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Platinum

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, seePlatinum (disambiguation).

Platinum, Pt
78

General properties
Name, symbol

platinum, Pt

Pronunciation

/ˈplætᵻnəm/

Appearance

silvery white

Platinum in the periodic table
P
d

P
t

D
s
iridium ← platinum → gold

Atomic number (Z)

78

Group, block

group 10, d-block

Period

period 6

9 °F) Boiling point 4098 K (3825 °C. −3 (a mildly basic oxide) Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2. 5.17 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 510 kJ/mol Molar heat capacity 25.084(9)[1] weight (±) (Ar) Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1 per shell 2. 3214.3 °C.p.Element category transition metal Standard atomic 195.28 . −1. 32. 1 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 2041. 8.t.86 J/(mol·K) vapor pressure P (Pa) 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k at T (K) 2330 (2550) 2815 3143 3556 4094 Atomic properties Oxidation states 6. 21. 3. 19. 2.45 g/cm3 when liquid.4 K (1768. −2. 1.77 g/cm3 Heat of fusion 22. at m. 18. 6917 °F) Density near r. 4. 17.

5 .Ionization energies 1st: 870 kJ/mol 2nd: 1791 kJ/mol Atomic radius empirical: 139 pm Covalent radius 136±5 pm Van der Waals radius 175 pm Miscellanea Crystal structure face-centered cubic (fcc) Speed of soundthin rod 2800 m/s (at r.) Thermal expansion 8.38 Mohs hardness 3.6 W/(m·K) Electrical resistivity 105 nΩ·m (at 20 °C) Magnetic ordering paramagnetic Tensile strength 125–240 MPa Young's modulus 168 GPa Shear modulus 61 GPa Bulk modulus 230 GPa Poisson ratio 0.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C) Thermal conductivity 71.t.

775% – (α) 1.malleable. only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually.5045 190 Os 33. It occurs in some nickel andcopper ores along with some nativedeposits. Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust.7942 192 Os >3. but have not yet been observed  view  talk  edit | references Platinum is achemical elementwith symbol Pt andatomic number 78.1581 191 Os 25. mostly inSouth Africa.252 186 (α) 2.782% 193 Pt syn 194 Pt 32.0472 198 Hg 11 >6×10 y 16 [2] 50 y Os Decay modes in parentheses are predicted.356% Os (β−β−) 1.Vickers hardness 400–550 MPa Brinell hardness 300–500 MPa CAS Number 7440-06-4 History Discovery and first Antonio de Ulloa (1735) isolation Most stable isotopes of platinum iso NA 190 Pt 0.864% 195 Pt 196 Pt 198 Pt half-life DM 6. and given its important uses.4181 188 Os ε – 193 Ir – (α) 1. .[3][4] Platinum is a member of theplatinum group of elements andgroup 10 of theperiodic table of elements. which accounts for 80% of the world production. highly unreactive.5×10 y DE(MeV) DP α 3.012% 192 Pt 0. It is a dense.2×1014 y (α) 0.0870 194 7. gray-white transition metal. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg. it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity. Its name is derived from the Spanish termplatina.211% – (α) 0.precious. which is literally translated into "little silver". ductile. It has six naturally occurringisotopes.

laboratory equipment. It has remarkable resistance tocorrosion. platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. platinum resistance thermometers. Being a heavy metal. even at high temperatures. Consequently. electricalcontacts and electrodes. oxaliplatin and carboplatin. such as cisplatin. Because it occurs naturally in thealluvial sands of various rivers.Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. Platinum is used in catalytic converters. but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombianorigin in 1748 that it began to be investigated by scientists. and jewelry. metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects. it leads to health issues upon exposure to its salts. it was first used bypre-ColumbianSouth American natives to produce artifacts. [6] . but due to its corrosion resistance. It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century. are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer. dentistryequipment.[5] Compounds containing platinum. and is therefore considered a noble metal.