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Gold

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Element 79" redirects here. For the short story and anthology by Fred Hoyle, see Element 79
(anthology).
This article is about the element. For the color, see Gold (color). For other uses, see Gold
(disambiguation).

Gold, Au
79

General properties
Name, symbol

gold, Au

Pronunciation

/ˈɡoʊld/
GOHLD

Appearance

metallic yellow

Gold in the periodic table
A
g

A
u

R
g
platinum ← gold → mercury

Atomic number (Z)

79

18 °C.55 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 342 kJ/mol Molar heat capacity 25. 18. 1. 8. 1947. 18.p. block group 11.966569(5)[1] weight (±) (Ar) Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1 per shell 2.52 °F) Boiling point 3243 K (2970 °C. d-block Period period 6 Element category transition metal Standard atomic 196. 1 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1337.Group. −2. 17.418 J/(mol·K) vapor pressure P (Pa) 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k at T (K) 1646 1814 2021 2281 2620 3078 Atomic properties Oxidation states 5.30 g/cm3 when liquid. −1.33 K (1064. −3 .31 g/cm3 Heat of fusion 12. 5378 °F) Density near r. 19. 3. at m. 2. 32.t.

2 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C) Thermal conductivity 318 W/(m·K) Electrical resistivity 22.) Thermal expansion 14.1 kJ/mol 2nd: 1980 kJ/mol Atomic radius empirical: 144 pm Covalent radius 136±6 pm Van der Waals radius 166 pm Miscellanea Crystal structure face-centered cubic (fcc) Speed of soundthin rod 2030 m/s (at r.(anamphoteric oxide) Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.54 Ionization energies 1st: 890.t.14 nΩ·m (at 20 °C) Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[2] Tensile strength 120 MPa Young's modulus 79 GPa Shear modulus 27 GPa Bulk modulus 180 GPa[3] .

but have not yet been observed  view  talk  edit | references Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from Latin:aurum) and the atomic number 79.453 199 Hg syn Au 100% Au syn 2. gold is a transition metaland a group 11 element. dense. In its purest form.5 Vickers hardness 188–216 MPa Brinell hardness 188–245 MPa CAS Number 7440-57-5 History Naming from Latin aurum. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. and is solid under standard conditions. It occurs in a solid solution series . slightly reddish yellow. inrocks.9545 193 Ir 1.183 d 0. soft.10 d ε ε 195 Pt 1.4 Mohs hardness 2.Poisson ratio 0. meaning gold Discovery In the Middle East(before 6000 BCE) Most stable isotopes of gold iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) Au syn 186.686 196 Hg (α) 0. Chemically.69517 d β − Au syn 3. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements.169 d β − 197 198 199 6.malleable and ductilemetal. in veins and inalluvial deposits.506 196 Pt 0.372 198 Hg 0. it is a bright. asnuggets or grains.227 Au 196 – DP 195 β − Decay modes in parentheses are predicted.

about 4 billion years ago. Therefore. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. but this is not a chemical reaction. Gold also dissolves inalkaline solutions of cyanide. easy handling and minting. but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s. butaqua regia (literally "royal water". almost all of the gold present in theearly Earth probably sank into the planetary core. a gold standard was often implemented as a monetary policy within and between nations. and distinctive color. which are used in mining andelectroplating.600 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground. 40% in investments. Gold's atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally in theuniverse. a mixture of nitric acid andhydrochloric acid) can dissolve it. forming amalgam alloys. A total of 183. and conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices (its chief industrial use). Gold is a precious metal used for coinage. In the past. It is insoluble innitric acid. ductility. It is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesis and from the collision ofneutron stars[4] and to have been present in the dust from which theSolar System formed. resistance tocorrosion and other chemical reactions (nobility). most of the gold that is present today in the Earth's crust andmantle is thought to have been delivered to Earth later. . The historical value of gold was rooted in its relative rarity. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. colored-glass production.with the native element silver(as electrum) and also naturally alloyed withcopper and palladium. Less commonly. [5] This is equivalent to 9513 m3 of gold. The acid mixture causes the formation of a solubletetrachloroaurateanion. Because the Earth was molten when it was just formed. Gold is also used in infrared shielding. and other artsthroughout recorded history. gold leafing. as of 2014. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry.[6] Gold's high malleability. which dissolves silver andbase metals. and 10% in industry. easy smelting and fabrication. by asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment. often with tellurium (gold tellurides). and tooth restoration. jewelry. Gold dissolves in mercury. a property that has long been used to refinegold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects.[citation needed] Gold resists attack by individual acids. giving rise to the term acid test. and the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1976.