torsion

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torsion

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Topic 3

Torsion

Engineering structures are frequently loaded by twisting couples, known as Torque. Typical structures

that undergo such loading are power transmission shafts such as the prop-shaft (driveshaft) of an

automobile, drill shaft for oil wells and twisting tool such as screwdrivers. It offers a very effective

mechanical means of power transmission. Shafts may be solid (as in the case of the screwdriver) or

hollow (as for the prop-shaft). In this course only shafts with circular cross-sections will be

considered as they allow a number of simplifying assumptions to be made so that the stresses and

deformations due to torsion can be evaluated.

Torque

Torque is a couple (i.e. a moment). It is a vector in nature and has both a magnitude and a sense of

direction. Torque is frequently represented by either a curved arrow around an axis for 3-D sketches

or a double-headed arrow vector (to differentiate it from an axial force) along the axis for 2-D

sketches. The two representations of the same torque in Fig. 1 are related through the right hand rule.

T

T

T

Figure 1

It is essential to distinguish between externally applied loads and internal torques generated in shafts

in response to external loads applied. An internal torque acts over a cross-section of a shaft and a

positive internal torque, when expressed in a double arrowed vector, is in the direction of outward

normal to the cross-section, as shown in Fig. 1, irrespective of the direction of coordinate axis.

Internal torques can only be determined reliably using a Free Body Diagram (FBD) of the shaft with

an appropriate segment of the shaft, considering the moment equilibrium of the segment about the axis

of the shaft. The reactions to a shaft are torques from the supports in order to constrain the shaft from

undesirable motion in space. They can be found through appropriate FBDs like the internal torques.

As torque is a moment it has the dimension of force length.

Example: Calculate the variation of torque along the stepped shaft as shown in Fig. 2 and plot the

torque distribution along the axis in terms of a torque diagram.

Step 1: Take a segment from E to any point between D and E as a FBD (see the inset). Always

assume the internal torque is in a positive sense. From the equilibrium of this FBD, TH=0, i.e. T=H.

Thus, within the segment DE, the internal torque is 16kNm and it is positive.

Step 2: Take a segment from E to any point between C and D as a FBD. From the equilibrium of this

FBD, the internal torque on the chosen cross-section is equal to the sum of those applied at E and D

(opposite in direction, too, and hence positive). Thus, within the segment CD, the internal torque is

T=8+16=24kNm. At the cross-section D where an external torque is applied, the internal torques

distribution shows a step change, i.e. discontinuity, in mathematical terms. The magnitude of the

internal torque at this cross-section is meaningless. Instead, it will be sensible to describe the internal

torque an infinitesimal distance ahead or behind the cross-section.

Step 3: The same procedure leads to internal torques within segments BC and AB.

A torque diagram can be drawn as a graphic representation of the internal torque distribution through

3-1

FBD:

2kNm

12kNm

16kNm

H=16kNm

8kNm

3m

2m

1m

2m

30kNm

FBD:

Torque Diagram

T

20kNm

8kNm 16kNm

12kNm

10kNm

Figure 2

What is the reaction at the cross-section A?

Shear Strain

The torque (or shear force) acting on the cross-section produces shear stress and shear strain (shear

deformation). Fig. 3 shows the shear deformation when a rectangular element is subjected to a shear

stress and deforms into rhomboid. There may be rigid body rotation of the element involved as

illustrated in Fig. 3, in general, which should not be counted as a part of shear deformation. An

appropriate measure of the shear deformation is by introducing shear strain.

Figure 3

Shear strain is defined as the change in angle of a right angle as shown in Fig. 4. It relies on a sign

convention to define its sense. The sign convention can be assisted with a definition of positive right

angle and a negative right angle. A positive right angle is a right angle in the first and third quadrants

and a negative right angle is a right angle in the second and fourth quadrants, as indicated in Fig. 4.

With this, a positive shear strain can be defined as reduction of a positive right angle or increase of a

negative right angle. A negative shear strain is defined in exactly the opposite way.

3-2

x

x

Figure 4

With the sign convention for shear strains introduced, one may find the consistence that a positive

shear stress results in a positive shear strain.

Linear elastic deformation is usually assumed to be very small. In the context of shear strain, small

deformation requires small shear strain or small change in angle of a right angle as a result of

deformation. Because of this, one has the following simplification

tan

Dimension & Units: Shear strain is measured in radians and is dimensionless like direct strain.

Example: Consider a floor tile bonded to the floor of a house by 1mm of adhesive. If a shear force Q

is applied to its upper surface when a kitchen appliance is being slide over the top of the tile (this

upper shear force will of course be reacted by an equal and opposite shear force Q from the floor to

maintain equilibrium) and the tile moves 0.01 mm as shown in Fig. 5. Determine the shear strain in the

bonding adhesive.

For small deformation, assume that the height of the material does not change significantly. Therefore

shear strain in adhesive = tan = /h = 0.01/1= 0.01

y

0.01mm

150mm

0.01mm

1mm

1mm

x

Q

z

150mm

Figure 5

Shear Stress-Strain Relationship

For a material under shear stress, if the shear strain is measured as the shear stress increases, one can

plot against to obtain the shear stress-strain curve for the material. One of the typical types of test is

through tube torsion, which will be a subject in the next part of the chapter. Shear stress-strain curve

demonstrates an initial linear (elastic) section where shear strain is proportional to shear stress. This

gives the Hookes law for shear stress and strain:

= G

(1)

where the proportion factor G is called shear modulus, which is another important material property

like Youngs modulus. They have the same dimension and units.

3-3

y

x

z

L

(a)

(b)

Figure 6

A rectangular block of dimensions (Lhb) of a material with a modulus of rigidity G is bonded

between two rigid horizontal plates as shown in Fig. 6(a). The lower plate is fixed while the upper

plate is displaced horizontally by a distance . Calculate the average shear stress in the material and

the force applied to the upper plate.

Consider the FBD of Fig. 6(b). The shear strain in the material is calculated by:

tan =

(Comparing with =

= G =

G

h

(Comparing with = E )

Q = A =

GLb

h

(Comparing with N = A )

Torsion Deformation

Experimental Observations and Plane Section Assumption

Consider a shaft of a circular cross-section under torsion as shown in Fig. 7(a). Experimental

observations suggest that all cross-sections remain plane and undistorted and the distance between any

two cross-sections does not change after the torsional deformation. This justifies a very important

assumption, called plane section assumption, to be made on the pattern of the deformation in shafts of

circular cross-section under torsion. This will allow a simple theory for torsion to be formulated. The

assumption postulates that any cross-section of the shaft under torsion will remain plane after

deformation and any longitudinal fibre is subjected to neither extension nor contraction.

Figure 71

1

3-4

The same observations do not apply to shafts of cross-sections other than circular, e.g. square in

Figure 7(b), where the profiles of cross-sections warp. As a result, they will not remain plane. More

complex theory is required to assess the effect of torsion on stress distributions for such shafts and

hence will not be addressed in this course.

Implications on the Deformation Kinematics and Shear Strain in a Shaft

The plane section assumption can be interpreted through the deformation pattern of a segment of the

shaft as shown in Fig. 8. Consider a point B located at radius r from the axis of revolution. As the

shaft is twisted, radii OB and OC rotate about the shaft axis by an angle to new positions OB and

OC. Any longitudinal fibre, such as AB, does not change its length and hence there is no direct strain

involved in the axial direction in this problem.

B C C

C

B

C

L

A

(a)

(b)

Figure 8

Consider the deformation in a segment of a shaft of radius R, as shown in Fig. 8(a). After the

deformation, the top end rotates through an angle , called the angle of twist, relative to the bottom

end. Now, examine a thin surface element ABCD located within the shaft at a distance r from the axis

of revolution. This element can be used to obtain the relationship between the angle of twist and the

shear strain generated in the shaft.

Considering only small deformation in the elastic region of the material as assumed, the thin surface

element ABCD deforms to new shape ABCD as shown in Fig. 8(b). The angle of twist and the shear

strains generated in surface element ABCD at its deformed state ABCD can be related as follows,

bearing in mind that deformation is small (hence <<1) and that shear strain is defined as the change

of angle of a right angle, the shear strain in this surface element can be obtained as

tan =

BB r

=

L

L

It is often helpful to introduce another quantity, angle of twist per unit length, denoted as

to describe the twisting deformation in shafts. The above equation can thus be written as

r

= r

L

= L,

(2)

This equation suggests that the shear strain on a surface element of a circular cross-sectional shaft vary

with the distance from the axis of revolution. This means that the maximum shear strain is found on

the outer surface of the shaft (when r = R).

3-5

Shear Stress

In the elastic region = G. Substituting equation (2) into this, the shear stress can be expressed as

Gr

= Gr

L

(3)

As G, or and L are constants for a given cross-section, shear stress is seen to vary linearly across

the cross section with a maximum at r = R. The minimum is zero for solid shafts at the centre. For a

hollow shaft, the minimum shear stress is found at the radius equal to the internal radius of the shaft.

Relationship between Torque and Angle of Twist

Take an infinitesimal area dA on a cross-section of a shaft in Fig. 9. The resultant of the shear stress

as obtained in the previous subsection over dA is denoted as dQ which is tangential to the

circumference (The normal component vanishes as direct stress is zero for zero direct strain. There is

no need to consider the radial component as it does not contribute to the torque. In fact, the radial

direct stress is not present in the torsion problem). The contribution of moment from dQ to the torque

over the cross-section is dQ multiplied by r, the distance of dA to the axis of the shaft. The torque

over the whole cross-section is obtained as the integral below.

dA

T = rdQ

dQ

r

T

T = rdA

A

Figure 9

Equation (3) may now be substituted into the above expression for the torque

Gr

G

dA =

L

L

T = A rdA = A r

T =

A r

dA =

GJ

= GJ

L

G J

= GJ

L

(4)

where

J = A r 2 dA

(5)

Rearranging the equation above gives the general form of the torsion equation for a length of shaft:

TL

GJ

or

T

GJ

(6)

The product GJ is referred to as the Torsional Rigidity of a shaft and is an assessment of how resistant

a shaft is to twisting. For a given torque T, the angle of twist is proportional to the length of the

shaft and inversely proportional to the torsion rigidity. In order to reduce in a design problem, these

are the parameters a designer can play with.

3-6

Substituting Equations (6) into (3), shear stress over the cross-section of a shaft can be obtained as

= G = G

=

r

r TL

=G

L

L GJ

Tr

J

(7)

The shear stress on a cross-section varies linearly with distance from the axis of the shaft with the

maximum stress occurring when r = R or r = Ro as shown graphically in Fig. 10.

max = TR/J

max = TRo/J

min = TRi/J

r

Ri

(a)

Figure 10

Ro

(b)

It has been shown that shear stresses cannot exist in a single plane. Consider a small element of the

shaft as an inset in Fig. 9 with a shear stress acting on the cross sectional face. For equilibrium there

must be complementary shear stresses acting on the axial faces of the same magnitude.

The existence of these axial shear stresses can be shown by considering the relative motion of two

edges of a paper tube when subjected to a twisting motion. Whilst in the paper roll sliding occurs in an

engineering structure the sliding is resisted by the continuity of material and a stress is generated.

Polar Moment of Area for Circular Cross-Sections

Ro

dA=2rdr

The polar moment of an area is defined in equation (5) in general.

It applies to areas of any shape. Polar moment of areas for shapes

other than circles will be of importance in other applications. In

this course, however, only circular areas will be of interest since

only shafts of such cross-sections will be interested here. For a

circular cross-section the simplest way of expressing dA is a thin

disk as shown in Fig. 11 as within dA, r is constant.

dr

Ri

In Fig. 11, dA = 2rdr, and the total area will be integrated across

if r is considered to vary from the inner radius Ri to the outer

radius Ro. Therefore J may be written as:

J =

A r

dA =

Ro

R 4

D 4

=

2

32

2 r 3 dr =

4

4

4

4

2 R o R i = 32 D o D i

3-7

Figure 11

(8)

Design Perspectives

Shear stress in a shaft vanishes at the centre (r=0). In the part of the shaft close enough to the axis,

material is not stressed much. In other words, the material there does not make much contribution in

taking the load and resisting the deformation. Keeping material there will never be an efficient way of

using material.

If the material around the axis can be moved to outside, i.e. to make the shaft hollow, it will force the

material to work much harder and hence improve the efficiency in material usage. Consider a case of

solid shaft of a cross section area of A. J solid = A 2 2 . If one take half of the material, i.e. a cylinder

of a diameter of

2 A from the inside of the shaft, and spread on the outside of the shaft, making

6 A . The cross section area remains as A, and hence the same material

consumption. However, the polar moment of area has now increased to J hollow = A 2 , i.e. doubled

and so is the torsion rigidity without consuming any extra material. This can be further increased if

one is prepared to move more material inside out.

However, as one does this, the wall thickness of the shaft will become thinner and thinner. There is a

limit for that. When the wall thickness is too small, a different and undesirable deformation

mechanism may develop, viz. buckling. Advanced knowledge is required to analyse this type of

buckling problem, which is beyond the scope of this course.

Example: Maximum Shear Stress in a Solid Shaft

50mm

the maximum shear stress.

2.5kNm

2.5kNm

D

J = = 0.6135 10 6 m 4

2 2

Figure 12

max =

TR

TR

=

=

= 101.9 MPa

J

0.6135 10 6 0.6135 10 6

Find the inner radius (Ri) for the 80mm diameter hollow shaft so that the maximum stress in the

hollow shaft is identical to that in a solid shaft of outer diameter 50mm. Also plot the variation of

shear stress () with radial position (r) for both shafts.

2Ri

80 m m

2 .5 kN m

50 m m

2 .5k N m

2.5kN m

2 .5kN m

(a)

(b)

Figure 13

3-8

J=

R 4

= 0.6135 10 6 m 4

max =

TR

TR

=

4

J

R

2

= 101.9 MPa

R

The inner radius is found using equation (8) for hollow shaft:

J=

(R

2

4

o

Ro4 Ri4 =

Ri4 =

TRo

max

2TRo

max

Ri = 4 Ro4

2TRo

max

= 37.3mm

Ri Ro

When an oil well is being drilled at a depth of 1800m,

the typical torque required to commence drilling is

approximately 60kNm. Determine the number of

rotations of the top of the drill shaft (shown as drill

string in Fig. 14) at the point when drilling commences.

Consider the shaft to be made from hollow steel (G =

79GPa) tubes with a polar moment of area of

J=1.07410-4m4.

The angle of twist is calculated using equation (6):

TL

TL

=

GJ G 1 .074 10 4

= 12 .73

radians

= 2.026 revolutions

Figure 14

3-9

All equations above were derived for a simple shaft with a torque applied at each end. However, it

may also be used to determine the stresses in shafts of variable cross-sections or where torques are

applied at locations between the ends of the shaft. All what is required is knowledge of the torque at

the cross-section of interest, which may be obtained from consideration of a FBD with one end of the

FBD being at the section of interest.

Consider the shaft ABCD shown in Fig. 15 with torques HA, HB, HC and HD applied at points A, B, C

and D respectively. To determine the cross-sectional stress distribution in the shaft in length BC,

divide the shaft into appropriate FBDs at the section of interest (in this case a distance of L from point

B) and solve for the torque (TBC) in length BC.

shaftaxis

= H A H B TBC = 0

HA

TBC = H A H B

H

HB

HB

A

LA B

B

HC

T BC

C

HD

(a )

0 < L < L B C

(b)

Figure 15

Having found the torque TBC within length BC, Equation (7) may now be used to determine the stress

distribution at any cross-section within length BC.

BC =

TBC

r

J BC

Equation (6) for the twist angle of a shaft may only be used if the entire length of shaft considered is:

(a) of constant G (i.e. homogeneous), (b) has a uniform cross-section (i.e. constant J) and (c) has no

other external torque/load within the length of shaft concerned (i.e. constant T).

If a shaft is subjected to external torques at locations other than the ends and/or has changes in crosssection as in Fig. 15, then the shaft must be divided up into lengths IJ within each of which the above

criteria apply such that the angle of twist for each length can be determined separately. The sum of the

separate angles of twist will give the total twist of the shaft. The angle of twist of a multi-length shaft

may thus be written as:

TIJ L IJ

G IJ J IJ

(9)

In the example of Fig. 15(b), the angle of twist at the cross-section of interest, relative to section A, is

the sum of the twist in length LAB plus the twist in the length L (only two lengths are considered as the

point of application of torque HB and the change in cross-section coincide). Thus the twist (relative to

point A) at a distance L from B may be obtained as:

T AB L AB

T L

+ BC

G AB J AB G BC J BC

3-10

The stepped steel (G=75GPa) shaft shown in Fig. 16 is rigidly fixed at A and has torques applied at B,

C, D and E. Calculate and graph the angle of twist along the shaft relative to section A.

J = 2 10-4 m4

J = 1 10-4 m4

2kNm

12kNm

16kNm

8kNm

0.3m

A

Torque

(kNm)

Twist

(rad)

30

0.0015

0.2m

0.2m

0.1m

Torque

0.00121

Angle of twist

20

0.0010

10

0.0005

0.00100

0.00036

0.00020

Figure 16

Example: Electric Motor Driving a Gear Shaft

The electric motor of Fig. 17 provides 2.4kNm of torque to a gear shaft. The gears resist the applied

torque as shown. With the dimensions of the solid shafts as shown, calculate the maximum shear stress

in shaft lengths AB and BC.

2.4kNm

1.2kNm

0.8kNm

0.4kNm

54mm

B

44mm

C

44mm

D

Figure 17

3-11

36mm

1.2kNm

54mm

2.4kNm

TAB

TBC

2.4kNm

44mm

M axis = 0

M axis = 0

T AB =

TBC =

AB

=

max

T ABR AB

J AB

BC

=

max

T BC RBC

J BC

The steel (G = 79GPa) circular cross-section stepped shaft in Fig. 18 is fixed to a rigid support at A

and has a torque of 2kNm applied at D. The shaft is hollow between A and B and solid for the

remainder. Find the angle of twist at D.

2kNm

0.025m

0.035m

0.05m

0.025m

0.03m

0.04m

Figure 18

The twist in a stepped shaft is calculated from equation (9). As G is constant throughout and there are

no torques applied between A and D, one has only to break the shaft down into lengths of constant

cross-section. Therefore from equation (9):

=

=

=

=

T IJ L IJ

IJ J IJ

T L

T L

L

L

T AB L AB

T L AB

+ BC BC + CD CD =

+ BC + CD

G AB J AB

G BC J BC

G CD J CD

G J AB

J BC

J CD

L

2T

4 AB 4

G Ro Ri

0 .0432

rad

AB

LBC LCD

2 2000

0.05

0.03

0.04

+ 4 =

+

+

4

9

4

4

4

RBC RCD 79 10 0.0175 0.0125 0.0175 0.01254

2 .47

3-12

Relationship between Power and Torque

A power transmission shaft is normally specified by the amount of power to be transmitted and the

rotational speed at which that power is to be transferred. In fact, Power is equal to torque time

angular velocity of the shaft (), i.e.

P = T = T ( 2 f )

(10)

which also relates power to the rotational frequency of the shaft (revolutions per second). Therefore,

if the power and rotating speed requirements of a shaft are known, the torque involved can be

determined. With a given maximum stress the material can take, the diameter of the shaft and wall

thickness may be determined by combining Equations (7), (8) and (10).

Example: Design of Formula 1 Car Power Transmission Shaft

Design the lightest power transmission shaft for driving a Formula 1 car wheels. Assume the full

engine power capability as being transmitted to the wheels to be 350hp per wheel for each of the two

driving wheels. The shaft must be capable of revolving at 1700rpm. The chassis designer advises you

that the largest diameter the shaft may be is 35mm. A titanium shaft may be used with an allowable

shear stress of 500MPa.

Convert to SI units:

1hp = 0.7457kW

700hp = 522kW

T=

= 2932.6 Nm

Calculate the inner radius for a hollow shaft with an outer diameter of 35mm:

max =

TRo

=

J

Ri = 4 Ro4

TRo

Ro4 Ri4

2TRo

max

(R

4

o

Ri4 =

2TRo

max

= 13.0mm

Therefore cross-sectional area of hollow tube is (17.52 13.02) = 431.2 mm2. As mass = density

volume = density length area, the mass consumed can be evaluated to complete your design.

Torsional Statically Indeterminate Problems

Statically indeterminate torsional problem is related to such cases that the distribution of torque

through a combination of shafts cannot be determined simply by using a FBD alone (statics). In such

cases, the solution of the problem requires extra conditions associated with geometric compatibility

in the way the shaft deforms. This will allow a series of simultaneous equations to be generated which

will then lead to the solution to the problem.

Example: Torsional Static Indeterminate Shaft (Composite) Parallel Model

A steel shaft (G = 77GPa) and an aluminium tube (G = 27GPa) are connected to a fixed support at A

and to a rigid end plate at B as shown in Fig. 19. If the maximum allowable shear stresses are 120MPa

for steel and 70MPa for aluminium, determine the maximum torque that can be applied at B.

3-13

0.05m

0.076m

TB

0.06m

0.5m

Figure 19

FBD (Equilibrium):

T Al

T Al

TAl + TSteel = T

T Steel

T Steel

Al = Steel =

i.e.

T Al L Al

T

L

= Steel Steel

G Al J Al G Steel J Steel

or

T Al L Al

T L

TL Steel

+ Al Steel =

G Al J Al G Steel J Steel

G Steel J Steel

and

L Al

G Al J Al

T Steel =

T

L Al

LSteel

+

G Al J Al G Steel J Steel

(T T Al )LSteel

T Al L Al

=

G Al J Al

G Steel J Steel

LSteel

G Steel J Steel

T Al =

T

L Al

LSteel

+

G Al J Al G Steel J Steel

max

Al

=

T Al R Al

J Al

T Almax =

max

Steel

=

TSteel RSteel

J Steel

max

TSteel

=

= Al = Steel

max

J Al

Al

R Al

max

Steel

J Steel

RSteel

T max 1 =

T max 2 =

L Al

LSteel

G Al J Al G Steel J Steel

=

T

L Al

LSteel

+

G Al J Al G Steel J Steel

3-14

A stepped shaft is mounted between rigid walls. It is subjected to a torque at the intersecting crosssection. Find the angle of twist at the loading cross-section and the maximum stresses in both sections

of the shaft.

DAB

DBC

Figure 20

GBC

GAB

LBC

LAB

FBD (Equilibrium):

TAB

T AB + TBC + T = 0

TBC

Compatibility (Total angle of twist is zero because of the rigid constraints from the walls):

= AB + BC = 0

i.e.

T AB L AB

T L

+ BC BC

G AB J AB G BC J BC

(T T AB )LBC

T AB L AB

+

=0

G AB J AB

G BC J BC

or

T AB L AB

T L

TL BC

+ AB BC =

G AB J AB G BC J BC G BC J BC

and

L AB

G AB J AB

T BC =

T

L AB

LBC

+

G AB J AB G BC J BC

LBC

G BC J BC

T AB=

T

L AB

LBC

+

G AB J AB G BC J BC

B = AB =

T AB L AB

G AB J AB

L AB

LBC

G AB J AB G BC J BC

T

=

L AB

LBC

+

G AB J AB G BC J BC

Students: Complete the maximum shear stresses in both sections of the shaft!

3-15

3.1

A thin tube of a mean diameter 60mm is required to carry a torque of 150Nm. The shear stress

must not exceed 27 MPa. What is the required wall thickness of the tube?

Answer: 1mm

3.2

A horizontal shaft, securely fixed at each end, has a free length of 10m. Viewed from one end

of the shaft, axial couples of 30kNm clockwise and 40kNm counter-clockwise act on the shaft

at distances of 4m and 7m respectively from the viewed end.

(a) Determine the end fixing couples in magnitude and direction and find the radius of the

solid shaft for a maximum shear stress of 60MPa.

(b) Find the position along the shaft (in metres) where the cross-section undergoes no angular

twist.

Answer: 6kNm, 16kNm, R = 0.0634m, x = 5m

3.3

A hollow shaft is of 25mm outer radius and 15mm inner radius. An applied torque of 1.6kNm

is found to produce an angular twist of 0.4 degrees measured on a length of 0.2m of the shaft.

Find the shear modulus of the shaft material. Also evaluate the maximum power which could

be transmitted by the shaft at 2000 rpm if the maximum allowable shear stress is 65MPa.

Answer: 85.8GN/m2, 291kW

3.4

long and is rigidly clamped at both ends. A torque of 125Nm

is applied 4cm from one end. Find the torque transmitted to

each end, the rotation of the plane of application of the torque

and the maximum shear stress in the bar, assuming RA=1 cm,

RB=2 cm, GA=76.9GPa, GB=30GPa.

Answer: 75Nm, 50Nm, = 3.6210-4 radians,

max = 6.9 MPa

3.5

A composite shaft of circular cross-section 650mm long is rigidly fixed at both ends. 400mm

length of the shaft is 50mm diameter made of bronze. It is joined to another 250mm long

25mm diameter steel section to form a complete shaft. If the permissible shear stress in the

steel section is 55MPa, find the maximum torque which can be applied at the joint, assuming

GSteel = 82 GPa and GBronze = 41 GPa. What is the maximum shear stress in the bronze section?

Answer: 1012Nm, 34.4MPa

3.6

A hollow cylindrical steel shaft, 65mm outside radius and 38 inside radius, has a maximum

shear stress of 60MPa. What horsepower is delivered at 200rpm? What is the angle of twist

in a 15m long shaft? What percentage stronger would the shaft be if it were solid having the

same outside radius, assuming GSteel = 82GPa?

Answer: 642hp, 9.67, 13.2%

3.7

A solid circular shaft of radius R has to transmit power P at a given speed of m rpm. A hollow

tubular shaft, with an inner radius equal to 2/3 of its outer radius, transmits the same power at

the same speed. The maximum permissible shear stress is the same for each shaft. Find the

ratio of the weights of the two shafts.

Answer: Solid/Hollow = 1.55

3-16

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