruits and seeds from various plants are shown in the diagrams below. Your partner will then assess the quality of your wet-mount slide and drawing and record your results on the assessment grid. Check your answers on pages 278–279. How big would an object 0. and then draw it under the microscope. seed fruit open cap seeds wing seeds a pine seed b apple c eucalypt seeds 3 6 fruit spikes 7 d burr e paw paw Microscope licence test 6 a A male fish externally fertilises the eggs laid by a female fish. but she made some mistakes. cell from tissue A cell from tissue B . 7 Explain how a unicellular organism is different from a multicellular organism. Suggest reasons for this. you can only pass or fail this test. Infer how the seeds are dispersed by each type of plant. but over 60% of eggs laid by birds reach adulthood. The cell from tissue A is box-like and makes a watery substance called mucus. 8 Why is your stomach called an organ? Use the words cells and tissues in your answer. 9 The two cells in the drawing below are found in different tissues in your body. Give two reasons why many of the eggs are never fertilised. Your task—to make a wet-mount slide of some letters on a small piece of newspaper without any air bubbles or excess water.5% of eggs laid by a frog reach adulthood. The test—your teacher and the class will discuss what you have to do to pass the licence test. The cell from tissue B is very flat. Your teacher may issue you with a microscope operator’s licence when you pass the test. microscope slide and cover-slip and a small piece of newspaper which contains a few letters. In your book write the correct names of parts 1 to 7. You will be given—a microscope.

the problem is If they could do this they could treat… nerve cells spinal cord injuries and Parkinson’s disease heart muscle cells damage caused by heart attacks insulin-producing cells diabetes skin cells burns and ulcers retina cells some kinds of blindness whether it is ethically correct to use these human embryos.Chapter฀4฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀life Learning focus: The place of social and ethical considerations in science US AREA C O F D E B I R C PRES Stem cell research Imagine if scientists could produce… Christopher Reeve. He was confined to a wheelchair and for the rest of his life he lobbied politicians to approve stem cell research to find a cure for people with spinal cord injuries. the embryos have the right to life. was paralysed when he fell from a horse in 1995. There is also a fear that the use of stem cells could lead to humans being grown in the laboratory. Superman (1978). so they are much better to use. However. the star of the film. the potential medical benefits of stem cell research are enormous. Scientists see the possibility of using these stem cells to treat some diseases and to replace damaged tissue. 2 Do you think leftover human embryos should be used for stem cell research? Move to the corner that applies to you. They can also divide and make accurate copies of themselves (see page 89). As Christopher Reeve once asked ‘Is it more ethical for a woman to donate unused embryos that will never become human beings. stem cells in human embryos (3–5 days old) have not yet started to develop. Religious groups and right-to-life groups are against the use of embryonic stem cells because they believe that even though they are unborn. Everyone should be given a chance to contribute to the discussion. Where do scientists get stem cells? They can be found in bone marrow. But what are stem cells? Stem cells are unspecialised cells that can develop into any one of over 200 different types of cells in the body. or to let them be tossed away as garbage when they could help save thousands of lives?’ Corner discussion 1 Your teacher will put the following signs in the four corners of the room: ‘agree’. However. ‘unsure but I think I agree’ and ‘unsure but I think I disagree’. as listed in the table above. ‘disagree’. On the positive side. So far scientists have used donated embryos remaining after IVF procedures. 101 . 3 People in each corner now try to convince the people in the two unsure corners to join them. With any scientific development there will always be people who are for it and people against it. but unfortunately these stem cells have already started to become the cells they will replace.

5 Energy฀in฀฀ our฀lives Planning page Getting started Investigate 11 Energy from food 5.2 Forms of energy page 107 Animation Roller-coaster Investigate 12 Observing energy changes Assessment task 5 Energy changes Investigate 13 Where does the energy go? TRB 5.1 What is energy? page 104 Activity page 108 5.3 Energy comes—energy goes page 116 Main ideas Chapter 5 crossword Review Learning focus: Different groups use different criteria to make a decision about an issue Chapter 5 test Prescribed focus area Nuclear power station inquiry TRB .

103 .2) Skills ● ● ● gathering first-hand information using dataloggers (Investigate 13) processing information—using mathematics (Investigate 11) presenting information—using graphs (Investigate 13) You have probably used the word ‘energy’ many times. discuss the group’s ideas about energy. but what is energy? And are your ideas about energy the same as other people’s ideas? A good way to sort out your ideas is by brainstorming.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives t… l learn abou r you wil In this chapte Learning฀Focus ● ● different groups use different criteria to make a decision about an issue (page 125) viewpoints about issues with a major scientific component (page 125) Knowledge฀and฀Understanding ● ● ● the law of conservation of energy (page 117) natural resources—fossil fuels and renewable & non-renewable energy (pages 118–120) technology—energy transformations (Section 5. ● Draw something with a lot of energy. If you can’t think of anything here are some suggestions: ● Think of a sentence with the word ‘energy’ in it. To do this follow these six steps. and don’t criticise anyone else’s idea. 4 Don’t discuss the ideas yet. 2 Select someone to write down all the ideas. write or draw them on a large sheet of paper and present them to the class. 3 Everyone should try to give at least one idea about energy—the more ideas the better at this stage. You might like to select some of these ideas. 1 Sit in a group of about six people. 5 After 2 or 3 minutes of brainstorming. ● What do we use energy for? List the different types of energy and give examples. facing each other.

Also.food The bicycle and the motorbike both need energy to move them. for example turning windmills or ripping off roofs. It is used for lighting and heating our homes. The table on page 106 shows you how much energy is involved in various everyday activities. a raised sledgehammer has more energy and can do more work than an ordinary hammer. This unit was named after a British scientist called James Joule. and your muscles get their energy from the food you eat. If you have a higher intake of energy than you need. A motorbike will not keep running unless it is supplied with petrol. it is important to have a unit for measuring energy. offices and industry to run all sorts of machines. It is easier to say what energy can do. it is common to use kilojoules (kJ) and megajoules (MJ). In Investigate 11 you will burn some food to do that. It can therefore do more work. Anything that does work must have a supply of energy. your body becomes weaker and weaker. an inadequate energy diet will lead to a thin and unhealthy body. We say the batteries are ‘flat’—they have run out of energy. In the same way that the litre is the unit for measuring volume.1 04 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 5. In a similar way you can’t pedal a bicycle or dig in the garden for too long because your body runs low on energy. Everything around us depends on energy. You use one joule of energy to lift a 100 gram mass one metre. Energy source . Energy is used in homes. you can turn it into heat and measure what that heat can do. . The food combines with oxygen in your cells in the chemical reaction called respiration. Let’s see who can bang their nail in the fastest. the energy comes from the muscles in your body. the light gradually gets dimmer and dimmer until it no longer shines. On the other hand. You do work when you use a force to move something.petrol Fig 3 Energy source . When you pedal a bicycle. energy has a unit called the joule (J). Obviously energy is very important to us. Cars depend on the energy stored in petrol. Petrol provides energy that the engine uses to do work. then the extra energy is stored in your body as fat. = 1000 joules 1 kilojoule 1 megajoule = 1 000 000 joules To find how much energy is stored in food. The more energy something has. but you probably found in Getting Started that it is difficult to say exactly what it is. If you have a lot of energy.1 What is energy? If you use a torch for a long time. then you can do a lot of work. Because a joule is only a small amount of energy. and heat energy is released. the more work it can do. A gale-force 100 km/h wind has more energy than a gentle 10 km/h breeze. Of course there are no fires burning inside you. Plants need energy from the sun to make food. because it is heavier (has more mass). Measuring energy In talking about how much energy something has. If you don’t eat food. Energy is the ability to do work. and for cooking and storing food. This is why we say that food gives us energy.

฀nuts.฀eg฀potato฀crisps. 6 When฀the฀food฀stops฀burning.฀to฀calculate฀the฀heat฀ energy฀gained฀by฀10฀mL฀of฀water. 105 .฀and฀measure฀the฀ final temperature.฀As฀soon฀as฀it฀catches฀ire. 5 Light฀the฀Bunsen฀burner.2฀joules฀to฀raise฀the฀temperature฀of฀ 1฀mL฀of฀water฀by฀1°C.฀suggest฀how฀these฀problems฀could฀be฀ fixed. •฀ stand฀and฀clamp thermometer Planning and Safety Check •฀ Read฀through฀the฀investigation. 7฀ If฀you฀have฀time. •฀ What฀data฀will฀you฀need฀to฀record? •฀ What฀safety฀precautions฀will฀be฀ necessary? Method 2 cm piece of food wire holder 1 Use the measuring cylinder to measure exactly 10 mL of water into a small test tube. Materials •฀ small฀piece฀of฀food. 3 Use a thermometer to measure the initial temperature of the water.฀then฀ describe to your partners what you have to฀do. Discussion 1฀ By฀how฀many฀degrees฀did฀the฀temperature฀of฀ the water increase? 2฀ It฀takes฀4. 2 Clamp the test tube as shown.฀bread.฀Then฀put฀the฀food฀ in฀the฀lame.฀hold฀it฀ about฀2฀cm฀under฀the฀test฀tube.฀repeat฀the฀experiment฀with฀ other฀foods.฀eg฀Nutri-Grain฀or Tiny Teddy •฀ Bunsen฀burner •฀ wire฀to฀make฀holder Teacher note: When •฀ small฀test฀tube selecting foods remember •฀ thermometer some students may be •฀ measuring฀cylinder allergic to burning peanuts.฀So.฀multiply฀the฀ temperature฀rise฀by฀42.฀measure฀and฀record. Wear safety glasses.฀Your฀answer฀will฀then฀ be฀in฀joules.฀ spaghetti. 4 Use฀the฀wire฀to฀make฀a฀holder฀for฀the฀piece฀of฀ food.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives Investigate 11 ENERGY FROM FOOD Aim To find out how much energy is released when a small piece of food burns.฀rice. 3฀ Do฀you฀think฀all฀the฀energy฀from฀the฀burning฀ food went into heating up the water in the test tube? Explain. 4 Were there any problems with the investigation? If฀so.฀stir฀the฀water฀ gently฀with฀the฀thermometer.

Give as many examples as you can to illustrate this idea. you may have trouble starting it. Look carefully at the illustration. force work energy 2 How do you know if something has energy? 3 Why can a cricket ball do more work than a golf ball moving at the same speed? 4 How many joules are there in: a a kilojoule? b a megajoule? 5 Use the table below to answer these questions. Alex and Holly are doing an experiment on the chemical energy stored in foods. Why? In a science lab. List at least five things they are doing that are unsafe. energy is involved. Energy involved in everyday activities (in kilojoules) Energy produced by a burning match 10 Energy you gain by eating a chocolate biscuit 300 Energy needed to boil a kettle of water 700 Energy you use in walking 5 km 1000 Electrical energy stored in a car battery 2000 One day’s hard work 7000 Average energy gained from the food you eat in a day 11 000 Electrical energy used by a family home each day 80 000 Energy stored in five litres of petrol Energy made by a power station every second 160 000 2 000 000 8 Why do you puff and pant after running quickly or exercising? 9 In Getting Started on page 103 a student said that whenever a change occurs.1 06 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 6 1 a For each of the following words. write a sentence to show that you understand its scientific meaning. a kettle boils when you supply heat energy. a How much energy does the average person get from the food they eat in a day? b How many kilojoules of energy does a burning match produce? c Which has more energy stored in it—a car battery or one litre of petrol? d Is there enough energy stored in a battery to boil a kettle of water? b 7 Where does the energy needed to start a car come from? If you leave the lights on while your car is parked for a few hours. . For example.

open the Roller-coaster animation on the CD. For example. The heavier you are. To see how energy changes back and forth between potential and kinetic. the stored energy that something has when it is high up is called gravitational potential energy. Kinetic energy also depends on the mass of the moving object. Kinetic energy Any moving object has kinetic (kin-ET-ic) energy. When it stops it has no kinetic energy. Fig 7 At the top of the slide you have gravitational potential energy. The winds in cyclones and tornadoes have a huge amount of kinetic energy. the more kinetic energy it has. As you slide down. a cricket ball bowled by a fast bowler has more kinetic energy than one bowled by a spin bowler. When you are at the top of a slide you have gravitational potential energy—you have the potential to slide to the bottom.2 Forms of energy There are many different forms (types) of energy. A cyclist and a bus may be travelling at the same speed. This energy is there ready to be used because of the pull of gravity. the more potential energy you have. The kinetic energy of the strong winds in a cyclone or tornado can cause a lot of damage. it loses kinetic energy. so stored energy is called potential energy. Energy can easily change back and forth between potential and kinetic.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives 5. We notice it only when it changes to other forms. but the bus has much more kinetic energy because it has greater mass. The larger the mass. the greater its kinetic energy. this gravitational energy is changed to kinetic energy. For example. As a moving object slows down. When you run you have kinetic energy. A moving train has a large amount of kinetic energy. and the higher the slide. It has the potential to do work. The faster the object moves. Fig 6 Gravitational potential energy Much of the energy around us is stored energy. 107 . The amount of kinetic energy an object has depends on its speed.

The mat is pulled back up. As the stretched springs return to their original size and shape. So does a stretched elastic band.1 08 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Elastic potential energy When you jump on a trampoline. put the washer over the rubber band. . what pushes you into the air? Try to visualise what happens in slow motion. When you land on the mat. The more it is stretched. Then put the motormouse on the floor and let it go. the more elastic energy it has. large cotton reel nylon or metal washer rubber band Step 1 Thread a rubber band through the cotton reel. they release their stored energy. stretching the springs and storing energy called elastic potential energy in them. Tape the match to the reel so it will not move. The trampoline consists of a frame with a flexible mat attached by springs. and the more work it can do. simply wind up the pencil until the rubber band is tightly twisted. pencil Step 3 At the other end. then put a pencil through the rubber band. A wind-up toy stores elastic potential energy. What type of energy did it have before you let it go? Energy is needed to wind up the motormouse. broken match What type of energy does the motormouse have when you let it go? tape Step 2 Put a piece of broken match through one end of the rubber band. Activity Make a motormouse as shown. Fig 8 The elastic energy stored in the stretched trampoline springs throws you into the air. it moves down. and you are thrown into the air. Where did this energy come from? Investigate the relationship between the number of turns of the pencil and the distance the motormouse travels. To make it go.

When fuels such as wood and petrol are burned.. It can be changed into other forms of energy by the many electrical devices that have been invented. heat energy sound energy Electrical energy is very useful because you can easily convert it into other forms of energy. it becomes cooler. Four different energy converters are shown here. It travels through space in waves (as do radio and TV waves.. very hot objects and stars all release light energy. The louder the sound is. Nuclear energy Heat energy Energy is also stored inside atoms as nuclear energy.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives Chemical energy Sound energy Energy is stored in chemicals as chemical energy. Sound is a form of kinetic energy caused by vibrating objects. Foods also contain chemical energy which can be used by our bodies. It can also be stored in batteries. Fig 10 Nuclear energy stored in hydrogen atoms is the source of the Sun’s energy. Light energy Burning chemicals. It can be released from some atoms. light energy kinetic energy Fig 11 Electrical energy can be converted to. Electrical energy Electrical energy is widely used because it is easily transmitted by wires to the place where it is needed. and the more work it can do by vibrating things such as your eardrums. 109 . this stored energy is released as heat and light. eg uranium atoms. in nuclear power stations. This is what happens in refrigerators and in air-conditioned rooms. If heat energy is taken away from an object. Light energy from the sun. is used by plants to make their food. the more energy it has. Heat is a form of energy that hot objects have. microwaves and ultraviolet waves). called solar energy. It travels from place to place as sound waves.

Some is lost as sound energy and some as heat energy (the drill becomes hot). not all of the electrical energy is converted to the kinetic energy of the drill. You can describe this change with an arrow. Energy can also be converted or transformed from one form into another. but some of the stored energy becomes heat. but the ball has none. if you rub your hands together they become warm. as shown top right. When you use an electric drill. LIGHT ENERGY + HEAT ENERGY . causing it to boil. KINETIC ENERGY HEAT ENERGY The club has kinetic energy. You have converted the kinetic energy of your moving hands into heat energy. Some of the kinetic energy of the club is transferred to the ball. A candle is designed to convert stored chemical energy into light. a ball at rest is made to move by a moving golf club. Sometimes more than one form of energy is produced when an energy change occurs. CHEMICAL ENERGY  Another everyday energy transfer occurs when you heat water on a stove. For example. Some of the kinetic energy of the club has been transferred to the ball. In golf. Heat is transferred from the gas flame or the electrical heating element to the water. Fig 13 Rubbing your hands together converts kinetic energy into heat energy.1 10 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Energy changes  Energy can be transferred from one object to another. Fig 14 The energy conversions that occur when a candle burns.

6V switch Method Method Light the burner. The light is very bright and could damage your eyes. Observe what happens. ฀Draw฀up฀a฀data฀table฀like฀the฀one฀shown฀below. Use the tongs to hold the magnesium in the flame until it starts to burn.฀For฀each฀ part.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives Investigate 12 OBSERVING ENERGY CHANGES Aim To observe the energy changes that occur in a variety of situations. Look to one side. Do not leave the switch on. Use the wires to connect the battery and switch as shown. Connect the wires to it. Put the steel wool on the heatproof mat. Then฀take฀it฀out฀of฀the฀lame฀and฀hold฀it฀over฀the฀ heatproof mat. magnesium ribbon steel wool Wear safety glasses.฀you฀will฀record฀the฀energy฀conversion(s)฀that฀occur. Press down the switch for a few seconds.฀(You฀may฀need฀to฀discuss฀this฀with฀others.฀and฀any฀ energy฀transfer(s)฀from฀one฀place฀to฀another฀without฀an฀energy฀ conversion. 111 .) Observations Energy conversion(s) that occurred Energy transfer(s) that occurred A B PART A PART B Materials Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ piece฀of฀magnesium฀ribbon฀1–2฀cm฀long pair฀of฀metal฀tongs Bunsen฀burner heatproof฀mat 6฀volt฀battery 3฀connecting฀wires฀with฀alligator฀clips heatproof฀mat few฀strands฀of฀steel฀wool switch Warning: Do not look directly at the burning magnesium. Part Planning and Safety Check Discuss the safety issues for each part of the investigation.

฀then฀ twist the ends of the three wires together tightly as shown. Strike฀the฀fork฀a฀third฀time. nichrome wire crushed ice What you have made here is called a thermocouple. multimeter Method copper wire Sandpaper฀the฀ends฀of฀the฀copper฀wire.฀preferably฀itted฀ with฀a฀propeller) •฀ beaker฀of฀water •฀ tuning฀fork tuning fork electric motor solar cells Method Method Place฀the฀solar฀cell฀kit฀in฀bright฀sunshine. Observe the multimeter carefully.1 12 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW PART C Materials •฀ piece฀of฀nichrome฀wire฀or฀iron฀wire฀about 50 cm long •฀ 2฀pieces฀of฀copper฀wire฀about฀50฀cm฀long •฀ multimeter •฀ Bunsen฀burner Be careful not to touch the hot wires.฀Hold฀the฀ fork฀near฀your฀ear.฀What฀ happens if you cover all or some of the solar cells? Strike฀the฀forked฀end฀of฀the฀tuning฀fork฀gently฀on฀ the฀heel฀of฀your฀shoe฀(not฀on฀the฀bench). Connect the ends of the copper wires to the terminals of the multimeter.)฀Put฀one฀junction฀in฀ the฀crushed฀ice฀and฀heat฀the฀other฀junction฀until฀it฀ gets red hot.฀but฀this฀ time฀look฀closely฀at฀the฀prongs.฀(The฀multimeter฀ detects฀small฀electric฀currents. . PART D PART E Materials Materials •฀ solar฀cell฀kit฀(consisting฀of฀several฀solar฀cells฀ connected฀to฀an฀electric฀motor. It is used to measure temperatures in ovens and furnaces.฀and฀touch฀the฀ surface฀of฀the฀water฀in฀the฀beaker฀with฀the฀ vibrating prongs.฀Strike฀the฀fork฀again.

Write a sentence describing what happened in terms of energy changes. but gaining ______ energy. b Energy that is stored is called ______ energy. no current flowed. Place each of the following in the correct column. 9 Go back to Getting Started on page 103. How have your ideas about energy changed after working through this chapter? B 6 What is the difference between an energy transfer and an energy conversion? Give examples. the ammeter showed that there was an electric current flowing. e Springs can ______ energy which can be released later.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives Check! 1 2 Copy and complete each of these sentences. Make two columns. a an archery bow ready to shoot an arrow b a running high-jumper just before leaving the ground c a jet plane at the point of take-off d at the top of your bounce on a trampoline e a spring-loaded popgun f a child’s swing at its highest point g a child’s swing at its lowest point 3 What are the two types of potential energy? 4 The two rocks below have the same mass. d Burning a piece of coal changes ______ potential energy into ______ and ______ energy. one headed ‘kinetic energy’. When she pushed a magnet quickly into the coil. c A boulder rolling downhill is losing ______ ______ energy. What form(s) of energy do the following have? a a diver standing at the top of a tower b a bent ruler c a block of chocolate Pair up these lists correctly in your notebook. and the other ‘potential energy’. When she stopped moving the magnet. Which one has more potential energy? Why? d e f g h i j k l 7 Main energy conversions battery electrical to sound electric motor electrical to light & sound lift going up chemical to kinetic solar cell chemical to heat & light radio nuclear to electrical TV chemical to electrical to light torch light to electrical car chemical to electrical campfire electrical to kinetic nuclear power station electrical to kinetic to gravitational 8 Maria connected a coil of wire to a milliammeter. a A moving object has ______ energy. as shown. Object A 5 a burning log a glowing firefly a lightning flash ocean waves a slice of bread a TV set (turned on) a warm pizza the water in a waterfall a wound-up toy 113 .

Into what forms of energy does the human body convert the chemical energy in food? If฀a฀neon฀street฀light฀converts฀300฀J฀of electrical฀energy฀into฀200฀J฀of฀heat฀energy฀and฀ 90฀J฀of฀light฀energy. What฀is฀the฀source฀of฀energy฀for฀a฀solarpowered car? What energy conversion occurs when฀the฀car฀is฀moving?฀How฀would฀such฀cars฀ operate at night or on cloudy days? . How฀could฀you฀demonstrate฀that฀sound฀is฀a฀ form฀of฀kinetic฀energy? Draw฀a฀cartoon฀of฀a฀jack-in-the-box.฀and฀the฀thunder฀ crashed. Write a caption to describe your cartoon in energy terms.฀Discuss฀ with another student how potential energy is involved.฀the฀ground฀shook฀and.฀turning฀the฀windmill฀ noisily as it pumped the water from deep underground into the trough.฀the฀rocket฀left฀the฀launch฀pad.) Give฀an฀example฀of฀something฀that฀has: a gravitational energy due to its high position b elastic energy because it has been stretched c chemical energy In each case explain how the energy can be used to produce movement. d฀ The฀lightning฀lashed. Energy used Energy converter Energy produced light globe 3 4 electric fan 5฀ petrol engine kinetic electric torch cell 6฀ steam engine atomic bomb electrical heat slingshot or catapult kinetic 7฀ waterwheel kinetic sound 2 What energy changes are being described in each฀of฀the฀following?฀Use฀arrows฀as฀in฀Fig฀13฀ and฀Fig฀14฀on฀page฀110.฀zero.฀and฀how฀this฀energy฀changes฀when฀ the lid is opened. a฀ The฀wind฀blew฀hard. 8฀ 9฀ c฀ ‘…฀two. b฀ At฀the฀lick฀of฀a฀switch฀the฀washing฀machine฀ started turning and churning the clothes.฀one. The gum tree was split right down the middle.฀with฀a฀ deafening฀roar. List at least three different things in which chemical energy is stored.1 14 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW challenge 1 Copy and complete the table below.’฀The฀rocket฀belched฀ire฀ and฀smoke.฀how฀much฀sound฀energy฀is฀ produced?฀(Assume฀these฀are฀the฀only฀energy฀ conversions฀that฀occur.

To make it go. as shown in the photo. then fold back the strips to form vanes. In this device.net.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives t r y t his 1 Build a mousetrap racer as shown. Can you modify it to make it work better? 115 . the gravitational energy of the water is changed to kinetic energy which is then transferred to the spinning wheel.scienceworld. Carefully cut the bottom 4 cm off a soft drink can (A). Put the coathanger wire through these holes and bend it as shown. Go to www. Cut strips 2 cm wide to within 2 cm of the bottom of can B. water plastic blades knitting needle styrofoam wheel plastic soft drink bottle with holes in bottom can B Put the base of can B into can A. 2 Make a working model of a waterwheel as shown below. mousetrap < WEB watch > You could do a project on mousetrap racers. Then put it on the floor and release it. trapper arm string cut can A Wrap string around axle. scissors and pliers.au and follow the links to Mousetrap racers. What energy changes occur? 3 To make a windmill you will need 2 empty soft drink cans. simply wind the string around the axle by turning the rear wheels. Make holes in the middle of the base of each can. Find some moving air and watch it spin. Cut the top rim off a second can (B). a wire coathanger.

The longer the energy Fig 28 Energy chain and energy arrow for a car chain. This heat is transferred to the air around the car. So some of her energy is wasted as heat energy. The 75 joules of waste heat and sound in petrol 100 J kinetic energy of car 20 J from the car is not useful. Also. In fact. 2 Some of this heat energy is converted into kinetic energy of the moving engine parts. The other 75 joules is waste heat and sound wasted as heat and sound. For example. because it cannot be used again. For example.3 Energy comes—energy goes Wasted energy When we use energy it often changes from one form to another. 3 This kinetic energy is then transferred through the gears to the wheels. But as she pedals she gets hot. not all the stored energy in the petrol is used to make the car’s wheels turn. 80 J Note that the total amount of energy you end up with is the same as the amount you started chemical energy with. engineers have calculated that if you start with 100 joules of chemical heat energy kinetic energy chemical kinetic energy energy. . Friction between the moving parts of the engine produces heat. the more energy that is wasted. All energy converters waste energy like this—usually as heat. So chemical energy is converted into useful kinetic energy. 1 The stored chemical energy of the petrol is converted into heat energy when the petrol is burnt in the car’s engine.1 16 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 5. as the engine parts move they produce sound energy. the energy chain for a moving car has three steps. The series of steps is called an energy chain. Therefore. the cyclist is using the chemical energy stored in her muscles to pedal her bike. since each step in the chain involves some loss of energy. you end up released of wheels and energy stored of moving with only 25 joules as petrol burns car in petrol engine parts of kinetic energy. waste heat chemical energy in muscles Fig 27 kinetic energy of bike and rider An energy arrow for riding a bike The energy chain is not 100% efficient. These energy changes can be shown by an energy arrow. Sometimes one energy change follows another. The thickness of the arrow shows roughly how much energy is converted into the different types.

Design and draw up a suitable data table฀to฀record฀your฀results. Investigate 13 WHERE DOES THE ENERGY GO? Aim To find out what happens to the heat energy as a container of hot water cools down.฀Add฀200฀mL฀of฀hot฀ water฀to฀the฀beaker—being฀careful฀not฀to฀burn฀ yourself.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives The efficiency of an energy converter is the percentage of the input energy which is turned into useful energy. The same applies to energy. 117 . Because there is always some waste energy.฀You฀will฀be฀ measuring the temperature inside and outside฀a฀beaker฀of฀hot฀water฀every฀minute฀ for at least 15 minutes. think about a board game such as Monopoly.฀3฀and฀4฀quickly. the efficiency of a car is about 25%. where money can be used for buying and selling. You฀will฀need฀to฀do฀Steps฀2. the efficiency of an energy converter is always less than 100%. Use one of the thermometers to measure the temperature of the฀air฀(room฀temperature). stopwatch Method 1 Open the ICT skillsheet on using dataloggers on the CD. It is therefore 64% efficient. Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ 2฀L฀ice-cream฀container฀or฀similar 250฀mL฀beaker฀or฀similar 2฀thermometers boiling฀water You could use a graph฀paper datalogger with temperature probes. This means that the universe always has the same amount of energy. Conservation of energy You have looked at examples of how energy is converted from one form to another. It moves around and changes its form. scientists decided that there is a special rule or law that describes energy changes. even though this energy is constantly being converted from one form to another and being transferred from one place to another. Fig 29 This label from a microwave oven shows that for every 1400 watts of electricity (1400 joules per second) the oven produces only 900 watts of heat. although it will be distributed differently. 2 Put฀the฀beaker฀in฀the฀ice-cream฀container฀as฀ shown฀on฀the฀next฀page. The law of conservation of energy says that energy cannot be made or destroyed—it can only be converted from one form to another. To help you understand the law of conservation of energy. but the total amount is always the same. the total should be the same as at the beginning. Efficiency = useful energy × 100 input energy For example. Planning and Safety Check Read฀through฀Steps฀1–6฀so฀that฀you฀know฀ exactly what you have to do. The money is transferred between players and the bank. After thousands of such observations. 3 Pour฀1500฀mL฀of฀cold฀water฀into฀the฀ice-cream฀ container. if all the players add up their cash. but the total amount is always the same. At the end of the game.

฀The฀water฀in฀the฀beaker฀ ______฀energy. . We get food from the supermarket.1 18 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW hot water Label the two curves and draw a third line on your graph to represent room temperature during the experiment. Most of our electricity comes from power stations that burn coal to produce steam. petrol from the service station.฀using฀the฀thermometers฀to฀stir฀the฀ water฀gently. oil and natural gas are called fossil fuels because they were formed from plant and animal remains.฀Draw฀a฀smooth฀curve฀for฀each฀ set฀of฀points.) ฀Keep฀taking฀temperatures฀for฀15–20฀ minutes. using the process of photosynthesis. 6 Plot both sets of results on a graph of temperature฀(vertical฀axis)฀versus฀time฀ (horizontal฀axis).฀explain฀why฀they฀are฀different.฀Do฀you฀think฀that฀the฀total฀amount฀ of energy changed? Explain.฀(Don’t฀take฀the฀thermometers฀out฀ of฀the฀water. 5 Are the two amounts of heat energy the same? If฀not.฀while฀the฀water฀in฀the฀ice-cream฀ container ______ ______.฀The฀curve฀is฀steep฀to฀start฀ with. cold water Discussion 1 Copy and complete the following summary.฀the฀temperature฀in฀the฀ice-cream฀ container฀______. Coal. 2฀ Which฀is฀the฀independent฀variable. ฀ 4฀ Place฀one฀thermometer฀in฀the฀beaker฀and฀ the฀other฀in฀the฀ice-cream฀container.฀then฀levels฀out. 5 Measure the inside and outside temperatures every฀minute. 6 Describe the transfer of heat energy in this experiment.฀look฀at฀the฀curve฀for฀the฀water฀ inside฀the฀beaker. and electricity through power lines. 7฀ On฀your฀graph. and store the rest. But where does the energy in these things come from in the first place? Green plants store the energy of sunlight as chemical energy (food).฀(The฀curve฀doesn’t฀have฀to฀go฀ through฀each฀point—so฀long฀as฀it฀shows฀the฀ general฀trend฀of฀the฀results.฀Suggest฀a฀reason฀for฀this.฀Start฀the฀ stopwatch and measure the temperature inside and฀outside฀the฀beaker. 4 Calculate how much heat energy the water in the฀ice-cream฀container฀gained. 8 Predict what would happen to the temperatures inside฀and฀outside฀the฀beaker฀if฀you฀continued฀ this experiment for an hour or more. So animals that eat plants and other animals are using stored energy that came originally from the sun. Animals that eat these plants use most of the energy for their body activities As฀the฀temperature฀of฀the฀water฀in฀the฀beaker฀ decreased. We also use natural gas for heating.฀and฀which฀is฀ the dependent variable? 3 Calculate how much heat energy the water in the฀beaker฀lost฀(volume฀of฀water฀in฀mL฀x฀rise฀in฀ temperature). The petrol we use in our cars is produced by the distillation of crude oil.)฀ Where does energy come from? We use a lot of stored energy without really thinking about where it comes from. ฀Record฀these฀temperatures฀in฀your฀data฀ table฀(for฀time฀=฀0). This steam is then used to turn turbo-generators that produce the electricity.

leaving layers of decaying wood and other plant material. various gases and water. Sometimes the oil and gas were trapped (often under pressure) beneath a layer of non-porous rock like shale. biochemical processes formed crude oil. making it richer in carbon. sea layer of dead marine life swampy forest sand other layers remains of rotting forest layer of mud containing droplets of oil. The remains of these marine organisms were covered quickly by sand and mud. trapping the plant material. they find that these remains come from plants that no longer exist on Earth. At the same time the sediments hardened to form rock. Sediments such as sand and mud were then deposited on top of the old forest. As more and more sediments were deposited. To extract the oil and gas a pipe has to be drilled down through the rocks above. Geologists infer that oil was formed from microscopic plants and animals which died and then settled to the bottom of shallow seas and lakes. Over a period of time the climate changed and the plants in these forests died. They infer that these plants probably grew in moist warm swampy forests about the time dinosaurs roamed the Earth. through which they could not escape. Once formed.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives How oil was formed How coal was formed When geologists examine the fossil plants in coal. After being buried by thick sediments and subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years. This suggests that present coal deposits probably formed from ancient plants that existed millions of years ago. Thus began the slow change over millions of years from wood to coal. the weight of these layers forced out much of the water and gases from the plant material. water and gases sand layers of sediments old forest non-porous rock rocks raised above sea level and folded ground level gas oil weight of sediments layer of coal forms water porous rock 119 . the oil and natural gas slowly seeped towards the Earth’s surface through porous rocks like sandstone which soak up the oil like a sponge.

Yet once they have been burnt in our cars or in power stations they are gone forever. For example. ocean waves. LPG gas. diesel fuel. 2 When using a hacksaw to cut a piece of metal. Notice how much energy is wasted at each step. You will find out more about renewable and non-renewable energy in later studies. solar cells are used to provide power supply systems for remote and rural areas. the sun. The process of obtaining energy from fossil fuels is also very inefficient.1 20 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Renewable or non-renewable There is a major problem in using fossil fuels as a source of energy. there is more energy reaching the unused energy (light and heat) energy used by plants chemical energy stored in plants (photosynthesis) Earth in 10 days of sunlight than in all the fossil fuels on Earth! It makes much better sense to use renewable energy sources that can be replaced as they are used. Explain in energy terms why this happens. Hydroelectricity and wind power are other renewable energy sources. We now have the technology to capture the sun’s energy directly for our use. as shown below. heat energy wasted as coal formed chemical energy stored in coal waste heat energy coal burnt electrical energy coal-burning power station ancient forests coal mine coal Fig 33 Check! 1 Suppose you wind up a toy car and let it go. They are non-renewable. This is why we say they are non-renewable. the blade and the metal both become hot. . They have taken millions of years to form from energy that came originally from the sun. wind. wood. 3 Classify the following energy sources as renewable or non-renewable: coal. uranium. In fact. a Where did the energy needed to wind up the toy come from? b Where has this energy gone when the toy stops moving? spring An energy arrow showing how the electrical energy we use came initially from solar energy.

d What is the efficiency of the turbogenerator? e What is the overall efficiency of the power station? coal 100 joules of chemical energy 20 joules of waste heat energy (chimneys) steam 80 joules of kinetic energy 44 joules of waste heat energy (cooling water) turbogenerator 36 joules of kinetic energy 35 joules of electrical energy 121 . 7 A hot water system is 65% efficient. A B 5 Draw an energy chain that shows the energy changes from the sun to the woman. how much heat energy does it produce? 8 To charge a battery you have to supply energy. 6 Explain in your own words how the petrol used in cars came originally from energy from the sun. If it is supplied with 3000 joules of electrical energy. a Draw an energy arrow to describe what happens in the power station. Why is this? 9 The diagram on the right shows the energy changes in a coal-burning power station. But you never get as much energy from the battery as you use to charge it.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives 4 Copy the boxes and complete the two energy chains below. b How many joules of heat are lost to the environment for each 100 joules of chemical energy stored in the coal? c A small amount of energy is lost when the kinetic energy of the turbo-generator is converted to electrical energy. Infer how this energy is lost.

Explain in energy terms what happened฀when: a he burnt his finger b he put his finger in the ice.฀He฀ immediately put his burnt finger in some crushed ice. 9฀ Look฀at฀the฀diagram฀below.฀ Explain why it cannot supply electricity to the house. 4฀ Two฀cars฀collide฀head-on.฀emitting฀coloured฀ balls of light as the remaining pieces fall to the ground. hydro-electric power station pump 7 State the law of conservation of energy.฀What฀happens฀to฀ the฀kinetic฀energy฀that฀each฀car฀had฀before฀the฀ crash? 5 Machines that have moving parts can be made to run more efficiently. 6 The฀diagram฀shows฀someone’s฀ idea of a perpetual motion machine฀(a฀device฀which฀ once started needs no more energy฀to฀keep฀going). b Draw a table that shows for each of the energy฀converters: ฀ •฀ the฀type฀of฀input฀energy ฀ •฀ the฀type฀of฀output฀energy ฀ •฀ the฀type฀of฀wasted฀energy.1 22 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW challenge 1฀ Here฀are฀the฀eficiencies฀of฀ive฀energy฀converters. Use examples to explain how this can be done. torch battery 90% solar cell 10% ฀ electric฀motor฀ 60% filament light bulb 5% ฀ luorescent฀light฀ 20% a Draw a bar graph to display this data. c Why is it cheaper to light schools with fluorescent lights rather than filament light bulbs? 2 What form of energy does a frictional force usually produce? 3฀ Peter฀burnt฀his฀inger฀on฀a฀frypan. electric whipper snipper dam hydro-electric power station .฀Draw฀an฀energy฀ chain tracing the energy changes from the sun to the energy user on the left. 8฀ Write฀a฀story฀(approximately฀a฀page)฀about฀‘The฀ year฀the฀sun฀stopped฀shining’. Illustrate your answer by describing the energy changes that฀occur฀when฀a฀ireworks฀rocket฀takes฀off฀ and฀explodes฀high฀in฀the฀air.

rather than a change in the form of the energy? A Hot tea poured into a cup makes the cup hot. 1 The electricity you use in your home is a form of energy that came originally from: A electricity in thunderstorms B coal C the potential energy of water stored in dams D the sun 2 Which one of the following is false? A If an object has energy it can do work. light. Non-renewable sources such as ______ cannot be replaced when they are used. 123 . D When you hit something you are transferring energy. chains 1 ______ is the ability to do work. and it can be ______ from one form to another. B A hydro-electric power station uses running water to generate electricity. C Energy can appear from nowhere and also disappear.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives Copy and complete these statements to make a summary of this chapter. It is measured in ______ (J). 6 The law of ______ of energy says that energy cannot be made stored transferred or destroyed. Potential energy is ______ energy. REVIEW Try doing the Chapter 5 crossword on the CD. D Oil is burnt to heat a room. coal and oil electricity energy forms 4 Energy can be ______ from one object to another. conservation 2 ______ energy is the energy an object has because of its converted movement. The missing words are on the right. B A raised object has potential energy. C The tyres of a moving car become hot. 8 ______ energy sources such as solar energy can be replaced as they are used. heat. heat joules 5 When an energy change occurs some energy is always wasted kinetic renewable as ______. 3 Which would require most energy? A riding a bicycle on level ground B riding a bicycle up a hill C walking D doing your homework 4 Which of the following involves a transfer of energy from one object to another. ______ and sound. 7 Most forms of energy (including fossil fuels) can be traced back to the sun using energy ______. for example. 3 There are many different ______ of energy.

6 7 For every 100 joules of energy used by an electric light bulb.8 33. Substance Percentage of total coal oil natural gas hydro-electricity wood. dam water intake electric generator turbine river KINETIC HEAT 8 11 A ball bounces because the kinetic energy it has when it hits a surface changes to elastic potential energy as the ball is pushed slightly out of shape.7 a Draw a pie chart to display this data. 10 Write an energy chain to describe the energy changes that occur in a hydro-electric power station (shown below). David said that electrical energy is made in power stations. by putting the correct energy forms in the two empty boxes. Design an experiment to compare the efficiency with which different types of balls change their kinetic energy into elastic potential energy when they bounce. bagasse and other renewables 41. b Which fossil fuels are used in Australia? c What percentage of Australia’s energy use is from renewable sources? d Use a dictionary to find out what bagasse is. . Check your answers on page 279. Is he correct? Explain using the law of conservation of energy. you get only about 5 joules of light energy. Copy and complete the energy chain below. This elastic energy then changes back to kinetic energy as the ball leaves the surface.8 19.6 1. a What happens to the other 95 joules of energy? b What is the efficiency of the light bulb? A rock is held above a concrete path and dropped.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 1 24 REVIEW 5 a In which position does the roller-coaster car have the most gravitational potential energy? b In which position does it have the most kinetic energy? 9 Bree found this data for Australia’s energy use in 2003–04.1 3.

each of the members of the undecided group will vote for or against the power station. The undecided group will be given time to ask their questions. the government should be encouraging the use of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. based on the arguments presented by the groups. For the inquiry the class will be divided into seven different groups: • For—three groups are in favour of the nuclear power station. You will also need to elect a speaker to present the case prepared by your group. The use of nuclear power would also reduce the cost of the government’s emissions trading scheme.Chapter฀5฀ Energy฀in฀our฀lives Learning focus: Different groups use different criteria to make a decision about an issue US AREA C O F D E B I R C PRES Nuclear power station inquiry A chairperson will organise the inquiry and keep order. ACTU Any accident at the power station is likely to release dangerous radiation. FOR Federal government Australia must reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. using the brief notes in the box. There are individuals and groups who have many different viewpoints on this proposal. Nuclear power stations don’t. AGAINST Australian Conservation Foundation (ACF) Nuclear wastes are radioactive for hundreds. just north of Newcastle. You will need to do research to fill out the details of your argument for or against the proposal. then one from the ‘against’ side. So a public inquiry is to be held in Newcastle to discuss the new power station. Against—another three groups are against the • power station. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Imagine there is a proposal to build Australia’s first nuclear power station at Nelson Bay. and nuclear power could be produced at a competitive price. and to vote on whether it should be given the goahead. You will start with a speaker from the ‘for’ side. and there is a risk of earthquakes in the Newcastle area. Economist Australia has huge reserves of uranium. sometimes thousands of years. • Undecided—the rest of the class are undecided and it is their job to develop a set of questions to ask the speakers before they vote. People for a nuclear-free Australia (PNFA) Instead of funding a nuclear power station. and nuclear power stations don’t produce carbon dioxide as coal-burning power stations do. Each of the groups is to prepare a 3-minute speech for the inquiry. Finally. and so on. 125 . Coal-burning power stations produce sulfur dioxide gas and ash containing toxic heavy metals. and the nuclear industry does not have a long-term storage plan.

1 Heat and temperature page 128 Animation What effects the rate? 6.2 Heat transfer page 134 Animation Enzyme action 6.3 Heat in everyday life page 143 Assessment task 6 Methods of cooking Activity page 134 Activity page 136 Investigate 15 Which absorbs more radiation? Experiment Which is the best insulator? TRB Main ideas Chapter 6 crossword Review Chapter 6 test Learning focus: Models and theories that have been modified or rejected Prescribed focus area How a theory was rejected TRB .6 Investigating heat Planning page Getting started Investigate 14 Heat and temperature Skillbuilder page 131 Using maths equations 6.

The molten glass inside the furnace is at a temperature of more than 1000°C.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat t… l learn abou r you wil In this chapte Learning฀Focus ● models and theories that have been modified or rejected (pages 128 and 149) Knowledge฀and฀Understanding ● ● heat energy the particle theory of matter (page 129) Skills ● ● ● ● ● planning first-hand experiences and choosing equipment or resources (Investigate 14 & 15 and Experiment page 140) gathering information from a histogram (page 131) processing information (Investigate 14. ● Suggest why the glassworker’s clothing is silver-coloured. ● Describe two ways in which the heat moves from the furnace to the glassworker. ● What do you notice about the end of the metal rod in the furnace? ● List the items of protective clothing the worker is wearing. Skillbuilder page 131 and Experiment page 140) problem-solving (Experiment page 140) the use of creativity and imagination (pages 145–146) The photo shows a glassworker. The furnace and glass give off a huge amount of heat. 127 .

Heat and temperature are not the same.1 Heat and temperature Heat is very important in our lives. We use fans. You have probably used ‘sparklers’. Our cars produce heat when they burn petrol. but the resulting temperature rise is so small that you usually cannot detect it. Heat is used by industries to make new materials such as glass. who later moved to Germany and became Count Rumford. Our body functions best at a temperature of about 37°C. From this Fig 2 Drilling brass cannons produced considerable heat. It is measured in degrees Celsius (°C) using a thermometer. Some of this heat energy is transferred to your skin. In other words.1 28 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 6. but there is a connection. For this reason it is measured in joules (J). Rumford inferred that it was the movement of the drills that made the cannons hot. Count Rumford inferred that heat is a form of energy. steel and plastics. Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is. if a spark falls on your hand you don’t even feel it. . People soon realised that some heat is always produced when energy changes from one form to another. An American named Benjamin Thompson. showed that this caloric idea was incorrect. Each spark is actually a tiny piece of white-hot metal. This is because each spark contains only a small amount of heat energy. If our body temperature rises too far above normal or too far below normal we can die. Heat from burning coal is used to generate electricity. Fig 3 Fig 3 Each tiny spark has a high temperature but contains very little heat. and its temperature may be as high as 800°C. If we get too hot or too cold we feel uncomfortable. so much heat was produced that water had to be poured over the cannons to cool them. But what is heat? And how is it different from temperature? Several hundred years ago. We use heat for cooking food and for heating water. heaters and air conditioners to keep us comfortable. The walls and ceilings of our homes are insulated to keep heat in during winter and out during summer. The kinetic energy of the drill had been converted into heat energy. people thought of heat as a special fluid called caloric which flowed in and out of objects as they were heated or cooled. heat is a form of energy (page 109).) However. (The temperature of boiling water is only 100°C. He observed that when holes were drilled in brass to make cannons. From this.

... The more energy the particles have. This temperature is called absolute zero.and that these tiny particles are in a constant state of motion. . Look at the diagram below. heat flows from hot to cold until both objects are at the same temperature. This is why the temperature is higher. The larger the temperature difference. its particles would have no energy at all and would therefore be completely still. When you heat an object. hot metal cold water direction of heat transfer Heat transfer has stopped. the particles in it move more rapidly and therefore have more energy. the faster the transfer. For example. Did you know? If the temperature of a substance was lowered to –273°C. Cool objects in warm places take in energy from their surroundings.. Water and metal are at the same temperature.. an ice block melts quickly on a hot day. the temperature is lower. The rapidly moving particles in the hot object transfer some of their energy to the particles in the colder object. The particle theory states that all matter is made up of tiny little particles. 129 .. When a hot object comes into contact with a cold object. Warm objects such as a cup of hot coffee lose heat energy to their cooler surroundings. and scientists have come close to this in some experiments. the faster they move. When the particles lose energy and move more slowly.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat Heat and the particle theory We can use the particle theory to explain heat.

Leave it at the same setting throughout the experiment. This is to make sure that the heater supplies heat at a constant rate. 3฀ Place฀the฀beaker฀of฀water฀on฀the฀hotplate฀for฀ exactly 2 minutes. •฀ Discuss฀with฀your฀teacher฀the฀safest฀way฀ to handle the hot beaker. 100 mL water 60 mL olive oil Record your results in the data table.฀100฀mL stopwatch Flammable olive oil paper฀towel Planning and Safety Check Read through both parts of the investigation. Record this in the data table.฀tripod฀and฀gauze 250฀mL฀beaker thermometer measuring฀cylinder. Calculate and record the rise in temperature. Write an answer to the question How does the mass of a substance influence how much its temperature rises? . Temperature of Rise in the liquid (°C) temperature before after (°C) heating heating 50 mL water 2฀ Adjust฀the฀hotplate฀or฀the฀burner฀to medium heat. Draw up a data table like the one below.1 30 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Investigate 14 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE Aim To find answers to these questions: A Does the mass of a substance influence how much its temperature rises? B Does the type of substance influence how much its temperature rises? hotplate Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ hotplate฀or฀burner. Then remove the beaker from the hotplate. Record this temperature in the data table. •฀ How฀is฀Part฀B฀different฀from฀Part฀A? •฀ Suggest฀why฀a฀hotplate฀is฀used฀in฀this฀ experiment฀instead฀of฀a฀Bunsen฀burner. 4 Empty the beaker. to the nearest degree. Conclusion Use the thermometer to measure the temperature of the water. stir the water gently with the thermometer and read the temperature. and dry it. cool it under running water. 5฀ Add฀100฀mL฀of฀water฀to฀the฀same฀beaker฀and฀ measure the temperature before and after heating฀for฀2฀minutes. 120 mL olive oil Discussion PART A 1 Which variable did you change in this investigation? Method 2 Which variables did you keep the same? 1 Use the measuring cylinder to add exactly 50 mL of water to the beaker.

You can calculate the amount of heat that is transferred if you know these three variables. To calculate the heat needed to change the temperature of something.1 J u rc Conclusion s as gl a m lu i u ni l m o e liv oi er at w The heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram by 1°C. How much heat energy was needed? 3 How much heat is given out when 60 g of copper cools from 100°C to 20°C? 4 Using your results from Investigate 14. 100 mL water. You could also predict that if you supply twice as much heat to water or olive oil you raise 2. the specific heat capacity of water is 4.9 J 0. You will notice that solids generally heat up more easily than liquids. To summarise. In other words. the amount of heat gained or lost by an object depends on three variables: • its mass • the temperature change • what it is made of.0 J the temperature twice as much. B The same amount of heat will raise the temperature of olive oil more than it raises the temperature of an equal mass of water. For example.2 x 10°C = 2100 joules Use the specific heat capacities from the bar graph on the left to answer these questions. olive oil heats up more quickly than water does. From Investigate 14 you can conclude that— A The same amount of heat will raise the temperature of 50 mL of water twice as much as it raises the temperature of 100 mL of water.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat Discussion PART B Which฀variable฀did฀you฀change฀going฀from฀Part฀A฀ to฀Part฀B?฀Which฀variables฀did฀you฀keep฀the฀same? Method Repeat฀Part฀A.7 J 0. 60 mL olive oil and 120 mL olive oil.฀but฀this฀time฀use฀olive฀oil—60฀mL฀ and฀120฀mL.฀(Sixty฀millilitres฀of฀olive฀oil฀has฀the฀ same mass as 50 mL of water.2 J warm 1 gram of various materials by 1°C.) Record all results in the data table. Are they all the same? 131 . 0. 1 How much heat is required to: a raise the temperature of 100 mL of water by 10°C? b raise the temperature of 60 mL of olive oil by 10°C? 2 A 5 gram block of aluminium was heated from 30°C to 100°C. calculate the amount of heat transferred to 50 mL water.4 J e m Fig 7 ry er pp co Write an answer to the question How does the type of substance influence how much its temperature rises? Skillbuilder Using maths equations The amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1°C is called its specific heat capacity. you can use this mathematical formula: heat (J) = mass (g) x specific heat capacity x change in temperature (°C) So.2 joules per gram per °C. The bar graph below shows the amounts of heat needed to 4. 0. the heat needed to raise the temperature of 50 mL (50 g) of water by 10°C can be calculated as follows: heat = 50 g x 4.

predict which will be hotter one minute after the nails are dropped in? Explain your answer. What energy change has occurred? a b c 3 a b 4 B half full half full 5 minutes 8 minutes C D full full 5 minutes 10 minutes Which beaker of water received the most heat? Which beaker would you predict had the highest temperature after heating? Which beaker would have the lowest temperature after heating? 8 Samples of 50 g of aluminium.1 32 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 1 2 Decide which of the following statements are true and which are false. c When an energy change occurs. while the water is cool. He drops one into 50 mL (50 g) of water and the other into 60 mL (50 g) of olive oil. a Heat is a form of energy. 7 Eva had four identical beakers containing different amounts of water. See the bar graph on the previous page. f As an object becomes hotter. If both liquids are at the same temperature to start with. or from the saucepan into the water? A 10 On a hot summer’s day the dry sand at the beach can be almost unbearable to stand on. 6 Explain why heat energy can be considered a form of kinetic energy. e Heat is measured in degrees Celsius. 5 Josh heats two identical iron nails together until they are red hot. as shown. (Hint: see the bar graph on the previous page. some heat energy is always produced. When Faith used an electric hair dryer to dry her hair. a What will happen to the temperature of the saucepan? b What will happen to the temperature of the water? c Does heat flow from the water into the saucepan. . the hair dryer became quite hot. d A block of ice contains no heat energy. you convert kinetic energy into heat energy. b When you strike a match. glass and water all initially at 20°C are heated for 5 minutes on a hotplate with a constant setting. copper. its particles move more rapidly. She heated them for different lengths of time and none of them boiled.) Which is hotter—a cup of water at 50°C or a bathtub full of water at 50°C? Which contains more heat energy? A cold saucepan is put into a sink containing hot dishwashing water. Rewrite the false ones to make them true. Predict the order (from highest to lowest) of the final temperatures of each sample. 9 Suggest why mercury is used in thermometers. Try to explain this temperature difference. g Heat travels from cold objects to hot objects.

Temperature (˚C) 25 15 8 1 –1 –1 –1 –4 –8 –10 –10 Temperature (°C) X Temperature as hot water cools (Challenge 3) X 50 X X X 0 20 40 Time (min) 60 133 . 1 Ramone was making some ice blocks from fruit฀juice. a฀ Which฀variables฀did฀Harry฀control฀in฀this฀ experiment? b Which variable did he purposely change? c Which variable did he measure? d฀ What฀do฀you฀think฀was฀the฀aim฀of฀Harry’s฀ experiment? 3 Nicky measured the temperature of a saucepan of฀hot฀water฀as฀it฀cooled.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat challenge 2฀ Harry฀did฀an฀experiment฀and฀drew฀these฀ diagrams to show his method. c฀ Suggest฀a฀reason฀for฀the฀lat฀part฀of฀the฀ graph฀between฀40฀min฀and฀60฀min.฀ His฀results฀are฀in฀the฀table฀below.฀and฀decided฀to฀investigate฀their฀ temperature฀as฀they฀cooled฀in฀the฀freezer. a What was the temperature of the water after 10฀minutes?฀฀After฀40฀minutes? b Why is Nicky’s graph steep to start with but flatter near the end? c What do you think the temperature of the room was when Nicky did her experiment? Explain your answer.฀He฀ put a thermometer in one of them and measured฀the฀temperature฀every฀10฀minutes. e฀ At฀what฀temperature฀did฀the฀ice฀blocks฀ freeze? Time (min) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 X thermometers 100 mL water methylated spirits kerosene Heat for 5 minutes. or being taken away from them? b฀ Plot฀Ramone’s฀results฀on฀a฀line฀graph. a Was heat being added to the ice blocks during Ramone’s experiment. d฀ Suggest฀a฀reason฀for฀the฀lat฀part฀between฀ 90฀min฀and฀100฀min.฀She฀plotted฀her฀results฀ as shown in the graph.

. heat energy is transferred from the hot end of the rod to the cooler end. some solids conduct heat better than others. The direction in which it flows is always from a higher temperature to a lower temperature. and a metal rod the same length and thickness as the glass one. This causes them to vibrate faster and collide more energetically with each other. frying pans and irons. Substances that conduct heat well are called good conductors. which are poor conductors of heat. 2 Use wax or grease to stick a paperclip about 5 cm from the end of each rod. Heat energy is transferred along the rod.1 34 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 6. No matter is necessary. open the Cooking animation on the CD. so those that do not melt easily are used to make handles for saucepans. 3 Radiation This is how heat energy is transferred from the sun to Earth. are called insulators. The particles in the end of the rod gain energy from the flame. The heat is transferred along the rod by the process of conduction. Substances like glass.2 Heat transfer Heat energy can be transferred in three different ways. kettles. 2 Convection This is how heat energy is transferred in liquids and gases. wax To see how meat is cooked by conduction. 1 Conduction This is how heat energy is transferred through solids. 3 Heat the end of both rods equally. Then lay the rods across a tripod so that the paperclips hang down as shown. and most metals are good conductors. Most plastics are poor conductors of heat. Which paperclip falls off first? What does this mean? Conduction A metal rod in contact with a hot flame quickly becomes hot. glass rod metal rod paperclip tripod As you saw in the activity. Some solids conduct heat better than others. Activity 1 You will need a glass rod about 20 cm long. This process continues like a chain reaction from particle to particle along the rod. As a result.

the ice at the bottom melts only slowly. Even though the water boils at the top of the test tube. A thin layer of water warmed by body heat is trapped between the suit and the diver’s skin. sleeping bags and the batts used to insulate houses also work by trapping air. Because air is an insulator. The set-up below shows that water is a poor conductor of heat. it slows down the loss of heat from the bird’s skin to the surrounding cooler air.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat Examples of conduction Insulating handles allow you to pick up hot objects without the heat being conducted to your hand. your hand would quickly be burnt. Being a poor conductor. Woollen jumpers. body of diver body heat water caught under wetsuit water 135 . waterproof neoprene wetsuit heat from stove Liquids do not conduct heat very well. this water helps to prevent the diver’s body heat from escaping. aluminium saucepan (good conductor) bakelite plastic handle You may have seen birds fluffing up their feathers on cold days. The wetsuits worn by surfers and divers are made of foam rubber. and is used in the walls of refrigerators to keep heat out. If water was a good conductor of heat. You can demonstrate this by holding your hand beside a burner flame. boiling water tongs iceblock weighted with wire Gases are also poor conductors of heat. but it isn’t. Plastic foam is a good insulator. If air was a good conductor of heat. the ice would melt quickly. This is to trap air between their feathers.

they move further apart than the particles above them. Suggest why the tea leaves rise. It continues until all the water in the beaker is at the same temperature. 3 Heat underneath the tea leaves as shown. the warm air rises above the heater. A convection current is then set up as the cooler air sinks. When a hot water tap is turned on. The same thing happens on a larger scale to form a sea breeze. 2 Carefully drop half a teaspoon of used tea leaves down one side of the beaker. Because of this. and colder water moves in to take its place.and cool water takes its place.. The hot water is drawn off from the top. water tea leaves heater cold water Convection The movement of the tea leaves in the activity above demonstrates the movement of heat energy by the process of convection.. When you turn on a heater in winter. Hot water systems work by convection. Warm air rises above the land. because the sea takes a long time to warm up.. Warm air rises. This process can be explained using the particle theory. This movement of particles is called a convection current. they gain more energy and move more rapidly.. Convection currents also occur in air. setting up convection currents. cooler air (sea breeze) Land warmer than sea Fig 21 How a sea breeze is caused by convection . Hence the warm water near the bottom is less dense than the water above it. Draw a diagram showing the movement of the tea leaves. This warmer water therefore rises. hot water taps . When water particles at the bottom of the beaker are heated.1 36 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Activity 1 Fill a large beaker with water and allow it to stand until the water is completely still. and cooler air blows in from the sea to take its place. making sure not to disturb the water. During the day the land is warmer than the sea. more cold water flows in at the bottom. Hot water rises. The heater at the bottom warms the water which moves upwards as the cool water takes its place.

The waves travel in straight lines. radiation absorbed Fig 22 infra-red radiation The curved silver mirror at the back of an electric radiator reflects the radiation. which we cannot see but which can be detected by special infra-red scanners. the more heat it radiates. This process may continue for a short time after the food is removed from the oven. You can see through the glass door. In a vacuum the speed of radiation is 300 million metres per second or 3 × 108 m/s. 137 . (Microwaves will also pass through paper and most plastics. The microwaves penetrate the food to a depth of between two and four centimetres. Microwaves are reflected off metals. but when it is absorbed by an object it causes the particles in the object to move more rapidly. so they reflect from the TRANSMITTED (passes through transparent material) ABSORBED (taken in) REFLECTED (bounces off) Fig 23 Heat and light can be transmitted. All objects transfer some heat by radiation. However. The hotter the object. This is why infra-red scanners are used at night by air–sea rescue helicopters to help find people who are lost. thus heating it. Different types of radiation have different wavelengths. This causes the molecules in the food (mainly water molecules) to move more rapidly. where they are absorbed. The heat is then transferred to other parts of the food by conduction. giving off visible light as well as infra-red radiation. inside of the oven onto the food being cooked. People are usually warmer than their surroundings and give off more infra-red radiation. but the microwaves cannot pass through the metal lattice behind the glass. All of these properties of radiation are applied in microwave cooking. the Sun transfers heat energy by the process of radiation. If a metal object becomes hot enough it will glow. The radiation itself is not hot. and hence the food heats up. Warm objects radiate heat mainly in the form of infra-red radiation. the space between the Sun and the Earth does not contain matter. such as the vacuum of space. absorbed or transmitted by matter. and they can be reflected. reflected or absorbed. Light. so heat energy cannot be transferred by the processes of conduction or convection. which remains relatively cool because it absorbs very little radiation.) ‘stirrer’ to reflect waves waveguide source of microwaves glass dish food turntable Fig 24 How a microwave oven works. infra-red and other forms of radiation all travel as extremely high-speed waves which can pass through a vacuum.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat Radiation The Sun’s rays heat the Earth. The microwaves are transmitted through the glass dish. Instead.

Record the temperature in each can every minute฀for฀15฀minutes.฀(A฀datalogger฀will฀do฀this฀for฀you. Discussion and conclusion 1 Which was the independent variable. •฀ Which฀can฀do฀you฀predict฀will฀absorb฀more฀ radiation? Why? In your notebook design a data table in which to record the temperature of each can every฀minute฀for฀15฀minutes. What does the slope of each line tell you about the warming rate of the can? 5฀ Based฀on฀the฀results฀of฀this฀experiment. you could use a microscope lamp. •฀ What฀safety฀precautions฀will฀be฀necessary? ฀ Design a similar experiment to find out which can cools more quickly. 2 If you use empty food cans. or you could put the cans in direct sunlight. and which was the dependent variable? 2 Which variables did you control? 3฀ Which฀can฀absorbed฀more฀radiation?฀How฀do฀ you know? Was your prediction correct? 4 Look at your graph.฀write฀a฀ generalisation saying how the amount of heat absorbed฀by฀an฀object฀depends฀on฀the฀type฀of฀ surface.) 4 Turn on the lamp and at the same time start timing. shiny silver can . 5฀ Plot฀the฀temperature฀for฀both฀cans฀on฀a฀single฀ graph. how? Planning and Safety Check Read the Method carefully and discuss with your teacher what equipment you will use.1 38 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Investigate 15 WHICH ABSORBS MORE RADIATION? Aim To compare the amount of radiation absorbed by a shiny silver can and a dull black can. Materials •฀ 2฀thermometers฀or฀datalogger฀and฀ 2฀temperature฀probes •฀ portable฀spotlight฀or฀electric฀radiator •฀ 2฀metal฀cans—one฀shiny฀silver฀and฀one฀dull฀ black NOTES 1 Instead of using a spotlight. thermometer dull black can hole in lid Method 1฀ Add฀equal฀volumes฀of฀cold฀water฀to฀both฀cans. 3 To cut down on heat loss by convection. you could blacken one by holding it in the smoke from a burning candle. 6 Could the experiment be improved? If so. Painted soft drink cans work well. you need lids.฀(These฀should฀be฀the฀same. 2฀ Position฀the฀spotlight฀or฀radiator฀at฀an฀equal฀฀ distance from each can. but make sure you label the two curves.)฀You฀ could use a different colour for each can. 3 portable spotlight Record the initial temperature of the water in฀each฀can.

On the other hand.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat Absorbing and emitting radiation Dark-coloured surfaces are better absorbers of radiation than light-coloured ones. Dark-coloured cars become much hotter than light-coloured cars when left in the sun. This is why aluminium foil is used in ceilings and walls of houses to reflect heat. This keeps them cool in summer by preventing heat from coming in from outside. All objects emit (give out) infra-red radiation if they are at a higher temperature than their surroundings. the absorbing panels of solar water heaters are painted black so that the copper pipes inside them absorb as much of the sun’s radiation as possible. but some radiate heat more readily than others. poor absorber) dark car (good absorber) Fig 28 The cooling fins on an air-cooled motorcycle engine have a large surface area to increase radiation of heat. (See page 146. This is because light-coloured surfaces reflect more of the radiation. And dark-coloured clothes are hotter in summer than light-coloured clothes. We use insulators to control this transfer of heat. Similarly.) 139 . Eskys and thermos flasks (see page 144) are insulated containers to keep food and drink at the temperature we want it—either hot or cold. light car (good reflector. Controlling heat transfer An object that is warmer than its surroundings will lose heat until it is the same temperature as its surroundings. Bright shiny surfaces are the best reflectors and the poorest absorbers. an object that is cooler than its surroundings will gain heat from its surroundings. silver teapot (poor emitter) cooling fins black teapot (good emitter) Is the pizza still hot? Why did I ask for triple chilli? We insulate the walls and ceilings of our homes. Dark-coloured objects radiate heat more effectively than light-coloured objects. It also keeps them warm in winter by preventing heat from escaping. due to their greater surface area. Pizza delivery people put their pizzas in special insulated boxes to keep them warm. Rough surfaces also radiate heat more effectively.

but here are some questions to guide you. •฀ How฀will฀you฀clothe฀your฀model฀bodies?฀What฀ materials฀will฀you฀use?฀Some฀possibilities฀are฀ wool. .฀lannelette. Results How฀will฀you฀record฀and฀display฀your฀results?฀If฀a฀ datalogger is available you could use it. Open the ICT skillsheet on the CD to see how this can be done. Results like this are said to be reliable. If someone else repeats your experiment and gets the same results you can be even more confident. Writing your report Look carefully at your results and write a report of your findings.฀nylon. • If possible.฀You฀can฀then฀compare฀the฀clothed฀ bodies with it to see how effective the different types of clothes are. then you can be more confident your conclusion is correct.฀polyester.฀but฀ what฀other฀variables฀are฀there?฀How฀will฀you฀ keep these other variables constant? • It would be a good idea to use an experimental control—a฀model฀body฀with฀no฀ clothes.฀How฀ many model bodies will you need? •฀ How฀will฀you฀measure฀the฀temperature?฀How฀ often will you do this. repeat your experiment to improve the accuracy of your measurements. If you get the same results.฀cotton. You฀could฀take฀a฀digital฀photo฀of฀your฀set-up฀to฀ include in your report. Could you improve your design?฀How? ฀ Instead of keeping something warm you often want to keep something cold. Would a graph be useful? Computer programs such as Excel can be used for drawing graphs.1 40 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Experiment WHICH IS THE BEST INSULATOR? The problem to be solved Your฀task฀is฀to฀design฀an฀experiment฀to฀solve฀ the problem Which type of material keeps you warmest in winter? Designing your experiment The design of the experiment is up to you. and how long will you continue the experiment? •฀ How฀will฀you฀make฀your฀test฀fair฀(as฀in฀Chapter฀ 2)?฀You฀are฀varying฀the฀type฀of฀clothing. Design an experiment to find out which is the best insulator for this. giving your answer to the problem. •฀ What฀will฀you฀use฀as฀a฀model฀for฀a฀human฀ body? One idea is to use a can filled with hot water.

D plastic foam a b c 3 Which beaker do you think will be the hottest after 10 minutes? Why? Explain why the water in B will probably be a little warmer than that in A. What happens to the heat energy lost from the beakers? An ordinary gas or electric oven is more correctly called a convection oven. and in summer it sits down flat. heating element 4 You put a can and a glass bottle of ginger beer into the refrigerator at the same time. a Can heat travel through space where there is no air? What about light and sound? b Can heat. After 10 minutes the temperature of each is measured again. c Can heat. Suggest how these adaptations allow the bears to control their temperature. reflected and absorbed. Why? 141 . A B C 5 Refrigerators and freezers are painted white. How could you test your prediction? 7 Polar bears have white fur and black skin. They both contain 375 mL and are both at room temperature. How can you explain this? 9 There are similarities and differences in the way light.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat Check! 1 What is the advantage of a copper bottom on a saucepan? 2 The four beakers shown are identical and contain the same volume of water at 80°C. light and sound be absorbed? Give examples. Why is this? 6 Predict the effect that a chocolate coating would have on the rate at which an icecream melts. light and sound be reflected? Give examples. Predict which one will cool more quickly. yet the freezer unit in the foreground of the photo has no lid. heat and sound are transmitted. 8 In a supermarket the doors of vertical refrigerators must be kept shut. Why? Draw a diagram showing how it works by convection. In winter their fur is fluffed up. Yet the coils at the back are painted black.

a Conduction occurs much more rapidly in solids than in gases.฀How฀does฀ this make the balloon rise? 5 Use the particle theory to explain the following.30฀am฀ 15°C฀ 30°C a฀ Plot฀these฀results฀on฀a฀graph. why not wear a woollen jumper on a hot day? Surely this would reduce the amount of heat reaching your body.฀Is฀he฀right?฀How฀would฀ you answer him? Wool is a very good insulator. 6 Design an experiment to compare the insulating properties of four different house bricks. b฀ Which฀absorbs฀heat฀more฀readily—water฀ or soil? c฀ During฀the฀day.฀Here฀are฀their฀results.45฀am฀ 13°C฀ 16°C ฀ ฀ 10. They placed them in the refrigerator overnight. b Convection currents can occur in liquids and gases. Time Water Soil ฀ ฀ 9. but not in solids.15฀am฀ 15°C฀ 25°C ฀ ฀ 10. Try it if you have time.฀one฀ with water and the other with soil.30฀am฀ 12°C฀ 13°C ฀ ฀ 9. and measured their temperature every 15฀minutes.฀ a What will happen to the temperature at each end if the rod is left at room temperature? b฀ Sketch฀graphs฀to฀illustrate฀the฀temperature฀ changes at the two ends of the rod. 3฀ Ansa฀and฀Tammy฀illed฀two฀paper฀cups. . put them in the sun. 7 One end of a long glass rod is heated to 100°C฀and฀the฀other฀end฀is฀cooled฀to฀0°C. So.00฀am฀ 14°C฀ 20°C ฀ ฀ 10. The next morning they took both cups.00฀am฀ 10°C฀ 10°C ฀ ฀ 9.1 42 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW challenge 1 What colour would you paint large petrol storage tanks? Why? 2 Look at the cartoon showing Jason thinking about฀how฀heat฀travels.฀which฀becomes฀hotter—the฀ land or the sea? d Where would a glider pilot look for thermals (rising฀air)—above฀land฀or฀above฀a฀lake? 4฀ Hot-air฀balloons฀work฀by฀using฀a฀burner฀that฀ heats฀the฀air฀below฀the฀balloon. 8 Using what you have learnt in this chapter suggest: a four ways of preventing heat loss from your house in winter b four ways of preventing your house from getting hot in summer.15฀am฀ 10°C฀ 11°C ฀ ฀ 9.

and it takes about a second before enough heat is transferred through the dead outer layer of skin on the foot to the living tissue beneath. The secret to firewalking is that charcoal is a poor conductor of heat. causing it to stop burning. Exercises You฀may฀have฀seen฀irewalking฀on฀TV.3 Heat in everyday life This section is different from other sections of the book. Only the outer layer of 1฀ What฀is฀the฀temperature฀of฀red-hot฀coals? 2 What are coals made of? 3฀ Are฀coals฀good฀conductors฀of฀heat฀or฀poor฀ conductors? 4 What is the main way heat is transferred in firewalking? 5 What is meant by the term ‘ignition temperature’? > 143 . If you need help with this. and you should not try it yourself! Firstly. When a firewalker’s foot touches a burning coal. under฀the฀arch฀and฀between฀the฀toes. small bits of coals can sometimes stick to the firewalker’s feet.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat 6. firewalking is still dangerous.฀So฀how฀can฀ you฀walk฀on฀red-hot฀coals฀at฀about฀800°C? The฀coals฀are฀charcoal—formed฀by฀the฀partial฀ combustion of wood. you can select any of the six activities on the following pages. So. burns can occur where the skin is thinnest. When this occurs the coal is in contact with the foot for longer than a second and a burn will result.฀But฀it฀can฀be฀ explained in terms of heat transfer. You will need to apply what you have learnt in the first two sections and work things out for yourself. In some of the activities you will be designing your own experiments to solve a problem.฀where฀ people฀walk฀barefoot฀across฀a฀pit฀of฀red-hot฀ coals. Despite all this.฀provided฀that฀the฀foot฀is฀in฀contact฀with฀any฀ one hot coal for less than a second. thereby causing a burn. Even when you walk barefoot on a hot bitumen road your feet can be burned as heat is transferred฀to฀them฀by฀conduction.฀Some฀people฀think฀that฀this฀shows฀how฀ the฀mind฀can฀inluence฀the฀body. 1 Firewalking each coal is actually burning.฀ if there is any burning wood mixed with the coals it฀may฀produce฀hot฀gas฀jets฀capable฀of฀burning. it will not be burned. a small amount of heat is transferred to the foot by conduction. see Chapter 2. Instead of working through it page by page.฀Secondly.฀ Thirdly. for example. This loss of heat is enough to temporarily reduce the surface temperature of the coal below ignition temperature.

9฀ Suggest฀why฀the฀maximum฀contact฀time฀is฀ slightly different for different people. cover well-fitting plastic stopper double-walled glass or stainless steel container silvered walls hot or cold liquid heat radiation air space air pumped out to create a vacuum rubber.฀Then฀write฀an฀ explanation of how a thermos keeps liquids hot or cold.1 44 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 6฀ About฀how฀long฀does฀it฀take฀before฀living฀ tissue beneath dead skin is burned? 7 Why is it a problem if small bits of coals stick to the firewalker’s feet? 8 Given the maximum contact time of one second. plastic or cork supports .฀convection฀and฀radiation. is it safe to walk across the coals at normal walking pace? Explain. 10฀ How฀does฀irewalking฀illustrate฀the difference between temperature and heat? 2 How does a thermos work? Study฀the฀labelled฀diagram. Make sure you explain how the various parts work to prevent heat flow by conduction.฀Your฀ teacher may be able to show you the inside of a thermos.

’ Who is right? Write a hypothesis about the cooling of coffee. so she said. Then design and carry out an experiment to test your hypothesis. or is it to do with the relative temperatures฀of฀the฀coffee฀and฀milk?฀How฀ could you find out? Don’t add the milk to my coffee ‘til I’ve finished on the phone.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat 3 Which is the coolest colour to wear? Which is the coolest colour to wear in summer? Design฀an฀experiment฀to฀ind฀out. Mahdi฀was฀just฀about฀to฀add฀the฀milk฀to฀ Kyle’s coffee when he said. Include a recommendation to people wanting to keep cool in summer.฀You฀ could use a method similar to that in Investigate฀15฀on฀page฀138.฀(You฀may฀be฀able฀to฀use฀a฀ datalogger with temperature probes.฀A฀datalogger฀ with several temperature probes would be very useful here. ‘The coffee will probably stay hotter if you add the milk after I’ve finished on the phone. Phew! It’s so hot! You must be absolutely roasting in those dark clothes. You฀will฀need฀to฀make฀careful฀ measurements and record your results on฀a฀graph.) Is Mahdi’s explanation correct? Is it to do with colour. Wouldn’t it be better if I put it in now? 145 . Write your report.฀or฀you฀could฀ work฀out฀your฀own฀design. 4 Does white coffee cool faster than black coffee? One evening as Mahdi was making coffee for Kyle and herself the telephone rang. ‘Wouldn’t it be better if I added the฀milk฀now?฀I฀learnt฀at฀school฀that฀darkcoloured things like coffee give off more heat฀and฀cool฀faster฀than฀light-coloured฀ things like milk.’ Mahdi knew Kyle would be on the phone for ages. giving your conclusion and commenting on the accuracy and reliability of your method and results.

For example. Take into account how heat is gained and lost by an average house. Now go ahead and test your hypothesis. write a hypothesis that you think is correct.฀including฀the฀ types of trees < WEB watch > To find out more about energy-efficient house designs. Make sure that the hypothesis is written in such a way that you can test it. If possible. as shown in the diagram.net.au and follow the links to Sustainable energy info (fact sheets on building) and Energy Smart house design.฀You฀wonder฀whether฀ this is in fact true. floor 15% Fig 43 draughts & ventilation 15% The percentages of the total heat transfer in various parts of an average house . you need to say what will be measured.scienceworld. repeat your experiment to make sure your conclusion is reliable. walls and roof walls 35% windows 10% •฀ design฀features฀such฀as฀a฀lat฀or฀ sloping฀roof. One of the tips is to always put a lid on a saucepan when฀cooking. using what you have learnt in this chapter about heat transfer.1 46 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 5 Why use a lid? You฀have฀been฀glancing฀through฀a฀book฀called฀ 101 ways to save energy in the home. go to www.฀types฀of฀windows฀(eg฀ single-฀or฀double-glazed)฀and฀ventilation •฀ the฀surrounds฀of฀the฀house. lid steam boiling water food stove 6 Designing a house Your฀task฀is฀to฀design฀a฀house฀for฀your฀area฀that฀ is cool in summer and warm in winter. In your design you should consider: roof 25% •฀ the฀position฀of฀the฀house •฀ the฀type฀of฀building฀materials฀used฀฀ for the floor. Based฀on฀what฀you฀have฀learnt฀ in this chapter.

REVIEW 1 If one end of a copper rod is held in a burner flame. Poor conductors are called ______. 3 The amount of heat gained or lost by an object depends on its ______. conduction 2 The temperature of an object depends on how fast its ______ convection are moving. Metals are the best conductors of heat. the temperature ______ and what it is made from. 5 Heat energy flows from places where the temperature is ______ to where it is ______. The faster they move. The most efficient colour for these radiators would be: A silver B white C black D red 3 Copy and complete the diagrams below to show the convection currents you would expect to form in the water. The missing words are on the right. Try doing the Chapter 6 crossword on the CD. absorb 1 Heat is a form of ______ which can raise the ______ of an object. 7 Heat energy can be transferred across empty space by means of ______. Insulators are used to reduce the amount of heat ______. 8 Dark-coloured surfaces ______ and emit radiation better than light-coloured surfaces. change energy high insulators low mass particles radiation temperature transfer 6 ______ is where heat is transferred by circulating currents in liquids or gases.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat Copy and complete these statements to make a summary of this chapter. heat travels quickly along the rod to the other end. Substances like copper which behave in this way are called good: A absorbers B insulators C radiators D conductors 2 A building is heated by running hot water through a number of radiators. a b 147 . 4 ______ is the transfer of heat through a material by the collision of particles. the higher the temperature.

Here are their results. e The hotter an object is. They put one cup in the sun and the other in the shade. 11 Do sheep get colder when it is raining and their wool is wet? Design an experiment to find out. a How does heat travel from the heating element to the sandwich? b Why can’t the heat travel by conduction or convection? heating element 9 Rory and Trent poured equal volumes of cold water into two identical styrofoam cups. 5 If two objects are at different temperatures. Why is this? 8 Look at the diagram of a toasted cheese sandwich being cooked in a griller. g Heat radiation travels at the speed of light.5 20. then put identical thermometers in each.5 18. Is this expression accurate? Explain using a diagram. . listing the steps you would need to take to make it a fair test. b Conduction is fast in insulators. 7 If you hold your hand above a burning candle. toasted cheese sandwich Check your answers on pages 279–281. d The sun transfers heat energy to the Earth by the process of convection. Yet you can quite comfortably hold your hand beside the flame. a A cold object eventually heats up to the same temperature as its surroundings. you will burn yourself. what can you say about the movement of the particles in the hotter one? 6 Which has more heat energy—a teaspoon of water at 80°C or a bucket of water at 80°C? Explain. and recorded the temperatures every 10 minutes.5 18 20 21 23 24 15 16 17 17. and which are false? Rewrite the false ones to make them correct. c Heat transfer by conduction is very slow in liquids and gases.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 1 48 REVIEW 4 Which of the following statements are true. the less radiation it emits.5 a Plot the results on a graph.5 19. b What conclusion can you draw from the graph? c What variables did Rory and Trent control in this experiment? d Which method of heat transfer caused the increase in temperature of the water in the cups? e What would be the effect of painting the cup in the sun black? 10 A manufacturer claims that a certain insulating material is good ‘to keep the cold out’. f When an object absorbs radiation its temperature rises. Temperature (°C) Times (minutes) in sun in shade 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 15 16.

3 Use what you have learnt about heat to explain your results. Joule’s experiment 149 . 2 Add the hot water to the cold water and stir carefully with a thermometer. However. Unfortunately Lavoisier was beheaded in the French Revolution in 1794. How long did the caloric theory last? 3 Why was the caloric theory rejected? pulley pulley thermometer falling weight fixed paddle water rotating paddle Lavoisier. He made the apparatus shown below in which a falling weight turned a paddle in a tank of water. To explain the results of the activity did you write a hypothesis that heat is transferred from a hotter substance to a colder one? Scientists test a hypothesis like this by carrying out more experiments.Chapter฀6฀ Investigating฀heat Learning focus: Models and theories that have been modified or rejected US AREA C O F D E B I R C PRES How a theory was rejected Activity 1 Measure 50 mL of cold water into a beaker and record its temperature. and suggested that the caloric theory was incorrect. in the red coat. as well as Dalton’s particle theory in 1803. In 1783. Other scientists then repeat these experiments. Record the temperature. If all the experiments support the hypothesis. Four years later Count Rumford did his experiment with drilling brass cannons (see page 128). the hypothesis is accepted as a theory. The friction caused by the paddle caused the temperature to rise slightly. and none have shown it to be false. 1 How does a hypothesis become a theory? 2 Draw a time line showing the events outlined on this page. From this he was able to show that heat is just a form of energy and can be explained in terms of the motion of particles (see page 129). This theory is accepted until new evidence is found that doesn’t support it. scientists were reluctant to reject the caloric theory since it successfully explained many experiments. is carried to the guillotine during the French Revolution. Antoine Lavoisier proposed the theory that heat is a special fluid called caloric that flows from warmer to colder objects. Then measure out 50 mL of hot water and record its temperature. In 1842 James Joule carried out a famous experiment that meant the caloric theory had to be rejected.

2 Exploring the solar system page 157 7.7 Exploring฀฀ space Planning page Getting started Activity page 153 Skillbuilder page 155 Timelines Activity page 163 Activity page 164 Activity page 173 7. economic and legal argument TRB Chapter 7 test Prescribed focus area Colonising Mars .1 Observing the night sky page 152 7.3 Stars and galaxies page 169 TRB Assessment task 7 An astronomy survey Main ideas Chapter 7 crossword Review Learning focus: Distinguishing between scientific.

where do they come from? How much do you know about the solar system and the universe? Form a group and discuss the questions below. ● It has been suggested that humans might one day live on Mars. Activity page 164) thinking critically—generalising and predicting (Activity page 153) Do aliens exist? If so.Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space t… l learn abou r you wil In this chapte Learning฀Focus ● distinguishing between scientific.3 light-years away. ● The nearest star is 4. where are they likely to live? Describe the body features they would have to have to live in these places. Science Bits page 166) processing information (Activities pages 163–164) presenting information (Skillbuilder page 155. What does this mean? Could we get to this star using our present methods of space travel? Suggest other ways of travelling to stars. Why Mars and not one the other planets in our solar system? 151 . economic and legal argument (page 177) Knowledge฀and฀Understanding ● ● the solar system components of the universe (Section 7.3) Skills ● ● ● ● gathering information from secondary sources (Activities pages 163–164. ● If aliens exist somewhere in the universe.

Inferences from observations Most cultures throughout history have had very important beliefs about the visible objects in the universe. Mars. it proved to be a bombshell because it was contrary to the traditional belief that the Earth is the centre of the universe. Nicholas Copernicus (ko-PER-nickus) published a book containing the idea that the Earth was not the centre of the universe. Venus. At about the same time the Babylonians thought that the Earth was the centre of a huge sphere. Jupiter and Saturn). The stars were shiny jewels on her dress. These beliefs or inferences were based on the observations that the Sun. But the Greek mathematician Aristotle inferred that the Earth was a sphere after observing its circular shadow on the Moon during an eclipse. Using very detailed observations gathered over 40 years. he inferred that the planets revolve around a central sun. In AD 140 the Greek astronomer Ptolemy (TOLL-em-ee) wrote an encyclopaedia of astronomy detailing the motion of the moon. Fig 3 In 350 BC most people believed that the Earth was flat. 4000 years ago. They do know that it is made up of billions of stars. However. Many people also thought that the Earth was flat. millions more than the few thousand that you can observe by looking at the night sky. the five known planets (Mercury. Even though his inference was not new. (only half the sphere shown) stars Mars Earth Jupiter Saturn Sun Venus Mercury Fig 2 Moon The Babylonians thought that the Earth was at the centre of a huge sphere. the sun and the stars all revolving around the Earth. . Moon. with the stars set like jewels on its inner surface. Moon and planets moving around the Earth. believed that the sky was the body of the goddess Nut. with the Sun. they are not sure how big the universe is. In 1543. and their ideas went unquestioned for about 1400 years.1 52 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 7. Ptolemy and other astronomers of his time were very influential. while the planets were shiny boats that drifted across the sky. The Egyptians.1 Observing the night sky When you gaze into the night sky you are looking at part of the universe. planets and stars all move in a westerly direction around the Earth. In most cultures the beliefs were based on a central Earth with the other objects moving around it. Astronomers (scientists who study objects in space) describe the universe as space and everything in it.

and discovered that they were round and disc-like. These paths are called orbits. He used these observations to support the inference that the Sun was at the centre of the solar system. b Put a piece of Blu-tack on the blunt end of the pencil. as shown in the photo. The date is on the left and the moons that were visible on each night are marked beside Jupiter (the circle). Venus and Jupiter. and place the pencil about 5 cm in from the north edge of the paper. a large sheet of stiff paper or cardboard. d Do this every half an hour for as long as you can. Galileo also noticed four moons revolving around the planet. He also observed the planets Mars.) e Join up the s on the paper and show in which direction the shadow moved. His inference was based on incredibly accurate planetary observations collected over 30 years by his teacher. What shape is the line joining the s? How does the movement of the shadow relate to the rotation of the Earth? Predict how the line would change throughout the year. When observing Jupiter. Use the compass to find north and position a long side of the paper to face north. Invention of the telescope In 1610 Galileo built a telescope using lenses. level ground. mark the shadow every 5 minutes.  N c Place an at the end of the shadow. This supported Copernicus’ inference and suggested that the planetary paths are ellipses rather than circles. a compass and some Blu-tack. craters and large flat plains. 153 . which were just points of light in the sky. (If you only have a lesson. Fig 5 Some of Galileo’s observations of the moons of Jupiter.Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space Activity For this activity you will need a pencil. a Place the paper on some flat. He saw mountains. and observed the surface of the Moon for the first time. Another breakthrough in astronomy occurred in 1609 when Johannes Kepler published his First Law of Planetary Motion. unlike stars. and write the time next to it. Mark north in the corner of the paper. Tycho Brahe (pronounced Bray).

After many years of careful observation. but in 2006 the Union reclassified it as a dwarf planet. it was difficult to observe with a telescope because it was so far away from Earth. In the early 1800s astronomers observed unusual changes in Uranus’ movements and inferred that they were caused by an unknown planet. However. The American astronomer Percival Lowell had predicted the presence of a ninth planet in 1905. Because of this. the new planet’s position in the sky was predicted by English and French astronomers. Pluto Saturn Uranus Jupiter Sun Mercury Neptune Venus Earth Mars Asteroid belt The diagram is not to scale. However Pluto’s orbit is tilted and crosses the orbit of Neptune. Eventually Pluto’s existence was confirmed when it was observed in 1930 using newly invented photographic methods. Fig 6 William Herschel’s telescope used in the discovery of Uranus in 1781. . Johann Galle. The planets revolve around the Sun in orbits that are roughly in the same plane. Pluto was officially declared a planet in 1999 by the International Astronomical Union. Fig 7 The arrangement of the planets and Pluto in the solar system. It was called Neptune. larger and more powerful telescopes were built to scan the night sky. In 1781 William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus using a very large telescope.1 54 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW After Galileo’s small telescope. Then in 1846 the new planet was discovered by the German astronomer. Pluto was closer to the sun than Neptune between the years 1979 and 1999.

and can be drawn horizontally or vertically. Summarise the event into a sentence. The line has intervals marked on it to indicate the units of time. 4 On the right-hand side of the timeline. The timeline on the right shows the events in the history of motion pictures (movies). To do this you need to read through the information on pages 152–154 carefully.) 5 Discuss the timeline with your group. a wide curving screen and stereo sound Colour movies first made 1980 1990 10 am 800 BC 12 noon 2 pm 850 BC 4 pm 6 pm 8 pm 900 BC 1900 First public screening of a motion picture (Waves on the shore) 950 BC 1890 10 pm 12 midnight First talking motion picture 1920 1000 BC 2000 Drawing timelines Your task is to draw a timeline for the events that led to the discovery of all nine planets in the solar system. mark every 500 years on the timeline. What is the time interval for each? Digital projectors replace film projectors in cinemas 2000 Digital surround sound used in cinemas 1980 First IMAX cinema 1960 Where would you mark 1985. (Hint: To save time. 7 pm and 925 BC? 1940 Cinerama movies made using three projectors. (Use the motion pictures timeline above as a guide. 155 . 1 Draw a vertical line down the long side of a large piece of paper. select each event and the date on which it occurred. Notice in the diagram below the vertical timelines can start at the top or the bottom. It is like the scale used on the axis of a graph. You may be asked to present it to the class.) Thomas Edison shows a 15 second film in New York 3 Read through the information in the text and in the captions underneath the photos and drawings. draw a box around it. Look at the three timelines below. write the event that occurred. From this information.Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space Skillbuilder The history of motion pictures Timelines A timeline is a visual way of representing the sequence of historical events. The arrow on the line can point up or down. then rule a line from the event to the year in which it occurred. 2 Your timeline will go from 2000 BC to AD 2100. Work out a suitable scale for the timeline and draw it.

Two hours 8 pm later you observed the Southern Cross again and recorded its position. and from that date only 90 years to find another 57. b Over how many nights did Galileo make observations? What assumptions did you make to answer this question? 2 Galileo observed four moons orbiting Jupiter. some of which are only 20 km in diameter. In 1908 astronomers recorded seeing the eighth moon. Today. This is Galileo’s record of his observations of the moons around Jupiter. Moon and planets. What is this inference? 3 In the late 1600s people began to accept a new idea about the arrangement of the solar system. Make an inference to account for the difference in the observations. Make an inference to account for the differences in these observations. a Suggest why this occurred. What are the English names for these seven objects? Name them in order from closest to furthest. From 1610. a What is at the centre of the universe? b The first seven circles represent the objects in the solar system. 10 pm challenge 1 Look at Fig 5 on page 153. astronomers have ‘seen’ 63 moons. The names are written in Latin. 7 Suggest why it took so long to discover Pluto. it took 300 years to find four more moons. but on other nights he observed three and sometimes two. 3 Below is a 14th century woodcut of Ptolemy’s map of the universe. b Do you think that astronomers have actually ‘seen’ the smaller moons of Jupiter? Give reasons for your answer. What was this new idea? 4 What is an orbit? What general shape is it? What is so unusual about the orbit of Pluto? 5 Which planets cannot be seen with the naked eye? When was each one discovered? 6 The word ‘planet’ comes from the Greek word meaning ‘wanderer’? Suggest why this is a good term to describe these bodies in space.1 56 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 1 How does the ancient Egyptian model for the universe differ from that of the Babylonians? 2 Ptolemy’s ideas about the structure of the solar system are based on an incorrect inference about the movement of the Sun. c What do you think is represented by the outer three circles? . 8 Suppose you were observing the stars in the Southern Cross one clear night. a On the night of the 10th he observed four moons. You recorded the position of the stars and the time.

and make up 99 per cent of the total mass of all the planets. Outer planets The outer planets. where the gravity is 2. Like our Moon. Below their surface these gases are in liquid form. You can use the following memory jingle (or mnemonic) to help you remember the order of the planets. Jupiter’s thick atmosphere. The gases in the atmosphere are held close to a planet by its gravity. Earth and Mars. called an atmosphere. Venus. Most planets have a layer of gas. We know at present that there are eight planets in our solar system: Mercury. these gases escape into space.6 times greater than on Earth. much of its surface is covered by impact craters. Mercury is so small and hot that it has no atmosphere at all. consists mainly of hydrogen and helium. on the other hand. are much bigger than the inner planets. 157 . On a large planet like Jupiter. they have rocky surfaces and are all relatively small. They consist mainly of the gases hydrogen and helium. Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen and smaller amounts of carbon dioxide and water vapour. Venus.Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space 7. They are often called the giant planets or the gas planets. The inner planets have a relatively thin atmosphere. Uranus and Neptune. Inner planets These are sometimes called the rocky planets and include Mercury. They are the ones closest to the Sun. Jupiter. Saturn. Mars. Fig 12 Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system. and is closest to the sun. and at the centre is a rocky core. There are so many asteroids in this belt that there is always a danger of collision for passing spacecraft. covering them.2 Exploring the solar system Look back at the diagram of the solar system on page 154 showing the planets orbiting a central sun. the lightest gases (hydrogen and helium) are held in the atmosphere. My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nachos The two groups of planets are separated by hundreds of thousands of tiny chunks of metallic rock called asteroids. On Earth. Jupiter. They all have rings around them and a large number of moons. while the gas planets have a much thicker atmosphere. Uranus and Neptune The planets are usually divided into two groups: the inner planets and the outer planets. Saturn. They orbit the sun between Mars and Jupiter in what is called the asteroid belt. Earth. however.

on the other hand. acidic atmosphere and may be unsuitable for a human landing. Fig 15 Fig 13 The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity landed on Mars in 2004 and have sent thousands of high-quality images back to Earth. In the next 20 years many spacecraft will land on Mars’ surface and gather information for a possible human landing.1 58 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW The฀inner฀planets The Earth’s two neighbours. has a very thick. enor on Mars is an Olympus Mons across. volcano 600 km mous The Tick volcano on Venus is 66 km across and has radiating ridges on the side s. Venus and Mars. The rim at the bottom seems to have been brok en by a dark lava flow. have been the most observed and studied of all the planets in the solar system. Fig 16 Fig 14 The thick clouds of Venus’ atmospher e can be seen swirling ar ound the planet. . Venus.

Uranus is a pale green-blue colour and has faint rings. Io . Fig 19 A composite vi ew of Saturn and six of its moons. of 21 million km n be seen ca . but its most striking feature is its Great Dark Spot. 159 . An artist’s impression of Uranus with its faint rings from one of its moons (Miranda) in the foreground. Fig 17 Fig 18 d Spot Jupiter’s Great Re a distance m photographed fro one of . Its axis of rotation is nearly at right angles to the other planets.Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space The฀outer฀planets Each of the four outer gas planets has a feature that makes it different from the other planets. which means that the planet is lying on its side. Neptune is also a green colour. Jupiter’s moons top right. Saturn has distinctive rings around it. The ph otos were taken by the Vo yager 2 spacecraft in 19 80. Jupiter is the giant planet and is over twice as heavy as all the other planets put together.

An artist’s impression of Eris with our Sun in the distance . The new planet was called Pluto after the Roman god of the dead and ruler of the underworld. Pluto’s orbit. but its greyish surface colour may reflect more light than Pluto’s reddish surface . Secondly. Firstly. The day our solar system got bigger In early January 2005. It is ve ry bright. and was actually photographed in 1919 but not noticed because it was smaller than astronomers had expected. astronomers were expecting to find another planet beyond Neptune. and actually overlaps Neptune’s orbit. But is Pluto a planet? Pluto is 6 times smaller than Earth and also smaller than our moon. In February 1930. Mike Brown from the Californian Institute of Technology was analysin g photographs of objects in the far reaches of th e solar system when he found a planet-like object. however. the American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh identified a new planet in photographs taken a month earlier. However. So. Many of these objects are greater than 100 km in diameter. Pluto’s moon Charon. in August 2006 astronomers decided to reclassify Pluto as a dwarf planet. Why Pluto isn’t a planet Astronomers discovered two very odd things about Pluto’s orbit. is larger in proportion to its planet than any other in our solar system. even after 60 years of searching. It has an odd elliptical orbit like Pluto’s but its exact size is unkn own at present. all the other planets orbit the sun in approximately the same plane. Fig 20 Photos taken on 23 January 1930 (top) and 29 January 1930 show how Pluto had moved relative to the stars. Pluto was always thought to be a planet until the mid 1990s when hundreds of Plutolike objects were discovered in a region beyond Neptune known as the Kuiper Belt (see the next page). ot her astronomers discove red a moon around Eris.1 60 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW What฀is฀a฀planet? The discovery of Pluto After the 1846 discovery of Neptune. Fu rther analysis showed that th is ‘planet’ is larger than Pluto and is about 97 times further from the Sun th an Earth. discovered in 1978. no new planet was found. The unknown planet was called ‘Planet O’. is inclined at 17° to that plane. Pluto’s orbit is much more elliptical than the orbits of the other planets. the large st of the dwarf planets. This Kuiper belt objec t is called Eris. In September 2005.

astronomers found many Kuiper Belt Objects. He had suggested in the 1950s that comets and asteroid-like matter existed beyond Neptune. Questions 1 Explain in your own words why astronomers thought there might be many objects beyond Neptune. Kuiper hypothesised that when the planets were forming. In the late 1990s. strong gravitational forces swept up all the matter and formed the planets as we know them.Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space The Kuiper Belt In the early 1990s astronomers began discovering many objects in space beyond Neptune. The first major missions into space were two Voyager missions launched in 1977. an artificial satellite called Sputnik 1. using terrestrial and space telescopes. These observations supported Kuiper’s hypothesis. Missions in space The very first spacecraft. The cameras on board Voyager were able to send close-up images of Uranus’ moon. In 1979 it travelled past Jupiter. Uranus was thought to have five moons but Voyager 2 discovered another 10. was launched by the then USSR in 1957. Saturn. In the region beyond Neptune. then past Saturn in 1981. They have also flown close to and photographed all the planets and their moons in the solar system. Prior to these missions it was thought that Jupiter had 13 moons.net. < WEB watch > Go to www. Since then spacecraft have landed on our Moon. Kuiper’s hypothesis Using the results of astronomical investigations. These cameras were so good that they could photograph a newspaper headline about one kilometre away! Fig 21 The Voyager 2 spacecraft was launched in 1977.scienceworld. showing deep canyons.au and follow the links to the website below. Uranus and Neptune. The spacecraft also discovered rings around Uranus similar to. but much fainter than. now more than 60 have been observed. 161 . those around Saturn. and the planets Venus and Mars. it is passing the outer edge of the solar system and into the empty space beyond. 3 Suggest why Gerard Kuiper did not actually observe any Kuiper Belt Objects. Miranda. the gravitational forces were weaker and there should be lots of smaller bodies including comets. These objects were found in a band orbiting the sun. The Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud You can also search the internet under Kuiper Belt. 2 Do you think Pluto should be called a dwarf planet rather than the ninth planet? Give reasons for your opinion. Now 30 years later. The band was named the Kuiper Belt after the Dutch-American astronomer Gerard Kuiper (pronounced KY-per). They sent back an incredible amount of new information on Jupiter.

and myths about the planets and the universe.6 km 1 mph = 1. The Nine Planets A multimedia tour of the solar system. Solar system exploration Has answers to questions on the planets. magazines and journals are another source. asteroids and space missions.net. Mars News Information on past. of which some may be suitable. To convert degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius. current and future space missions. and many of these websites also have links to other sites.scienceworld. Windows to the Universe Information on the planets. NASA Human Spaceflight Gives up-to-date information and news about the space shuttle. The conversions are listed below. Welcome to the planets Profiles on the planets and a link to the planetary photojournal. Saturn. You can find other websites using a search engine. Good information on the planets and space missions. Has links to other sites. A very good source of up-to-date information is the internet. Has an excellent Planetary Tour animated movie. space missions.1 62 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Getting information on space Our knowledge about the solar system constantly changes as space missions reveal new information about planets and their moons. Go to www. Newspapers. To do the activities on the following two pages you will need current information about the planets and their moons. comets. current and future space missions to Mars. For example. . °C = K – 273 < WEB watch > Voyager Information on the Voyager missions and images of Jupiter. When you write a report.au and follow the links to the websites below. make sure you list the websites you use. a number of sites will be listed. Helpful hints on units Some of the technical information you will find on the websites below contains units that may be unfamiliar to you. other people can check the accuracy of your information. Uranus and Neptune and their moons. In this way. science and technology reports.6 km/h Some temperatures are given in the Fahrenheit (°F) scale. if you type in Jupiter’s moons. Science@NASA Headline News Excellent site for current news on space science and astronomy. To convert Kelv in to degrees Celsius subtract 273.56 Astronomers often use the Kelvin scal e to measure temperatures. subtrac t 32 then multiply by 0. That is: °C = (°F – 32) x 0. The websites listed in the box below are just some of the many that are available. Websites from the USA often use miles and miles per hour (mp h).56. 1 mile = 1. NASA Solar System Exploration Current information on the planets as well as news. the International Space Station and other space missions. missions. as well as about past.

Use a computer database such as Excel to make your facts sheet. Draw a line graph to link the diameter of the planets (horizontal axis) and the number of moons around each planet (vertical axis). Prepare a rough draft first. As the gravity decreases so does your weight. the composition of the atmosphere and any other interesting information. Choose any five planetary moons and find out about the origins of their names.1 Task 2 Use the data to plot the following graphs. Record the information in a table. discuss it with your group.Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space Activity In this activity you will work in a small group of three or four people to complete the tasks below. then prepare your final copy. You may also like to research the myths and legends of the solar system from different groups or cultures around the world.8 1 0.9 1 0.06 0.1 318 95 14.0 0. their diameter. Write a generalisation linking the diameter of the planet with the number of moons. articles or websites you used to find your information. Planets Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Mass Gravity (Compared with Earth = 1) 0.6 17. their average distance from the sun. 163 .4 2. and it is the force that keeps planets and their moons in orbit. Write a generalisation about the mass of the planet and the gravity on its surface.1 0. On which planets would your weight be less than on Earth? Use the graphs to answer the following questions. Task 5 Find out about the origin of the names of the planets. It is this force which keeps you on the Earth. Write a generalisation linking the diameters of the planets with their distances from the Sun. You will need to use the library (including the internet) to find information on the solar system. Task 3 Compare the length of a day and the length of a year for each planet in the solar system. modify it where necessary.9 1. The table below gives the mass of each planet and the gravity on the planet’s surface. The facts sheet should list the planets. magazines. compared with Earth. the number of moons. Remember to list the names of the books. Draw a bar graph to show the planets in order on the horizontal axis and the diameter of the planets on the vertical axis.5 1. the surface temperature.4 0. Task 1 Prepare a planetary facts sheet. What pattern can you see in the lengths of the years of the planets as you move away from the Sun? Task 4 Gravity is the force of attraction between two bodies.

A more widely accepted idea is that they are debris left over after the formation of the planets billions of years ago. Write an itinerary for tourists who wish to travel to these planets. In your itinerary. About 100 000 asteroids are large enough to be seen from Earth. the mass of the asteroids is less than half the size of our moon. One year later it entered the Asteroid Belt and came close to the asteroid Gaspra. Astronomers once thought that the asteroids may have formed from the collision of planets which shattered into small pieces. write about some of the planetary features you think that the tourists would find interesting. It is composed of rock and metal typical of most of the many other thousands of asteroids that are found orbiting the sun in a wide belt between Jupiter and Mars. when added together. Gaspra is a small asteroid about 19 km long. and on flybys of Jupiter and Saturn. For those planets on which the tourists are to land.1 64 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Activity Other objects in our solar system The interplanetary travel agency You are a travel agent with Interworld Travel who specialise in taking people to Mercury. You will find many interesting Gaspra websites. The largest is Ceres. However. and is classified as a dwarf planet.) Write a brochure about the surface conditions of the planets. It IS worth a million bucks! Asteroids In 1989 the spacecraft Galileo was launched to study the atmosphere of Jupiter and its moons. Venus and Mars. Write a list of safety points (similar to a current airline safety list) which you think all passengers should know before they land on planets or moons. Fig 23 The 19 km long asteroid Gaspra photographed in 1991 by the spacecraft Galileo from a distance of 16 000 km. < WEB watch > Search the internet under Gaspra. Use library research to find out approximately how long it would take to reach each of the planets. Try searching asteroid to find out about other asteroids. (Your Space SuperBus travels at 200 000 km/h. give information about the special equipment they need to wear or take with them. which is 800 km in diameter. You may think that some of the moons are also worth mentioning. Use the guidelines below to do this. . The travel agent was right.

Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space
Meteorites
The craters on many of the planets and moons
in the solar system are caused by collisions with
meteorites. These pieces of rock or iron vary in
size from millimetres to thousands of kilometres
in diameter. In space these objects are called
meteoroids and in a planet’s atmosphere they are
called meteors. If they strike a planet they are
called meteorites.
The atmosphere around a planet protects it
from meteorite strikes. The Earth and Venus have
fairly thick atmospheres and very few craters.
Mercury, with an extremely thin atmosphere, has
thousands of craters on its surface.

Comets

gases and is reflected, giving the comet a glowing
tail sometimes millions of kilometres long. This
tail always points away from the sun.
Sometimes comets collide with planets. In
1994 Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 crashed into
Jupiter. The core of this comet shattered into 20
fragments following a close approach of Jupiter in
1992. As each fragment hit the planet, it exploded
in the atmosphere releasing an enormous amount
of energy.

< WEB watch >
Search the internet under Comet ShoemakerLevy. You will find a number of websites with
information, images and movies.

Other members of our solar system which we
occasionally see in the sky are comets. These
objects orbit the Sun in long, narrow elliptical
orbits. Many have orbits which go beyond Pluto,
but some have very small orbits. The most famous
is Halley’s comet which orbits the Sun every 76
years, but the Great Comet of 1864 will not come
back for another 2.8 million years!
The core of a comet is made of rock and dust
stuck together with ice and frozen gases such as
ammonia and methane. The core is usually quite
small—about 10 km in diameter—but when it
approaches the Sun, the frozen gases warm up
and evaporate. The light from the Sun hits the

Fig 24

Fig 25

This photo shows the giant fireball that
erupted when a fragment from Comet
Shoemaker-Levy 9 hit Jupiter in 1994.

Halley’s comet was photographed for the first
time in 1910. It was last seen in 1986 and will
be back in 2062. It was seen by Julius Caesar
in 87 BC, Genghis Khan in 1222 and William
Shakespeare in 1607.

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First look inside a comet
Wilhelm Tempel, a German astronomer, observed
a small comet in 1867 and again in 1873 and
1879. This comet was named Comet Tempel 1 in
his honour.
Comet Tempel 1 is a periodic comet which
orbits the sun every 5.5 years. This made the
comet a good target for the Deep Impact
mission, whose aim was to probe beneath the
surface of the comet.

Liftoff
The Delta II rocket carrying the spacecraft was
launched in January 2005. The spacecraft was the
size of a small car. It was a combination of a flyby
spacecraft, which was to stay close to the comet,
and a smaller impactor spacecraft, which was to
crash into the comet.

Impact
In July 2005 the spacecraft approached Comet
Tempel 1. The impactor was released into its
path and relayed images of the comet’s nucleus
to Earth until just seconds before impact.
Meanwhile, the high-precision tracking telescopes
on the flyby spacecraft took many high resolution
photos of the impact.
The impact had little effect on the comet’s
orbital path around the Sun, even though the
370 kg impactor created a house-sized crater.

Comet Tempel 1 profile
Your task is to prepare a profile on Comet Tempel
1 which you can present to your teacher, another
group or the whole class.
Use a selection of websites to prepare a
computer report on an aspect of Comet Tempel 1.
You can write about its discovery, the structure
of the comet, its place in the solar system, the
Deep Impact mission and/or the Deep Impact
technology.
Remember to include the website addresses in
your report.

Fig 26

The impactor being released from the flyby
spacecraft (top), the impactor just before
impact (middle) and Comet Temple 1 after
impact (bottom).

< WEB watch >
Search the internet under Comet Tempel. You will
find many websites with information, images and
animations.

Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space

Check!
d
Use the information about the planets which
you gathered for the activities on pages 163
and 164 to answer questions 1 to 9.
1

The planets can be divided into two main
groups: the inner planets and the outer
planets. Place the eight planets into these
two groups.

e

In 1976 a spacecraft landed on my
surface, took soil samples and sent
close-up television images back to Earth.
I am named after the Roman god
of the sea because of my sea-green
colour caused by the methane in my
atmosphere.

10 The photo below shows a plains region
on Venus. Apart from a few volcanoes,
there are no major craters on the surface.
Suggest why Venus has fewer craters than
Mercury or Mars.

2

Which is the smallest planet and which is
the largest planet in the solar system?

3

Decide which of the following statements
are true and which are false. Correct the
false ones to make them true.
a Saturn is between Jupiter and Neptune.
b Venus is larger than Mercury but
smaller than Uranus.
c Mars takes about twice as long as Earth
to orbit the Sun.
d Some of the moons of Jupiter are larger
than the dwarf planet Pluto.
e The atmosphere of Venus contains
hydrogen, methane and ammonia.

4

Which planet has the largest number of
moons, and which have no moons at all?

5

On which planets have spacecraft landed?
Why would it be difficult to land a
spacecraft on Jupiter?

6

Suppose you are 13 years old on Earth.
How old would you be in Jovian (Jupiter)
years? How old would you be in Mercurian
years?

11 The gravity on Mars is about two-fifths
that on Earth, while Jupiter’s gravity is 2.5
times greater. How could the gravity affect
humans and spacecraft?

7

Suggest why Pluto is called a dwarf planet.

8

Most planets rotate from west to east,
but one of our near neighbours rotates
the other way. Which planet is it? In which
direction would the Sun rise on this planet?

9

Which planet am I?
a I am very hot. People think I am
mysterious because of the clouds that
cover my surface.
b I am lying on my side with my south
pole pointing towards the Sun.
c I have a very large number of moons
and small particles of rock and dust that
form thousands of spectacular rings.

12 Sir William Halley (1656–1742) used
mathematics and his observations through
telescopes to calculate the orbits of 24
comets, one of which is named after him.
Use the data in the text and in the caption
of Fig 25 on page 165 to find out whether
Halley observed this comet in his lifetime.
Was it Halley’s comet that King Harold saw
just before the Battle of Hastings in 1066?
(Why did the English think comets were
bad luck and the French think they were
good luck?)

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challenge
1 The photo below shows a number of meteorite
craters. Four of these are labelled A, B, C and D.

B
A

b Astronomers think that both moons were
asteroids that came close to Mars and were
captured by Mars’ gravity. What evidence
may have led to this inference?
3 The table below shows information about 17 of
the currently known moons of Jupiter.
a Can you identify the four groups of Jovian
moons? Write a description for each of the
four groups of moons.
b Is there a relationship between the size of the
moon and the date of discovery? Write a
generalisation for this.
c Compare the sizes of the largest moons of
Jupiter with the three smallest planets in the
solar system.
Some of the moons of Jupiter

C

D

a Which crater was caused by the largest
meteorite?
b Infer which is the oldest crater. Give reasons
for your inference.
2 The two moons of Mars—Deimos and Phobos—
both have an irregular shape and are composed
of a rocky material which is quite different from
the material on the surface of Mars.
Both moons are quite small. Deimos has
a diameter of 12 km, while Phobos (below) is
23 km across.
a What is the origin of the names Deimos and
Phobos? Suggest why the moons were given
these names.

Moon

Discoverer

Diameter Distance from
(km)
Jupiter (km)

Metis

Voyager, 1979

49

127 600

Adrastea

Voyager, 1979

35

134 000

Amalthea

Barnard, 1892

166

181 300

Thebe

Voyager, 1979

75

222 000

Io

Galileo, 1610

3632

421 600

Europa

Galileo, 1610

3126

670 900

Ganymede

Galileo, 1610

5276

1.1 million

Callisto

Galileo, 1610

4820

1.9 million

Leda

Kowal, 1974

8

11.1 million

Himalia

Perrine, 1904

170

11.5 million

Lysithea

Nicholson, 1938

19

11.7 million

Elara

Perrine, 1905

80

11.7 million

Ananke

Nicholson, 1951

17

20.7 million

Carme

Nicholson, 1938

24

22.4 million

Pasiphae

Melotta, 1908

27

23.3 million

Sinope

Melotta, 1914

21

23.7 million

Callirrhoe

Spacewatch, 1999

5

24 million

< WEB watch >
Go to www.scienceworld.net.au and follow
the links to the website below.
Jupiter: Moons
Contains information about Jupiter’s known
moons and links to other websites.

Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space

7.3 Stars and galaxies
The few thousand stars which you can see with
your eyes belong to our galaxy called the Milky
Way. It contains more than 100 000 million
stars, but it is just one of millions of galaxies in
the universe. A galaxy is a collection of stars and
dust held together by huge gravitational forces.
Galaxies are separated from each other by vast
regions of space.
Until the turn of the 20th century, the Milky
Way was thought to be the whole universe. A
giant spiral called Andromeda, which can be
observed with a small telescope, was thought
to be in the Milky Way. However, in 1923 the
American astronomer Edwin Hubble showed that
Andromeda was in fact another galaxy about
2.2 million light-years away, well outside our
own galaxy. Hubble’s discovery encouraged other
astronomers to search for galaxies and now more
than 100 million have been identified!
Fig 31

This spiral galaxy is similar in shape to our
Milky Way galaxy and the Andromeda spiral.
Over half the galaxies in the known universe
are spirals.

Star distances

Sun, is
The distance to our closest star, the
ut 3 months
abo
e
150 000 000 km. (It would tak
a current
to reach the sun if you travelled in
is
spacecraft.) The next closest star
270 000 times
or
41 000 000 000 000 km away,
the distance to the sun.
rmous, and
The distances to the stars are eno
sure in
the numbers are far too large to mea
e called the
kilometres. Instead, a unit of distanc
ance light travels
light-year is used. This is the dist
in one year.
metres per
Light travels at about 300 000 000
t travels
ligh
r
8
yea
second (3 x 10 m/s), so in one
x 1012 km.
about 9 500 000 000 000 km or 9.5
look back
When you look at stars you actually
the
in
star
in time. The light from the closest
years ago. In
Southern Cross left that star 220
as it used to
other words, you are seeing the star
be in the 1780s!
Galaxies can be classified into three main
types—spiral, elliptical and irregular. There are
three galaxies that we can see easily from Earth—
the Andromeda spiral and two irregular galaxies
called the Large and Small Clouds of Magellan
near the Southern Cross.
Fig 32

Elliptical galaxies are egg-shaped with a
bright central core of densely packed stars.
Only the stars in the outer regions of the
galaxy can be distinguished from others.

169

scienceworld.net. Andromeda. This view of the Milky Way was produced from data gathered by a satellite orbiting the Earth. Notice that most of the stars in the galaxy are concentrated in the centre. Sun Fig 35 A side view of our Milky Way galaxy as seen from space. images and movies. Our Sun is 32 000 light-years from the centre of the galaxy. They are the least common and make up only three per cent of all known galaxies. Diameter = 110 million light-years Fig 34 The Milky Way rotates slowly about its centre. The Milky Way has a diameter of about 110 000 light-years. The areas to the side of the band have very few stars. The spiral rotates about its centre in space like a Catherine wheel firework. The Milky Way galaxy The Milky Way galaxy is a flat spiral shape and the ‘milky’ band appearance is due to the fact that you are looking through the central part of the spiral which contains the most stars. . which is smaller than our neighbouring spiral.1 70 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Direction of rotation of the Milky Way Galaxy. The Anglo-Australian Observatory Good images and information about stars and galaxies. Our Sun lies on one of the arms of the spiral. < WEB watch > Go to www. Sun In 110 million years time the Sun and our solar system will have moved through one half-turn. about 32 000 lightyears from the centre. You will find a number of websites with information. Search galaxies or Andromeda galaxy in your internet search engine.au and follow the links to the websites below. Sun Fig 33 Irregular galaxies have no definite shape and appear as fuzzy clouds.

it initially glows very brightly.Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space The life of stars In the summer of the year 1054. and the star forms a red giant. Middle age When a star about the size of our Sun forms. the star settles down to a long stable middle-life period of about 10 billion years. the gases in the outer regions drift into space and the remaining gases collapse into a very small. Chinese astronomers recorded seeing a bright star appear in the sky. Our sun is now at midlife and has another 5 billion years to go before it runs out of fuel. hot star. It was so bright that it could be seen during the day. the outer layers of the star expand and cool. Old age and death When all the hydrogen fuel is used up. very dense object known as a white dwarf. gaseous cloud white dwarf white dwarf gradually dies red giant 171 . Sometimes a gas cloud collapses on itself. becoming hotter and denser as the gravitational force increases. What these astronomers had recorded was a supernova— a spectacular explosion which ended the life of a giant. After about 10 million years. Our Sun is in the middle of a stable period in its life and will last for another 5 billion years. Eventually the white dwarf cools down and fades away leaving a mass of gases in space. After this. � � protostars form Our Sun is at this stage in its life. This is the stage in the life of a star known as a protostar. Eventually the gas becomes hot enough to start nuclear reactions and the star begins to glow. Fig 37 The birth and death of a star similar in size to our Sun. The birth of a star Astronomers believe that stars are born in clouds of gas (mainly hydrogen) and dust that occur throughout the universe. Fig 36 The Crab Nebula is a huge expanding cloud of gas that resulted from a supernova recorded by Chinese astronomers in 1054.

When such an explosion takes place the brightness of the star increases a billion times. This type of nebula is ma de up of clouds of very high temperature gases. an Australian astronomer. there is a tremendous outburst of energy which we see as a supernova. Much of the star’s matter is blown into space. These stars live for only about one million years. Fig 39 Fig 40 The Ring Nebula is the sort of nebula that our Sun will probably produce in about 5 billion years time. leaving a mass of expanding cloud which is called a nebula (NEB-you-la). It is a dark nebula and is made of clouds of dust which block the light from the stars behind it. . photographed the star arrowed on the left which exploded to form the supernova on the right. The nuclear reactions use fuel very rapidly. The red colour is due to the large amounts of hydrogen gas in the clouds. but usually the star remains bright enough to be seen with the naked eye for a few months. The brightness lasts for a few days then fades over a number of years. The mass in large stars creates enormous gravitational forces in the core of the star. Fig 41 This is the Horsehead Nebula. When the fuel runs out. Fig 38 In 1987 David Malin. creating very hot bright stars which appear a bluish-white in the night sky.1 72 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Nebulas Stars many times the size of the Sun have a much shorter but spectacular life.

4 months 2. 173 . Andromeda? How could it be made possible? (Creative ideas needed here!) Develop an argument for (or against) spending millions of dollars on space research and travel.4 minutes Jupiter 22 months 35 minutes Uranus 7. future developments and criticisms of space exploration.3 minutes Mars 2. our nearest star? Why would a planetary system be difficult for astronomers to detect? If aliens do exist. Is it practical for humans to visit the gas planets? Destination from Earth Could a planetary system exist around Alpha Centauri. which destination could be the furthest a human might reach? Suggest why humans would want to visit other planets in our solar system.au and follow the links to the websites below.8 years 2.5 hours 16. SpaceWander Animated journey from Earth to other galaxies. astronaut training and space shuttle. Could the money be better spent on getting rid of poverty? Using current spacecraft (40 000 km/h) At light speed (300 000 km/s) Venus 1.2 million years < WEB watch > Space Exploration (Wikipedia) Information on the history of space travel.Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space Activity Up to the end of the 20th century the furthest humans had travelled in space was to the moon. Try doing the Chapter 7 crossword on the CD. a short 110 hours by rocket! Is it possible to travel further into space? Work in a small group and discuss the following questions. which planet or star system do you think they would come from? Is it possible for one of today’s space-craft to travel to our closest galaxy. space stations. 2.5 hours 113 600 years 4. Space Travel Guide Detailed information about types of rocket propulsion.net. You will need to refer to the table and you may need to use information in the websites listed below.4 years 5.3 years 176 million years 6 500 years Pluto Alpha Centauri Crab Nebula Andromeda 10 6 x 10 years Go to www. Human Space Flight (NASA) Information about missions.scienceworld.6 months 4. space shuttle and future space travel. Using present technology.

However.5 × 108 km from Earth. then the delta-star and so on. which have very small masses. Suggest a reason for this. 6 From our observations on Earth. Which other galaxy has the same shape? Which type of galaxy is the most common in the universe? Which is the least common? 2 Explain the difference between a galaxy and the universe so that a 7-year-old child could understand the terms. Why don’t we use light-years to measure the distance to Pluto? 5 a What is the connection between a supernova and a nebula? b Suppose you are an astronomer and you are asked to predict whether a particular star will form a supernova or a red giant. the actual supernova took place. how would you observe the movement of the Sun and the planets from a neighbouring galaxy? (A diagram will help.1 74 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 1 a b Describe the shape of the Milky Way galaxy. Describe the life cycle of a star about the size of our Sun. the table below shows that they are not. Suggest why this telescope has detected objects in space that were previously unknown. the next brightest the beta-star. 3 The bright star Canopus. do not form stars. However. How many Earth years are there in a cosmic year? 5 There is a vast amount of interstellar dust and gas (mainly hydrogen) in galaxies. is 98 light-years from our solar system. The four main stars of the Southern Cross all appear to be the same distance away from Earth. What answer would you give? 4 A cosmic year is the period of time it takes for the Milky Way to complete one revolution. How long does the light from the Sun take to reach the Earth? b Pluto is about 5. would the betastar still look the brighter? Give reasons for your answer. the Sun appears to move across the sky from east to west.) 6 Groups of stars are called constellations. 4 a The Sun is 1. c Does the information in the table tell you which star is the largest? . Astronomers call the brightest star in a constellation the alphastar. Use the information on page 171 to work out when. 3 Data collected using the Hubble Space Telescope suggests that the Crab Nebula is about 6500 light-years from Earth. then the gammastar. a How far away is Canopus in kilometres? b During which Earth year did the light you see from Canopus actually leave the star? challenge 1 Astronomers think that some protostars. 2 The Hubble Space Telescope was placed in orbit around the Earth in 1990. Star gamma delta beta alpha Distance from Earth (in light-years) alpha-star 370 beta-star 490 gamma-star 220 delta-star 570 a Which star is closest to Earth? b If the beta-star and gamma-star were the same distance from Earth.9 × 109 km from the Earth. which can be seen due south during autumn. in Earth years. a What do you think the word ‘interstellar’ means? b Astronomers believe that the interstellar dust and gas is the birthplace of stars.

Some stars glow for billions of REVIEW years. elliptical and irregular. This inference was replaced by the idea of a central ____ with the planets revolving around it. 3 Asteroids. D These planets have little or no atmosphere to protect them from meteorites. Saturn. D the distance from the Milky Way galaxy to the nearest galaxy. C the distance the Earth travels in one year. comets and dwarf planets like Pluto are also parts of our solar system. The missing words are on the right. B These planets attract meteorites from space. B all the planets revolved around Jupiter. 5 _____ form in clouds of dust and gas. C These planets are in the paths of meteorites. b Why is Pluto not considered to be one of the outer planets? 4 A light-year is: A the distance light travels in one year. most people believed that: A the sun was the centre of the solar system. 1 Until the early 1600s. D the solar system contained eight planets. earth rock and metal solar system spiral stars sun supernova 4 _____ are groups of millions of stars held together by gravitational forces.Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space Copy and complete these statements to make a summary of this chapter. core 1 Ancient astronomers incorrectly inferred that the _____ was the galaxies centre of the _____. Which of the following inferences best explains this? A These planets are smaller than the Earth. Earth. Venus. Mars. 175 . while comets have a small frozen _____ and have a large tail when they approach the sun. B the distance from the Sun to the nearest star in our galaxy. Uranus and Neptune. 5 The Earth has very few meteorite craters compared with Mercury and Mars. Jupiter. Asteroids are made from _____. 2 Which of the following is in the correct order? A Mercury–Mars–Venus–Jupiter B Mercury–Venus–Earth–Mars C Mars–Venus–Jupiter–Saturn D Venus–Earth–Jupiter–Saturn 3 a Into which two main groups can the planets in our solar system be classified? Describe the features of each group. They have three basic shapes: _____. but larger stars have much shorter lives and end their lives in a _____. planets 2 Spacecraft have considerably increased our knowledge about the eight _____ in the solar system: Mercury. C all the planets revolved around the Earth.

10 The diagram below is a cross-section of the planet Jupiter showing its inferred composition. Which element do you think is the most abundant? b How thick do astronomers believe Jupiter’s solid rocky core is? c Which is the thickest layer? How thick is it? d Make a generalisation about the temperature changes from the core to the outer edge of the planet. –150°C 170°C 8 The object in the photo below is found deep in space and was photographed by a space telescope. .ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 6 Spacecraft have landed on Venus and Mars. b Compared with Venus. 10 000°C 19 000°C mainly hydrogen gas atmosphere atmosphere REVIEW 1 76 liquid hydrogen 24 000°C liquid metallic hydrogen water ammonia ice rock 6400 km 13 300 km 30 000 km (drawing not to scale) 71 000 km Check your answers on page 281. Jupiter takes: A the same time to orbit the Sun B a longer time to orbit the Sun C less time to orbit the Sun Give a reason for your answer. Planet Distance from the Sun (million km) Orbital speed (km/s) 58 108 150 228 778 1249 2871 4504 48 35 30 24 13 10 7 5 Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune a Write a generalisation about the orbital speed of the planets and their distance from the Sun. but relatively easy to land on Mercury? 7 The table below shows the distance of each of the planets from the Sun and the speed at which they travel through space as they orbit the Sun (orbital speed). Why would it be difficult for spacecraft in the future to land on Jupiter or Saturn. Explain why this is unlikely to happen to our Sun. The object is called: A an asteroid B a nebula C a comet D a spiral galaxy 9 The object in the photo above resulted from a supernova of a star. a Write a description of the composition of Jupiter.

1 Is Mars the most suitable planet for colonisation? Why? 2 What does it mean to terraform Mars? 3 The average temperature on Mars is –60°C. You may want to take turns at these roles. Discuss with your teacher how much time you will need to complete this task. Your task is to consider all aspects of establishing a colony on Mars—including the scientific. or would it need to be an international effort? What legal aspects are there in colonising Mars? Who owns the planet? Who owns the minerals? Even if it is scientifically and economically possible to terraform Mars. wait until a later time. The Earth’s population continues to grow and there have been major climate changes due to global warming.Chapter฀7฀ Exploring฀space US AREA C O F D E B I R C PRES Learning focus: Distinguishing between scientific. and of course all members of the group should participate in all discussion and research. should we do it? Is it ethically OK? What does your group recommend? Should we colonise Mars now. economic and legal argument Colonising Mars Imagine it is the year 2030. and appoint people to the following roles: • Leader—to get things started and complete the task on time Recorder—to write down • what the group has found out and decided Presenter—to present the • group’s findings to the class. You have been invited to be part of an international Mars group to investigate the possibility of establishing a colony on the planet Mars. You could search on the internet under ‘terraforming Mars’. economic and legal aspects. or not colonise it? Explain your recommendations fully. 177 . Form a group of about six. To structure your investigation you should answer the following questions. You are then to present your findings and recommendations to the class. Is it scientifically possible to warm up the whole planet? How? 4 Can humans breathe the atmosphere of Mars? Could it be made breathable? How? 5 6 7 8 9 10 Are there minerals on Mars that could be used to construct the colony? Is there any life on Mars? Could food for the colony be grown there? How? Is it economical to develop a Mars colony? Could one country afford to do it on its own.

1 Atoms and molecules page 180 Activity page 183 Investigate 16 Flame tests 8.2 Elements and compounds page 182 Activity page 188 Investigate 17 Making a compound Investigate 18 Breaking a compound Assessment task 8 Minor elements 8.8 Building฀blocks฀ of฀matter Planning page Getting started 8.3 Chemical reactions page 191 TRB Animation Water reaction Main ideas Chapter 8 crossword Review Learning focus: Observations depend on the understanding of the observer Chapter 8 test Prescribed focus area Inside the atom TRB .

continually changing their positions. They often touch each other and are constantly moving past one another. Super-Sci travels through the air where she sees nitrogen and oxygen molecules. Prepare a news item on Super-Sci’s fantastic voyage. These are ‘double atoms’. she finds herself surrounded by water molecules. She can make herself smaller and smaller until she is not much bigger than the tiny invisible particles in all matter.2 and 8. made of two atoms stuck together. Occasionally they collide with each other.3) Skills ● ● ● ● choosing equipment or resources and performing first-hand investigations (Investigate 16 and 17) gathering first-hand information (Investigate 16) processing information—identifying patterns in data (Activity page 183) presenting information—using symbols (pages 182–183 and 187) Meet Super-Sci. Super-Sci counts the atoms and calculates that about eight million of them placed side by side would fit across the head of a pin! Imagine you are a TV news or current affairs presenter. Finally Super-Sci tries to push her way into the steel in the bridge.Chapter฀8฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀matter 179 t… l learn abou r you wil In this chapte Learning฀Focus ● observations depend on the understanding of the observer (page 198) Knowledge฀and฀Understanding ● ● elements (Section 8. The molecules are much closer together than they are in the air. They are whizzing past at about 1800 km/h. Each molecule consists of three atoms. but the ball-like iron atoms are so close together she can’t crawl through. These are called atoms and molecules. The iron atoms stay in their places. iron atoms AIR water molecules oxygen molecule WATER nitrogen molecule . all moving in different directions. but they are constantly vibrating.2) compounds and reactions (Sections 8. When Super-Sci dives into the harbour.

This means water contains two different types of atoms. if you could break a piece of gold into smaller and smaller bits you would eventually end up with a single atom of gold. oxygen atoms Fig 2 An oxygen molecule is made up of two oxygen atoms bonded together.1 Atoms and molecules In Chapter 3 you learnt about the tiny particles that make up all matter. For example. Fig 4 In this photo taken using a scanning tunnelling microscope. . Each of these protein molecules contains about half a million atoms.1 80 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW hydrogen atoms 8. This means that there are about 2500 times more atoms in the dot than there are people in the world! Atoms are not usually found on their own. Only in recent years have scientists been able to use special microscopes to ‘see’ atoms and molecules. one on each side. To give you some idea of their size. a bit like Mickey Mouse’s ears. Two or more atoms joined together is called a molecule. They are incredibly small. A water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. there would be 10 000 000 000 000 000 atoms in the dot at the end of this sentence. For example. each little ‘mountain’ is a molecule. an oxygen molecule consists of two oxygen atoms held together by a chemical bond. Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter—both living and non-living. oxygen atom Fig 3 A water molecule is made up of an oxygen atom combined with two hydrogen atoms. Molecules vary in size from tiny hydrogen molecules up to the huge protein molecules in your body.

and he said this was because his head was ‘too full of triangles. chemical processes. he inferred that a water molecule is made up of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom. instead of two hydrogen atoms. He was also colour-blind. The story is told that he once bought his mother a pair of bright scarlet stockings. He never married. Questions 1 Which nationality was John Dalton? 2 What did he do for a living? 3 In your own words. despite the difficulty he had keeping the other children in order. For example. He soon became interested in mathematics and science. and he devised symbols for the different atoms. He thought they were ‘bluish-drab and Quakerish’. and when he was 12 he started a school of his own. his greatest achievement was his atomic theory. Dalton continued teaching and lecturing throughout his life. He did a series of experiments and hypothesised that the atoms of any one element are identical to each other but different from those of all other elements.Chapter฀8฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀matter Science in action John Dalton (1766–1844) John Dalton was born in 1766 and spent his childhood in a small English town. He also suggested that chemical reactions take place through rearrangements of atoms. explain why Dalton never married. Dalton imagined his atoms to be like pool balls. the atomic theory used today is basically the same as the theory Dalton proposed 200 years ago. 4 What was Dalton’s atomic theory? 5 How did he explain chemical reactions? 6 Suggest why Quakers wore drab clothing. and Quaker men and women had to dress in dark clothes. However. and electrical experiments to think much of marriage’. Dalton made over 200 000 recorded weather observations during his life. 7 How does a hypothesis like Dalton’s become a theory? 8 Is Dalton’s atomic theory the same as the particle theory you learnt about on page 62? Explain. and was very upset when his mother said she could not wear them because they were too bright. This school seems to have been quite a success. Some of his ideas later proved to be incorrect. However. Dalton was a Quaker. ogen Hydr c in z Z Sulf Nitrogen ur 181 . She had to call in a neighbour to convince her son that the stockings were bright scarlet and not bluishdrab. especially those who were older than he was.

liquids or gases at room temperature (20°C). In total. and more will almost certainly be made in the future. The first elements discovered were the metals gold. (Metals conduct electricity. Some elements. carbon and calcium. some elements have the same first letter: for example. air and water. but the second letter is not. The radioactive substance plutonium is one of these synthetic elements. er. Fig 6 From just a few different Lego blocks you can build many different models. Another 20 or so elements.) The elements can also be classified according to whether they are solids. have been made by nuclear scientists. which means ‘shining dawn’.1 82 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 8. like gold and silver. tin. are called elements.2 Elements and compounds Elements If you could look inside a piece of iron like Super-Sci did on page 179. einsteinium and francium. it seems Miss Jenkins actually asked us to bring in an example of an ELEMENT. However. The photo below shows children building with Lego blocks.... you would find that it is made of millions and millions of tiny iron atoms—all the same. Over the years more and more elements were discovered. everything in the world around us is made from just over one hundred different elements. a piece of copper is made of copper atoms only. In some cases the symbol comes from a Greek or Latin name. In a similar way. Some common elements are listed in the table opposite. This is a shorthand way of writing the name of the element. But the piece of copper is different from the iron. the symbol for gold is Au. and most non-metals do not.. are very rare. whose atoms are all the same. Similarly. carbon C. In these cases a second letter is used: calcium Ca. For example. 90 elements have been found in the Earth’s rocks. Some elements are named after famous people or places: for example. copper and iron. Pure substances like iron and copper. Other elements are very common. soil. . because the copper atoms are different from iron atoms. They can be classified into two main groups—metals and non-metals. For example. oxygen makes up about half of the mass of the Earth’s crust. which do not occur naturally. Note that the first letter is a capital. Thousands of different models can be built from a small number of different types of blocks. Each element is represented by a symbol.. Sometimes the symbol is the first letter of the English name of the element: for example. This comes from the Latin word aurum.

00008 4.3 0.1 Date of discovery 1825 1894 1826 1808 ancient 1774 ancient ancient 1766 1811 ancient ancient 1808 ancient 1772 1774 1669 1940 ancient 1807 ancient 1700 183 .8 10.003 9. gases: 6 Are metals usually solids. but boiling point above 20°C melting point and boiling point below 20°C Put your answers in a table. which are liquids.5 0.9 11.1 7. and which are gases? solids: melting point and boiling point above 20°C (room temperature) liquids: melting point below 20°C. 1 Write down the symbols for the following elements: calcium iron nitrogen carbon lead oxygen hydrogen magnesium sodium 2 Which elements have the following symbols? Al Au Br Cl Cu Hg K P S Zn 3 Which one of the elements in the table has the highest melting point? 4 Which is the most recently discovered element in the table? When was it discovered? Element aluminium argon bromine calcium carbon chlorine copper gold hydrogen iodine iron lead magnesium mercury nitrogen oxygen phosphorus plutonium silver sodium sulfur zinc Symbol Al Ar Br Ca C Cl Cu Au H I Fe Pb Mg Hg N O P Pu Ag Na S Zn 5 Which of the elements are solids.00132 1.97 2.1 1.3 1.9 7.Chapter฀8฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀matter Activity Use the table below to answer these questions.7 13.0 19.7 0.00117 0.8 19.6 2. liquids or gases at room temperature? 7 Which is the lightest gas? Metal or Melting Boiling 0 non-metal point ( C) point (0C) metal non-metal non-metal metal non-metal non-metal metal metal non-metal non-metal metal metal metal metal non-metal non-metal non-metal metal metal metal non-metal metal 660 –189 –7 850 3500 –101 1080 1060 –259 114 1540 327 650 –39 –210 –219 44 640 961 98 119 419 2060 –188 58 1440 4200 –35 2500 2700 –253 183 3000 1744 1110 357 –196 –183 280 3230 2200 890 444 910 Density (g/cm3) 2.2 0.6 0.0017 3.

These crystals contained a new element called radium. Even though the gram of radium she had extracted was worth millions of dollars. well-illustrated Marie Sklodowska Curie Her life presented as a series of simulated news articles that might have been written during her life . 5 Which new element was named in honour of Marie and Pierre Curie after their deaths? 6 Suggest how Marie could have protected herself from radiation. a disease probably caused by the radioactive materials she had worked with. At school she was always top of her class. Marie and Pierre had a tiny pile of white crystals a little bigger than the head of a pin. including the newly discovered X-rays. In 1934 Marie Curie died of leukaemia. Here are two sites to get you started: Marie Curie and the science of radioactivity Her life in detail. Marie bought a tonne of pitchblende and had it dumped outside the shed where she worked in Paris.1 84 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Science in action Marie Curie (1867–1934) Marie Curie was born in Poland in 1867. It was called curium in honour of Marie and Pierre Curie. burns and blisters. and evaporated the solution to form crystals. and she went to university in Paris. she gave it to her university. Marie organised mobile X-ray vans so that pieces of shells in wounded soldiers could be found and removed. This led to the discovery that radium can be used to kill diseased cells in cancer tumours. < WEB watch > Research Marie Curie on the internet. In 1946 American scientists discovered another radioactive element. During her life she had discovered two new elements—radium and polonium. She and her husband ground the heap of ore to a powder. an ore of uranium that was radioactive. became interested in pitchblende. Marie and her husband Pierre. In the dark it glowed with a bluish light. They found that it was even more radioactive than pure uranium. After four years of backbreaking work. It gave off a strange new radiation. who was also a scientist. Whenever Marie worked with radioactive radium. Questions 1 When and where was Marie Curie born? 2 What was radium used for? Fig 8 Marie Curie in her laboratory 3 What was the name of the ore from which she obtained radium? 4 Suggest why Marie named one of the elements she discovered polonium. She was the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize—one in physics and one in chemistry. 20 kilograms at a time. They dissolved each lot of powder in acid. So what else could be in the ore that gave out radiation? Marie thought she was on the track of a new element. her hands became covered with sores. During World War I.

oxygen (O2) and chlorine (Cl2) each contain a pair of atoms. which protects us from UV radiation from the sun. Record the flame colours for the different metals฀in฀your฀data฀table.฀ Spray฀the฀mist฀so฀that฀it฀goes฀up฀into฀the฀lame฀ and observe฀the฀lash฀of฀colour฀as฀the฀solution฀ Particles in elements carbon atom Metals. In non-metals the atoms are bonded together. Some gaseous elements contain separate molecules. nitrogen (N2). the molecules hydrogen (H2). 2฀ Hold฀the฀irst฀atomiser฀bottle฀just฀below฀the฀top฀ of฀the฀burner.Chapter฀8฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀matter Investigate 16 FLAME TESTS Aim Different metals produce different colours in a flame. as shown in Fig 10. Fig 10 Part of a crystal of diamond 185 . Planning and Safety Check •฀ Draw฀up฀a฀suitable฀data฀table฀to฀record฀ your results. •฀ What฀safety฀precautions฀will฀be฀ necessary? Method 1฀ Light฀the฀burner฀and฀adjust฀it฀to฀the฀blue฀lame. For example.฀Test฀it฀and฀infer฀which฀ metal it contains. The aim of this investigation is to identify various metallic elements using flame tests. has a molecule containing three atoms of oxygen.฀your฀teacher฀will฀give฀you฀ an฀unknown฀metal฀salt. Materials •฀ Bunsen฀burner •฀ small฀atomiser฀bottles฀containing฀0.5M฀solutions฀ of฀the฀following฀or฀other฀soluble฀metal฀salts: ฀ barium฀chloride฀ potassium฀chloride calcium chloride sodium chloride copper sulfate strontium chloride •฀ unknown฀metal฀solution฀(Step฀4) vaporises. Wear safety glasses. each linked to four other carbon atoms.) 3 Repeat the procedure with the atomisers of the other solutions. For example. 4฀ Now฀that฀you฀know฀the฀colour฀each฀metal฀ produces฀in฀a฀lame. are composed of collections of single atoms.฀(You฀may฀need฀to฀repeat฀this฀if฀you฀ did฀not฀see฀the฀colour฀clearly. such as gold. diamond consists of carbon atoms.฀about฀20฀cm฀away฀from฀the฀lame. The gas ozone (O3).

They wrapped the black powder in bamboo or paper tubes to make crude missiles and flares that could be used to frighten away potential invaders. We abide by some fairly strict safety regulations. barium gives you a green colour. They are directors of Howard and Sons Pyrotechnics. so basically we learn from the dos and don’ts. < WEB watch > For great fireworks photos. This in turn lights the main fuse that ignites the lift charge at the bottom. The other colours are produced by adding small amounts of other metals. go to www.net.’ Christian has arranged the special effects in movies such as The Matrix and live shows such as Metallica and Pink Floyd. Andrew and Christian Howard are brothers. This propels the shell high into the sky. To set off the firework. The Italians were probably the first to experiment with coloured fireworks in the early 1700s. particularly to ensure no spectators or staff are injured. When asked how he got started. which means ‘the art of making fireworks’.scienceworld.1 86 ScienceWorld฀8 Fireworks The Chinese were probably the first to use fireworks when they discovered how to make the black powder we call gunpowder about AD 850. where the time-delay fuse ignites the bursting charges to propel the stars out of the shell. Andrew said ‘There are TAFE courses that specialise in high explosives. The white colours of fireworks are due to the metals aluminium and magnesium burning at about 3000°C. This was the beginning of pyrotechnics. when his father took over the business from his grandfather. which contain the colour-producing elements. pyrotechnicians place the shell in a plastic cylinder and light the main fuse. . The gold colours are due to iron and charcoal at a lower temperature. At the bottom of the main fuse cylinder time-delay fuse cardboard shell stars bursting charge side fuse black powder lift charge Fig 11 The design of a fireworks shell shell is a compartment that contains the black powder lift charge. Multiple-burst shells are designed with several separate compartments. but not in fireworks. who light up our skies with spectacular fireworks displays. copper gives you blue and strontium gives you red. A fireworks shell is a cardboard sphere filled with hundreds of little black balls called stars. Andrew’s interest in fireworks was sparked at the age of seven. For example. The stars are surrounded by the bursting charge. There are no textbooks covering our trade.au and follow the links to Howard and Sons Pyrotechnics.

And molecules of carbon dioxide (which plants use in photosynthesis) contain one carbon atom combined with two oxygen atoms. This tells you that each molecule of water contains two atoms of hydrogen (symbol H) and one atom of oxygen (symbol O). molecules of the poisonous gas carbon monoxide contain one carbon atom combined with one oxygen atom. Iron oxide (rust) has the formula Fe2O3 (F-etwo-O-three). It has a similar structure to sodium chloride. Similarly. A chemical formula is a shorthand way of showing which elements are in a compound. There are no separate molecules. It also tells you how many atoms of each element are present in one molecule of the compound. water has the formula H2O. but there are two particles of iron for every three particles of oxygen. with sodium and chloride particles packed together tightly. vinegar water salt 187 . In other words. but the formula tells you that there are equal numbers of sodium and chlorine atoms.Chapter฀8฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀matter Compounds If you look at Fig 3 on page 180 you will see that water molecules contain two different kinds of atoms—hydrogen and oxygen. the hydrogen and oxygen are in the ratio 2:1.) symbol for hydrogen symbol for oxygen WATER Each molecule contains two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. Substances that are made of two or more different kinds of atoms are called compounds. For example. To read the formula aloud you say ‘H two O’. Sodium chloride is a solid compound and has the structure shown below. Sodium chloride (common salt) has the formula NaCl. (The iron and oxygen are in the ratio 2:3. To read such a formula you say the letters in order: N-a-C-l.

In ball-and-stick models (see Fig 10 on page 185) the balls are joined by sticks to form molecules. Draw a diagram of each molecule. as shown in the diagram on the right. There are no such sticks connecting atoms—they merely represent the bonds between the atoms. and others very complex (eg proteins. For example salt (sodium chloride) is a compound of sodium and chlorine. Many substances. In both types the atoms are represented by coloured balls of different sizes. carbon and hydrogen in your body. hydrogen and oxygen. Common non-living things like salt and sugar are usually compounds. we use models to represent them. Hence the high proportion of oxygen. Examine the models to see how many bonds each type of atom can form. Living things contain a large number of different compounds. fats and carbohydrates). are made up of elements and compounds of these elements. are a mixture of a number of different compounds. Living and non-living All things. Make models to represent these molecules: ammonia (NH3) hydrogen (H2) methane (CH4) oxygen (O2) carbon dioxide (CO2) water (H2O) Hey. fats and carbohydrates all contain carbon. whether living or non-living. where the atoms fit together at the correct angles. Fig 16 O C H N Ca P O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O oxygen 65% O O carbon 18% O O C C hydrogen 10% C C nitrogen 3% C C calcium 2% C H phosphorus 1% H other elements 1% H N Ca The building blocks of the human body (percentage by mass) O O O O O O O O O O C C C O O O O O O O O O O C C C C H H H H N P O O O O O O O O O O O O C C C C H H H N Ca . These compounds are made up of about twenty essential elements. When you use these models you will notice that the bonds between atoms are at definite angles. Record your results in a table. The other type of model is the space-filling type (Fig 3 on page 180). such as petrol. some very simple (eg water). Different colours represent different atoms.not playing about making models. Cane sugar is a compound of carbon. The proteins. About 65% of your body mass is water (hydrogen and oxygen). labelling the different atoms.1 88 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Activity Molecular models Because atoms and molecules are too small. you should be doing your science project . There are two main types of molecular models.

oxygen. Scientists have been able to work out the structures of living substances. However. DNA is very complex. The result is that there are millions of different types of DNA. Some day scientists may be able to create life itself! Fig 17 A model of a small section of the complex DNA molecule: oxygen—red carbon—black hydrogen—white nitrogen—blue phosphorus—purple 189 . hydrogen. It contains only the elements carbon. which in turn are made of atoms and molecules. One such substance is insulin‚ one of the smallest proteins.Chapter฀8฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀matter The basis of life is a compound called DNA. What makes you different from everybody else is the way in which the atoms in the DNA in your body are put together. nitrogen and phosphorus. The salt in your body is the same as the salt on the kitchen table. In fact. But cells and all non-living things are made of elements and compounds. And the calcium carbonate in an eggshell and in your bones is the same as the calcium carbonate in limestone. and the various atoms can be combined in millions of different ways. which determines what you are like. it is now known that living things contain very complex compounds. they have even been able to make quite complex substances in the laboratory. In the nineteenth century scientists said that living things contained a mysterious ‘vital force’. However. Somehow life is associated with these complex compounds. Just what gives a living thing life is not well understood. Cells are the building blocks for living things. All matter can be divided into living and non-living things.

scienceworld. cartoons and audio descriptions. 2฀ Why฀are฀there฀so฀many฀more฀compounds฀than฀ elements? 3฀ Draw฀up฀a฀table฀with฀two฀columns฀headed฀ ‘Elements’ and ‘Compounds’. mercury.net. phosphorus. carbon monoxide. 2 Properties and uses of the element.1 90 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 1 2 3 4 Ask someone to check your spelling of these words: carbon dioxide hydrogen compound molecule element sodium chloride formula symbol What is the difference between— a an atom and a molecule? b an atom and an element? Which of the following are elements: aluminium. How many different molecules could you form by linking these atoms together: a two at a time? b three at a time? Select an element and use library resources to find out what you can about it. Here are some things you might look up: 1 Name of discoverer. sand. The Visual Elements Periodic Table Very colourful and interactive It’s elemental Below the table you can click on a number of online games based on the elements. 5 A tiny crystal of magnesium chloride contains 2฀billion฀magnesium฀atoms฀and฀4฀billion฀chlorine฀ atoms. iron oxide. Put each of the following฀into฀the฀correct฀column: ฀ Al฀ SiO2 ฀ CO2 Cu N2฀ NH3 H2SO4฀ O3 4฀ Write฀the฀formula฀for฀each฀of฀the฀following฀ molecules: a nitrogen dioxide contains one nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms b฀ propane฀contains฀three฀carbon฀atoms฀and฀฀ eight hydrogen atoms c฀ glucose฀contains฀six฀carbon฀atoms. with puzzles and help with pronouncing their names.au and follow the links to these websites: Web Elements Select an element for a range of information including photos. 1฀ Use฀Fig฀16฀on฀page฀188฀to฀draw฀a฀bar฀graph฀ and a pie chart of the elements in the human body. how the element was named. Go to www. The Periodic Table of Comic Books Click on an element to see a list of comic book pages involving that element. kerosene. copper. sugar.  and . .฀What฀is฀the฀formula฀for฀the฀compound? < WEB watch > CHEM4KIDS Simple information on the first 36 elements. water? Which element is present in all of the following compounds? SO2 5 challenge H2S H2SO4 CuSO4 Suppose you represent the atoms in three different elements by ●. date of discovery.฀twelve฀฀ hydrogen atoms and six oxygen atoms.

It splits into two simpler substances—water and carbon (which is black). scientists are also able to make many new compounds. heating them and passing electricity through them. Investigate 17 MAKING A COMPOUND Aim To฀make฀a฀compound฀from฀the฀elements฀iron฀and฀ sulfur. Test some sulfur in the same way. Then in Investigate 18 you can break a compound down into its elements.฀then฀the฀iron฀powder฀is฀ magnetic. It contains many different elements and compounds. most substances are not pure. whose proportions are not always the same. As you learnt in Chapter 1.฀Use฀a฀magnet฀as฀shown฀to฀test฀whether฀ you can pull the iron powder up the side of the test฀tube. all substances mixtures pure substances compounds elements In Investigate 17 you can use a chemical reaction to make a compound.฀and฀your฀teacher฀may฀prefer฀to฀ demonstrate all or part of the experiment. Planning and Safety Check • Read through the experiment and note the places฀where฀safety฀precautions฀will฀be necessary. Using chemical reactions. For example. PART A Te s ti ng ir on & s ulfur Method 1 Place a small amount of iron powder in a test tube. a chemical reaction occurs when sugar is heated.฀If฀you฀can. Air is a good example of a mixture. Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ powdered฀sulfur iron฀powder dilute฀hydrochloric acid฀(1M) spatula bar฀magnet •฀ small฀test฀tube •฀ Bunsen฀burner tripod฀and฀heatproof฀mat •฀ magnet Corrosive aluminium฀foil crucible pipeclay฀triangle iron powder 191 . when carbon is heated it reacts with the oxygen in the air to form the compound carbon dioxide. For example.Chapter฀8฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀matter 8. They cannot be split because they contain only one sort of atom. but are mixtures of two or more different substances (elements or compounds) which are not chemically combined.3 Chemical reactions Over the years scientists have experimented with substances—mixing them. • Discuss the experiment with your teacher. Only฀one฀group฀at฀a฀time฀can฀use฀the฀fume฀ cupboard. Scientists discovered that carbon and other elements cannot be split into anything simpler by chemical reactions.

฀Is฀the฀substance฀magnetic? Can you separate the iron and sulfur? ฀Is฀this฀the฀same฀gas฀that฀was฀formed฀when฀ you added hydrochloric acid to iron powder? How could you tell? Discussion 1 Did the properties of the iron and sulfur change when you heated the mixture? Explain. 3฀ Put฀two฀spatulas฀of฀sulfur฀in฀another฀test฀tube. 2฀ Was฀there฀a฀chemical฀reaction?฀How฀do฀you฀ know? 3฀ What฀was฀needed฀to฀make฀the฀reaction฀occur? 4 Have the iron and sulfur formed a mixture or a compound? Explain your answer.฀What฀do฀ you notice? iron powder + sulfur crucible aluminium foil pipeclay triangle Discussion 1 Did the properties of the iron and sulfur change when you mixed them? 2฀ Was฀there฀a฀chemical฀reaction฀when฀you฀mixed฀ them? 3 Have the iron and sulfur formed a mixture or a compound? Explain your answer. (The฀aluminium฀foil฀doesn’t฀react—it฀simply฀ stops฀the฀hot฀mixture฀sticking฀to฀the฀crucible. 5 The compound you have made is called iron sulfide.฀What฀are฀the฀elements฀in฀it? .฀ then฀two฀spatulas฀of฀iron฀powder. ฀Describe฀the฀properties฀of฀the฀new substance. Wear safety glasses.) ฀Record฀your฀observations. 3฀ When฀the฀crucible฀has฀cooled฀examine฀the฀new฀ substance฀that฀has฀formed. ฀Observe฀what฀happens. ฀Test฀the฀mixture฀with฀the฀magnet. It is essential to use a fume cupboard so that you don’t breathe in any of the fumes.฀as฀shown. PART B Makin g iron s ul f ide Method 1฀ Line฀the฀crucible฀with฀some฀aluminium foil and pour in the mixture of iron and sulfur.฀Heat฀it฀with฀a฀Bunsen฀burner.) 4 Add some dilute hydrochloric acid to a small piece฀of฀the฀substance฀in฀the฀crucible.฀ Caution: The fumes from burning sulfur are poisonous.฀ As฀soon฀as฀the฀mixture฀begins฀to฀glow.฀turn฀off฀ the฀burner. Do the same with the sulfur.฀(This฀ should฀also฀be฀done฀in฀a฀fume฀cupboard฀as฀the฀ ‘rotten฀egg’฀gas฀given฀off฀is฀poisonous.฀Mix฀them฀well฀ by฀shaking฀the฀test฀tube.1 92 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 2 Add a few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid to some฀iron฀powder฀in฀a฀test฀tube. 2฀ Put฀the฀crucible฀in฀a฀pipeclay฀triangle฀on฀a฀ tripod.

Wear safety glasses. 193 .฀Put฀the฀ glowing฀splint฀into฀the฀test฀tube.)฀When฀the฀side฀ tubes฀are฀full.฀Light฀the฀wooden฀splint.Chapter฀8฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀matter Investigate 18 BREAKING A COMPOUND Aim To฀ind฀out฀what฀substances฀are฀produced฀when฀ water฀is฀decomposed฀(split฀up)฀by฀passing฀ electricity through it. 3฀ Connect฀the฀voltameter฀to฀a฀power฀pack฀set฀on฀ 6 volts DC.฀If฀it฀bursts฀into฀ flame this indicates the gas is oxygen.฀Infer฀what฀substance฀is฀ formed. Method 1฀ Set฀up฀a฀voltameter฀as฀ shown.฀then฀ blow฀it฀out฀so฀that฀it฀has฀a฀glowing฀tip. Then open the tap and collect the gas. Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ dilute฀sulfuric acid฀(1M)฀ voltameter฀(vol-TAM-e-ter)฀ 2฀pyrex฀test฀tubes wooden฀splint. 3฀ When฀hydrogen฀burns฀it฀combines฀with฀the฀ oxygen฀in฀the฀air.฀(See฀Step฀5฀above. A ‘pop’ indicates the gas is hydrogen.฀look฀for฀water฀droplets฀ inside฀the฀tube.฀tilt฀the฀test฀tube฀upwards. Turn it on. tap voltameter 6฀ Collect฀a฀test฀tube฀full฀of฀gas฀from฀the฀other฀ voltameter฀tube. 4฀ Allow฀the฀current฀to฀low฀for฀about฀15฀minutes.฀and฀put฀ the฀burning฀taper฀near฀its฀mouth.) 4 The volume of hydrogen produced was twice the฀volume฀of฀oxygen.฀Infer฀where฀they฀came฀from.฀Water฀is฀a฀ compound of the elements ______ and ______. water ฀After฀the฀‘pop’. A voltameter is an expensive piece of equipment and the฀school฀probably฀has฀only฀one. power pack Discussion 1฀ What฀were฀the฀two฀gases฀produced฀when฀ electricity was passed through water? – + 2฀ Open฀the฀taps฀at฀the฀top฀and฀add฀water฀ containing a few millilitres of dilute sulfuric acid to฀the฀middle฀tube.฀ and฀observe฀the฀gases฀that฀collect฀in฀the฀tubes.฀Suggest฀a฀reason฀for฀ this.฀(The฀acid฀makes฀the฀water฀ conduct฀electricity฀more฀easily. Read through the investigation. Corrosive Compare the volumes of the gases in the two฀tubes. •฀ taper Planning and Safety Check ฀ Light฀a฀taper. 2฀ Copy฀and฀complete฀this฀sentence.฀So฀your฀ teacher฀will฀probably฀set฀up฀the฀equipment฀ for you.฀close฀the฀taps.฀eg฀paddle-pop฀stick distilled฀water฀ •฀ power฀pack฀ 5฀ Invert฀a฀dry฀test฀tube฀over฀the฀tube฀with฀the฀ most gas in it.

two molecules of hydrogen are formed for every molecule of oxygen. On the other hand. when molecules are rearranged during a chemical reaction. a chemical reaction occurred. Sodium chloride (common salt) contains these two elements. but is safe to eat. e In a mixture. burning produces heat. c Hydrogen is another name for water. Similarly. Rewrite those that are false. So when water decomposes. as Fig 22 shows. 2 Classify the following substances as elements. it gives off a gas and changes to a black powder. The iron and sulfur were the reactants—the substances you started with. The atoms in some molecules are more tightly bonded together than in other molecules. the parts can be separated only by a chemical reaction. liquids or gases. For example. molecules of water break apart and form molecules of hydrogen and oxygen. and the decomposition of water needed electricity. a New substances are produced in a chemical reaction. exact quantities of the different elements react. The iron sulfide was the product of the reaction. water (H2O)  hydrogen (H2) + oxygen (O2) During this reaction. As a result. H H O H H 1 94 H O O O H Fig 22 Check! 1 State whether each of the following statements is true or false. . d Hydrogen sulfide contains two elements—hydrogen and sulfur. and chlorine is a poisonous green gas. Water molecules always contain two atoms of hydrogen bonded to every atom of oxygen.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Chemical equations When you mixed iron and sulfur and heated the mixture. f Compounds cannot be broken down into simpler substances. Is substance X an element or a compound? Give reasons. open the Water reaction animation on the CD. when a compound is made. and the reactions that occur inside batteries produce electricity. b The rusting of iron is a chemical reaction. g The same elements can combine to form many different compounds. energy may be needed or energy may be released. air protein copper pure water hydrogen rust iron oxide soft drink mercury sulfur dioxide 3 Sodium is a soft silvery metal that reacts violently with water. compounds or mixtures. The reaction between iron and sulfur needed heat to make it go. in Investigate 18 liquid water decomposed to produce hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. When heated. H H The compound water decomposes to form the elements hydrogen and oxygen. To see how this works. This is why the volume of hydrogen gas produced in Investigate 18 was exactly twice the volume of oxygen gas produced. The equation for the reaction is: iron (Fe) + sulfur (S)  iron sulfide (FeS) The reactants and products in a reaction can be solids. How can you explain this? 4 Pure substance X is a green powder.

Chapter฀8฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀matter challenge 1฀ ฀Diagrams฀A฀to฀D฀below฀represent฀the฀particles฀in฀ different฀substances. b฀ Write฀a฀word฀equation฀for฀the฀reaction. 5฀ The฀diagram฀below฀illustrates฀how฀ammonia฀ gas is made from nitrogen and hydrogen gases.฀However.฀it฀is฀quite฀ different฀from฀water.฀If฀water฀ and฀hydrogen฀peroxide฀are฀both฀made฀up฀ of฀hydrogen฀and฀oxygen.฀why฀are฀they฀so฀ different?฀Write฀an฀explanation. 195 .฀A฀red฀substance฀was฀left฀behind฀in฀ the฀test฀tube.฀and฀two฀different฀ gases฀were฀given฀off.฀and฀in฀rocket฀fuel. e฀ Write฀a฀word฀equation฀for฀the฀reaction.฀One฀was฀a฀poisonous฀ brown฀gas฀called฀nitrogen฀dioxide. 3฀ Tamara฀heated฀a฀white฀powder.฀she฀was฀left฀with฀a฀silvery฀฀ ฀ liquid฀called฀mercury.฀Which฀represents: a an element? b a compound? c a mixture of elements? d a mixture of compounds? A and฀antiseptics. ELEMENTS B hydrogen C nitrogen D MIXTURE 2 a฀ What฀substance฀do฀you฀predict฀will฀be฀ formed when hydrogen and oxygen react together? Explain your prediction.฀What฀are฀all฀the฀elements฀฀ ฀ in the white powder? 4 Hydrogen peroxide is a compound of hydrogen฀and฀oxygen.฀and฀is฀used฀in฀bleaches฀ COMPOUND a฀ What฀is฀the฀ratio฀of฀nitrogen฀atoms฀to฀ hydrogen atoms in the ammonia molecule? b฀ In฀what฀ratio฀do฀the฀nitrogen฀and฀hydrogen฀ react?฀Is฀this฀the฀same฀ratio฀as฀in฀the฀ ammonia product? c฀ What฀is฀the฀total฀number฀of฀atoms฀in฀the฀ product?฀Is฀this฀the฀same฀as฀the฀total฀number฀ of atoms in the reactants? d Copy the diagram and draw the molecules in the box฀labelled฀MIxTURe. a฀ Is฀the฀white฀powder฀an฀element฀or฀a฀ compound? b฀ Which฀elements฀can฀Tamara฀be฀sure฀are฀ in the white powder? c฀ When฀Tamara฀continued฀to฀heat฀the฀red฀฀ ฀ substance.฀and฀the฀other฀ was฀oxygen.฀More฀oxygen฀was฀฀ ฀ also฀produced.

It also tells you the ratio of the atoms of these elements. REVIEW 1 Which one of the following can you normally see without a microscope? A cells B elements C molecules D atoms 2 Copper. 4 An element is a ______ made of atoms of only one type. It cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical reactions. mixtures molecule 5 There are over 100 different elements. The missing words are on the right. Try doing the Chapter 8 crossword on the CD. both living and non-living. 3 A ______ is two or more atoms joined together by chemical atoms bonds chemical reactions compound elements formula matter ______. each with its own ______.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 1 96 Copy and complete these statements to make a summary of this chapter. iron and chlorine are all: A compounds B mixtures C elements D metals 3 How many naturally occurring substances are there that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions? A ninety B hundreds C many thousands D not known 4 Which one of the following is a compound? A sodium B chlorine C sugar D hydrogen . 7 The chemical ______ for a compound tells you what elements it contains. pure substance 6 A ______ is a pure substance made up of two or more different symbol elements combined together. 1 ______ are the basic building blocks of all ______. 8 ______ can be used to make compounds from elements. Most substances are ______ of two or more pure substances. 2 Pure substances can be either ______ or compounds. and to break down compounds into elements.

11 Stephanie passes an electric current through water in a voltameter. She knows that the molecules in one can be represented by and the molecules in the other can be represented by . He also knows that compounds containing iodine produce a purple gas when heated with concentrated sulfuric acid. She then mixes the two gases and puts a match to them. which one of the following would best represent: a an element? b a compound c a mixture ● A ● ● C ● B ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● D ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ●● 7 The formula for ammonia is NH3. However she does not know which is which. a compound. She finds that the water slowly disappears and she is left with two gases—hydrogen and oxygen. Its formula would be: A NO C NO2 B N2O D N2O2 6 If ● and ● represent two different atoms. Knowing the structure of a water molecule. as in Investigate 18. Hydrogen gas is formed and a colourless solution is left. How many atoms are there in a molecule of ammonia? 8 Nicholas knows that compounds containing sodium (a metal) produce a golden-yellow colour in a flame. He tests four chemicals and records his results. an element and a molecule. An explosion occurs and water is formed again. How could she use chemical reactions to find out? Check your answers on pages 281–282.5 Nitrogen dioxide is a compound which contains nitrogen and oxygen in the ratio of one atom of nitrogen to two atoms of oxygen. Substance Yellow flame Purple gas 1 2 3 4 ✓   ✓  ✓  ✓ a Which of these chemicals contain the element sodium? b Which contain the element iodine? c Which is likely to be the compound sodium iodide? 9 Jake pours some acid onto the element zinc. how can you explain Stephanie’s results? hydrogen atoms oxygen atom 12 A scientist has two different compounds. He tests the colourless solution and finds that it contains only two different elements—zinc and chlorine. On the basis of these tests Jake can conclude that the acid contains: A hydrogen only B hydrogen and chlorine only C chlorine only D zinc and chlorine only 10 Write several complete sentences to explain the differences between an atom. 197 REVIEW Chapter฀8฀ Building฀blocks฀of฀matter .

However. radium. electrons spread out positive charge What Thomson’s plum pudding model predicted electrons large positive charge What Rutherford’s new model predicted Activity 1 Clamp a hula hoop vertically on a retort stand and use string to suspend a table-tennis ball in the middle of it. Ernest Rutherford. in 1897 an Englishman called JJ Thomson discovered tiny negatively charged particles much much smaller than atoms. did not bounce back because they went through the empty space inside the gold atoms. He said that. so he used the tiny alpha particles emitted by the newly discovered radioactive element. 3 Is this a good model for Rutherford’s gold foil experiment? Explain. As a result of Rutherford’s careful experiments we now know that the atoms that make up planets. however. Obviously he couldn’t see inside atoms. These new particles were called electrons. It was like a round plum pudding of uniformly spread positive charge. In 1911. Rutherford and two other scientists used a very thin piece of gold foil and around it they placed a special circular sheet that glowed when hit by an alpha particle. According to Thomson’s plum pudding model you wouldn’t expect the spread out positive charge or the tiny electrons to cause the large fastmoving alpha particles to bounce straight back. wanted to find out more about what is inside atoms. However about 1 in 20 000 was deflected by more than 90°. This nucleus would have a big enough positive charge to repel the positively charged alpha particles.1 98 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Learning focus: Observations depend on the understanding of the observer US AREA C O F D E B I R C PRES Inside the atom John Dalton (page 181) thought atoms were like tiny invisible pool balls. a New Zealander working in England. ‘It was quite the most incredible event that has ever happened to me in my life. plastics and everything else are mostly empty space! • In a group discuss how Rutherford’s experiment illustrates that observations depend on the understanding of the observer. and Thomson suggested a new model for the atom. after studying and thinking about the problem for a year or two. with tiny negatively charged electrons scattered through it like raisins (or like the bits of chocolate in a chocolate-chip cookie). Rutherford proposed a new model in which the positive charge in the atom is concentrated in a small central core or nucleus. It was almost as if you fired a 15 inch shell (40 cm in diameter) at a piece of tissue paper and it came back and hit you’. Most of the particles. They found that most of the alpha particles fired at the foil passed straight through or were deflected only slightly. Count how many grains go straight through the ‘atom’ and how many hit the ‘nucleus’. . These particles were so small and moved so quickly that they passed through thin slices of matter—like X-rays through your body. people. The hoop represents an atom and the ball represents its nucleus. From Rutherford’s understanding of atoms. 2 From several metres away. use a drinking straw to fire rice grains at the table-tennis ball. these observations didn’t make any sense.

3 Using food page 215 Animation The heart Activities page 220 Main ideas Chapter 9 crossword Review Learning focus: Choices need to be made when considering whether to use scientific advances Chapter 9 test Prescribed focus area GM foods Podcast TRB .1 The need for food page 201 Investigate 19 Testing foods Experiment Enzyme action 9.9 Food฀for฀life Planning page Getting started Activity page 202 Skillbuilder page 204 Heating a liquid in a test tube 9.2 Digesting food page 209 Animation Enzyme action Investigate 20 Model intestines Assessment task 9 An energy budget TRB Activity page 215 Investigate 21 The blood system 9.

circulation and excretion Skills ● ● ● ● ● planning first-hand investigations and choosing equipment (Try this page 210. Then briefly list the functions of each part. liver. lungs and brain. intestines. You are pleased with it because the eggs came from your own hens which forage in a large paddock. . salivary glands. ● You have just prepared a ham. kidneys.2 00 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW t… l learn abou r you wil In this chapte Learning฀Focus ● choices need to be made when considering whether to use scientific advances (page 225) Knowledge฀and฀Understanding ● ● multicellular organisms—respiration. photosynthesis and plant structures humans—digestion. Experiment page 211 and Investigate 20) performing first-hand investigations and gathering first-hand information (Skillbuilder page 204. anus. ● How much do you know about your body? Draw an outline of a body on a piece of A4 paper. and you grew the tomatoes in your garden. stomach. Draw a food web to show the source of the foods that made your omelette. oesophagus. Mark on the paper the positions of the following parts of the body: heart. tomato and cheese omelette. Investigate 19–21 and Activities pages 215 & 220) processing information—using mathematics (Activity page 202) thinking critically—using a model (Investigate 20) working individually or in teams (Experiment page 211 and Investigate 21) Work in a small group to discuss the following tasks.

The chemical energy in the food molecules is converted to chemical energy in other molecules or transformed into other forms of energy. Growth Food is needed to supply the raw materials for cell growth and the replacement of old cells. This process of obtaining energy from food in your body is called cellular respiration. chemical energy in food chemical energy in body stored chemical energy in cells electrical energy in nerve messages kinetic energy in movement heat heat 201 .1 The need for food Energy Food is needed to supply the energy for many body functions such as muscle movement and keeping a constant body temperature. You need food for three reasons: • for energy • for growth and repair • to keep your body healthy and functioning correctly Keeping healthy Food is needed to keep the cells and organs in your body functioning correctly. the chemical energy stored in the food is converted to heat energy. In all these energy transformations the inal energy product is heat. A similar process occurs in your body.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life 9. which is eventually given off to your surroundings. The energy in food When a nut or piece of spaghetti burns. Instead. but the energy is not released in one chemical reaction. respiration. the food is broken down in a number of steps in chemical reactions in the cells of your body. and to supply energy for muscle activity. or simply. Some of this energy is used in sending nerve messages along nerves.

On which day should you eat more? Why? Work out how much energy you would use if you stayed in bed all day? Suggest how this energy is used. A kilojoule is quite a small amount of energy. Would you use more energy standing up? Why? Activity aerobics cycling. how active you are and how much you weigh. It takes about 80 kJ of heat energy to boil a cup of water. can of soft drink 600 kJ slice of toast with honey 560 kJ hamburger 1450 kJ apple 250 kJ bowl of cereal with milk 750 kJ Activity How much energy do you use? The amount of energy you use each day depends on three factors: how much you are growing. slow walking.2 02 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW The energy in food is measured in kilojoules (kJ). Do the same for a very inactive day. The table shows the approximate amounts of energy used per hour by a 60 kg person doing various activities. The amounts of energy in some common foods are shown below. using the table as a guide. fast watching TV Energy used (kJ per hour) 7 000 700 1 500 1 000 500 600 2 500 300 2 800 10 000 500 250 400 350 600 2 000 350 . work out yesterday’s energy usage over 24 hours. fast dancing doing homework housework jogging lying still playing ball games running fast sitting in class sleeping standing using computer walking. slow cycling. (Assume that you are 60 kg. List the activities that you did yesterday and the amount of time you spent doing each of them. Then.) Calculate how much energy you would use on a very active day.

Vitamins are found in all fresh fruit. bread and pasta. nuts. vegetables and cereals. lettuce 93% and eggs 75%. Carbohydrates (sugars. Proteins Proteins provide the materials for the growth and repair of cells. potatoes. eggs and cheese are high in protein. so some protein must be eaten regularly. vegetables. They cannot be stored in the body. cereals. chicken. while vegetable fats are usually oils (eg olive oil). while peanuts contain only 5% water. Fats are stored by your body as an energy reserve and also to insulate your body from heat loss. The dry matter in foods is made of four main food types: • carbohydrates (sugars. Animal fats (eg butter) are usually solid at room temperature. potatoes contain 77% water.5 times more energy per gram than carbohydrates. Cellulose is also called ibre and is found mostly in fruit. Sugars are found in fruits. Fats Fats are high in energy. nuts and meats. But the one thing that all food contains is water. CHIPS CHIPS 203 . For example. Meat. They are used in various cell reactions in the body. It helps keep the food moving in your gut. Starch is found in rice.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life Food฀types There are various substances in the food you eat. producing about 2. Vitamins and minerals These are found in very small quantities in foods. starch and cellulose) • proteins • fats • vitamins and minerals. honey and sweets. beans. ish. but are as important as the other food types. starch and cellulose) Sugars and starch are used for energy.

2 04 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Skillbuilder 4 Light a burner and turn the collar so that the flame is just off the yellow flame and turning blue. Heating a liquid in a test tube 5 Turn the gas down at the tap to give a small In Investigate 19 you might do a chemical flame. Then add the same amount of Benedict’s฀solution. •฀ glucose฀solution฀in฀dropper฀bottle Record the colour change. test for glucose.฀fruit. For this Skillbuilder your teacher will give 7 Move the test tube to and fro while you are you the following equipment: heating.฀egg฀white . you and other people. and heat the liquid gently. 3 Use the technique shown in the diagram to mix the two liquids.฀chicken. protein and fat. •฀ Benedict’s฀solution฀in฀dropper฀bottle •฀ Bunsen฀burner •฀ matches Method 1 Wear safety glasses.฀bread. In this test you use a 6 Hold the test tube with a test tube holder Bunsen burner to heat a liquid in a test tube. glasses. Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ glucose฀solution฀(10%฀glucose฀solution) starch฀suspension฀(20฀g฀starch/L) protein฀solution฀(10%฀gelatine฀solution) butter฀or฀dripping฀ Benedict’s฀solution฀or฀Clinistix฀ iodine฀solution฀(5฀g฀I2฀in฀100฀mL฀10%฀KI)฀ •฀ copper฀sulfate฀solution฀(0. 2 Add 2 dropperfuls of glucose solution to a test tube. but it is a very difficult point the mouth of the test tube away from laboratory skill.฀ •฀ test฀tube฀(in฀a฀test฀tube฀rack) otherwise the liquid will quickly boil and Wear safety •฀ test฀tube฀holder splash out of the tube. Investigate 19 TESTING FOODS Aim To test various foods for glucose.฀eg฀cooked฀ rice. Move the test tube to and fro while heating.1M)฀and฀ sodium hydroxide฀(2M)฀solution฀ Corrosive or฀Uristix฀ •฀ brown฀paper •฀ spotting฀tile •฀ test฀tube฀holder •฀ 4฀test฀tubes. Remember to This sounds simple. starch.฀Don’t฀heat฀the฀tube฀too฀strongly.฀a฀stopper฀and฀a฀rack •฀ burner฀and฀heatproof฀mat฀(or฀ a฀boiling฀water฀bath฀for฀the฀class) •฀ small฀pieces฀of฀foods.

first do the Skillbuilder on the previous ng boili a up set Alternatively.฀Shake฀each฀tube฀to฀mix.฀place฀the฀test฀tubes฀in฀the฀water฀ bath. •฀ Using฀diagrams฀and฀labels฀only. your teacher may water bath for the test tubes. If you do. wash it imm r safety water and tell your teacher. ing glucose with Benedict’s solution Test 2 aining If you are going to heat a test tube cont must Benedict’s solution with a burner. 3฀ A฀blue–black฀colour฀ indicates starch is present. 3฀ Use฀a฀test฀tube฀holder฀to฀heat฀each฀test฀tube฀ very฀carefully฀over฀a฀small฀lame฀until฀it฀boils. starch suspension water iodine Testing for protein Dip฀a฀Uristix฀strip฀into฀the฀protein฀solution฀and฀ watch฀for฀a฀colour฀change. 3฀ Then฀add฀2฀dropperfuls฀of฀copper฀sulfate฀ solution฀to฀each฀tube. Rub฀some฀butter฀on฀a฀piece฀ of฀brown฀paper. Always wea glasses. 4฀ A฀red฀precipitate฀will฀form฀if฀glucose฀is฀present. PART A Te s ts fo r fo o d t yp es Testing for glucose Testing for starch Use a spotting tile for this test. 2฀ Add฀a฀dropperful฀of฀sodium฀hydroxide฀solution฀ (take฀care)฀to฀each฀test฀tube.฀or฀do฀the฀chemical฀ test฀as฀follows: 1 Add a dropperful of protein solution to a test tube. 1฀ Add฀5฀drops฀of฀starch฀suspension฀to฀a฀spot฀on฀ the฀tile. you page.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life Planning and Safety Check •฀ Read฀each฀of฀the฀4฀food฀type฀tests฀in฀ Part฀A฀very฀carefully. 2฀ Then฀add฀2฀drops฀of฀iodine฀solution฀to฀the฀ starch฀and฀to฀the฀water. 2฀ Then฀add฀2฀dropperfuls฀of฀Benedict’s฀solution฀ to฀each฀test฀tube. SAFE USE OF CHEMICALS 1 Protein testing solution The sodium hydroxide solution is very drop any corrosive.฀ 4฀ The฀blue฀solution฀will฀turn฀pink฀if฀protein฀is฀ present. Testing for fat 205 . Fat leaves a see-through mark฀on฀the฀ paper. Dip฀a฀Clinistix฀strip฀into฀the฀glucose฀solution฀and฀ watch฀for฀a฀colour฀change. Take care not to splash or tely with edia on your skin.฀ If฀your฀teacher฀has฀set฀up฀a฀boiling฀water฀bath฀ for฀the฀class.฀ Remember฀to฀constantly฀move฀the฀test฀tube฀to฀ and฀fro฀while฀heating฀it.฀and฀a฀dropperful฀of฀water฀to฀a฀second฀test฀ tube.฀or฀do฀the฀chemical฀ test฀as฀follows: 1฀ Add฀2฀dropperfuls฀of฀glucose฀solution฀to฀a฀test฀ tube฀and฀2฀dropperfuls฀of฀water฀to฀another฀test฀ tube฀(this฀is฀the฀control tube).฀describe฀ what฀you฀have฀to฀do฀in฀each฀of฀the฀four฀ tests.฀Add฀5฀drops฀of฀water฀to฀another฀spot.฀Then฀ hold the paper up to the light.

2฀ Select฀a฀piece฀of฀food฀and฀mash฀it฀up. 6฀ Select฀another฀food฀and฀repeat฀the฀above฀steps. .฀protein฀and฀ fat. pies. you are supplying your body’s needs by eating foods in the correct proportions. chips and most fast foods.฀starch. 4฀ Pour฀equal฀amounts฀of฀the฀mixture฀into฀three฀ clean฀test฀tubes. and add the rest to a clean฀test฀tube฀containing฀about฀5฀mL฀of฀warm฀ water. Lean meat/chicken/fish/eggs Dairy foods Wholegrain bread/crispbread High-fibre cereal Fresh fruit Vegetables Fats and oil (added to food) Daily amount 1–2 serves 2 serves 2–3 serves 1 serve 2 serves 1–2 cupfuls 3 teaspoons Questions Work in a small group to discuss the following questions. bread and cereals are the only ones. Processed foods often contain a high proportion of fats and very little protein.฀Keep฀a฀ little of it for the fat test.2 06 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW PART B Te st i ng fo o ds Method 1฀ Wash฀and฀clean฀the฀four฀test฀tubes฀from฀Part฀A. 1 Use the table to plan your food intake for a day. If you have a balanced diet. Always check the packaging for information about the fat and sugar content.฀starch฀and฀protein฀as฀you฀did฀ in Part A. 5฀ Test฀for฀glucose. why can’t you just eat fatty food. The table on the right shows an example of a balanced diet with the recommended amounts of foods to be eaten each day. The table includes few processed foods. What was฀the฀purpose฀of฀this? 3฀ What฀food฀types฀were฀found฀in฀the฀foods฀you฀ tested฀in฀Part฀B?฀ science bits Foods You are what you eat! If you need food for energy. Discussion 1฀ Without฀looking฀at฀your฀book. 2฀ The฀water฀test฀that฀you฀used฀for฀each฀food฀type฀ in Part A is called an experimental control.฀you฀need฀ to add a stopper to the฀test฀tube฀and฀ shake฀vigorously. What’s wrong with processed foods? Processed foods are ones that are manufactured and they include biscuits. Test the solid piece of food for fat. ฀Record฀your฀results. 2 What foods have you eaten in the last few days that are not included in the table? Would you consider these foods to be high in fat or sugar? 3 Suggest how your plan from question 1 would change if you were an athlete in training. Shake to dissolve the food.฀briely฀describe฀ how฀you฀tested฀for฀glucose. which is high in energy? The answer is that your body needs many different nutrients in foods to supply a variety of needs in addition to its energy needs. 3฀ To฀dissolve฀as฀much฀ of the food as possible.

Proteins contain nitrogen as well as carbon. such as boron. there is much less nutrient recycling. The foods plants make Carbohydrates contain carbon. which is then used to build up larger molecules such as carbohdrates. Notice in the food webs you constructed. Fertile soil contains an abundance of the elements needed for plant growth.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life Where does food come from? Look back at your Getting Started notes. This is because green plants make their own food by the process of photosynthesis. hydrogen and oxygen. For example. and supply food to all the other organisms in the food web. Cells use the energy in carbohydrates to supply energy for growth etc. The chlorophyll in green plants absorbs the energy in sunlight. such as phosphorus. hydrogen and oxygen atoms. hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Fats also contain carbon. But the atoms are arranged in different ways from those in the molecules of carbohydrates. 207 . Other elements. where farmers harvest plant crops before they die and decay. Sunlight provides energy Chlorophyll traps the energy in sunlight. Energy is used to make carbohydrates from CO2 and H2O. green plants are at the beginning of each of them. animal wastes and dead organisms are decomposed by bacteria and fungi in the soil. These are made from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). magnesium is needed in quite large quantities since it is part of the chlorophyll molecule. sulfur and magnesium. which are soluble in water. fats and proteins. potassium. Here they are made into proteins. The energy chain below shows the steps in the process. These nitrates are absorbed by the roots and are transported to those cells which are photo synthesising. Plants absorb nitrogen from the soil in the form of compounds called nitrates. For this reason. Many other elements. In natural environments. are needed in very small amounts. These elements are called soil nutrients. These processes form a nutrient cycle. The resulting nutrients dissolve in water and increase the fertility of the soil. calcium. are also absorbed by the plant’s roots. fertilisers have to be added to the soil. On the other hand.

write a sentence to show that you understand its meaning.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 1 3 Draw a table with 3 columns and label the columns CARBOHYDRATES.฀She฀works฀as฀ a฀computer฀operator฀from฀8฀am฀to฀4฀pm. f Dead organisms and wastes decompose and are a source of soil nutrients. eggs would go in the protein column. Plant B. and some sultanas. Rate of photosynthesis 2 08 midnight 6 am noon 6 pm Time of day midnight . respiration nutrients 2 4 proteins carbohydrates Some of the sentences below are incorrect. a Whose lunch contains more protein? b Whose lunch contains more fibre? c What does nutritious mean? Who is eating the more nutritious lunch? 6 Plant A in the diagram below was grown in fertile soil.฀she฀walks฀for฀30฀minutes฀to฀ get฀to฀the฀train.฀She฀does฀aerobics฀ for฀an฀hour฀on฀the฀way฀home฀from฀work. challenge 1฀ Tan฀Long฀weighs฀60฀kilograms.฀In฀terms฀of฀energy. plant A plant B 3฀ The฀graph฀below฀shows฀the฀rate฀of฀ photosynthesis฀occurring฀in฀a฀leaf฀over 24฀hours. d Plants absorb all of the raw materials for growth and energy from the soil. Leong eats an apple. a Vitamins and minerals are needed in large amounts by your body.฀eats฀dinner฀and฀watches฀ TV฀between฀7.฀reads฀until฀ 10. nuts and meats.฀To฀get฀ to฀and฀from฀work.฀She฀sits฀and฀has฀ breakfast฀until฀6. Bronwyn eats a roast chicken leg and two chocolate biscuits. was grown in soil poor in nitrates. on the right.฀then฀sleeps฀till฀6฀am.30฀pm. 5 Bronwyn and Leong sit down together to eat lunch. FATS. c Proteins are used to supply your body with energy.15฀pm฀and฀8. For each of the words below. In each column list at least 4 foods that would contain a high proportion of the food type. PROTEINS. They can be stored by the body. a banana. ฀ Use฀this฀information฀and฀the฀table฀in฀the฀ activity฀on฀page฀202฀to฀estimate฀the฀amount฀of฀ energy฀Tan฀Long฀uses฀each฀day. b Vitamins and minerals are found in fresh fruit and vegetables. Suggest why the plants are different. e Cellulose is called fibre and helps keep the food moving in your gut.฀has฀a฀30-minute฀train฀ride.฀then฀ walks฀for฀another฀15฀minutes. Choose the incorrect ones and rewrite them to make them correct. For example.฀does฀ housework฀for฀an฀hour.฀explain฀the฀shape฀ of the graph.45฀am. Write a paragraph to explain to someone a couple of years younger than you why we need food. 2฀ Draw฀an฀energy฀chain฀to฀show฀what฀happens฀ to฀the฀energy฀in฀sunlight฀that฀is฀absorbed฀by฀ a฀plant฀leaf฀and฀eventually฀stored฀as฀chemical฀ energy฀in฀an฀animal’s฀body.

which are then able to pass from the small intestine into your blood. Food is chewed and broken into smaller pieces. OESOPHAGUS (uh-SOF-a-gus) Food is pushed down this tube by muscular contractions in the oesophagus wall. How is the hamburger digested? The diagram of the digestive system or gut. Digestion is both the physical breakdown of large lumps of food into smaller ones. The remaining insoluble food becomes waste and passes out through the anus. ANUS STOMACH This large muscular bag churns and mixes the food.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life 9. 209 . and the chemical breakdown of food. LIVER Stores and distributes food. Food can be stored here for about 4 hours. MOUTH Digestion begins here. you chew the mouthful of food a few times. which are made in special cells in your body. These substances speed up chemical reactions. which break down large insoluble food molecules into small soluble ones. The soluble food passes out of the small intestine and into the blood. The job of the digestive system is to break down the food you eat into smaller molecules. will help answer this question. Fats are also digested. Proteins begin to be digested. then swallow it. That is the last you see of the hamburger. Hydrochloric acid released from the stomach wall kills bacteria. SMALL INTESTINE Proteins and carbohydrates are finally digested into smaller molecules. LARGE INTESTINE Water and some minerals are removed and pass into the blood here.2 Digesting food When you take a bite out of a hamburger. The chemical breakdown occurs with the help of substances called enzymes (EN-zimes). Starch is chemically digested by an enzyme in saliva.

The enzymes that break down fats (lipids) are called lipases (LIE-pazes). soluble amino acids. Enzymes in detergents Some washing detergents contain enzymes.) . egg. To make it a fair test. They are added to the detergent to remove stains made by proteins such as blood and eggs. The stain gradually fades as the smaller particles are removed from the fabric by the agitation of the washing machine and dissolved in the washing water. The diagram on the right shows how amylase helps break down starch to glucose. and stains from other biological sources. The enzymes in detergents work by attacking the protein in the stain and breaking it down into smaller. Proteins are very large molecules. They are made up of many smaller units called amino acids.2 10 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Digestive enzymes and food Enzymes that break down carbohydrates into sugars such as glucose are called amylases (AMill-AY-zes). 3 Separate glucose molecules are produced. Check the instructions on the packets of detergents and discuss your design with your teacher. open the Enzyme action animation on the CD. Amylases are made in the salivary glands in the mouth and in other glands in the digestive system. single glucose molecule 1 Starch is a large molecule made up of about 300 glucose molecules joined together. and many are insoluble in water. grass or other plants. ฀ Design a test to show the effectiveness of enzymecontaining detergents on pieces of cloth stained by fresh meat. (See Chapter 2 for designing fair tests. Fats are broken down to fatty acids. To see how enzymes work. Proteases are made in glands in the stomach and the small intestine. 2 Amylase in saliva helps break the links joining the glucose molecules. Enzymes called proteases (PRO-tee-AY-zes) break down proteins into amino acids. These molecules are essential for your body to build structures such as cell membranes. All amino acids are soluble in water. you will have to control a number of variables.

2฀ Make฀a฀list฀of฀the฀equipment฀you฀will฀need.฀ Then฀work฀in฀your฀group฀to฀design฀tests.฀Discussion฀and฀Conclusion. 2฀ The฀action฀of฀amylase฀occurs฀ in฀the฀body฀ at฀about฀35°C.฀You฀will฀need฀to฀s it฀your฀ test฀tubes฀in฀a฀container฀of฀water฀ at฀about฀ this฀temperature฀to฀get฀reliable฀re sults. 2 Your discussion should contain an inference that฀tries฀to฀explain฀your฀observations.฀ •฀฀ starch฀suspension฀(20฀g฀starc h/L) •฀฀ iodine฀solution฀ •฀฀ glucose฀solution฀(10%) •฀฀ Benedict’s฀solution฀or฀glucose฀t est฀ strips฀(Clinistix) •฀฀ amylase฀solution฀(your฀teache r฀will฀ prepare฀this฀from฀amylase฀powde r) Check฀with฀your฀teacher฀if฀you฀think ฀you฀ need฀other฀chemicals.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life Experiment ENZYME ACTION The฀enzyme฀amylase฀(found฀in฀saliva)฀breaks฀ down฀starch฀into฀glucose. 3฀ You฀must฀include฀control฀tubes฀i n฀your฀ tests.฀Remember฀you฀have฀to฀comp are฀ the฀colours฀of฀your฀tests฀with฀the฀c ontrol฀ tubes. 3฀ You฀might฀like฀to฀take฀a฀digital฀photo฀of฀your฀ set-up฀and฀include฀it฀in฀your฀report.฀ Results. 3฀ Discuss฀how฀you฀are฀going฀to฀record฀your฀ observations.฀Materials. Writing your report 1฀ Write฀a฀full฀report฀of฀your฀experiment. Designing your experiment 1฀ Read฀the฀information฀in฀the฀Hints฀and฀tips฀box. 4฀ Use฀a฀long฀dropper฀to฀take฀ou t฀samples฀ of฀liquids฀in฀the฀test฀tubes฀and฀test ฀them฀ on฀a฀spotting฀tile฀or฀in฀small฀test฀tub es฀as฀ shown฀in฀the฀photo.฀This฀reaction฀occurs฀ in฀the฀mouth฀and฀in฀the฀small฀intestine.฀Can฀the฀ reaction฀be฀demonstrated฀in฀the฀laboratory? The problem to be solved Your฀task฀is฀to฀work฀in฀a฀small฀group฀to฀design฀ a฀test฀to฀show฀that฀amylase฀acts฀on฀starch฀to฀ produce glucose.฀Method.฀ get started.฀ When฀you฀and฀your฀teacher฀are฀happy฀with฀it.฀Aim. Hints and tips 1฀ You฀will฀need฀the฀following฀chem icals฀for฀ your฀experiment.฀using฀ the฀headings:฀Title. 4฀ Discuss฀your฀draft฀design฀with฀your฀teacher. 211 .

which is also carried by the blood. Here the soluble food particles leave the blood and pass through the cell membrane into the cytoplasm of the cell. Enzymes are required for these reactions. From here they pass into the blood in the many blood vessels that surround the small intestine. creamy soup. This allows more food to come in contact with the intestinal wall. Wastes pass out through anus. glucose reacts with oxygen. x100 Food materials pass from the blood vessels into the cells. Fig 16 The inside of the small intestine has many tiny projections called villi (VIL-ee) to increase its surface area. The soluble food is made up of small molecules that are able to pass through the small intestine wall. In the cells.2 12 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Food for cells When it reaches the small intestine. which are used to make membranes. organelles and other cell structures. enzymes protein building blocks (amino acids) new proteins . the food is like thick. from stomach cells small intestine blood vessel The blood flows through the liver and heart. For example. the small molecules from the digested protein molecules are joined together to make new proteins. This reaction produces the energy needed for the many cellular processes. This dissolved food travels to the liver and is then distributed to cells in all parts of the body. glucose + oxygen  carbon + water + dioxide ENERGY The energy produced during cellular respiration is used for many body processes and for the growth and repair of cells. Soluble food materials pass through the intestine wall and into the blood.

฀but฀this฀time฀use฀starch฀instead฀of฀ glucose.฀ 2฀ If฀the฀cellophane฀tubing฀behaves฀in฀the฀same฀ way฀as฀your฀small฀intestine฀wall. 2฀ Hold฀a฀piece฀of฀cellophane฀tubing฀under฀water฀ until฀it฀is฀soft.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life Investigate 20 MODEL INTESTINES Aim To฀investigate฀the฀sort฀of฀molecules฀that฀can฀pass฀ through฀membranes.฀Tie฀a฀knot฀in฀one฀end. Then rinse glucose the outside of the solution tubing฀with฀water. ฀ Does฀salt฀(sodium฀chloride)฀pass฀across฀ membranes?฀Design฀a฀test฀to฀investigate฀this.฀ Transfer฀a฀drop฀of฀the฀water฀surrounding฀the฀ tubing฀in฀the฀irst฀beaker฀to฀a฀spotting฀tile฀or฀ test฀tube. 3฀twist-ties 3฀droppers small฀funnel spotting฀tile฀or฀test฀tubes 3฀rubber฀bands glucose฀solution฀(10%) starch฀suspension฀(20฀g฀starch/L) protein฀solution฀(10%฀gelatine฀solution) iodine฀solution Benedict’s฀solution฀or฀Clinistix฀ Corrosive copper฀sulfate฀solution฀(0.฀ Test฀the฀water฀in฀the฀second฀beaker฀for฀starch฀ and฀the฀third฀one฀for฀protein฀(see฀page฀205). rubber band PROTEIN GLUCOSE STARCH 7฀ Leave฀the฀beakers฀for฀at฀least฀15฀minutes฀ (better฀if฀left฀overnight).1M)฀and฀ sodium hydroxide฀(2M)฀solution฀or฀Uristix Method 1฀ Pour฀about฀150฀mL฀of฀distilled฀water฀into฀one฀of฀ the฀beakers. 6฀ For฀the฀third฀piece฀of฀tubing฀use฀protein฀solution.฀Test฀it฀for฀glucose฀(see฀page฀205). 4฀ Place฀the฀tubing฀in฀a฀beaker฀and฀label฀it฀ Glucose.฀ 213 .฀ Use฀a฀small฀funnel฀to฀ three-quarters฀ill฀the฀ tubing฀with฀glucose฀ solution. Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ 3฀lengths฀of฀cellophane฀tubing฀(15฀cm) three฀250฀mL฀beakers Wear safety glasses.฀what฀can฀you฀ infer฀about฀the฀passage฀of฀substances฀across฀ the฀small฀intestine฀wall? 3฀ Use฀this฀investigation฀to฀explain฀why฀food฀has฀ to฀be฀digested฀before฀it฀is฀used฀by฀your฀body.฀Secure฀the฀open฀end฀of฀the฀tubing฀ with฀a฀rubber฀band฀on฀the฀outside฀of฀the฀ beaker.฀ Discussion 1฀ What฀do฀your฀results฀suggest฀about฀the฀sizes฀ of฀the฀molecules฀that฀can฀pass฀through฀the฀ cellophane฀tubing? 3฀ Rub฀your฀ingers฀ back฀and฀forth฀on฀ funnel the other end until the฀tubing฀opens. 5฀ Repeat฀Steps฀1฀to฀4฀for฀the฀second฀piece฀of฀ tubing. ฀Record฀your฀results฀in฀a฀data฀table.

฀Describe฀how฀you฀would฀do฀ this.฀ There฀is฀an฀increase฀in฀the฀amount฀of฀materials฀ carried฀away฀from฀muscle฀cells฀during฀exercise.฀After฀a฀short฀ while. challenge 1฀ In฀an฀experiment฀on฀starch฀and฀saliva. Suppose฀you฀wanted฀to฀test฀the฀effect฀of฀ temperature฀on฀the฀activity฀of฀the฀amylase฀ enzyme฀in฀saliva. 2 What is cellular respiration? In your description. 3 Look at the simple diagram of a human gut on the right. .฀and฀explain฀ the reason for the increase.฀a฀sweet฀taste฀can฀be฀detected. glass tubing 2฀ 3฀ 4฀ warm water amylase (saliva) + starch solution ฀ A฀drop฀was฀removed฀from฀the฀test฀tube฀using฀ the฀glass฀tubing฀and฀placed฀on฀a฀spotting฀tile. a The speed of breakdown of foods into smaller particles is increased by ______.฀ Explain฀why฀this฀is฀so.฀eg฀muscle฀cells.2 14 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 1 g h Copy and complete the following sentences. b Digested food passes through the ______ ______ wall and into the blood. c The oesophagus joins the ______ to the ______.) 5฀ 6฀ b฀ What฀was฀the฀purpose฀of฀sampling฀at฀ 10-minute฀intervals?฀ Suppose฀you฀were฀a฀ham฀sandwich.฀use฀ more฀digested฀food฀materials฀than฀others.฀ Suggest฀what฀materials฀these฀are.฀nothing฀can฀be฀tasted.฀This฀procedure฀ was฀repeated฀every฀10฀minutes฀for฀one฀hour. a฀ What฀results฀would฀you฀expect? is food stored for short periods? are water and some minerals removed? (You฀may฀have฀to฀use฀some฀numbers฀ more฀than฀once. Then write a word equation.฀Infer฀the฀ reason for this. list the substances that are used and produced.฀Write฀a฀ fantasy฀story฀of฀what฀would฀happen฀to฀you฀if฀you฀ were฀eaten฀and฀digested฀by฀a฀human. What is the reason for this? 5 How does the function of the stomach differ from that of the small intestine? 6 Describe two functions of the mouth in digestion. d In the large intestine ______ and ______ are removed and absorbed by the blood. When฀a฀piece฀of฀bread฀is฀placed฀on฀your฀ tongue.฀ Iodine฀was฀added฀to฀this฀drop. In which numbered part: a does protein digestion first occur? b is most of the digested food absorbed by the blood? c do wastes and insoluble material pass out of the body? d does food enter from the mouth? e is acid released to kill bacteria? f are fats digested? 2 1 3 4 5 4 The inside of the small intestine is not smooth but is folded and contains many tiny projections. Some฀cells฀in฀your฀body.฀the฀ equipment฀below฀was฀set฀up.

2 Cut the end off the plant stem and immediately place the stem in the beaker of coloured water. (This may take a bit of practice. Draw a sketch of your stem crosssection.3 Using food In large multicellular organisms food has to be transported to all cells. 1 Half fill the beaker with water and add some food colouring. taken using an electron microscope.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life Activity 9. shows how the veins are made up of many microscopic tubes called conducting vessels. a single-edge razor blade (or scalpel) and a microscope and slide. Fig 23 A leaf showing the veins. You will need a soft stem with a few leaves (celery works well). For example. The small photo. Leave it there for a few hours or overnight. In this activity you will observe the conducting vessels in the stem of a plant. food colouring. the food that is made in the leaves may be as far as 30 metres from the cells in the roots. These cells may be quite a distance from the places where the food was made or digested. in a large eucalypt tree.) 5 Set up a microscope and view the crosssections. 3 Take the stem out of the water and hold it up to the light. Can you see the colouring in the stem? 4 Use the razor blade to carefully cut a very thin cross-section of the stem. How do plants transport food? The photo of a leaf below shows the veins. a beaker. These are the structures which transport materials around the plant. 215 . the food digested in its intestine may have to be transported 20 metres to its brain cells. In a blue whale.

and minerals. Fig 26 Carrots store food in the form of starch. yams and ginger store food in special underground stems called tubers. Food is made in the leaves. which can be stored in the liver. such as carrots. but also contains dissolved food (mainly glucose). Food-conducting vessels transport materials such as glucose and proteins. Potatoes. but most are stored in special fat cells in tissue under the skin and around essential organs such as the heart and kidneys.2 16 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW The conducting vessels you saw in the activity on the previous page were water-conducting vessels. amino acids and fatty acids is carried to the liver. sweet potatoes and turnips. After the food has been digested in the small intestine and absorbed into the blood. Transport in humans Blood carries food and oxygen to all cells in your body and carries wastes away from them. waste products. When a meal is eaten and digested. Food moves through foodconducting vessels. Some fats can be stored in the liver. Blood looks like a red liquid. Water moves through waterconducting vessels. a large amount of starch is stored in the main root. the blood cells settle out leaving the pale yellow plasma. which swells as it stores the starch. it is carried to the liver. but it is actually a suspension of red blood cells in a pale yellow liquid called plasma. . settled blood cells Fig 27 Blood is a suspension of blood cells in plasma. When left. plasma water in soil potatoes (starch storage) The glucose that is made in photosynthesis is stored in the form of insoluble starch in the leaves. In some plants. Some of the glucose molecules are joined together with the help of enzymes to form a large molecule called glycogen. The red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the cells to be used in cellular respiration. This is the largest organ in your body and functions as a warehouse and sorting-out or distribution centre for foods. a large quantity of glucose. Plasma is mainly water.

open The heart animation on the CD. The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries. but the layers in the arteries are much thicker (see Fig 28). Arteries and veins have the same layers of elastic and muscular tissue. The large arteries and veins form many branches throughout the body. Wastes from cells pass into blood. blood is forced through the arteries. The narrowest arteries and veins branch into microscopic vessels called capillaries. small vein Large arteries take blood to the legs. and wastes pass back as shown in the diagram below right. Food. The heartbeat can be felt as a pulse near your wrist and in your neck. As the heart contracts. small artery cells vein blood supply to the brain capillaries artery blood supply to the lungs lung heart Food and oxygen pass to cells.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life The heart and blood vessels Your heart is a muscular organ that keeps pumping blood to your body about 70 times a minute for the whole of your life. which are very thin. Veins have thinner walls and take blood back towards the heart. blood back to the heart 217 . oxygen and water pass through the capillaries to the cells. ARTERY muscle VEIN Fig 28 Arteries have thick muscular and elastic walls and carry blood away from the heart. usually only one cell thick. blood from the heart To see how blood flows through the heart and lungs. Veins carry blood back to the heart.

฀Then฀switch฀to฀higher฀power฀to฀ observe฀the฀capillaries฀and฀blood฀cells. •฀ Make฀a฀list฀of฀all฀the฀precautions฀you฀will฀ take฀to฀make฀sure฀the฀ish฀in฀Part฀B฀is฀not฀ harmed฀in฀any฀way. 3฀ Why฀is฀it฀necessary฀for฀your฀heart฀to฀ continue฀beating฀when฀you฀are฀asleep? 4฀ Does฀a฀ish฀have฀a฀pulse?฀Suggest฀reasons฀for฀ your฀answer.฀Design฀a฀ data฀table฀for฀the฀results. You might like to use a datalogger to measure and record your pulse rates using a pressure probe. 4฀ Look฀at฀the฀tail฀through฀low฀power฀on฀a฀ microscope. ฀Record฀the฀number฀of฀beats฀per฀minute฀and฀ call this the resting pulse rate. 3฀ Record฀how฀long฀it฀ takes฀for฀the฀pulse฀rate฀ to return to the resting rate. ฀Use฀a฀diagram฀to฀record฀your฀observations. I thought this was a science class .฀Include฀the฀needs฀of฀the฀body฀ cells฀in฀your฀explanation.฀take฀their฀new฀ pulse rate. 3฀ Make฀sure฀the฀tail฀is฀sticking฀out฀of฀the฀cotton฀ wool. Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ a฀watch฀with฀a฀second฀hand.฀eg฀guppy microscope฀and฀microscope฀slide cotton฀wool฀ aquarium฀or฀pond฀water Planning and Safety Check •฀ Read฀through฀Part฀A฀and฀decide฀who฀is฀ going฀to฀do฀what฀sort฀of฀exercise.not a physical education class! ฀Record฀your฀results.฀This฀will฀hold฀the฀ish฀in฀place฀and฀stop฀it฀ from฀drying฀out.฀as฀shown. You can view the capillaries on a computer or TV monitor via a video camera fitted to a microscope. 1฀ Soak฀some฀cotton฀wool฀in฀pond฀water. 2฀ Carefully฀lay฀the฀ish฀on฀the฀cotton฀wool฀and฀ place฀some฀more฀wet฀cotton฀wool฀on฀top฀of฀the฀ ish. wet cotton wool PART A fish M e asur i n g puls e 1฀ Use฀your฀index฀inger฀to฀ind฀your฀partner’s฀pulse฀ in฀the฀artery฀in฀their฀wrist.฀squeeze฀ out฀most฀of฀the฀water฀and฀lay฀it฀on฀a฀microscope฀ slide. Ca pillari es Your฀teacher฀will฀do฀this฀part฀of฀the฀investigation฀ as฀a฀class฀demonstration.฀ . 2฀ Have฀your฀partner฀ exercise฀(eg฀by฀ standing and sitting rapidly)฀for฀2฀minutes. Note: Take care of the fish and return it to the aquarium immediately after use.2 18 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Investigate 21 THE BLOOD SYSTEM Aim PART B To฀investigate฀your฀pulse฀and฀observe฀the฀blood฀ capillaries฀in฀a฀ish’s฀tail. Discussion 1฀ How฀does฀your฀heart฀(pulse)฀respond฀to฀a฀ change฀in฀activity฀in฀your฀body? 2฀ Suggest฀why฀there฀is฀a฀change฀in฀the฀pulse฀rate฀ with฀exercise.฀or฀digital฀watch small฀aquarium฀ish.฀ Immediately฀after฀the฀ exercise.

nasal cavity throat trachea ribs Fig 33 alveoli air tubes (bronchi) diaphragm Fig 32 Oxygen from the air passes into the blood in the lungs. liquids and solids. This passes from the blood into the alveoli and is breathed out. Many of these waste products are taken to the liver for processing. but it also breaks down many substances including amino acids and harmful substances such as alcohol. or about half the size of a tennis court. The oxygen in the air breathed in passes through the thin walls of the alveoli and into the blood in the capillaries.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life Getting rid of wastes Your body is like a factory. It uses energy in these processes and it also produces wastes. Air enters the lungs from the nose or mouth and then the trachea (track-EE-a) or windpipe. The lungs appear solid but are soft and sponge-like. which produces carbon dioxide and water. From here the blood is pumped to cells throughout the body. The two lungs are part of your respiratory system. The liver is a very important organ in the body. Gaseous wastes—carbon dioxide The most important cell reaction in your body is respiration. which end in minute air sacs called alveoli (AL-vee-OH-lee). The blood coming into the lungs from the body contains a lot of carbon dioxide. Urea is one of the substances produced by the liver when it breaks down amino acids. The air is moved in and out of the lungs by the movements of the muscles around the ribs and the large muscular diaphragm. The total surface area of the alveoli in the lungs is enormous—about 80 m2. 219 . and waste carbon dioxide passes from the blood and is breathed out. and are large pink-coloured organs found inside the chest cavity. The pink colour is due to the many blood capillaries in the lung tissue. water and air) and produces new products (cells and parts of cells). The wastes are gases. It not only stores and distributes digested food. through the trachea and into smaller air tubes called bronchi (BRONK-ee). It takes in raw materials (food. The air moves A microscope view of lung tissue showing many thin-walled alveoli Liquid wastes—urine Most of the wastes produced by cell reactions are soluble in water and are therefore able to be transported away by the blood. Urea is soluble and so is carried in the blood from the liver to the kidneys where it is then removed. but carbon dioxide is not used and has to be removed through your lungs. Much of the water is reused by the body.

The faeces pass out of your body through the anus. This blood is iltered. 2 Use the razor blade to cut the kidney in half. Infer the function of the bands of cartilage in the trachea. renal The outer dark red artery region is called the cortex and is where the wastes are filtered. water and other products of cell reactions. Observe what happens when the lungs are inflated with air. The brown colour of faeces is due to substances produced in the liver when blood is broken down. The removal of wastes from the body is called excretion (ex-KREE-shun). Kidneys are the main organs of excretion— the removal of wastes which are dissolved in water. Part B Looking at kidneys You will need a sheep’s kidney. If so. The kidneys and liver are part of the excretory system.2 20 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Activities Blood is supplied to each of the two kidneys by a large artery called the renal artery (renal means ‘of the kidney’). and how the kidney filters the blood. Use a library to find out the names of the various parts of the kidney. Note: Your teacher will tell you how to clean up and prepare the remains of the lungs and kidneys for disposal. large artery from heart large vein to heart renal vein kidney renal artery Fig 34 Part A Looking at lungs Your teacher will show you a pair of sheep’s lungs attached to the trachea. Sweat on your skin also removes salts and other soluble substances. The liquid waste is called urine. Observe the colour and texture of the lungs and the trachea. and the wastes and some water pass out of the kidney to the bladder. scissors and gloves. About one litre of blood passes through the kidneys each minute. Infer the function of the fat around the kidney. But the skin is not considered part of the excretory system because the main purpose of sweat is to lower your body temperature. cut a very thin piece of tissue from the lung and from the kidney and look at them under the microscope. a single-edge razor blade (or scalpel). Urine flows down this tube to the bladder. bladder Your teacher may supply you with a microscope. The lightto bladder coloured inner region is the pelvis and is where the urine collects. Solid wastes—faeces The solid wastes are called faeces (FEE-seas) and consist of leftover material from the food you eat (mainly ibre). as well as bacteria (about 30% of the mass). . 1 Peel off the fat around the kidney and look for the blood pelvis cortex vessels attached to the concave renal vein side of the kidney.

e Urine is produced by the liver and is collected in the bladder. B. b In which direction does the blood flow? How do you know? Match the statements with the numbers on the diagram of the plant below.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life Check! 1 2 Some of the sentences below are false.฀You฀then฀did฀the฀same฀ to the blood in a nearby vein. (khhhk) Pulse rate seems to have increased. (khhhk) Over. (khhhk) Just noticed interesting phenomenon. and C on the diagram. d Arteries have the same structure but much thicker walls than veins. Suggest why your breathing rate also increases during exercise. 3 Delta 3 to base. She noticed that the plant had started to wilt. 5 What is urine? Where is it made and what happens to it in the body? 6 Bonnie had a pot plant that she kept in a sunny place on a veranda. 221 . Which substances would you find more of in the artery than in the vein? Which substances would you find more of in the vein than in the artery? 11 During exercise your heart rate increases. a Blood consists of blood cells suspended in plasma. a This transports food and water to all cells in the plant. c During exercise the amount of blood flowing to the body cells decreases. b Lung tissue has very few blood vessels. Explain your choices. arteries and capillaries to A. B A 1 2 C 8 What is the advantage to a plant such as a potato plant of storing food? 9 Why does the air you breathe out contain less oxygen and more carbon dioxide than the air you breathe in? 10 Suggest why your pulse rate increases when you see signs that you are in danger. a What conditions made the plant wilt? b How could Bonnie save the plant? 7 The diagram below shows simplified blood vessels. Select the ones that are false and rewrite them to make them correct. d This is where starch is stored. 4 3 What is a pulse? Why does the pulse rate vary? What actions do you have to take to lower your pulse rate? 4 Suppose you analysed the blood in an artery฀in฀your฀arm. a Match veins. b Water and nutrients are absorbed here c Food and oxygen are made here.

฀ A฀similar฀plant฀was฀set฀up฀but฀this฀time฀a฀fan฀was฀ directed at the leaves of the plant. cork measuring cylinder fan valve vein plant A plant B a฀ In฀which฀direction฀would฀the฀blood฀low฀in฀the฀ diagram฀above?฀How฀do฀you฀know?฀ b฀ Suggest฀why฀arteries฀do฀not฀have฀valves.฀What฀assumptions฀have฀you฀ made฀in฀your฀calculations? 4฀ The฀veins฀in฀your฀body฀have฀valves฀that฀allow฀ blood฀to฀low฀in฀one฀direction฀only. 2฀ Your฀body฀contains฀about฀5฀litres฀of฀blood. 5฀ A฀plant฀experiment฀was฀set฀up฀as฀shown฀in฀the฀ diagram฀below.฀how฀much฀blood฀is฀iltered฀in฀a฀day? b฀ How฀many฀times฀is฀the฀5฀litres฀of฀blood฀iltered฀ in฀a฀day? c฀ You฀produce฀about฀1500฀mL฀of฀urine฀each฀ day.฀ a฀ If฀the฀kidneys฀ilter฀one฀litre฀of฀blood฀in฀one฀฀฀ minute. 6฀ In฀a฀follow-up฀experiment฀for฀the฀one฀in฀ Challenge฀5฀a฀plant฀was฀placed฀in฀a฀measuring฀ cylinder฀of฀water.฀a฀groove฀about฀ 2฀cm฀deep฀is฀cut฀all฀the฀way฀around฀the฀trunk.฀Estimate฀the฀volume฀of฀blood฀it฀would฀ pump฀in฀24฀hours.฀ Use฀your฀knowledge฀of฀the฀plant฀transport฀ system฀to฀suggest฀why฀a฀ringbarked฀tree฀ eventually฀dies. . 3฀ Your฀heart฀pumps฀about฀70฀mL฀of฀blood฀with฀ each฀beat. twist-tie 11 am 2 pm Try doing the Chapter 9 crossword on the CD. The graph shows฀the฀results฀of฀the฀experiment. a฀ What฀was฀the฀aim฀of฀the฀experiment?฀ b฀ What฀equipment฀was฀needed฀for฀this฀ experiment? c฀ For฀how฀long฀did฀the฀experiment฀run? d฀ Describe฀the฀results฀of฀the฀experiment.฀ The฀drop฀in฀the฀level฀of฀water฀in฀the฀measuring฀ cylinder฀was฀recorded฀every฀30฀minutes.2 22 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW challenge 1฀ When฀a฀tree฀is฀ringbarked. bright light drops of water inside bag plastic bag moist soil a฀ What฀was฀the฀purpose฀of฀the฀cork฀in฀the฀฀ ฀ measuring฀cylinder? b฀ What฀variables฀were฀controlled? c฀ Could฀the฀number฀of฀leaves฀on฀each฀plant฀฀฀ affect฀the฀results?฀How?฀ d฀ Write฀a฀conclusion฀for฀this฀experiment.฀Express฀the฀amount฀of฀urine฀ produced as a percentage of the total amount฀of฀blood฀iltered฀in฀a฀day.฀The฀top฀was฀sealed฀by฀a฀cork.

sugars and starch transport 6 Plants _____ food.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life Copy and complete these statements to make a summary of this chapter. Food made by _____ is stored as starch. 3 Which of the following food types is used mainly for the growth of cells? A fats B proteins C vitamins and minerals D carbohydrates 4 Brad was testing various foods in an investigation. while proteins provide materials for the growth and _____ of cells. He added a few drops of a brown liquid to pieces of rice. roots and leaves. water and wastes are carried to and from cells by the _____. 1 Which one of the following statements about respiration in animals and plants is incorrect? Respiration: A releases energy in cells. 8 _____ is removed from the blood by the lungs. oxygen. B requires oxygen. dissolved wastes are filtered from the blood in the _____. 7 In humans. and solid wastes pass out of the body through the anus. What substance was he testing for? A sugar C fat B protein D starch 223 . and gives off oxygen. B makes carbohydrates. chicken. water and other materials in conducting vessels in stems. and vitamins and minerals. D occurs 24 hours of the day. for _____ and to keep their carbon dioxide bodies healthy and functioning correctly. D uses up food. Fats are also an energy source. 2 Which one of the following statements about photosynthesis is incorrect? Photosynthesis: A uses up carbon dioxide and water. C takes place in cells containing chlorophyll. The missing words are on the right. blood 1 All organisms need food for _____. carbohydrates chlorophyll digestion energy 3 Carbohydrates include _____ and are used for energy. 4 Plants contain _____ and are able to make carbohydrates in photosynthesis. bread and butter. proteins. food. 2 Foods contain four main food types: _____. fats growth kidneys photosynthesis repair 5 _____ is a process that breaks down large lumps of food into soluble materials containing small molecules which can dissolve in the blood. He observed the rice and bread turn a blue-black colour. C needs sunlight. _____.

water Beaker 1 Beaker 2 Check your answers on page 282. 7 An experiment was set up using cellophane tubing. c Write a paragraph describing the low of blood through the four chambers and four blood vessels of the heart. b Does the blood in chamber 1 contain more or less oxygen than the blood in chamber 3? Explain your answer. liquid and gaseous wastes from the body.2 24 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 5 The following questions refer to the diagram below. The water in each of the beakers was tested for glucose at the start of the experiment and then after 30 minutes. The results are shown in the table below. starch solution + saliva starch solution blood from lungs vessel C vessel A chamber 1 chamber 3 chamber 2 chamber 4 blood to lungs vessel B blood to body vessel D a Which blood vessel. blood from body a Where are most substances absorbed into the blood? b Where is food irst acted on by enzymes? c Where is food stored for short periods of time? d Where are carbohydrates irst digested? e Where are water and some minerals absorbed into the blood? 6 Which organs are responsible for the removal of solid. Beaker 1 1 At the start After 30 mins no glucose no glucose Beaker 2 no glucose glucose a Where did the glucose come from? b What was the aim of the experiment? c Why was beaker 1 included in the experiment? d Which variables were controlled? 2 3 4 8 The diagram below shows a simple model of a human heart. . A or B. would have the thicker walls? Explain your answer.

recording software and a suitable place to record. Know when you have said enough and don’t • repeat yourself. • Choose ideas and vocabulary suited to your intended audience. for example soybeans and corn. with a good quality microphone. audibly and at a reasonable pace. • Write the script so that it has a clear structure and direction. 1 What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of GM foods? 2 Do you think we should use GM foods? Why or why not? 3 Are there any risks in using GM foods? What are they? 4 Why do you think people have such different views about GM foods? 5 Do you think we can go too far with GM foods? Where would you draw the line? Two people in your group use the internet and other resources to research GM foods. producer and director of the podcast. For example. They are foods that contain genetically modiied ingredients. Make the podcast entertaining by being • enthusiastic and expressing your personality. Make sure your information is as reliable • as possible. but you may want to want to allow for some ad-libbing and input from others in the group. Other foods contain varying amounts of GM ingredients. Here are some hints on producing a good podcast. Don’t rely on only one or two sources. It is your decision— do you buy GM foods or not? Podcast Get into a group of four and produce a podcast for other Year 8 students to answer the following questions about GM foods.Chapter฀9฀ Food฀for฀life Learning focus: Choices need to be made when considering whether to use scientific advances US AREA C O F D E B I R C PRES GM foods podcast GM foods are genetically modified foods that are appearing on supermarket shelves. • Make sure the quality of the podcast is good. 10% of a doughnut may be GM soybean meal. This fake crow was used in a demonstration against GM crops. • Speak clearly. 225 . The third person writes the script for the podcast and the fourth is the technician. Sometimes the whole of the food is genetically modiied.

3 Electric circuits page 242 Main ideas Chapter 10 crossword Review Chapter 10 test Learning focus: Developments in science have led to the development of new technologies Prescribed focus area Conducting plastics TRB .2 Electric currents page 235 TRB Assessment task 10 The history of electricity Investigate 25 Series and parallel circuits Experiment Your invention 10.10 Electricity Planning page Getting started Investigate 22 Electric charges Investigate 23 Simple electric circuits Investigate 24 Does it conduct? 10.1 Electric charges page 228 Animation Atoms 10.

1) electrical energy Skills ● ● ● ● ● planning first-hand investigations and choosing equipment (Investigate 22–25) presenting information—electrical symbols (page 242) thinking critically—using models (pages 236 and 238) problem-solving (Try this page 234) the use of creativity and imagination.5 V battery 6V battery 227 . electromagnet metal can electric bell aluminium pie dish 1.Chapter฀10฀ Electricity r you wil In this chapte t… l learn abou Learning฀Focus ● developments in science have led to the development of new technologies (page 251) Knowledge฀and฀Understanding ● ● electrostatic force (Section 10. ●฀฀Why are two batteries needed? ● Keep your answer in mind for the Experiment ‘Your invention’ on page 248. and working individually or in teams (Experiment page 248) ●฀ How much do you know about electricity and electric circuits? Use this knowledge to explain how this mousetrap works.

You may even be able to make your hair stand on end. make sure everything (including your hands) is grease-free. Stand on a bench (be careful). hold the balloon up to the ceiling. The firemen checked Frank and found that there was an electric charge of 30 000 volts on his synthetic jumper. I was wondering if you had any vacancies in the electrical department. Also. your teacher may demonstrate how it is able to generate a static electric charge on its dome. 2 Rub the balloon on a jumper or woollen cloth. because the charges stay on the object. Electric charges can build up on objects that are rubbed together. Note that Part B is a teacher demonstration. Wash the equipment in soapy water and dry it thoroughly. Planning and Safety Check This investigation can be done only on dry days. They are stationary. and the building was evacuated. Investigate 22 ELECTRIC CHARGES Aim To make and investigate electric charges. is called static electricity. You may need to warm some equipment in an oven. What happens? 3 Charge a second balloon in the same way. Read through the four parts. due to the friction between them. They called the fire brigade. then let it go. PART A Materials 2 balloons and string Method 1 Blow up a balloon and tie it. However.2 28 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 10. . This build-up of electric charges on objects Good morning. staff in the office heard loud crackling sounds and noticed the carpet was burnt where Frank had been. What happens when you hang the two charged balloons close together? PART B If your school has a Van de Graaff generator.1 Electric charges In September 2005 Frank Clewer went for a job interview in Warrnambool.

Now try it. Rub a second ebonite rod with wool and bring it near one end of the rod on the watch glass. Try the other end as well.Chapter฀10฀ Electricity PART C Materials •฀ piece฀of฀fur฀or฀silk฀ charged rod •฀ plastic฀rod tap Method Rub the plastic rod vigorously with fur or silk and bring it near (but not touching) a trickle of water. Record your observations. 5 Repeat Step 4 but this time bring a charged perspex฀rod฀up฀to฀a฀charged฀ebonite฀rod. but this time use two฀perspex฀rods฀rubbed฀with฀silk. as shown. sink trickle of water Predict what will happen if you do touch the water with the rod. 3 Take the ebonite rod off the watch glass. 2 Rub the ebonite rod (the black one) with wool and place it on the Blu-Tack. Discussion 1 Shannon tried to do the tests by placing the rods on the desk top instead of on a watch glass. and bring the silk near one end. Record your observations. 4 Rub the ebonite rod with wool and place it on the watch glass. Rub the฀perspex฀rod฀(the฀clear฀one)฀with฀silk. wool Rod 1 Rod 2 Ebonite with wool Perspex with silk Ebonite with wool Perspex with silk Ebonite with wool Perspex with silk Perspex with silk Ebonite with wool What happened Record the results for Steps 4 and 5 in a data table as shown above. 2 Do both the charged rods behave in the same way?฀Explain฀your฀answer. She saw nothing happen. Describe what happens. Suggest a reason for this. Conclusion Write฀a฀generalisation฀to฀explain฀the฀results฀of฀your฀ tests with charged rods. Bring the wool near one end of the rod. Place a small amount of Blu-Tack on either side of the watch glass. Repeat the test. Give a reason for your prediction. PART D Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ 2฀perspex฀rods฀ 2฀ebonite฀rods฀ piece฀of฀wool฀or฀fur฀ piece฀of฀silk฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ watch฀glass Blu-Tack cooking฀oil tile Blu-Tack ebonite rod watch glass drop of oil tile Method 1 Put a watch glass on top of a drop of oil on a tile.฀and฀ vice versa.฀place฀ it on the watch glass. 229 .

force of attraction Benjamin Franklin is famous for flying a kite in a thunderstorm—an extremely dangerous thing to do. things he said. But why do electric charges sometimes attract and sometimes repel? Let’s hypothesise that an electric force is something like a magnetic force—another type of non-contact force. Charged objects attract uncharged objects. It does not matter whether they are both positive or both negative. So if two perspex rods rubbed with silk repel each other. two like poles repel each other. If electric fluid was removed then the object developed a negative charge. He inferred that there was an ‘electric fluid’ that could be moved from one object to another. Similarly.net. you might expect them to have the same electric charge on them.au and follow the links to: Benjamin Franklin: An Enlightened American This website has Franklin’s illustrated life story. a perspex rod rubbed with silk and an ebonite rod rubbed with wool attract each other. electricity flowed down the string to a key. so they should have opposite charges. a charged plastic rod will attract small pieces of paper or a stream of water (as in Investigate 22 Part C). information on his inventions. . When lightning struck the kite. 1 2 Science in action Benjamin Franklin The great American scientist Benjamin Franklin was the first person to explain successfully the charging of an object by rubbing. Go to www. Franklin’s ideas were useful for explaining electric charges. Scientists now use a different explanation (see the next page). For example. Luckily he survived.scienceworld. there are three laws that describe electric forces. However. two ebonite rods rubbed with wool repel each other. but other observations do not support his inferences about an electric fluid. If this electric fluid was added to an object then it gained a positive charge. Like charges repel each other. interesting facts and humorous stories. Remember that a magnet can attract some unmagnetised metals. He suggested that the two types of charge could be called positive and negative. With magnets. To sum up.2 30 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Attraction and repulsion You have seen that rods rubbed with different types of cloth can move one another by noncontact forces. while two unlike poles attract. so you might also expect that a charged rod can attract some uncharged objects. so they should also have the same charge. < WEB watch > force of repulsion 3 Unlike charges attract each other.

This leaves the rod with a positive charge and the silk ends up with a negative charge. Today aircraft have special tyres that have metal in them. The tops of the clouds 231 . a New Zealander. The rapid movement of drops of water in thunderclouds can cause a separation of positive and negative charges. then have a positive charge. During World War I. with no overall charge. inferred that most of the atom is empty space. . But if the numbers become unequal. . . then the object has an electric charge. A different type of cloth may give electrons to the rod and make it negatively charged. . It is neutral. you feel a slight electric shock. To learn more about atoms. the static electricity is discharged (allowed to escape). . What happens when you rub a perspex rod with a silk cloth? The frictional forces of the rubbing cause electrons to be removed from atoms on the surface of the rod and to become attached to atoms on the silk. This lets the static electricity pass harmlessly to the ground when they land and prevents shocks and electrical problems. so the rod has an excess of positive charges . If some electrons are removed from an atom. When you touch a metal object. As the electricity flows across your skin. There is a small central core or nucleus which is positively charged. This cloth will. A picture of an atom. which are negatively charged. When the number of positively charged atoms in an object just balances the number of negatively charged atoms. It contains protons which are positively charged. the atom becomes negatively charged. silk cloth . If extra electrons are added. perspex rod Everyday static electricity - + + - + - negative electrons surrounding nucleus Fig 8 Electrons move this way . positive protons (and neutrons) in nucleus . .Chapter฀10฀ Electricity Inside atoms Explaining electric charges About 100 years ago scientists discovered that there are even smaller particles inside atoms. of course. Normally there are equal numbers of protons and electrons. This means that the charges balance each other and the whole atom is uncharged. Ernest Rutherford. and neutrons which are neutral (no charge). and the cloth has an excess of negative charges. . it becomes positively charged. The tingle you get when you walk across a synthetic carpet and then touch something metallic is due to static electricity. pilots landing small rubber-tyred aircraft often received a powerful shock when they stepped onto the ground. the whole object is uncharged. . open the Atoms animation on the CD. Moving around the nucleus are electrons. The friction between your shoes and the carpet causes your body to become charged.

2 32 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW normally become positive. clothes lines etc. producing lightning. park away from tr ees and power lines. go ashore to shelter as so on as possible. • Disconnect external aerials and power leads to radios. • Avoid taking a bath or shower. electrical appliances. Lightning can also spark to the ground. and the bottoms negative. sheet metal. • Don’t use a mobile phone. from a cloud to the ground. • If swimming or suring. • Draw all curtains and keep clear of windows. • Never shelter under trees. . or drive an open vehicle. causing a spark. causing the loud noise of thunder. or to other clouds. Many of these injuries happen when people use telephones during thun derstorms. • If caught in the open. or from cloud to cloud. crouch down wi th your feet together. If these charges become big enough. If you are caught outdoors in a thunderstorm: • Seek shelter in a hard-top vehicle or solid building. The air is heated so much it glows. Fig 11 Lightning strikes the lightning conductor on the Q1 tower on the Gold Coast. • If you are in a car. TVs and computers. • Don’t handle ishing rods. leave the wa ter immediately. umbrellas or golf clubs. • Stay away from metal poles. • Don’t ride a horse or bike. • Don’t stand bare-footed on concrete or tiled floors. wire fence s. pipes and other metal ixtures. The intense heat also makes the air expand suddenly. • If in a boat. Close the windows and avoid touc hing metal parts of the car. th in k sa fe be sa fe Fig 10 Lightning can spark within a large cloud. If you are indoors during a thunderstorm: • Don’t use the telephone. thunderclouds What to do in a thundersto rm Each year in Australia lightning claims up to 10 lives and causes over 100 injuries. electrons can jump from one part of the cloud to another.

or they too will be attracted onto the object’s charged surface.) These sparks are very dangerous because of the large amount of oxygen in the air and other flammable gases used to anaesthetise the patient. However. 233 .Chapter฀10฀ Electricity Everyday static electricity Operating theatres cotton gowns (not nylon) In operating theatres the sudden movement of blankets. clothes or equipment can produce electrostatic sparks. The paper then passes between heated rollers that fuse (melt) the toner onto the surface of the paper. patient is earthed trolley wheels made from antistatic rubber conducting tiles on floor equipment earthed by chains shoes are antistatic and conducting image to be copied (face down) CS IE lamp lens SCIENCE lens cartridge containing toner powder (–) EN CE drum + SC I Photocopiers work by an electrostatic process. (Electrostatic means ‘relating to static electricity’. The positively charged paper attracts the negatively charged toner from the drum. great care has to be taken to keep dust particles out of the air. The main part of the machine is a rotating light-sensitive drum onto which the image of the document is projected. This gives a much more even coating than other methods of spraying. Many precautions are therefore taken to make sure static charges do not build up anywhere. CN E Photocopiers printed image heated rollers Powder coating When objects are powder-coated they are charged so they will attract the powder. forming an image. and the powder reaches all parts of the object’s surface.

In your answer use the terms non-contact force and force field. rub a spare fluorescent tube with wool. A attracted C and C attracted E.2 34 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 1 Why do you sometimes notice a crackling noise when you take off your clothes? 2 If a rod is rubbed with nylon cloth and the rod becomes positively charged. Suggest how the car becomes electrically charged. 7 Some tall buildings and tall chimneys have a lightning rod on top of them. t r y t his 1 You have been asked to solve the problem of the two sides of a plastic bag sticking together. D. 2 Which type of carpet is most likely to give you an electric shock when you walk about on it? Design and carry out an experiment to find out. Can you see it glow? 4 Bring a charged rod near the smoke from a burning mosquito coil. describe what causes lightning. E) were given an electric charge by rubbing them with two different cloths. 4 What type of charge is on: a an electron? b the nucleus of an atom? 5 a b In your own words. 3 In a very dark room. Predict what will happen if you bring D and E together and B and C together. Give two examples where it is useful. c Suggest experiments you could try to overcome the problem. What does this mean? b What does the word conducting mean? c What does antistatic mean? Have you noticed that computer and TV screens become dustier than the things around them? Suggest a reason for this. negative or no charge— on the second rod if it: a repels the suspended rod? b attracts the suspended rod (two answers)? 11 1 Five different rods (A. B. fur or clear plastic wrap. What purpose does it serve? 8 A piece of plastic held in your hand can be electrified by rubbing it with a cloth. What is the charge—positive. but it is impossible to electrify a piece of metal in the same way. positively charged rod has a second rod brought near to it. 2 The photo below shows a light plane being refuelled. what charge will be on the nylon? 3 You may have been zapped as you touched the door handle when getting out of a car. A repelled D and B repelled E. a Why do you think this problem occurs? b Design an experiment to show how the bags stick together. C. Why? 9 A suspended. Give two examples where static electricity is a nuisance. What happens? . a The equipment and the patient are earthed. 6 10 challenge Look at the labels on the cartoon of the operating theatre on the previous page. Suggest why there is a wire between the fuel hose and the plane. The rods were then tested in pairs to see whether they repelled or attracted. 12 Explain how static electricity and magnetism are similar.

somehow. 1. Does it make any difference if you reverse the connections to the battery? 235 . Switch the bulb on and off.2 Electric currents Static electricity is electricity that is stationary. Draw a diagram of how you connected the battery and bulb. Draw diagrams of any ways that you discover.Chapter฀10฀ Electricity 10. When the battery is connected by wires to a bulb. this electricity can be made to move you have current electricity or an electric current. •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ 1.5฀volt฀torch฀battery฀without฀holder฀ •฀ torch฀bulb฀(2. A torch battery provides the energy to drive the current. Us i ng a swit ch Materials PART A Li ght i ng a b ulb Materials •฀ 1. If. electrons flow to light up the bulb. 2 See if you can find at least one other way of making the bulb light.5฀volt)฀with฀holder 3฀connecting฀wires฀with฀alligator฀clips switch Method 1 Use the holders and the three connecting wires to connect the battery and bulb as shown.5฀volt฀torch฀battery฀with฀holder฀(or฀power฀pack) torch฀bulb฀(2.5฀volt)฀without฀holder฀ •฀ 2฀connecting฀wires฀ Planning and Safety Check Read through Part A and describe to your partner what you have to do.5 volt size D What special places must be touched on the bulb for it to light? What special places must be touched on the battery? 3 Can you make the bulb light using two connecting wires? Draw diagrams of your set-ups.5 volt size D Method 1 Use the battery and one connecting wire to make the bulb light. Students could investigate electric circuits using the computer program Crocodile clips. 2 Make the bulb go on and off by touching the alligator clips together. Your partner can then describe Part B to you. 3 Now connect the switch into the circuit as shown. 1. Investigate 23 SIMPLE ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Aim PART B To investigate different ways of connecting a torch battery and bulb.

When there is a gap in the circuit. . into the bu 1 The battery pro the en ergy to vides push the ele ct from t rons away he – t ermina l. There is no positive or negative. This is called an electric circuit. in volts (V) using a voltmeter. A torch battery has 1. the light bulb obviously would not glow. there has to be a closed path (or circuit) joining the battery and the bulb. It is a measure of how much energy can be given to the moving electrons in a circuit.) A water meter measures how many litres of water are flowing through a pipe each second. A switch lets you open and close the circuit. A substance like wire that does let electricity through is called a conductor. What is a circuit? In Investigate 23 you should have noticed these things: 1 Both ends of the battery must be connected to the bulb before it will light. These metal connection points are called terminals. They are both the same. The battery is like a water pump—it gives energy to the electrons just as the pump forces the water through the pipes. (See Fig 19 on the right. A 6 volt battery can push a larger current around the same circuit. the electric current or number of electrons passing per second is measured using an ammeter (AM-eat-er).5 volts.2 36 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW trons 2 The elec h the ro flow th ug wire and connecting lb. In an electric circuit. So ns flo ectro de the bu o make l e e 3 Th wire insi is used t ow thin r energy hen fl t y e i h of the lb glow. Voltage is a bit like the pressure in the pipes. An ammeter measures electric current in amperes (abbreviation amps. It is measured h the roug me h t w lb. An electric current can be compared to water flowing through pipes. 3 For the bulb to light. and the bottom is the other. the light is off. The top of the battery is positive + and the bottom is negative – . 2 The bulb has to be connected in two special places. If one of the connecting wires in the previous experiment was replaced by a piece of string. symbol A) or milliamps (1000 mA = 1 A). The metal side of the bulb is one terminal. String does not let electricity through and is called an insulator. the + fountain pump water in pipes Fig 19 An electric current flowing from a battery through a bulb can be compared to water flowing in pipes. T ough ry thr u e b t t e a b th to the back terminal.

aluminium foil. rubber band. Record the ammeter reading. 1. strip of paper. Planning and Safety Check Discuss the investigation with your teacher.฀plastic฀and฀ glass rods. You may use a 6 volt battery or a power pack฀instead฀of฀the฀1. piece of string ammeter Record whether the bulb glows. The red or + terminal must be connected to the + terminal of the battery. Ask your teacher to check your circuit before you go on to Step 2. carbon rod. Record the results in your data table.) 4 Test each of the other objects. nail. 3 Connect one of the objects between the alligator clips. matchstick.5 volt size D Materials •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ •฀ 1. 237 . (This tells you how much current passes through the object. Observe what happens to the bulb. • Suggest why you use an ammeter in this investigation. yet gave a reading on the ammeter? 5 Is air a conductor or an insulator? How do you know? 6 How could you test whether water is a conductor or an insulator? Conclusion How are the materials that conduct electricity similar? Write a generalisation about the types of materials that conduct and do not conduct electricity. 5 Is your skin a conductor or an insulator? Does it make any difference if your skin is wet or dry? Discussion 1 Which materials are good conductors of electricity? How do you know? 2 Which materials are poor conductors (insulators)? 3 Use the ammeter readings to decide which one of the materials is the best conductor.Chapter฀10฀ Electricity Investigate 24 DOES IT CONDUCT? Aim Connect objects here. List฀at฀least฀10฀objects฀in฀the฀left-hand column. • Draw up a data table like the one shown. copper rod.฀eg฀paperclip. 2 Touch the two alligator clips together.5฀volt฀battery.5฀V฀battery฀and฀holder฀(or฀power฀pack) torch฀bulb฀and฀holder ammeter฀or฀multimeter 4฀connecting฀wires variety฀of฀objects. 4 Why is it that some materials did not cause the bulb to glow. coin. Write down what material each object is made of. To test various substances to see how well they conduct electricity. Record the electric current reading on the ammeter. Look at the ammeter. Object Material paperclip stirring rod steel glass Does bulb grow? Ammeter reading (mA) Method 1 Set up a circuit as shown.

You cannot charge a conductor by rubbing. But the insulator slowly loses its charge to the air. So a conductor is a material through which electrons can flow. the electrons cannot move. while most non-metals are insulators. Any charge you produce flows through the conductor to the ground immediately. the electrons can move easily through the metal to produce a current. So. Conductor Insulator no current flows current flows electrons held only loosely by positive nuclei electrons held tightly by positive nuclei Note: Good conductors of electricity are also good conductors of heat (see page 134). How can you explain the difference between conductors and insulators? An electric current is a flow of electrons. The charge is also lost quickly if you touch the insulator with your hand. the charge stays on the surface of the insulator. The handles of screwdrivers and pliers are often coated with plastic insulation. This process allows the charge to flow to the ground. especially in wet or humid weather. sockets and switches are all made from plastic. and no electric current can flow when the insulator is connected to a battery. Because of this. when the metal is connected to a battery.2 38 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Conductors and insulators All metals are conductors. The casings of electric plugs. and is called earthing. . Conductors Insulators carbon plastic salt water glass acids cloth silver paper copper wood gold rubber aluminium air Insulators are very important in the supply and use of electricity. The poles that carry electricity from power stations to cities need insulators to stop electricity from escaping to the ground (Fig 23 on the next page). If you charge an insulator such as a plastic rod by rubbing. In an insulator the electrons are held tightly by the positive charges. These electrons are not strongly attracted to any one nucleus. A metal consists of an arrangement of positive nuclei in a ‘sea’ of electrons.

This hair drier contains a nichrome wire heating element. giving them a greater electrical resistance. computers get hot when used. The filament of a light bulb is made from very thin tungsten wire. 239 . It is usually coiled to take up less space. The use of such materials would save billions of dollars. it is used to make the heating elements in many electrical appliances used around the home. which offer no resistance to the flow of electricity. This is because of the attraction of the electrons to the positive nuclei of the atoms in the conductor. there is always some electrical resistance to the current. making it hover in the air above the superconductor. for example.Chapter฀10฀ Electricity heating element fan ON F OF Fig 24 Fig 23 The insulators on power lines are made of glass or porcelain. This waste heat can be a nuisance. The chilled superconductor (bottom) is acting like a magnet. In electric power lines there is always loss of energy due to the resistance of the metal in the wires. It repels the magnet (top). Fig 25 Resistance When an electric current moves through a conductor. the wire becomes so hot that it gives off a brilliant white light. Superconductors could also be used in the maglev trains now being developed. However the waste heat is sometimes useful. because nichrome wire has a fairly high resistance. These trains float above the tracks supported by the noncontact forces between large electromagnets. scientists are trying to make cheap superconductors. The conducting wires are made of aluminium and steel. As the electrons are pushed through a conductor they lose some of their energy as heat. This attraction is greater in some conductors than in others. When a current is passed through it. For this reason. For example.

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Check!
1

2

Copy and complete the following sentences.
a A path for electricity is called a ______.
b A ______ lets you open and close a
circuit.
c Moving electrons in a wire are called an
electric ______.
d An ______ is an instrument used to
measure electric current.
e The unit for electric current is the ______.
f ______ is a measure of the energy given
to the electrons in a circuit.
g Substances that do not allow an electric
current to flow through them are called
______.
h Metals are ______ because they allow an
electric current to pass through them.
i Opposition to the flow of current in a
circuit is called ______.
j If the resistance in a circuit is increased
the current ______.

5

Lisa connected a bulb to a battery. The wires
were connected properly, but the bulb
did not glow. What could be wrong (two
possibilities)?

6

Explain in your own words the difference
between an insulator and a conductor of
electricity.

7

Why are electrical connecting wires covered
with plastic?

8

This ammeter measures current in two
different ranges: 0 to 1 amp and 0 to
10 amp.

4
2

a

In which of these circuits will the bulb glow?
For the other circuits, explain why the bulb
won’t glow.

b
9

A
B

C

0

4

Which battery can supply the most energy
to electrons in a circuit: 1.5 volt, 6 volt or
9 volt? Why?

1.0

10

What is the reading if the 0–10 amp
range (top) is used?
What is the reading if the 0–1 amp
range (bottom) is used?

Electric current
(amperes)

4H
HB
3B

0.03
0.10
0.70

b

10

pointer

Type of ‘lead’

D

Into what two forms of energy is electrical
energy changed in a light bulb?

.8

A

Ngoc tested how well different types
of pencil ‘lead’ of the same length and
thickness conduct electricity. His results
are shown:

a

3

8

.6

.4
.2

0

6

Which type of ‘lead’ has the greatest
resistance?
Pencil ‘leads’ contain graphite, which
is a conductor. Which type of pencil
‘lead’ would you infer contains the most
graphite?

Why is it safer to wear shoes than to go
barefoot in an electrical storm?

Chapter฀10฀ Electricity

challenge
1฀ Explain฀why฀the฀battery฀in฀a฀torch฀eventually฀
goes flat.
2 When you push down the switch the torch
produces฀a฀beam฀of฀light.฀Explain฀in฀detail฀how฀
this happens.
switch

handle

4 A company produces an all-metal electric kettle,
but the government bans its sale. Suggest why it
was banned.
5฀ Explain฀why฀the฀element฀in฀a฀toaster฀becomes฀
red-hot, while the wires connecting the toaster to
the mains power supply remain cool.
6 One of the things that ‘lie-detectors’ measure is
skin resistance. Lying is supposed to make you
sweat. How do you think this lie-detector works?
I never done nothin’... honest!

reflector
plastic
case
6 volt
battery

+
glass

3 What do you think is the most likely cause of the
following?
a Your radio starts to get quieter and quieter.
Turning up the volume doesn’t seem to help
much.
b Your torch is very bright but suddenly goes
out.
c Your CD player stops working, but when you
tap on the case it works again.

t r y t his

7 Why don’t the materials that conduct current
electricity hold static electricity?
8฀ Using฀what฀you฀know฀about฀resistance,฀explain฀
why a long wire has more resistance than
a short one, and why a thin wire has more
resistance than a thick one.

2 Make your own switch. Here are some designs.
Try out your switch in a circuit.

1 Find out whether tap-water will conduct an
electric current. Set up the circuit shown, using
a conductivity kit. You could also test rainwater,
distilled water and salt water.

uncoated
paperclip

thumbtack
springy steel

6V

clothes peg
conductivity
kit

thumbtacks
water

241

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10.3 Electric circuits
Circuit diagrams
Look at the two circuits on the right. They look
different, but they are actually the same.
If you wanted to tell someone how to set up
this circuit, you might confuse them if you drew
these sketches. Also, drawing diagrams like these
takes time. So electricians have decided on a
simple way to draw electric circuits with a symbol
for each component (part). These symbols are
listed below.
The wires in a circuit are drawn straight and at
right angles. For example, the circuit on the right
can be drawn as shown. This is called a circuit
diagram.

OR

mbols
Electrical sy
circuit diagram
connecting wire
light bulb

Fig 33

You may see the older
symbol for a light bulb
drawn like this:

Series and parallel circuits

battery (The long thin stroke
is positive and the short fat
stroke is negative.)

power pack
(variable power supply)

or

How to draw a circuit diagram

The parts of a circuit can be arranged in two
different ways. Take, for example, two torch
bulbs. They can be connected one after the other
as shown in Fig 34 below. This is called a series
connection. Note that there is only one path for
the electric current to flow, and the current is the
same everywhere in the circuit. As you connect
more bulbs in series, the current decreases, and
the bulbs don’t glow as brightly.

resistor

switch open

series circuit

switch closed

A

ammeter

Fig 34

A series circuit

Chapter฀10฀ Electricity
master switch

Many electrical appliances use several batteries
connected in series. When you put in the
batteries, the positive terminal of one battery
must touch the negative terminal of the next.
For example, a 3 volt toy usually has two 1.5
volt batteries arranged in series as shown in the
cartoon.

parallel circuit

A

Click...whirrr...who?
What? Hmm... must have
dozed off for a bit.

Fig 36

A parallel circuit

Sometimes it is not easy to tell whether the
components of a circuit are connected in series or
in parallel. However, if you can trace the complete
circuit using one finger, then the components are
connected in series. Those parts of a circuit that
branch and where you have to use more than one
finger are connected in parallel. Note that a circuit
may contain a mixture of series and parallel
connections (Fig 37).
Two bulbs can also be connected side by side.
This is called a parallel connection. Look at
Fig 36. At A the electric current splits and follows
two different paths. The electrons flowing through
each bulb get the full push from the cell—they
don’t share it as in a series circuit. As a result,
each bulb glows as brightly as if it was the only
bulb in the circuit. A master switch can be used to
turn off both bulbs together, or separate switches
can be used to turn each bulb off independently.

2
1
3

Fig 37

Bulbs 2 and 3 are in parallel, but they are in
series with bulb 1, the switch and the battery.

In Investigate 25 you can investigate series and
parallel circuits for yourself.

Investigate

25 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS
Aim
To investigate series and parallel circuits.

Materials
•฀
•฀
•฀
•฀

two฀1.5฀V฀batteries฀and฀holders฀(or฀power฀pack)
3฀torch฀bulbs฀and฀holders
6฀connecting฀wires฀
ammeter฀or฀multimeter

Planning and Safety Check
•฀ Carefully฀read฀through฀the฀instructions฀for฀
the three parts on pages 244 and 245.
•฀ To฀which฀terminal฀of฀the฀battery฀do฀you฀
connect the positive (+) terminal of the
ammeter?

243

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ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW

PART A

Li ght i ng a b ulb
Method
1 Connect up a circuit with a battery, a switch and
one bulb. Close the switch and observe the
brightness of the glow of the bulb.
2 Connect a second bulb
in series with the first
bulb, as shown below.

In which two-bulb circuit do the bulbs glow
more brightly? Suggest a reason for this.
What happens if you unscrew one of the
bulbs in the parallel circuit?
5 Add a third bulb in parallel with the other two.
What happens?

Discussion
1 What is the effect of increasing the number of
bulbs in series in a circuit?
2 If one bulb in a series circuit blows, the others
also go out. Why?
3 Describe the effect of adding more bulbs in
parallel in a circuit.
4 When one bulb in a parallel circuit fails, the
others continue to operate. Why?
5 Parallel circuits are used in the electrical wiring
of a house. Suggest reasons for this.

PART B
Does each bulb glow as brightly as the
single฀bulb฀in฀Step฀1?
Unscrew one of the bulbs from its socket.
Record what happens.
3 Repeat Step 2 with three bulbs.
4 Connect up a second circuit with the two bulbs
in parallel, as shown below.

B att er y pr oble m
Research question: Can you make the bulb
glow more brightly by adding a second battery?
Experiment฀to฀ind฀out฀whether฀you฀should฀add฀
the second battery in series or in parallel.
Write a brief report of your findings.

Notes for Part B
1 When connecting batteries in series, you
must connect the positive of one to the
negative of the other, as shown.
+

2 When connecting
batteries in parallel,
you must connect the
positive of one to the
positive of the other.

+

+

+

d If more bulbs were added to the circuit. each bulb would glow ______ (more / less) brightly. Check! 2 1 Copy and complete the sentences below by selecting the correct words to describe the circuit below. c If bulb A went out while the switch was closed. a How many paths can the electric current follow? b Does the current have to pass through bulb A for bulb B to glow? c If bulb B blew would bulb A continue to glow? d What would happen if you added a third bulb in parallel? A A B B 245 . a In this circuit the electricity has ______ (one / two) paths to follow. as in the circuit on the right. bulb B would (stay on / go out).฀Check฀it฀with฀your฀teacher฀ before you start. b This circuit is ______ (open / closed).Chapter฀10฀ Electricity PART C U si ng an am m et er Research question: How can you use an ammeter to find out whether the current is the same in all parts of a series and parallel circuit? Discuss the research question in a group and design฀an฀experiment. + + A Write a report of what you find. Answer these questions about the circuit below. f The bulbs are connected in ______ (series / parallel). Don’t forget to connect the positive terminal of the ammeter to the positive terminal of the battery or power pack. it would glow ______ (more / less) brightly. e If the circuit had only one bulb.

5 What voltages are being used in these two electrical appliances? Torch 1.5 VOLT AA SIZE A Battery compartment of radio top row 1.5 VOLT D SIZE B 4 A 6 Draw a circuit diagram that has: a two batteries and a bulb in series b one battery and two bulbs in series c two batteries in parallel and a bulb in series d two batteries in parallel and two bulbs in series e a power pack and a string of eight decorative bulbs in parallel 7 Draw a circuit using two batteries and two bulbs that makes the bulbs glow most brightly. B and C when you: a close switch 1? b then close switch 2? c then open switch 3? Draw a circuit diagram for each of the following. . A bottom row connecting wires 3 A B B 2 1 C 9 Give two reasons why lights in parallel are better than lights in series.2 46 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 3 Write out a list of the equipment needed to set up circuit A. Do the same for circuit B. 8 In the circuit diagram below. what happens to each of the bulbs A.

5฀volt฀cells฀in฀parallel฀have฀a฀total฀ voltage฀of฀1. four switches and a bulb so that the light comes on when any one of the switches is closed. If the nichrome wire has a greater resistance than a light bulb. Where would you place a fourth switch that could switch all three lights on and off (that is. 1 2 3 A B 4 C D A 6 5 B C 3 The bulbs in this circuit are both dimly lit when the switches are open.) 8 Design a circuit with one battery. Predict what will happen when: a฀ switch฀1฀is฀closed฀(two฀things) b switch 2 is closed as well. a master switch)? 2 Consider the two circuits below.฀4฀and฀ 6 only are closed? c Are lights A and B in series or in parallel with each other? 7฀ How฀would฀you฀connect฀six฀1. A 1 B 2 E F a Which switches do you need to close so that only one light stays on? b฀ Which฀lights฀are฀on฀when฀switches฀1.5฀volt฀torch฀cells฀ to give a voltage of: a 9 volts? b 6 volts? c 4. Opening a door closes a switch. B or C) will have the dimmest฀glow?฀Explain฀your฀answer.Chapter฀10฀ Electricity challenge 1 Draw a circuit diagram with a battery.) . 247 4 How is adding an ammeter (very low resistance) to a circuit different from adding a light bulb or electric motor? 5 Suppose the latest portable CD player is wired with superconducting material.฀You฀must฀use฀all฀six฀cells. which of the three identical bulbs (A. The resistor in the circuit is a piece of nichrome wire like that used in jug elements. three lights and three switches so that each switch turns on only one light.5฀volts. (This circuit could be used to light the inside of a car with four doors.5 volts? ฀ ฀Draw฀circuit฀diagrams. 6 Below is the circuit diagram for a caravan. Draw a circuit diagram. Would the batteries last a longer or a shorter time than in a normal CD player?฀Explain฀your฀answer.฀ (Hint:฀Two฀1.

red amber green 3-way switch Wiper glasses electric motor wires to battery and switch on belt copper wire 4 Make a list of the things you will need to make your invention.) 3 Draw a sketch of your design before you start. 2 Use your imagination to design your own invention.) Method 1฀ Study฀the฀two฀inventions฀on฀the฀right. cotton ball L-shaped aluminium .฀a฀light฀ flashes or a trapdoor opens to catch the burglar • a model house in which you can turn the lights on and off independently • an alarm to warn you of strong wind • a device to warn you when a water tank is about to overflow • an alarm clock using a candle • an electric maze • a way of dimming a light (Hint: A long wire has more resistance than a short one. (If your invention is good enough you may be able to enter it in a science contest.2 48 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Experiment YOUR INVENTION Aim To use what you have learnt in this chapter to invent a useful electrical device. or use the ideas below. You could also have another look at the mousetrap on page 227.฀Explain฀to฀ Traffic lights another student how one of them works. then go ahead and make it. Make sure you report any problems. Your partner฀will฀explain฀to฀you฀how฀the฀other฀one฀ works.) 6 Prepare a report of your invention for the rest of the class. (You may be able to work on your invention at home. Other students may be able to suggest ways of improving your design. Try to draw a circuit diagram too.) • a pinball machine (Hint: A rolling metal ball could be used to close a switch. ฀ •฀ a฀battery฀tester ฀ •฀ a฀circuit฀where฀you฀can฀switch฀a฀light฀on฀in฀ one place and turn it off somewhere else ฀ •฀ a฀burglar฀alarm฀where฀a฀bell฀rings. as well as your successes. 5 Check your design with your teacher.

It is measured in amperes. It is measured in volts. 7 A series circuit has only one conducting path for electrons. and losing electrons makes it positively charged. parallel using an ______. repel voltage 5 Batteries supply the ______ to push electrons around a circuit. whereas a ______ circuit has two or more alternative paths. 6 ______ offer little resistance to the flow of electricity.Chapter฀10฀ Electricity Copy and complete these statements to make a summary of this chapter. while unlike charges ______ each electrons other. a Which is the correct way to put two batteries in a torch? b Are the batteries connected in series or in parallel? A B C D 249 . energy 3 Electric current will flow only if it has a continuous path or ______. ammeter 1 Objects can be given an electric ______ by rubbing. REVIEW 1 What happens to two charged rods held near each other if they have: a the same charge? b opposite charges? 2 What charge is left on a material if it has been rubbed and: a loses electrons? b gains electrons? 3 Which of the following are conductors and which are insulators? a copper b plastic c steel d air e wood f salt water 4 Look at the diagrams below. insulators 4 Electric current is a flow of ______. Gaining charge attract electrons makes an object negatively charged. ______ is a measure of how much energy can be given to the moving electrons in a circuit. Try doing the Chapter 10 crossword on the CD. circuit conductors 2 Like charges ______ each other. The missing words are on the right. ______ offer a great deal of resistance.

B C a What will the brightness of the bulbs in circuit B be like compared with the bulb in circuit A? Why? b How bright will the bulbs in circuit C be compared with the bulb in circuit A? Why? c Without changing the number of bulbs. like a connecting wire C left out a major item. but with a slight error in it D set up the circuit slowly. a switch and a bulb. Check your answers on pages 282–283. Dismantle the circuit. so that the light goes off when the switch is closed.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 2 50 REVIEW 5 Consider the circuits below. . but with a slight error in it E was not sure how to set up the circuit. such as a bulb or a battery D was not sure of the equipment needed B C Setting up the equipment: A set up the circuit correctly and promptly 1 A 2 When switch 1 is closed and switch 2 is open: A none of the bulbs lights up B only bulb A lights up C bulb A and bulb B light up D all the bulbs light up 7 Explain why you sometimes get an electric shock when you walk on a nylon carpet and then touch something made of metal. (Don’t forget to return all equipment. Your partner (or your teacher) will mark you on your performance. B set up the circuit correctly. First write down a list of the equipment that you will need to set up the circuit. so that this time you mark the performance of your partner setting up the other circuit. Then set up the equipment correctly and promptly. but took quite a while to do it C set up the circuit promptly. A Work with a partner. how could you make the brightness of the bulbs in circuit B the same as the bulb in circuit A? Draw a diagram of the new circuit. select the one you are going to set up. 6 Consider the circuit below.) 8 Design a circuit with a cell. Now swap roles. How to score List of equipment: A chose the equipment perfectly B left out a small item. From the two circuits below.

as well as luminous traffic and information signs. Other applications of conducting plastics that are availabe are: • rechargeable plastic batteries for use in portable electronic equipment such as Apple’s iPhone. At about the same time two other scientists. The solar cell plastic can also be made into fabric to make clothes which can convert light into electricity to run devices such as iPods. Conducting plastics can also be used to make solar cells in a continuous roll. and a shiny metallic-looking film appeared on the inside of his reaction vessel. However. and in 2000 they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. were experimenting with metallic films at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States. was trying to make a plastic called polyacetylene. When MacDiarmid heard about Shirakawa’s accidental discovery he invited him to work with him in his laboratory in the US. in the mid-1970s three scientists discovered a plastic that was somewhere between an insulator and a conductor. Scientists say that it won’t be long before ultra-thin television screens using this new plastic are available. It is the size of a sheet of paper and about 1 cm thick. By accident he added 100 times as much catalyst as he intended. MacDiarmid.Chapter฀10฀ Electricity Learning focus: Developments in science have led to the development of new technologies FOCU PRESCRIBED S AREA Conducting plastics On page 238 you learnt that plastics are insulators—they don’t usually conduct electricity. Heeger and Shirakawa did many experiments and found that if they exposed the polyacetylene to bromine vapour its electrical conductivity increased by a factor of 10 million! They immediately published their discovery of a conducting plastic. Perhaps light-emitting wallpaper for our homes will also become a reality. 251 . These are cheaper and more versatile than the present silicon-based solar cells. In 1990 another group of scientists in England developed a conducting plastic which gave off light when sandwiched between two electrodes with electricity flowing between them. where it is important to avoid a build-up of static electricity (see page 233). and in hybrid electric cars • windows that you can darken during the day by passing a small electric current through them • antistatic material for use in offices and operating theatres. MacDiarmid and Shirakawa met by chance during a coffeebreak at a seminar in Tokyo. The electronic reader being used by the student on the right is produced by Plastic Logic. It can store thousands of documents and save you carrying around heavy books and notes. A Japanese scientist. Questions 1 What is the important development in science described on this page? 2 What new technologies have been developed as a result of this development in science? 3 Which of these technologies do you think has the most potential for the future? Explain your answer. Alan MacDiarmid and Alan Heeger. Hideki Shirakawa.

11 Living฀systems Planning page Getting started Activity page 254 Activities page 255 Investigate 26 Colour adaptations Investigate 27 Physical factors in water Investigate 28 Water loss in plants 11.2 Physical factors page 262 Assessment task 11 Sampling the environment TRB Main ideas Chapter 11 crossword Review Learning focus: Why different groups and cultures may have different views in relation to scientific issues Chapter 11 test Prescribed focus area Murray River crisis TRB .1 Survival page 254 Animation Natural selection 11.

using models and using cause and effect (Investigate 27 and 28) working in teams and presenting information (Activity page 254.Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems r you wil In this chapte t… l learn abou Learning฀Focus ● why different groups or cultures may have different views in relation to scientific issues (pages 259 and 275) Knowledge฀and฀Understanding ● ecosystems Skills ● ● ● ● gathering first-hand information (Activities page 255 and Investigate 26) gathering information from secondary sources and processing it (pages 268 and 271–272) thinking critically—predicting. ● For each photo think of some of the living things that might live in the environment. Investigate 26 and pages 271–272) The four photos on this page and the previous page show a number of different Australian environments. ● Make a list of the characteristics that the animals and plants would need to be able to survive in each type of environment. 253 .

1 Survival In previous studies you learnt that an ecosystem is the system of relationships between the living things and their interactions with the non-living things. Check your report and rewrite it if necessary. For example. . but also on the supply of water and air. a suitable temperature and weather conditions. Make a list of all the biological factors that will influence its survival. Give the report back to the group and discuss your group’s opinion of the report. competitors and disease-causing organisms. Read their report and assess its good points and poor points. 1 Choose an organism that lives on the reef. Write a brief report on the survival of an organism on the coral reef using the following three points as your structure. Give examples.2 54 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW marinethemes. The survival of an organism in an ecosystem depends on living as well as non-living factors. so that another group can read it. microscopic algae (plankton) are found only in the surface waters of the ocean where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis. and good soil. humidity. competitors and disease organisms. 2 Construct a food web for the organism. Swap your report with another group. The biological factors in an ecosystem describe all the living things that interact with an organism—its food. and soil fertility.com/David Fleetham 11. light. For example. These factors are extremely important for the survival of any organism. Activity Work in a small group for this activity. 3 Describe the non-living factors that may affect the survival of your organism. Make some brief notes. Look at the photo of the coral reef community. the survival of an organism not only depends on its ability to get food and be protected from predators. the availability of air and water. The non-living or physical factors include temperature. Give examples if possible. predators.

B Your teacher will supply you with three or four preserved animals (or photos of animals). colour and other characteristics that you think are important in its survival. the jabiru in Fig 3 lives in wetland areas of northern Australia. Work in a group for this part of the activity. Use observations and your knowledge of the animals to make inferences about how well their characteristics help them survive. For example. Fig 5 Kookaburra 255 . It also has large. Then infer how the characteristics help it survive in its habitat. worms and fish from the water and mud.These characteristics are called adaptations (ADD-ap-TAY-shuns). Dolphin Activities A Look at the animals in Figs 3. Suggest how the animal’s adaptations help its survival. shape. list all the physical and biological factors that may affect its survival in its habitat. Its beak is long and pointed so it can collect snails. For each animal record your observations about its size. For each animal. the organisms in the photos below live in quite different habitats.Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems Adaptations The survival of an organism also depends on the characteristics of the organism itself. It has very long legs to enable it to walk through the swampy areas where it finds food. strong wings to help it escape from enemies. Decide where each animal lives and describe its habitat. Fig 3 Jabiru Fig 4 For example. 4 and 5 above. and each organism has characteristics that enable it to survive in its own particular habitat.

฀dirt. the quivering of the katydid mimics the movement of leaves and makes it hard to see in the bushes. •฀ Carefully฀read฀through฀the฀Method฀and฀ prepare data tables for Steps 3 and 4.฀20฀red฀and฀20฀yellow) Planning and Safety Check •฀ Work฀in฀groups฀of฀three. Its body is sideways flattened and is leaf-green in colour.฀Mark฀the฀corners฀of฀the฀ square฀with฀pieces฀of฀paper.฀the฀other฀two฀will฀be฀the฀ predators.฀concrete. Investigate 26 COLOUR ADAPTATIONS Aim Method To use a model to explain the effect of colour on the survival of organisms in different habitats. making it appear like a leaf moving in the wind.2 56 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Types of adaptations The katydid (KAY-tee-did) in the photo above is similar to grasshoppers. It has very keen eyesight and long. 1฀ Measure฀out฀a฀3฀m฀x฀3฀m฀area฀on฀your฀ selected฀surface. the katydid’s egg-laying ability and the way it can digest plant leaves and shoots are functional adaptations. strong legs that help it escape quickly when threatened by predators. 3m 3m . It also quivers.฀One฀member฀will฀ be฀the฀scatterer. and the shape and size of its legs. The katydid lays a very large number of eggs in the soil.฀ for฀example. the katydid’s flattened body.฀sand. This helps to camouflage it amongst plants. for example.฀ carpet or leaf litter. for example. Materials •฀ 60฀coloured฀toothpicks. functional and behavioural. Behavioural adaptations are to do with how the organism behaves. for example. Structural adaptations refer to the shape and size of the organism and how the various parts of its body are put together. For convenience. we can classify adaptations into three groups—structural. Birds and carnivorous insects such as preying mantises feed on katydids. its colour. Functional adaptations refer to the working of an organism’s body. A katydid has a number of adaptations that ensure its survival. •฀ You฀will฀need฀to฀do฀this฀experiment฀on฀at฀ least฀two฀different฀surfaces฀or฀‘habitats’. It eats the leaves and shoots of plants.฀grass.฀ You฀could฀mark฀the฀area฀with฀string฀if฀you฀have฀ some.฀sticks฀or฀rocks.฀plastic฀disks฀or฀beads฀ (20฀green.

6฀ Do฀you฀think฀your฀model฀was฀a฀good฀one?฀ Suggest฀ways฀in฀which฀you฀could฀improve฀it. In a natural ecosystem.฀Predict฀what฀might฀ happen฀to฀the฀toothpick฀population฀in฀the฀area฀ over฀a฀period฀of฀time. there were colour variations in the toothpick population. In any population of organisms there are variations among the individuals. In this case. the green toothpicks had a higher survival rate on grass. ฀Count฀the฀numbers฀of฀each฀colour฀of฀ toothpick฀found฀and฀record฀the฀data. The green toothpicks had the most favourable characteristics for a grass habitat and are said to be selected. For example. Discussion 1 For each colour calculate the survival rate as a percentage฀of฀the฀original฀20.฀Assume฀the฀same฀ ‘predators’฀were฀present. the green ones were the most difficult to find on grass. ฀Record฀the฀results฀in฀your฀data฀table. this selection of favourable characteristics is called natural selection. The organisms in a population that have favourable characteristics survive in a particular habitat. biological factors (the ‘predators’) caused a change in the make-up of the population. breed and pass their characteristics on to their offspring.฀Use฀your฀generalisation฀from฀ Question 7 to suggest a meaning for this term. 3฀ Compare฀the฀survival฀rates฀for฀the฀different฀ surfaces. In the toothpick model.฀ 4฀ Collect฀all฀the฀toothpicks฀then฀repeat฀Steps฀1฀to฀3฀ using other surfaces. more of the green coloured toothpicks survived than either of the other colours.฀Your฀teacher฀may฀organise฀a฀class฀ discussion. When equal numbers were placed on grass. 7฀ Using฀the฀results฀of฀your฀model. 8฀฀ You฀may฀have฀heard฀of฀the฀term฀selection or natural selection. 4฀ Compare฀your฀survival฀rates฀with฀those฀of฀other฀ groups. ones with larger ears and ones with shorter ears.฀Give฀reasons฀for฀your฀ prediction.฀then฀scatter฀the฀ toothpicks฀randomly฀over฀the฀marked฀area. you might see dark-coloured ones and light-coloured ones. 5฀ Suppose฀the฀three฀different฀coloured฀toothpicks฀ were฀part฀of฀a฀large฀toothpick฀population฀ in฀a฀particular฀‘habitat’. Natural selection In the last Investigate you probably found that of the three colours of toothpicks. 257 . As a result. 3฀ Give฀the฀‘predators’฀15฀seconds฀to฀ind฀as฀many฀ toothpicks฀as฀they฀can. while the yellow or red ones were easily seen and picked up by the ‘predators’.Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems 2฀ Ask฀the฀‘predators’฀not฀to฀look. short ones and long ones.฀write฀a฀ generalisation about the effect of camouflage (colour)฀on฀the฀survival฀of฀organisms฀in฀a฀ particular habitat.฀Suggest฀why฀they฀are฀different. Fig 9 In a population of field mice you often see variations in colour. % survival rate = number remaining x 100 20 2฀ Draw฀a฀bar฀graph฀of฀the฀percentage฀survival฀ rates for the three different colours. size and shape. in a population of field mice.

The green toothpicks will now be more easily seen by the ‘predators’ than the yellow ones. For example. environmental changes physical factors Fig 10 How natural selection works. leaving bits of dead grass and sand-coloured soil. fire is part of the Australian environment and many native plants are firetolerant. Organisms breed and pass favourable characteristics to their offspring. and the thick woody Banksia fruit (shown in the photo) open and release their seeds only when heated by fire. Pieces of burning bark break off the trunk and are carried by the wind to start fires a long way away from the original trees. The yellow toothpicks are better adapted to this habitat. However. The old leaves that are destroyed by the fire are quickly replaced by new shoots. dry summer the chance of bushfires anywhere throughout Australia is quite high. Under these conditions the yellow toothpicks have a higher survival rate than the a population of organisms biological factors green ones. To see what happens to a population of organisms when factors change. open the Natural selection animation on the CD. Many eucalypts have very thick. Eucalypts are adapted to fire and this helps in their survival. and after some time the make-up of this population will be different from the toothpick population on the green grass. Some even need fire for their survival. . One species of eucalypt called the candlebark gum even spreads fires. the seeds of some wattles need the heat from fires to germinate. fire-resistant bark that protects the living cells inside the trunk from damage.2 58 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW What happens if the conditions change? Suppose there is a drought and the grass in our model dies. The fires also kill animals which cannot escape from the flames. science bits Adapted to fire During a hot. Bushfires destroy houses and other property and burn out hectares of bush. Organisms with favourable characteristics survive. In this way the eucalypt recovers from the fire damage while other types of plants are killed.

3 What physical factors have changed since agriculture was established on the Murray River? < WEB watch > Go to www. over 100 dams and weirs have been built along the rivers. the following changes have occurred to the natual cycle: • flooding now occurs only every 10 years • flooding lasts for several days only instead of several months • the total volume of water has been reduced. 1 Draw a food web for the organisms in the River Red Gum ecosystem. River Red Gum Forests This website contains very good information about the human impact on the River Red Gum ecosystem.net. The floodwaters carry fertile soil. as the snow melted in the Snowy Mountains. The flowers attract nectar-eating birds. insects and possums. The seeds create food for ants and other insects as well as some birds. the river flooded every 1. goshawks and water rats. To regulate the water flow. 259 .au and follow the links to the websites below. The Murray River floodplain The River Red Gums are well-adapted for the floods that once occurred regularly along the Murray.scienceworld. As a result. Questions Use the information on this page and from the websites below to complete the following. and the seeds germinate in the warm moist soil during summer. Human impact Farms established along the Murray river systems required a dependable water supply for crops. 2 Describe how the River Red Gum is well adapted for life on the floodplain.7 years for about two to three months. Over thousands of years. soil rich in nutrients has built up the floodplain. The River Red gum ecosystem A River Red Gum forest can produce 250 million seeds per hectare! Most seeds fall in spring and early summer when the floods naturally recede. and branches and leaves from dead trees. over the last 200 years huge changes have occurred to these forests. River Red Gum Click on the Redgum Forests icon and download the fact sheet. However. which contains information on the Redgum Forests. These herbivorous animals attract echidnas. water management and timber production.Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems The฀River฀Red฀Gum฀฀ ecosystem฀ For thousands of years large forests of the River Red Gum have flourished along the Murray River and other large rivers that flow into it. Under natural conditions. which are caught around the roots of the trees.

a Describe the habitat in which each bird might live. a What is the advantage to the plant of having these structures? b Name three plants that have these structures. 2 Certain plants have prickles or thorns on them. b Sharks have a very streamlined shape.2 60 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Check! 1 4 Classify the following statements according to whether they refer to structural. . Can you match them? Give reasons for your choice. Three of them belong to the birds in Question 3. What problems would the animal then have to face? Suggest why the animal feeds at night. b How does the structure of its feet help the survival of each bird in its habitat? 5 The diagram below shows four types of birds’ beaks. Explain the process of natural selection in your own words. c Sea turtles lay up to one hundred eggs in the breeding season. A B C D The sugar glider is a small possum-like animal that lives in eucalypt forests. a Frill-necked lizards raise the large spiny layer of skin behind their head when they are threatened. It has a thin layer of skin that stretches from its front legs to its back legs. g The large front legs of a preying mantis have spines on them. e Many plants that live on the rainforest floor have very large leaves. functioned and behaved identically. f Fungi release enzymes that are able to break down the dead organism they are growing on. d When sea turtle eggs hatch. a 3 b 1 c 2 6 Suggest a reason for the skin between the sugar glider’s legs. functional or behavioural characteristics. 3 Look at the three types of birds’ feet in the diagram below. the young turtles dig through the sand and head directly for the water. Suppose the animal did not have the skin between its legs. Infer what might happen in the long term to a population of a particular type of animal whose individuals looked. At night it feeds on the nectar in the flowers in the forest canopy.

Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems challenge 1฀ A฀certain฀type฀of฀moth฀called฀the฀peppered฀moth฀ has฀two฀main฀variations—a฀light฀form฀and฀a฀dark฀ form.฀they฀caught฀15฀light-coloured฀ moths฀and฀46฀dark-coloured฀ones.฀Over฀ three฀nights. b฀ Could฀this฀be฀called฀natural฀selection?฀฀ ฀ ฀Explain฀your฀answer. •฀ Snakes.฀students฀caught฀and฀฀ counted฀the฀moths฀in฀a฀particular฀place. •฀ Snakes฀are฀very฀slow-moving฀on฀cold฀ mornings.฀most฀of฀the฀mosquitoes฀ died. b฀ The฀distribution฀of฀ferns฀depends฀only฀on฀the฀ type฀of฀soil. dark form 3฀ The฀body฀temperature฀of฀birds฀and฀mammals฀is฀ fairly฀constant฀and฀changes฀very฀little฀even฀when฀ the฀surrounding฀temperature฀changes฀greatly.฀giving฀reasons.฀Write฀an฀ inference to explain their results.฀Use฀the฀information฀in฀the฀ diagram฀to฀decide. ferns swampy area eucalyptus A rich loamy soil eucalyptus B sandy soil a฀ Eucalyptus฀trees฀die฀in฀water-logged฀soil.฀ Other฀animals฀have฀body฀temperatures฀that฀ change฀with฀the฀surrounding฀temperature.฀very฀few฀ mosquitoes฀were฀being฀killed฀by฀BBB. c฀ Eucalyptus฀B฀is฀adapted฀to฀different฀soil฀ types.฀However. 2฀ The฀drains฀in฀a฀town฀were฀sprayed฀for฀ mosquitoes฀using฀a฀pesticide฀called฀BBB.฀The฀pesticide฀was฀used฀against฀the฀ mosquitoes฀for฀the฀next฀ive฀years.฀After฀the฀tenth฀year฀of฀spraying. 261 . 4฀ The฀diagram฀below฀shows฀the฀distribution฀of three฀types฀of฀plants.฀while฀the฀dark฀ form฀rests฀in฀cavities฀in฀trees฀and฀rocks฀and฀ in caves. a฀ What฀do฀you฀think฀would฀be฀the฀main฀฀ ฀ predators฀of฀the฀peppered฀moth? b฀ Suggest฀why฀the฀moths฀rest฀during฀the฀day.฀frogs฀and฀insects฀are฀rarely฀found in฀places฀with฀snow฀and฀ice. •฀ Fish฀can฀exist฀in฀the฀Arctic฀and฀Antarctic฀ regions.฀the฀light฀form฀rests฀on฀ light-coloured฀trees฀and฀rocks. a฀ Suggest฀why฀not฀all฀the฀mosquitoes฀died฀฀ ฀ after฀the฀irst฀spraying฀with฀BBB. b฀ Which฀type฀of฀adaptation฀is฀a฀constant฀body฀฀ temperature?฀฀Explain฀your฀answer.฀whether฀the฀ statements are true or false. a฀ Suggest฀why฀a฀constant฀body฀temperature฀ might be an advantage for the survival of a particular animal. c฀ Explain฀the฀following฀observations.฀ After฀the฀irst฀spraying.฀฀ Which฀type฀of฀adaptation฀is฀this? c฀ In฀an฀experiment.฀the฀ number฀of฀mosquitoes฀killed฀decreased฀each฀ year. light form Fig 16 The light and dark forms of the peppered moth on a lichen-covered tree ฀ ฀During฀the฀day.

and in deep water very little light is available. and very few plants can grow in water in this condition. water is one of the most important for the survival of organisms. however. Secondly. suspended materials such as silt cause a cloudiness in water. but there are other physical factors which do affect their survival. You might think that light passes freely through water. 50 Depth of water (m) 2 62 100 150 200 darkness—no light Dissolved gases and water temperature Oxygen and carbon dioxide are the two gases essential for living things. Let’s look at the physical factors that affect the survival of organisms that live in water and on land. and carbon dioxide is produced during respiration by all organisms.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 11. 0 Organisms that photosynthesise live near the surface. These organisms use light to make their food by photosynthesis. Aquatic organisms are not faced with having to find water. Therefore. The solubility of oxygen in water at various temperatures . These gases. The danger faced by aquatic organisms is that the amount of dissolved gas decreases with a rise in the temperature. For example. Carbon dioxide is needed by organisms that photosynthesise. Light The availability of light is very important for plants and algae. and there are two main ways in which these gases get into the water. Firstly. These factors include: • the amounts of dissolved gases in the water • water temperature • intensity of light • currents and waves • the buoyancy effect of water. However. Every living cell needs oxygen for respiration. small bodies of water such as ponds or rock pools which tend to heat up quickly contain smaller amounts of dissolved gases. are not as readily available to aquatic organisms as they are to land organisms. some light is absorbed by water. the gases dissolve in the water where the air touches it at the surface. Light penetration of water can also be reduced by the amount of material dissolved or suspended in it.2 Physical factors Animals and plants that live in aquatic ecosystems need characteristics different from those that live on land. oxygen is produced by aquatic plants and algae during photosynthesis. Living in water Of all the physical factors in the environment. How do aquatic organisms obtain oxygen and carbon dioxide? Oxygen and carbon dioxide are both soluble in water.

waterfalls and rapids churn up the water and allow more of the gases in the air to dissolve. The buoyancy effect of water also supports organisms such as jellyfish that don’t have skeletons. This is why some large animals such as whales can be crushed by their own weight when stranded on the beach. 263 . In the ocean. branches or the submerged roots of trees. If you suspend a large rock from a spring balance and lower the rock into a bucket of water. barnacle Fig 20 chiton Rocky shore animals have adaptations for attaching to rocks. Aquatic animals. particularly those that live in the ocean.Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems Currents and waves Organisms that live in fast-flowing streams or on the rocky shore have to avoid being washed away. thus allowing more oxygen to dissolve in the water. while barnacles use a limestone cement. The skeleton or exoskeleton that supports the body of an animal in water would not support its extra weight if it lived on land. you will find the the water will make the rock considerably lighter than it is in air. Chitons are flattened. When waves crash over rocks the water traps bubbles of air. are adapted to the buoyancy effect of water. Buoyancy effect of water Have you ever wondered why you feel almost weightless when you go swimming? The reason is the buoyancy effect of water—the upwards force experienced by objects placed in water. Many use mucus or a cement to attach to solid objects like rocks. and use mucus and a strong muscular foot. Fig 21 Whales can be crushed by their own weight when stranded on the beach. They can float around in the water but their weight on land tends to flatten them. Some use claws or hooks to hold on to rocks. waves help to increase the amount of dissolved gases in the water. In creeks and rivers.

฀without฀stirring฀up฀the฀water.฀make฀a฀list฀of฀the฀safety฀ precautions฀you฀will฀need฀to฀take.฀ 250 Method 200 1฀ Pour฀the฀sand฀into฀one฀container. This will be enough water for the whole class.฀ read฀through฀the฀Method฀and฀make฀a฀list฀ of฀the฀materials฀you฀need. Planning and Safety Check •฀ You฀can฀do฀the฀three฀parts฀of฀this฀ investigation฀in฀any฀order. .2 64 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Investigate 27 PHYSICAL FACTORS IN WATER Aim To฀investigate฀the฀physical฀factors฀that฀affect฀life฀in฀ aquatic฀ecosystems.฀For฀each฀part.฀dip฀a฀ beaker฀into฀a฀bucket฀of฀water฀that฀has฀been฀ sitting฀for฀several฀days.฀Check฀ your฀prediction฀by฀putting฀the฀containers฀in฀a฀ refrigerator฀for฀20฀minutes. 100 50 Make sure there is exactly 200 mL of water.฀Select฀the฀ materials฀for฀each฀part฀in฀turn฀from฀your฀ equipment฀store฀or฀trolley. •฀ Prepare฀data฀tables฀where฀appropriate. 2฀ Pour฀the฀excess฀water฀down฀the฀sink฀until฀the฀ meniscus฀is฀on฀the฀200฀mL฀mark.฀Pour฀an฀equal฀ volume฀of฀water฀(at฀room฀temperature)฀into฀the฀ other container.฀Take฀out฀a฀little฀more฀ than฀200฀mL฀of฀water. PART B Dis s olved oxyg en Method 1฀ Carefully.฀dry฀sand •฀ 400฀mL฀jar฀with฀screw฀lid฀(or฀soft฀drink฀bottle) •฀ heat฀lamp฀(optional) PART A Te m pe ra tur e dry sand water 2฀ Place฀both฀containers฀in฀the฀sun฀or฀under฀a฀ heat฀lamp฀for฀20฀minutes. Teacher note: Fill a few buckets with tap water at least three days before use. Discussion 1฀ Which฀showed฀the฀greater฀temperature฀ change—sand฀or฀water?฀Why฀would฀it฀be฀best฀ to use the average of the class results to answer฀this?฀ 2฀ What฀do฀the฀results฀mean฀for฀organisms฀that฀live฀ in฀water.฀ •฀ For฀each฀part. Materials •฀ aquarium฀or฀large฀glass฀jar฀(share฀with฀class) •฀ methylene฀blue฀solution •฀ oxygen-removing฀solution฀(50฀g/L฀sodium dithionite/hydrosulfite. Measure the temperature near the top of the฀sand฀and฀the฀water฀and฀record฀your฀data. 150 Record the initial temperature of the sand and฀the฀water.฀freshly฀prepared) Toxic •฀ piece฀of฀string฀(about฀30฀cm฀long) •฀ small฀round฀balloon •฀ spring฀balance฀(newtons) •฀ stirring฀rod •฀ thermometer •฀ 2฀small฀plastic฀takeaway฀containers •฀ 250฀mL฀beaker •฀ 250฀mL฀of฀ine.฀compared฀with฀those฀that฀live฀on฀land? 3฀ Predict฀what฀would฀happen฀to฀the฀sand฀and฀ water฀if฀the฀surroundings฀cooled฀down.

฀Draw฀the฀shape฀of฀the฀balloon. Stir very gently.฀pour฀the฀water฀into฀a฀jar. 2฀ Tie฀a฀piece฀of฀string฀around฀the฀neck฀of฀the฀ balloon฀and฀suspend฀it฀in฀the฀water฀in฀an฀ aquarium. 2฀ Why฀did฀you฀use฀water฀out฀of฀the฀bucket฀and฀ not฀from฀the฀tap? ฀ Is the buoyancy effect in salt water different from what it is in fresh water? Discuss this question in a group and design an experiment฀to฀answer฀it. ฀Record฀your฀results.฀ This฀time.฀ Discussion 1฀ Explain฀any฀difference฀in฀the฀two฀results. Then calculate the฀buoyancy฀force฀on฀the฀rock. Record the data in a table. 3฀ Suspend฀a฀rock฀or฀other฀mass฀from฀a฀spring฀ balance. ฀How฀does฀its฀ shape฀change?฀ Draw฀it. Method 1฀ Fill฀a฀balloon฀with฀water฀and฀tie฀the฀end. 250 200 150 100 50 4฀ While฀stirring.Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems 3฀ Add฀three฀drops฀of฀methylene฀blue฀to฀the฀water฀ and฀stir฀very฀gently. Discussion 1 Account for the difference in the shape of the balloon฀in฀and฀out฀of฀water.฀screw฀the฀lid฀ on฀and฀shake฀vigorously฀for฀10฀seconds. 3฀ Why฀is฀there฀more฀dissolved฀oxygen฀in฀ mountain฀streams฀than฀in฀ponds? 4฀ Why฀are฀aerators฀used฀in฀aquariums? PART C Buoyan cy Add 3 drops of methylene blue.฀add฀oxygen-removing฀solution฀ a drop at a time until฀the฀blue฀colour฀just฀ disappears. 265 . This is a฀measure฀of฀the฀amount฀of฀dissolved฀oxygen฀in฀ the฀water. Shake the water vigorously for 10 seconds. 5฀ Wash฀out฀the฀beaker฀and฀repeat฀Steps฀1฀and฀2. 6฀ Pour฀the฀water฀back฀into฀the฀beaker฀and฀repeat฀ Steps 3 and 4.฀Find฀the฀weight฀of฀the฀rock฀in฀air฀and฀ in฀water. 2฀ Explain฀why฀the฀weight฀of฀the฀rock฀is฀different฀ in฀and฀out฀of฀water.฀Lay฀the฀ balloon on the bench and observe its shape. Record the number of drops added.

but for land organisms water is the factor that can determine their survival. Look at the diagram on the right. The stomates are able to open and close. The leaves of plants have tiny openings on their surfaces which allow gases to enter and leave the leaf. and in doing so can control the loss of water vapour from the leaves. About 85% of the plant’s water loss occurs through the stomates. Aquatic organisms can easily obtain water. Obtaining water and avoiding water loss Organisms cannot live without water. a reptile’s skin is waterproof and very little water can pass through it.2 66 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Living on land Land organisms have plenty of air around them but water is often scarce. Oxygen first dissolves in the thin watery layer on the inside surface of the lungs and then passes through the lung wall and into the body. For organisms to survive on land they need: • lungs or other structures for obtaining oxygen • a strong supporting skeleton • methods of obtaining water and avoiding excess water loss • ways to keep warm in cold weather and cool in hot weather. Without this water. Many plants have a waxy. epidermis epidermis cuticle (waxy layer over epidermis) stomate . Water loss in plants Plants absorb water from the soil through their roots. This single layer of cells forms the ‘skin’ or epidermis on the top and bottom of the leaf. some land animals do not drink but obtain all their water from the food they eat. These openings are called stomates (STOW-mates). For example. where it is used in the process of photosynthesis. Since the surface of the lungs has to be kept moist. The water travels up the stem to the leaves. However. waterproof layer called the cuticle over the epidermis. Most land animals need to drink water to replace that lost in breathing and urinating and by evaporation. Water evaporates from the moist surfaces of the cells inside the leaf and passes out of the leaf through the stomates into the air. The remaining water is lost from the leaves. The remainder of the plant’s water loss occurs when water evaporates from the cells on the surface of the leaf. Land animals generally have a covering over their bodies to stop water loss by evaporation. oxygen would not pass through the lungs and the organism would suffocate. Fig 27 The dusty hopping mouse obtains all its water from the food it eats. these organs are internal. because they live in it. Obtaining oxygen Most land animals use lungs to obtain oxygen for respiration. which also helps to prevent water loss.

฀(Don’t฀touch฀ the฀paper฀with฀your฀ingers. ฀Record฀your฀results.฀but฀you฀have฀to฀let฀the฀glue฀ dry฀overnight.฀(While฀ you฀are฀waiting.฀You฀can฀use฀PVC฀woodworking฀glue฀ instead฀of฀nail฀polish.฀Make฀a฀very฀brief฀summary฀of฀ what฀you฀have฀to฀do.฀Put฀a฀drop฀of฀water฀on฀the฀paper.)฀Replace฀the฀lid฀ immediately. To฀investigate฀water฀loss฀from฀plants. Are there as many stomates on the top side of a leaf as there are on the underside? Use฀the฀nail฀polish฀technique฀from฀the฀activity฀ on฀page฀87฀to฀design฀a฀test฀to฀answer฀the฀ question. cobalt chloride paper clear packaging tape Discussion 1฀ On฀which฀leaf฀surface฀did฀you฀ind฀more฀ stomates—top฀or฀underside?฀Suggest฀a฀reason฀ for this. •฀ Discuss฀with฀your฀group฀how฀you฀are฀ going฀to฀answer฀the฀question฀in฀Part฀B.฀compare฀the฀colour฀of฀the฀ paper on each side of the leaves.฀forceps฀ and฀packaging฀tape฀outside฀and฀ind฀a฀broadleafed plant in the sun.฀Suggest฀a฀reason฀for฀this. 6฀ After฀15฀minutes. Tape the฀paper฀in฀position฀as฀shown฀below.฀Do฀the฀ same on the underside of the leaf. Method ฀Record฀your฀observations.) Materials •฀ 5฀pieces฀of฀dried฀cobalt฀chloride฀paper฀ (2฀cm฀x฀2฀cm)฀in฀a฀small฀jar฀with฀a฀lid •฀ forceps •฀ 4฀pieces฀of฀clear฀packaging฀tape •฀ clear฀nail฀polish •฀ microscope฀and฀slide Planning and Safety Check •฀ Carefully฀read฀through฀the฀method฀for฀ Part฀A. 2฀ A฀waterlily฀plant฀has฀stomates฀on฀the฀top฀ surface฀only. 3 Use the forceps to place a piece of cobalt chloride paper on the top side of a leaf.Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems Investigate 28 WATER LOSS IN PLANTS Aim 4 Repeat Step 3 for another leaf. 5฀ Observe฀the฀paper฀for฀about฀15฀minutes. 2฀ Take฀the฀jar฀of฀cobalt฀chloride฀paper. Discussion 1฀ Why฀is฀it฀important฀to฀use฀forceps฀and฀not฀your฀ ingers฀to฀handle฀the฀cobalt฀chloride฀paper? 2฀ On฀which฀leaf฀surface฀did฀the฀cobalt฀chloride฀ paper฀change฀colour฀irst? 3฀ Would฀you฀expect฀more฀water฀loss฀on฀a฀hot฀day฀ or฀on฀a฀cooler฀day?฀Why? 4฀ What฀results฀would฀you฀expect฀if฀it฀had฀not฀ rained฀for฀many฀days?฀ PART A PART B 1฀ Use฀forceps฀to฀take฀a฀piece฀of฀blue฀cobalt฀ chloride฀paper฀out฀of฀the฀jar. 267 .฀go฀on฀to฀Part฀B.

. A pale skin reflects the heat. 2 Bilbies and native mice are active at night and sleep during the day. like the bilby. And many plants have hairs on the leaf surface to reduce the sunlight hitting the leaf and thus evaporating water. while a darker skin absorbs heat on cool winter mornings. The leaves of eucalypts hang vertically to avoid the direct heat of the sun. and in many types of plants the stomates close during the hottest part of the day. Most desert plants have small. Many animals. impermeable skin of reptiles greatly reduces water loss. Questions 1 Describe the ways in which desert plants are adapted for life in the desert ecosystem. 5 Use the internet to write a brief report about the life cycle of a native Australian desert plant. but obtain all their water from the food they eat. Fig 32 Fig 31 In Central Australia. do not drink. but often no rain falls for years. Most animals that live in desert ecosystems are active at night (nocturnal) and sleep in burrows or in caves during the day to avoid the heat. while the night-time temperatures can fall well below 0°C. Most stomates are located on the underside of the leaf. the average annual rainfall is less than 200 mm.2 68 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Desert฀ecosystems Deserts are very harsh for living things. Some reptiles can change their skin colour to regulate their body temperature. Suggest why this happens. Desert plants have to control their water loss very carefully. How would you classify this type of adaptation? Why is it important for the survival of these animals? 3 List the ways in which animals lose water. 4 The leaves of some desert plants curl into a tube during the hottest part of the day. Then suggest how animals that live in the desert could limit their water loss. These plants have relatively few stomates on their leaves. The two main factors that affect the survival of organisms here are the lack of water and the extreme temperatures. The tough. The daytime temperatures can sometimes be as high as 45°C. narrow leaves with a relatively thick waxy coating on them. away from the direct sunlight.

6 List the biological and physical factors that may affect the survival of a fish in a lake. The cells in the stem contain less chlorophyll than the cells in most other plants. the tropical fish require at least 7 mg/L dissolved oxygen. c The buoyancy effect of water supports organisms without a skeleton. From the list below. What could she do to successfully keep these fish? 9 Cacti grow in desert ecosystems. 2 Why don’t water plants grow well in creeks and lakes that contain muddy water? 3 An animal was found in a very fast-flowing stream. predators and dissolved oxygen are physical factors in aquatic environments. The green part is the stem.฀shiny฀body 4 Plants that live fully immersed in water do not have any stomates on their leaves. Suggest a reason for this. How much oxygen can dissolve in the water now? f Kate tested her aquarium water and found the dissolved oxygen to be 5 mg/L at 25°C. 5 The density of sea water is 1. •฀ a฀streamlined฀body •฀ long.฀ball-like฀body฀shape •฀ a฀smooth. However. It also stores water for the plant. d Some cacti have very deep spreading roots. the amount of dissolved gases increases. which contains a small number of stomates. 269 . such as jellyfish.฀muscular฀legs •฀ large฀gills฀to฀absorb฀the฀small฀amount฀of฀ dissolved oxygen •฀ hooks฀on฀the฀ends฀of฀its฀legs •฀ a฀round. 8 Use the oxygen solubility graph on page 262 to answer the following questions a What does the word solubility mean? b What is the solute and what is the solvent? c How much oxygen can dissolve in 1 L of water at 15°C? d Kate has an aquarium with 10 L of water in it at 10°C. c Suggest why cacti are slow growing. a What is the purpose of the waxy coating? b Use the information above to explain how cacti are well adapted to desert life. e As the temperature of water increases. How much oxygen can this volume of water hold? e Kate turned on an aquarium heater and the water reached 30°C. How are these different factors from those that affect the survival of a mouse in a wheat field? 7 Suggest why reptiles such as lizards and snakes are generally better adapted to living in arid environments than frogs. choose the adaptations it might have. a Organisms that live in the ocean or in rivers are called aquatic organisms. Suggest reasons for this adaptation. and has a very thick. d Most of the water lost from a plant occurs by evaporation of water from the cuticle.฀thin฀legs •฀ a฀lattened฀body฀shape •฀ large฀head฀and฀eyes •฀ short. Explain why it is easier to float in sea water than in fresh water.Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems Check! 1 Some of the following statements are false.03 g/cm3. Select the false ones and rewrite them to make them correct. b Temperature. The prickles are modified leaves and contain no stomates. They are very slow-growing plants. waxy cuticle.

Joe฀duplicated฀the฀set-up฀but฀this฀time฀tied฀a฀ plastic฀bag฀around฀the฀plant. Initial mass (g) Final mass (g) without bag 220 204 with bag 230 230 Plant a฀ Suggest฀why฀there฀was฀a฀difference฀in฀the฀ initial฀masses฀of฀the฀two฀plants.฀He฀also฀ observed฀drops฀of฀water฀inside฀the฀plastic฀bag฀ at the end of the experiment.฀He฀then฀put฀the฀setup on a balance.฀ If฀these฀animals฀are฀placed฀in฀a฀bucket฀of฀sea฀ water฀and฀left฀in฀the฀sun. 5฀ Use฀the฀particle฀theory฀to฀try฀to฀explain฀ why฀gases฀dissolve฀better฀in฀water฀at฀lower฀ temperatures. 4฀ Most฀reptiles฀and฀amphibians฀(frogs฀and฀toads)฀ hide฀in฀burrows฀during฀winter.฀He฀left฀both฀plants฀ in the sun for 4 hours.4 2 4 drops of water plant 5 mL oil 200 mL water 5 mL oil 200 mL water without bag with bag ฀ The฀table฀below฀shows฀Joe’s฀results. f฀ Would฀Joe’s฀results฀be฀different฀with฀different฀ weather฀conditions฀(eg฀hot฀and฀windy฀instead฀ of฀cool฀and฀calm)? 3฀ The฀graph฀below฀shows฀how฀the฀amount฀of฀ dissolved฀oxygen฀in฀a฀lake฀in฀summer฀changes฀ with฀the฀depth฀of฀water.฀they฀usually฀die฀after฀a฀ few฀hours.2 0.฀Suggest฀why฀ish.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW challenge 1฀ Small฀children฀often฀collect฀ish฀and฀other฀ aquatic฀animals฀from฀rock฀pools฀at฀the฀beach. .฀ crayish฀and฀other฀animals฀that฀live฀in฀water฀do฀ not do this. Dissolved oxygen (mg/L) 0. 2฀ In฀an฀experiment. Try doing the Chapter 11 crossword on the CD. b What฀concentration฀of฀dissolved฀oxygen฀is฀ found฀at฀a฀depth฀of฀3฀m? c฀ Between฀which฀depths฀is฀there฀a฀rapid฀ change฀in฀the฀amount฀of฀dissolved฀oxygen฀in฀ the฀water? d Suggest reasons for the greater concentration of฀dissolved฀oxygen฀in฀the฀water฀above฀a฀ depth of 8 m.1 0. c฀ Why฀did฀Joe฀use฀two฀plants?฀ 6 Depth (m) 2 70 8 10 12 14 16 a฀ Write฀a฀generalisation฀linking฀the฀dissolved฀ oxygen฀and฀the฀depth฀of฀water.฀Suggest฀a฀reason฀for฀this.฀Joe฀put฀a฀plant฀in฀200฀mL฀of฀ water฀in฀a฀glass฀and฀added฀5฀mL฀of฀oil฀to฀the฀ water฀to฀stop฀evaporation. d฀ How฀do฀you฀account฀for฀his฀results? e฀ Would฀adding฀a฀third฀glass฀with฀no฀plant฀฀ improve฀his฀experiment?฀Explain.3 0. b฀ Account฀for฀the฀difference฀between฀the฀inal฀ and฀initial฀masses฀of฀the฀plant฀without฀the฀ bag.

Aborigines. whose ancestors arrived about 50 000 years ago. use the ideas to write a report about one of the natural or humancaused disasters and how it affects the paricular ecosystem. will you present your report as an essay-type report. What to do • • • • • Work in a small group. You can include other information as well. Document your report with the source of your information—website addresses. He was referring to the numerous bushfires he could see from his ship. What changes occur to the populations of organisms in an ecosystem as a result of a bushfire? What emergency services are involved in fighting bushfires? What methods are used to reduce the risk of bushfires and to reduce the damage caus ed by them? 271 . book titles and authors. Why does this occur? The Aboriginal method of burning actu ally protected their environment rather than destroying it. However. a poster and oral presentation. a PowerPoint presentation. Before humans came to this land. You are not limited by the ideas under each of the topics or the order in which they appear.Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems Problems฀in฀ecosystems When Captain James Cook sailed along the east coast of Australia in 1770. droughts and floods or large toxic chemical spills have a huge impact on the organisms in ecosystems. it seems that fires. You can use information from past or recent disasters as well as models or predictions in your report. This in turn changed the relationships of the organisms in certain ecosystems. Your task—impacts on ecosystems For each of the three topics. Bushfires How do bushfires start naturally? What weather conditions cause bushfires? Some bushfires are called ‘low-heat fire s’ while others are very intense and destruc tive. occurred only very occasionally. titles of newspaper articles and dates etc. That is. he wrote in his journal that this land was a ‘continent of smoke’. a video presentation etc. which were started by lightning strikes. Major changes like bushfires. a newspaper-type article. Choose a topic and decide what you are going to write about and how you are going to structure your report. Explain what this stateme nt means. used fire for their survival and changed the natural pattern and timing of fires.

crops and livestock. Find out whe re in Australia oil is drillled and where it is transported to. Why do they occur? What measures are taken to avo id fish kills in Australian waterways and seas? .2 72 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW Droughts and floods How is a drought defined? Are some areas in Australia more likely to experience droughts than others? Why does this happen? What is the El Niño effect? Does it affect the weather in all parts of Australia? Can it be predicted? What changes occur to the populations lt of organisms in an ecosystem as a resu of a drought and flood? ly Are some areas of Australia more like Why rs? to experience floods than othe does this happen? Floods cause huge losses of property. However there are benefits to the environment as a result of flooding. What methods are used to clean up oil spills? Heavy metals are very toxic to most organisms. Give an example of a major oil spill and document the damage it caused to the ecosystem. What are heavy metals? Give examples of industrial processes that produce them. How do heavy metals get into natural ecosystems? The photo shows a fish kill. What are these benefits? Chemical spills Damage to ecosystems from oil spills can occur when oil is transported from the oil fields to the refineries.

) A the number of predators in the area B the availability of light C the density of trees in the area D the amounts of nutrients in the soil 4 Which one of these statements is correct? A The solubility of gases increases as the temperature of the water increases. humidity and the availability of air and water. _____. E Dolphins have a streamlined shape. D An object with a density greater than that of water will float. C Female dolphins give birth to live young and produce milk on which to feed them. water temperature. B The shape of a bird’s beak would be classed as a structural adaptation. light. 3 Which of the following would you class as a physical factor in an ecosystem? (There may be more than one answer. 273 .Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems Copy and complete these statements to make a summary of this chapter. _____ or behavioural. C Waves and currents usually decrease the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. stomates biological factors buoyancy adaptation 2 Which of the following would you class as a functional adaptation? (There may be more than one answer. REVIEW 1 For each of the words below. B Dolphins sometimes follow ships.) A Dolphins have a layer of fat under their skin. The missing words are on the right. _____ is a process by which those organisms with characteristics best suited to their environment survive and reproduce. write a sentence to show that you understand its meaning. They can be classified as structural. 7 To live successfully on land organisms must obtain _____ from the air. currents or waves. D A dolphin is able to make many sounds with its voice box. and have ways of obtaining water and avoiding _____. and the _____ effect of water. 2 The survival of an organism depends on _____ factors as well as 4 ecosystem drying out functional physical or non-living factors. 6 The main environmental factors that affect organisms which live in water are the amount of _____. 3 biological _____ are characteristics that help an organism survive in its particular living place. light natural selection oxygen physical temperature 5 The _____ factors in an ecosystem include dissolved gases. adaptations 1 An _____ is the system of feeding relationships between the living buoyancy things and their interactions with the non-living things.

disks (20 of each colour) were scattered over an area 3 m by 3 m. The graph below shows her results. a Why do land animals have to have some sort of skeleton whereas aquatic animals can survive without one? b Why does an oil spill kill aquatic animals and plants? c Why is natural selection often called ‘survival of the fittest’? d How do land animals avoid losing water from their bodies? 10 Kerrie used an oxygen meter to measure the changes in the dissolved oxygen in her aquarium at home. a When was the aerator switched off? Explain your answer. 6 5 4 3 2 1 12 noon 6 pm 12 midnight 6 am 12 noon Time (hours) Check your answers on pages 283–284. the aerator was accidentally switched off for 8 hours. fish and snails. and had an aerator (bubbler) fitted to it. Suggest adaptations it might have to help it survive in this environment. Dissolved oxygen (mg/L) 7 The water-holding burrowing frog lives in the desert regions of central Australia. narrow leaves C A thick cuticle on the leaves D Stomates that open during the middle of the day E A waxy coating over the surface of the leaves 6 In an experiment similar to the one on colour adaptation. The ‘predators’ found as many as they could in 10 seconds and the results were tabled. However. 9 Read each of the following questions and then answer them as fully as you can.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 2 74 REVIEW 5 Plants can control water loss in a number of ways. Which of the following would help a plant reduce water loss? (There may be more than one answer. c Explain how this experiment can be used as a model for natural selection. It was kept at 25°C. Colour of disk blue green yellow red Number found 20 17 4 8 a Draw a bar graph of the results.) A A large number of stomates on both surfaces of the leaves B Small. 8 How would you explain to a class of young science students what the term buoyancy means? Describe any demonstrations you would use in your explanation. b Infer the type of surroundings over which the disks were scattered. The aquarium was next to a window and contained many water plants. b What was the highest concentration of dissolved oxygen in the aquarium? What was the lowest? c Why was there a slight fall in the dissolved oxygen after 6 pm? d Predict the shape of the graph if no aerator had been used in the aquarium. during her experiment. .

cattle. and its basin covers 1 000 000 square kilometres of Queensland. This has caused the underground water to rise. cotton. bringing salt to the surface and causing a major salinity problem. and climate change could reduce the flow in the river even further.Chapter฀11฀ Living฀systems US AREA C O F D E B I R C PRES QUEENSLAND Murray River crisis Bourke Broken Hill NEW SOUTH WALES pipeline Morgan M ur r n hla La c Mildura Murrumb idge ve Ri Adelaide ivid i ng ng rl i Da Moree r at D SOUTH AUSTRALIA e Riv Ran ge Brisbane ay r The Murray is Australia’s longest river. An Aboriginal legend says its wandering course was formed by a giant cod thrashing as it tried to escape a hunter’s spear. Most of its water comes from the Great Dividing Range in the east. and it then wanders across the western plains. 40% of the natural vegetation has been cleared. Over the last 200 years. rice. dairy products. such as wheat and pasture for livestock. wine. if rainfall doesn’t increase? Australia is suffering a long-lasting drought. Once 25 000 gigalitres flowed down the river each year. In 1991 there was an outbreak of toxic blue-green algae along 1000 km of the Darling River. This is a major problem for the city of Adelaide. The water used to irrigate these farms is taken from the river. The Federal and State governments are working together to try to solve the problem. reaching the ocean in South Australia. Obviously the Murray River needs more water. This means there is not enough water in places. and too much pollution is being put back in. Perhaps farmers could switch to crops that use less water. Toowoomba Dubbo Gre Learning focus: Why different groups and cultures may have different views in relation to scientific issues 275 er Riv Sydney Griffith eR ive r Wagga Wagga Canberra Shepparton VICTORIA Melbourne Snowy Mountains Scheme One obvious solution is to reduce the amounts of water that farmers are allowed to use for irrigation. wheat. as up to 85% of water is now lost due to evaporation and leaks. Also. large amounts of water could be saved by improved irrigation systems. Questions 1 How would the following groups differ in their views on what should be done about the Murray? • farmers in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area • people living in Adelaide • the Federal and State governments • the Australian Conservation Council • people living in Sydney 2 The Wiradjuri Aboriginal people who live along the river say.’ Explain what you think this means. ‘Look after the land and rivers. which draws its water from the Murray. Victoria and South Australia. oil-seed. perhaps the worst in 1000 years. and shallowrooted crops. but today the flow is less than 3000 gigalitres! Dams and reservoirs have been built to control the flow of water. and the land and rivers will look after you. New South Wales. Try to correctly use the word sustainable in your answer. This has affected plants such as the River Red Gums (page 259) and animals such as the Murray Cod—Australia’s largest freshwater fish. and too much in other places. Forty per cent of Australia’s farms are in the Murray–Darling basin and they produce a third of Australia’s agricultural production—wool. It has even been suggested that water could be piped from high-rainfall areas into the Murray–Darling. fruit and vegetables. . Too much water is being taken out of the Murray River. but where will it come from. have been planted. sheep.

but with another pen of the same type. because A doesn’t dissolve very well in petrol. go back to the chapter. a suspension and possibibly a colloid as well. Your answers may be slightly different from the answers given here. b A concentrated solution contains more solute than a dilute solution (see page 7). If they get the same pattern of colours as in the ransom note. 9 The ink in a felt pen is a mixture of several different colours. this is not a good method.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 2 76 Answers to Reviews the right-hand test tube. and read the relevant section again. The stem of the filter funnel should be touching the inside of the beaker. then the owner of this pen is probably guilty. 8 There are many possible sentences using these words. and the filtrate is the salt solution. For example: a Milk is a liquid-in-liquid colloid called an emulsion (see page 8). Different felt pens contain different ink mixtures. This causes the water vapour in the tube to condense back to liquid water. So fruit juice is a solution. 2 Filter the mixture as in Investigate 2 on pages 12–13. c The ice-cold water lowers the temperature inside the right-hand test tube. 6 a Distillation—see page 16 b Heating causes the water in the lefthand test tube to boil. The salt that was dissolved in the water is left behind in the left-hand test tube. Then they would test the ink from the felt pens of each of the three suspects. the police would test a sample of ink from the ransom note. 5 7 The fact that a sediment settles out on standing indicates that some of the fruit juice is in suspension. However some is also in solution since the liquid is coloured. (It is of course possible that the note was not written using this particular felt pen. If your answer does not agree with the answer given here. You can then separate them by filtration and evaporation. and this could be recovered by evaporation. And if you don't get a clear solution on settling then the fruit juice is a colloid (see page 8). a and b C—beaker To start with. which can be separated using paper chromatography. The salt dissolves but the dirt does not. Chapter 1 Mixing and separating 1 A 2 B—see page 7 3 D—see page 14 4 a Water—since it dissolves more of solid B than the other liquids do b Water—If you add water to the mixture of A and C. only A will dissolve. However. c A mixture of A and B could be separated using petrol. The residue on the filter paper is the dirt.) B—filter paper RESIDUE E—ring clamp D—stand A—filter funnel FILTRATE c The mixture should be poured from the beaker down a stirring rod—as shown in Fig 19 on page 12. check with your teacher. Some of A would dissolve. If in doubt. Equipment needed: • piece of ilter paper • ilter funnel • stand and ring clamp • wash bottle • glass stirring rod • 2 beakers . Water vapour travels along the tube and condenses to form pure water in Lab review 1 Add water to the mixture and stir.

4 a Steel is a metal and conducts electricity.0 g/cm3 c No—the density of the crown is less than 19. Compare the results.3 g/cm3 mass of crown = volume of crown = a Cut a piece of dirty cloth into equal-sized pieces. so you can predict that the whole candle will burn in 4 × 2 = 8 hours. 5 C (D is incorrect because the solubility increases with temperature at a uniform rate.30 am and between 12. You could modify the hypothesis as follows: Metals conduct electricity.30 pm and 1. they will float in mercury.3 g/cm3) will both sink in water. d You will measure the cleanness of the cloth. wash one piece of cloth in Sudso and the others in other types of washing powders for the same time. 3 C 4 There are several examples on page 58 but you have probably thought of others. 3 A—It is difficult to control how hard you hit (B) or throw (C) the balls. it is a generalisation rather than an inference. Using the same quantities of soap powder and water. but non-metals don’t conduct electricity. but most non-metals don’t. Evaporate the salt solution as in Part A of Investigate 3 on page 15. And because their densities are less than the density of mercury (14 g/cm3). 2 See the diagram at the bottom of this page. In other words. c You would not expect carbon (a non-metal) to conduct electricity. Equipment needed: • watch glass • matches • Bunsen burner • metal tongs • heatproof mat • boiling chips • gauze mat • tripod 3 Chapter 2 Science at work 1 B 2 D—One-quarter of the candle burns in 2 hours.30 pm c at the top of the high range d Most probably there were clouds around 12 noon that blocked some of the UVB. 5 Aluminium (density 2.3 g/cm3. b Metals conduct electricity. the graph is a straight line. 7 Chapter 3 What are things made of? 1 D—Because the statement says all matter. mass of pure gold a Density of pure gold = volume of pure gold 6 = b Density of crown solidification 1500 g 1000 cm3 = 15. Do the experiment in both hot and cold water.Answers฀to฀Reviews b The variables to control are: • how big and how dirty each piece of cloth is • amount of washing powder you use • volume of water you use • temperature of water • method of washing the cloth • how long you wash the cloth c You are purposely changing the type of washing powder.7 g/cm3) and lead (density 11. therefore it is not pure gold. 1930 g 1000 cm3 liquid condensation gas 277 .) 6 a about 1 pm b about 11. evaporation melting solid = 19.

3 a chloroplast b cytoplasm c d e f nucleus cell membrane cell wall vacuoles 4 A ×10 objective and a ×4 eyepiece lens gives a total magnifying power of ×40. These tissues contain specialised cells which work together to digest food. which is renewable. a processed material made from wood. However. 10 a The pine seed has a wing that allows it to be carried in the wind. Chapter 4 Building blocks of life 1 C—All cells have a nucleus. 8 9 a A particles vibrating or moving very slowly D particles very close together. 5 Kate’s list should be: 1 eyepiece lens 2 body tube 3 focusing knob 4 objective lens 5 stage 6 stage clips 7 light 6 a Firstly. and are spread this way. On the other hand. It is therefore non-renewable. and (2) the young tadpoles are not cared for by the adult frog. An object 0. 7 A unicellular organism consists of a single cell which contains all the structures necessary to live an independent life. These are more expensive but can also be reused. 2 C—Cells have many and varied shapes. These are cheap but are difficult to dispose of and at present cannot be recycled. As a result the gas condenses to a liquid. b When a gas is cooled its particles lose energy and don’t move as quickly. Bags could also be made from cotton canvas. Hence gases have lower densities than liquids or solids. The cells of Tissue B could form a flat surface like paving stones. However. which means that many eggs may not be fertilised. 9 Tissue A could be found in the lining of the gut where its function would be to produce mucus that is slippery and allows the food to move smoothly through the gut. so many young may be eaten by other animals. paper bags may not be as strong as plastic ones. The seeds pass through the gut of the animal and out in its droppings. and secondly sperm from the male may not reach the eggs to fertilise them. cytoplasm and organelles. and this tissue could be found in the skin. the green shopping bags made of polypropylene can be reused many times.05 mm in diameter would appear to be 40 × 0. a multicellular organism contains many different types of cells which work together for the survival of the organism. almost touching G very strong bonds between particles b C particles moving freely and rapidly F wide spaces between particles I very weak bonds between particles c B particles moving around freely but slowly E particles fairly close together H particles held together to some extent but free to move around d D particles very close together. edible fruit that is eaten by animals.05 = 2 mm in diameter. . almost touching G very strong bonds between particles f A a The particles in gases are much more spread out than the particles in liquids or solids. eg gland tissue.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 2 78 7 Your answer should be something like this: Shopping bags are normally made of LPDE plastic. 8 The stomach is an organ because it is made up of many different types of tissues. Plastic is a synthetic material made from coal. b The apple has a sweet. b Fewer frogs’ eggs reach adulthood than birds because (1) the frogs’ eggs are fertilised externally. almost touching e D particles very close together. There are fewer particles packed into each cubic centimetre. muscle tissue and connective tissue. the eggs may be eaten by other animals. The bags could be made from paper. They become closer together and attract each other more strongly.

e The paw paw has edible flesh around its seeds. hair or feathers of animals. According to the law of conservation of energy. you could drop them from the same height onto the same surface and measure how high they bounce. 2 Setting up a microscope—see the Skillbuilder on page 80. It is used as a fuel and for making wallboard etc. bagasse and other renewables) d Bagasse is the crushed. To make the test completely fair. Chapter 6 Investigating heat KINETIC HEAT kinetic energy of spinning turbine sound 1 D 2 C—see page 139 279 .1% b Coal. The animal may pick off the burr some distance from the plant.8% (hydro-electricity + wood. the higher it bounces. The seeds are spread in animal droppings in the same way as apple seeds.7% Microscope licence test 1 Making a wet-mount slide—see the Activity on page 81. energy cannot be made—you can only change it from one form to another. 9 a wood. To compare different balls. bagasse and other renewables 3. oil and natural gas c 4.Answers฀to฀Reviews c The eucalypt has very small. 5 a B b C 6 a The other 95 joules of energy are wasted as heat energy. 3 B 4 A—Heat energy is transferred from the hot tea to the cup. 8 People often say that electrical energy is made in power stations. d The burr seed has spikes which stick to the fur. In a power station you are converting the chemical energy in coal or the kinetic energy of falling water into electrical energy. natural gas 19.8% oil 33. the balls would need to be the same mass and size. light seeds which fall out of the ‘gumnut’ and are carried away by the wind. juiceless remains of sugar cane left after extracting the sugar. 10 gravitational potential energy of water in dam kinetic energy of water in pipe = 5 joules × 100 100 joules = 5% 7 gravitational potential electrical energy in electrical generator 11 The more efficiently a ball changes its kinetic energy into elastic potential energy (then back to kinetic energy). This is why the bulb becomes so hot.8% Chapter 5 Energy in our lives 1 hydro-electricity 1. energy × 100 b efficiency = input energy coal 41.6% D 2 C—This is against the law of conservation of energy (page 117). but this is not scientifically correct.

but air is a poor conductor of heat. insulation 11 You can base your experiment on Investigate 15 on page 138. the more radiation it emits f true g true 5 According to the particle theory (page 129) the particles in a hot object move more rapidly than the particles in a cooler object. 3 Fill both cans with warm water at the same temperature. heat rises through the air by convection. 10 Heat flows from warm places to cold places. So a bucket of water has more heat energy than a teaspoon of water at the same temperature. When your hand is beside the flame. It is therefore better to say ‘to keep the warm in’ rather than ‘to keep the cold out’. cold warm convection a Heat travels from the heating element to the sandwich by radiation. c Same volume of water in each cup Identical cups Same initial water temperature Identical thermometers d Heat was transferred to the cups by radiation from the Sun. 1 Make two model sheep. 6 The amount of heat in an object depends on its mass. some heat travels to your hand by conduction. and put a thermometer in each. 2 Wet the wool on one of the cans. The candle is not hot enough to produce a lot of radiation. 8 0 10 20 30 Time 40 50 60 b The cup of water in the Sun warms up more rapidly than the cup of water in the shade. e If you painted the cup black it would absorb more radiation. . b Heat cannot travel downwards by convection. eg by wrapping wool around soft drink cans. 7 When your hand is above the candle. 4 Record the temperature in each can every minute for 15 minutes. as it warmed up it would probably lose heat more rapidly than an ordinary styrofoam cup. However. its temperature and what it is made of. So the insulation is to slow down the movement of heat from warm to cold. and conduction through the air would be very slow because air is a poor conductor.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 2 80 3 9 a Warming of a cup of water 25 x Temperature (ϒC) x SUN 20 x x SHADE x x 15 4 a true b false—conduction is fast in conductors (or slow in insulators) c true d false—the Sun transfers heat energy to the Earth by the process of radiation e false—the hotter an object is.

hydrogen and oxygen. 5 Plot the results on a graph and decide which ‘sheep’ cools more rapidly. with a small rocky core. Also it is more like the inner rocky planets than the outer gas planets. c The thickest layer is the liquid hydrogen layer which is 41 000 km thick. (A represents a mixture of elements and compounds. then a white dwarf. 4 A 5 D—see page 165 6 Jupiter and Saturn are gas planets and have no known solid surface on which a spacecraft could land. mercury and chlorine. 7 a As the distance from the sun increases. making its orbital path longer. A compound is a substance containing two or more elements combined together. eg the substances copper. b B—Jupiter’s orbital speed is slower than that of Venus. 10 a Jupiter is composed mainly of hydrogen in gas and liquid states. a planet’s orbital speed decreases. b Pluto is much smaller than any of the outer planets and its orbit is tilted (see Fig 7 on page 154). so the acid contains only hydrogen and chlorine. The ratios of nitrogen to oxygen are: A NO 1:1 B N2O 2:1 C NO2 1:2 D N2O2 2:2 or 1:1 6 B represents an element—atoms of one type only. This should give you some idea of whether sheep get colder when it is raining. 1 B—Only elements. d The temperature decreases as the distance from the centre increases.Answers฀to฀Reviews b Jupiter’s solid core is estimated to be 12 800 km in diameter (6400 km × 2). It is also further from the sun. but they can combine to form many thousands of different compounds. The inner planets have rocky surfaces and are relatively small. 281 . 4 C—Sugar is a compound of carbon. 5 C—Only NO2 has nitrogen and oxygen in the ratio 1:2.) 7 Four (three hydrogen and one nitrogen)— although there are only two different types of atoms. 10 Your answer should be something like this: Elements and compounds are substances but atoms and molecules are invisible particles. Our sun is only a medium-sized star and will end its life as a red giant. has a solid surface. 2 C 3 A—There are only 90 elements found naturally. hot stars. Mercury. Chapter 8 Building blocks of matter dry wool wet wool Chapter 7 Exploring space 1 C—see page 152 2 B 3 a The inner planets and the outer planets. 8 B—see pages 165 and 166 9 Supernovas occur to end the lives of giant. on the other hand. A molecule is two or more atoms joined together. The zinc reacted with the acid. It also contains some water and ammonia. C represents a mixture of elements and D represents a compound. can be seen without a microscope. chlorine and zinc are present. 8 a 1 and 4 b 2 and 4 c 4—because it gives a yellow flame and produces a purple gas 9 B—The tests show that the elements hydrogen. The outer planets are all relatively large and consist of gases.

Gaseous wastes are removed by the lungs and breathed out through the trachea. and the time each was left. torch batteries are usually put in with the + terminal nearest the bulb. 5 a The bulbs in circuit B will glow only half as brightly as the bulb in circuit A. It is called an experimental control. 3 B—see page 203 4 D 5 a b c d e 6 Solid wastes (faeces) pass out of the gut through the anus. c Beaker 1 was used as a comparison. The second compound ●■●฀will give twice as much ●฀as ■. d The volume of water in each beaker. 2 a If a material loses electrons it becomes positively charged. and to check that glucose did not come from other Chapter 10 Electricity 1 a Rods with the same charge repel each other. Because of this. 11 The electric current causes the water to decompose into the elements hydrogen and oxygen (see page 193). so it stops at night. This is because the three bulbs are in parallel. This is because the electric current has to flow through two bulbs instead of one. a lighted match causes them to combine again. If she does this. lighted match 12 The scientist needs to use chemical reactions to break the compounds into their elements. the volume of starch solution in each piece of tubing. the first compound ●■฀will give her equal amounts of ●฀and ■. b The blood in Chamber 1 would have less oxygen since the blood has come from the body and is being pumped to the lungs to receive more oxygen. b If a material gains electrons it becomes negatively charged. and finally is pumped from chamber 4 to the body in vessel D. it would have thicker walls. and each bulb glows as brightly as if it were the only bulb in the circuit. Conductors Insulators copper steel salt water plastic air wood 4 a A (Set-up D may or may not work. . b Rods with opposite charges attract each other. In both cases a chemical reaction occurs. c The blood flows through vessel A into chamber 1. Chapter 9 Food for life 1 C 2 D—Photosynthesis needs the energy from sunlight. as in Question 11. It is pumped from chamber 2 to the lungs in vessel B. Liquid wastes are removed by the kidneys through the bladder. electric current 8 When hydrogen and oxygen are mixed. b The aim of the experiment was to test whether glucose is produced when saliva and starch are mixed together.ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 2 82 sources such as the cellophane bag. The glucose passed through the cellophane tubing and into the water in beaker 2.) b The batteries are connected in series. Therefore. then into chamber 2. b The bulb in circuit C will glow as brightly as the bulb in circuit A.) 7 a The glucose came from the breakdown of starch by the enzyme in saliva. (See pages 219 and 220. depending on whether the battery terminal touches the spring at the bottom. 3 3—the small intestine (see page 209) 1—enzymes start digesting starch in the mouth 2—the stomach 1—the mouth 4—the large intestine a Vessel B contains blood which is being pumped away from the heart. It then returns from the lungs to chamber 3 in vessel C.

• The biological factors in an ecosystem are all the living things that interact with an organism—its food. 4 B 5 B. Lab review The equipment needed is almost the same for both circuits: • 1. When the switch is open (off).) 2 C and D—Functional adaptations are those that refer to the functioning or working of an organism’s body. but not through bulb C. Alternatively you could add a second battery to give the current more ‘push’. The surroundings might have been a yellow-red coloured sand or soil.5 volt battery and holder • 3 bulbs and holders • switch • connecting wires (6 for the left-hand one. 7 for the right) Disks฀found฀on฀different฀surfaces Number found 8 7 As its name suggests.) 283 . the frog stores water in its body and loses very little. When you close the switch. See page 254. • An adaptation is a characteristic which enables an organism to survive in its habitat. current flows in the bottom half of the circuit. and the current follows the path of least resistance. predators. as shown. When you touch something which conducts electricity (eg a metal door knob). See page 263. c You would need to arrange the two bulbs in parallel. Chapter 11 Living systems 1 • The leaves of plants have tiny openings called stomates on their surfaces which allow gases to enter and leave the leaf. the eggs would hatch and the tadpoles would mature quickly before the water dried up. (Your answer may be different from this. 6 a The battery. On this particular surface. virtually all the current flows through the top half of the circuit. c The four different coloured disks represent the variations in a population. the yellow and red disks have a better chance of survival. C and E—see pages 266 and 268. This is because the switch has a much lower resistance than the bulb. since fewer of them were found than blue and green. Over time the ‘predators’ will reduce the blue and green disks and the population will consist mainly of red and yellow disks. See page 255. 3 B and D—All the others involve organisms. bulb and switch need to be in parallel. 7 As your shoes rub on the nylon carpet. See page 266. lighting the bulb. 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Blue Green Yellow Red b The yellow and red disks were similar in colour to the surroundings. 6 C (Current flows only in the left-hand part of the circuit—through bulbs A and B. static electricity builds up on your body. If you are in doubt ask your teacher. It would also burrow into the soil to avoid the heat of the day and the cold of the night. The frog would probably lay eggs in pools after rain. competitors and disease organisms.Answers฀to฀Reviews • Buoyancy is the upwards force when objects are placed in water. an electric current flows across your skin and you feel a slight electric shock. Hence the light goes off when the switch is closed.

c It became dark after 6 pm.1 mg/L. b Oil floats on water so a spill will cover the surface of the water. showing the rock doesn’t weigh as much in water. d To reduce water loss. d 6 Dissolved oxygen 2 84 with aerator 5 4 3 2 without aerator 1 12 noon 6 pm 12 midnight Time 6 am 12 noon .ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW 8 Buoyancy is why you seem to float in water. c Natural selection is called ‘survival of the fittest’ because only those organisms that have adaptations suited to their environment survive. thus reducing the dissolved oxygen.6 mg/L. land animals have a tough waterproof skin or covering. You could suspend a rock from a spring balance and slowly lower it into a bucket of water. 9 a Aquatic animals have the buoyancy effect of water to support their weight in water. Oil is also poisonous to living things. since the amount of dissolved oxygen decreased during this time. so photosynthesis in the water plants stopped. whereas land animals need strong skeletons to support their weight on land. stopping oxygen from dissolving in it. and organs such as lungs with moist surfaces inside their bodies. They are said to be the ‘fittest’ and they produce offspring with the same adaptations. b The highest concentration was 5. The water seems to push up on your body. The lowest concentration was 2. 10 a Between 2 am and 10 am. The reading on the balance will decrease.

236 conservation of energy: this law says that energy cannot be made or destroyed—it can only be changed from one form to another. the coloured substances in ink can be separated using filter paper. for example. carbohydrates include sugars and starches. 61 chemical bonds: attractive forces between atoms. condensation is the opposite of evaporation. 242 colloid (COL-oid): a mixture which has properties in between a solution and a suspension. 187 concentrated (CON-cen-TRAY-ted): describes a solution containing a large amount of solute. 89 cell membrane: the thin covering surrounding a cell which controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell. 217 carbohydrates: a food type that supplies energy for the body. 203 cell division: the process in which a cell divides to make two new cells. 165 compound: a pure substance that contains atoms of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio. For some words the pronunciation is given. compared with other solutions. 157 atoms: particles too small to see. for example H2O. 201 cell wall: the tough outside layer of a plant cell. 255 alveoli (AL-vee-OH-lee): minute air sacs in the lungs which allow the gases to pass into and out of the blood capillaries. for example. eg from solid to liquid. 157 atmosphere: the layer of gas surrounding a planet. The number after each entry gives the page where you will find more information. bicycle (BY-sick-el). adaptations (ADD-ap-TAY-shuns): the characteristics of an organism which enable it to survive in its habitat. the particles in the colloid may be tiny bits of solid. it can be broken down into its elements by chemical reactions. that make up all matter. Cells are usually microscopic. 134 conductor: a substance that allows heat or electricity to move through it easily. 187 chloroplasts: small structures containing chlorophyll. 82 change of state: a change from one state of matter to another. 256 buoyancy: the upwards force on objects when they are placed in water. liquid droplets or gas bubbles. 109 chemical formula: a group of symbols and numbers indicating the elements in a compound and the ratio of these elements. they usually have long glowing tails. 82 chromatography (CROW-ma-TOG-ra-fee): a technique used to separate small amounts of soluble substances in a mixture. 79 cellular respiration: the process that occurs in cells in 285 which food is broken down in chemical reactions to release energy. 19 circuit diagram: a standard way of drawing an electric circuit. 117 . or the passing of an electric current through a solid or liquid. 263 capillaries: microscopic blood vessels with very thin walls that allow substances in the blood to pass to and from the body cells. 134. 217 asteroids: tiny chunks of metallic rock found orbiting the sun in a wide belt between Mars and Jupiter. 7 concentration: the amount of solute dissolved in a certain volume of solution. 14 conduction: the transfer of heat through a solid. found in the cytoplasm of plants and algae. 62 chemical energy: the form of energy stored in chemicals. 219 arteries: thick-walled blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. The syllable in capitals should be stressed. using symbols. 180 behavioural adaptation: the way an organism behaves in order to survive in its environment. 8 comets: small bodies that orbit the sun in elongated elliptical orbits. 82 cells: the building blocks of all living things. eg foods and fuels. 9 condense: to change from a vapour into a liquid.Glossary The words in this list occur in dark type throughout the book.

209 dilute (dye-LOOT): describes a solution containing a small amount of solute. coal and natural gas. 32 convection: the transfer of heat in a liquid (or gas) by the movement of particles. 28 faeces (FEE-seas): solid waste produced by the body and removed through the anus. 231 element: a pure substance made up of only one type of atom. leaving the solid in the container. 116 enzymes (EN-zimes): substances made by special cells in the body to speed up chemical reactions. for example. 70 digestion: the physical and chemical breakdown of food into soluble materials. 169 generalisation: a statement or conclusion. based on many observations. 89 filtering (filtration): a way of separating a solid from a liquid (or gas) using a filter. 104 energy chain: a series of steps in which energy changes form. there are many different forms of energy. except the one you are purposely changing in an experiment. 28 decanting: gently pouring off a liquid. so that they appear as one. 35 diffusion: the gradual mixing of substances caused by the random movement of particles. 14 excretion (ex-KREE-shun): the process of removing wastes from the body by the liver and kidneys. milk is an emulsion. 209 evaporate (e-VAP-or-ATE): to change state from liquid to gas. 108 electrical resistance: resistance to the flow of electric current through a conductor. evaporation can be used to separate a solute from a solvent. 220 experiment: a well thought out scientific test. eg sugar dissolves in water. 256 galaxy: an enormous number of stars grouped together and having one of three basic shapes—spiral. 235 electrons: tiny particles carrying a negative charge. 11 density: how much matter is packed into a measured volume. 7 dissolves: when two or more substances mix completely. compared with other solutions. that holds true in most cases: for example. 11 fossil fuels: fuels obtained from material that was once living. 14 ecosystem: a system of relationships among organisms and the way they interact with the non-living things in their habitat. values for this variable are graphed on the vertical axis. elliptical or irregular. 236 electric current: the flow of electricity around an electric circuit. 8 energy: the ability to do work. it cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions. then condensing the vapour in a separate container. 239 electric charge: results when an object gains electrons (negative charge) or loses electrons (positive charge). measure something and keep everything else the same. 55 dependent variable: a variable that changes in response to changes in the independent variable. most plants are green. eg chemical energy ➞ heat energy ➞ kinetic energy.2 86 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW control the variables: to keep all the variables the same. usually designed to test a hypothesis or prediction. 136 cytoplasm (SIGH-toe-plaz-um): jelly-like substance that fills most of a cell. 29 . 203 fertilisation (FUR-til-eyes-AY-shun): the process in which the nuclei of a sperm and ovum join to make a new living thing. it may be qualitative or quantitative. they surround the nucleus of an atom. 220 fair test: an experiment where you change something. oil. 32 fats: a food type that supplies a large amount of energy and which can be stored in the body. 182 emulsion (ee-MULL-shun): a colloid with tiny droplets of one liquid spread through a second liquid. 82 data: information gathered by observation. when less dense liquid rises and more dense liquid flows in to take its place. 5 distillation: a separation technique that involves evaporating a liquid. it is measured in grams per cubic centimetre. good conductors have low resistance. 118 functional adaptation: the way an organism’s body works in order to survive in its environment. experiment or library research. 228 electric circuit: a continuous path around which an electric current can flow. 254 elastic potential energy: the energy stored in compressed or stretched springs or other elastic devices.

107 properties: the characteristics or features something has. 128 hypothesis (high-POTH-e-sis): a generalisation that explains a set of observations or gives a possible answer to a question. 82 ovary (OH-var-ee): the female reproductive organ that makes ova (eggs). 203 puberty: the period of time (usually between the ages of 10 and 15) during which sexual development occurs.Glossary gravitational potential energy: the energy stored in a raised object. 104 kinetic (kin-ET-ic) energy: the energy that a moving object has. 231 nucleus (cell): the small rounded object that controls the activities of a living cell. it has a fixed composition and fixed properties. 219 matter: a term used to include anything that has mass and occupies space (has volume). kidney. 120 nuclear energy: the energy stored inside the nuclei of atoms. 243 particle theory: the theory that all matter is made up of particles (atoms or molecules) that are too small to see and that are always moving. 82 orbit: the path followed by an object as it revolves around another object. it is measured in joules. which contains mainly water. 69 potential energy: stored energy. 257 nebula (NEB-you-la): a huge expanding cloud made up of dust and gases formed after a massive star explodes (supernova). 172 non-renewable energy: energy resources that are not replaced as they are used. 89 parallel connection: a method of connecting electrical components (eg batteries and bulbs). dissolved food. 219 kilojoule (kJ): a unit in which energy is measured. 4 model: a way of representing something that cannot be observed directly because it is too small. 216 lungs: large organs which absorb oxygen from the air and remove carbon dioxide from the body. 109 nucleus (atom): the positively charged core of an atom. 33 independent variable: a variable that is purposely changed in an experiment. 91 meteorites: pieces of rock or metal from space that crash into planets or moons. 107 light-year: an astronomical unit that is used to measure the huge distances between stars. 169 liver: a large dark red organ that stores and distributes digested food materials. values for this variable are graphed on the horizontal axis. 35 insulator: a substance that does not allow heat or electricity to move through it easily. eg chloroplasts. 4 proteins: a food type that provides the materials for the growth and repair of cells. too large or too complicated. also called an egg. 137 287 . 62 molecule: a tiny particle containing two or more atoms in a fixed ratio and joined by chemical bonds. it contains protons and neutrons. 165 mixture: two or more pure substances mixed together but not chemically combined. 1 kilojoule = 1000 joules. eg heart. 134. 89 ovum (plural ova): the female sex cell. 236 joule (J): the unit for measuring work and energy. for example. 104 kidneys: organs that filter and remove waste materials from the blood. 53 menopause: the period in the life of a woman when the reproductive cycle stops operating. 180 natural selection: the process in which organisms that have favourable characteristics survive in a particular habitat. eg the orbit of the Earth as it revolves around the Sun. so that the current divides and part passes through each component. available to be converted to other forms of energy. minerals and waste products from cells. 62 plasma (blood): the pale yellow liquid part of blood. 86 organelles (OR-gan-els): small structures found in the cytoplasm of cells. it is the distance light travels in one year. a model of a molecule. and reproduce. 4 radiation: the transfer of heat from a hot object through space (or air) to a cold object. it can be tested by experimenting. for example. 153 organ: a collection of tissues that has a particular function in the body. 107 heat: a type of energy that can raise the temperature of things. 216 plasma (matter): fourth state of matter that exists at very high temperatures. coal and oil. 91 pure substance: matter containing only one substance (either an element or a compound). it consists of charged particles even further apart than the particles in a gas.

128 testes (TES-teez): the two male reproductive organs that make sperm. 216 reliable: results are reliable if they are the same when the experiment is repeated many times. for example. 182 temperature: how hot or cold something is. 131 sperm cell: the male sex cell. 7 solute: a substance that dissolves in a solvent to form a solution. 82 variable: any changeable factor that may influence the results of an experiment. the symbol for copper is Cu. doughnut-shaped cells in the blood that carry oxygen to other cells in the body. 171 suspension: a mixture in which tiny bits of solid (or liquid) are evenly spread through a liquid (or gas). but are not dissolved. salt water. 101 structural adaptation: a special body part that helps an organism survive in its environment. 89 states of matter: there are three states of matter—solid. for example. energy is needed to do work. minerals and food materials. it is measured in degrees Celsius. 256 supernova: an explosion of a massive star which scatters most of its matter into space. 215 : blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. 89 solubility: the amount of solute that will dissolve in a measured volume of solvent at a particular temperature. 32 veins: tubes in plants that carry water. 236 work: the result of a force moving an object a certain distance. 120 saturated: describes a solution that contains the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve at that temperature. 217 vitamins and minerals: substances needed in very small amounts by your body to keep it healthy. solar energy. The male sex cell is a sperm and the female is an ovum (egg). 104 . markings or letters that represent something else. 140 renewable energy: energy resources that can be replaced as they are used. 89 theory: what a hypothesis becomes after it has been supported again and again by experimental results. 86 trachea (track-EE-a): a cartilage-banded pipe that takes air from the throat to the lungs. for example. if allowed to stand. 5 specific heat capacity: the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius. the suspended matter slowly settles out. 5 solvent: a substance that can dissolve other substances. 203 voltage: the electrical ‘push’ causing current to flow in an electric circuit. liquid and gas. so that the current passes through one then the other. 7 series connection: a method of connecting electrical components (eg batteries and bulbs). 62 tissue: a group of similar cells organised to do a particular job in the body. 152 vacuole (VAK-you-ole): a liquid-filled space found mainly in plant cells which is used to store water and dissolved food. 5 solution: a liquid (or solid) containing one or more solutes dissolved in a solvent. a substance can exist in any of these three states. 5 symbols: signs. 53 stem cells: unspecialised cells that can develop into any one of many different types of cells in the body. 219 universe: space and everything in it. eg muscle tissue. 242 sex cell: a special cell for reproduction.2 88 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW red blood cells: small red-coloured.

39. 145 decanting 11. 198 data 28 datalogger use 66. 13 Democritus 62. 65 conducting plastics 251 conducting vessels (plants) 215–216 conduction (heat) 134 conductors electrical 237–238 heat 134–135 conservation of energy (law of) 117 control (experimental) 140. 9 conclusion 29 condensation 14. 138. 245 amylases 210 Andromeda galaxy 169 Archimedes 56 Aristotle 152 arteries 217 asexual reproduction 87. 164 atmospheres (planets) 157 atomic theory 76. George 44 brainstorming 103 bumping (in test tubes) 15 Bunsen burner (safe use) 15 buoyancy 263. 71 dissolving time (effect of temperature) 37 distillation 14. John 76. 16 DNA 189 doing a project 43 drawing graphs 35–36. 202 measuring it 104 . 65–66 bonds (chemical) 62 Bornemissza. 76 density 55 measuring it 56–57 dependent variable 35 desert ecosystem 268 diamond 185 diffusion 70 digestion 209 digestive system (gut) 209 discussion 29 disposable nappies 58 dissolved gases (in water) 262 dissolving 5. 180–181. 265 bushfires 258. 236. 64–65 chemical bonds 62 chemical energy 109. 205–206 controlling variables 32 convection 136 Copernicus. 117. 66 droughts and floods 272 dung beetles 44 Earth (place in universe) 152 ecosystems 254 coral reef 254 desert 268 problems in 271–272 River Red Gum 259 efficiency 117 eggs hens 90–91 other animals 93 elastic potential energy 108 electric charges 228–232 electric circuits 235–236. 231. 76. 201 chemical equations 194 chemical formulas 187 chemical reactions 191–194 chemical spills 272 chloroplasts 82.Index absolute zero 129 adaptations 255 in leaves 268 in rocky shore organisms 263 to fire 258 toothpick investigation 256–257 air pressure 72 alveoli 219 amino acids 210 ammeter (using) 237. 242–245 series and parallel 242–245 electric current 235–236 electrical energy 109 electrical resistance 239 electrical symbols 242 electrons 198. 212 centrifuge 11 changes of state 61. 201 in everyday activities 106. 181. 61. 94 asteroids 157. 207 289 cell division 89 cell membrane 82 cell nucleus 82 cell wall 82 cells 79–82 drawing them 83 observing them 84–8 stem cells 101 cellular respiration 201. 149 capillaries 217 in fish 218 carbohydrates 203. 191–192 concentration 7. 181 atoms 62. Marie 184 cytoplasm 82 Dalton. 246 behavioural adaptations 256 Benedict’s solution 204–205 biological factors 254–255 blood 216 blood system 217–218 boiling 61. Nicholas 152–153 corner discussion 101 Crab Nebula 171 crystallisation 15 CSIRO 44–47 Curie. 84 chromatography 19 circuit diagrams 242–243 coal (how formed) 119 colloids 8 Comet Tempel 1 166 comets 165–166 compounds 187. 231 inside them 198 bacteria 85 baking bread 83 balanced diet 206 ball and ring apparatus 71 banknotes 58 batteries 236 connecting them 243–244. 271 caloric theory 128. 238 elements 182–183 in human body 188 library research 200 emulsions 8 energy 103–104 forms of 107 from food 105.

205–206 experiments 28–30. 231 observing 28 oesophagus 209 oil (how formed) 119 operating theatres 233 orbits of planets 153 organelles 82 organs 86 outer planets 159 ova (egg cells) 89–90 ovaries 91 oxygen in water 262. 25 Gaspra (asteroid) 164 generalisation 28–29. Percival 154 lungs 219–220. 120 energy chains 116 energy changes 110–112 energy-efficient house 146 environments 253–254 enzymes 209–210. 40–41. 152 infra-red radiation 137 ink (separating colours) 19 inner planets 157 insulators electrical 237–239 heat 134–135. Benjamin 230 frog research 45 froth flotation 17 Fry. 145–146 heat transfer 117–118. 81 Mars 158 colonising 177 materials 57–58 matter 53 measurements (repeating them) 41 medicines from frogs 45 melting 61. William 154 Horsehead Nebula 172 hydro-electric power station 122–124 hydrogen test 193 hypothesis testing 33. 140 invention (electrical) 248 investigations 29 iron sulfide (making) 193–194 Joules. 168 kidneys 219–220 kilojoules 104. 202 kinetic energy 107 Kuiper Belt 160–161 lambs (twin) 45 large intestine 209 Lavoisier. 33 glucose test 205 GM foods 225 gold panning 17 graphing 35–36. 32 . 66 Mercury 157 meteorites 165 meteorologist 65 microscope (using) 81–81. 140. 129. 34 filters 12 firewalking 143–144 fireworks 186 flame tests 185 flocculation 18 flowers (parts of) 95 fluted filter paper 34 food technologist 36 food types 203 food processed 206 testing 204–205 why we need it 201 forensic science 25 formulas (chemical) 187 fossil fuels 119 Franklin. 64. 275 myxomatosis 46 natural selection 257–258 nebulas 172 Neptune (discovery) 154 nitrates 207 nuclear energy 109 nuclear power station inquiry 125 nucleus (atom) 198. 50 faeces 220 fair tests 32 fats 203. 39 gravitational potential energy 107 gravity separation 17 heat and temperature 128. 264–265 oxygen molecule 180 packing beads 58 paper bridges 30. 212 in detergents 210 experiment 211 epidermis 266 euglena 79 evaporation 14–15. 134 controlling it 139 heating a test tube 204 Herschel. 34 filtering 11–13. 61. Art 44 functional adaptations 256 galaxies 169–170 Galileo 153 gas chromatography 19. 266 MacNamara. 65 excretion 220 expansion and contraction 71–72 experimental control 140. 36 Milky Way galaxy 169–170 mixtures 4 models 62–63 molecular models 188 molecules 180 motormouse (making) 108 mousetrap 227 mousetrap racer 115 Murray River 259. Jean 46 magnetic separation 17 magnifying power 78. 18. 207 testing 205 fermentation 83 fertilisation 89 internal/external 93 filter paper (folding) 13. 149 independent variable 35 inferences from observations 152 inferring 28. 128 heat experiments 138. 216 living and non-living 188–189 living in water 262–263 living on land 266 Lowell. Antoine 149 leaf cells (observing) 86–87 light (in water) 262 light bulb 235–236 light energy 109 lightning 232 light-year 169 lipsases 210 lipstick 4 liver 209. 32–34.2 90 ScienceWorld฀8฀for฀NSW renewable and non-renewable 120 wasted 116 energy arrows 116. 130–131 heat energy 109. James 149 joules 104 Jupiter 159 moons of 153. 84–85 microwave oven 137 milk 8.

275 roller-coaster 107 Rumford. 50 variation (biological) 257 vegetative reproduction 97 veins in animals 217 in plants 215 Venus 158 villi 212 vitamins and minerals 203 voltage 236 volume by displacement 56–57 Voyager 161 wasted energy 116 wastes (from body) 219 water (decomposing it) 193–194 water formula 187 water loss 266 in plants 267 water molecule 180. 163–164 gravity on 163 plant cuttings 97 plasma (blood) 11. liquids and gases 52–54. 207 testing 205 Ptolemy 152 puberty 91 pulse (measuring) 218 pure substances 4. 35. 58 proteases 210 proteins 203. 94 in chickens 91 in dogs 91 in flowering plants 94 in humans 89–90 vegetative 97 resistance (electrical) 239 respiration 201 respiratory system 219 River Red Gum ecosystem 259. 61–63 sols (gels) 8 solubility 7 soluble and insoluble 5–7 solutions 5 separating them 14 solvents 5 solving problems 40–42 sound energy 109 space (library research) 162 space missions 161 space travel 173 sparklers 128 specific heat capacity 131 speed of light 169 sperm cells 89–90 stars (life cycle) 171 states of matter 53 static electricity 228–232 stem cell research 101 stomach 87. 194 water purification 18 WaterSorb 58 waterwheel (making) 115 wet-mount slide (making) 81 wetsuit 135 white dwarf 171 windmill (making) 115 yeast 83 291 . Dr Michael 45 universe 152. 93–94 asexual 89. Count 128. 33 projects (doing one) 43 properties 4. Dr Helen Newton 45 Tyler. 70–73 and heat 129 pendulum experiment 32 peppered moths 261 photocopiers 233 photosynthesis 118. 157 solids. 262–266 planets 152. 191 pyrotechnics 186 qualitative and quantitative 28 rabbit plagues 46 radiation 137 absorbing & emitting 138–139 radium 184 red giant 171 reliable results 140 reports (writing them) 29 reproduction 89. 216 plasma (matter) 69 plastics (conducting) 251 Pluto (discovery) 154. JJ 198 thunderstorms 231–232 timelines 155 tissues 86–87 trachea 219 transport in humans 216–217 in plants 215–216 Turner. 207 physical factors 254–256. 209 stomates 266–268 stopping distance (investigation) 41 structural adaptations 256 sublimation 61 Sun’s shadow 153 Sunsorb 58 superconductors 239 supernovas 171–172 Super-Sci 179 suspensions 5 separating them 11 switches (electrical) 235. 17 series and parallel 242–245 sex cells 89 small intestine 209. 149 Rutherford. 169–172 Uranus 159 urine 219–220 vacuoles 82 Van de Graaff generator 228 variables 32. 241 telescope (invention) 153–154 temperature 128 terraforming Mars 177 thermocouple 112 thermos 144 Thomson. 212 model for 213 soap film 73 sodium chloride (salt) 187 soil nutrients 207 solar distillation 14 solar energy 120 solar system 154. 157. Ernest 198 saturated solution 7 Saturn 159 science at work 28 science contests 43 scientists at work 44–46 sea breeze 136 seahorses 94 seed dispersal 96 separating funnel 22 separating solids 3. 160 podcasts (producing) 225 post-it notes 44 potential energy 107 powder coating 233 predicting 28.Index paper chromatography 19–20 parental care 93–94 particle theory 62–65.

such as answers to questions. This will allow you to have all your work in one place and do away with the binder full of paper! Create study and revision notes inside each chapter of the book. • • • • • • Annotate the pages with text boxes. ready for students to discuss or complete. Underline text. Highlight text. • Link iles. ready for students to discuss or complete. PowerPoint presentations. videos. videos or any other digital files to any location on a page of the book. Draw or write on the page using the pencil tool. highlight and underline the text or images as you work through the content on a page. • Annotate. Students: Create a digital portfolio of your work related to each chapter of the book. instructions for hands on practical activities. Record voice notes. Save a copy of the PDF chapter and your notes as a permanent record of your study. . photographs. comments or questions. • Link iles. or sticky notes. PowerPoint presentations. Have all your planning in one place ready to go! • Add sticky notes and text boxes with activities. • Add sticky notes and text boxes with activities. Teachers: Prepare lessons ready for the classroom or interactive whiteboard. Teach using the interactive whiteboard. This will allow you to teach through each page of the book opening interactive files as you go. which makes teaching and learning even easier in a digital world! All you need is Abode Reader to access this great functionality.Macmillan Education Student CDs now come with great new interactive functionality. • Open linked iles quickly and easily with a simple click to display any linked interactive digital files. assignments. such as answers to questions. comments or questions. For a demo or more information please contact your local Macmillan sales representative. assignments. • Zoom in and out quickly to focus on relevant parts of the page. animations or any other digital files to any location on a page of the book.