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Odena Chinchilla, 3035

Sociology 1,#51094
1 .Nature and Nurture: What do twin studies tell us about nature/nurture? Also, discuss the
influence of heredity in explaining the process of ones personality and intellectual
development. Provide examples.
They both play roles in defining the person. The book talks about twins being raised in a
different setting by different people, yet having the same mannerisms and the same facial
expressions this being part of the nature component of their personality, the DNA set up
that determines certain traits of the person. Then there is the influence of their respective
upbringings, like local cultural influences, religious beliefs and moral values, these are
from the nurturing components. Both provide elements to ones personality and
intellectual development.
One fictitious example could be twins that were separated at birth, and adopted into
different cultures and different countries. From the genetical make up we will say they
have artistic features, a sense for aesthetics and an average IQ. Each child is raised
independently, and are reunited at the age of 28. One has been raised in a cold weather
country, mostly atheist, by a well to be family. The other person has been raised in a
dessert area with a lower middle class protestant family. When they meet, and then are
physically very similar, except for the skin tone color. They find they have the same
expressions & mannerisms. They even have a similar taste for sports. Both have attended
school. The well to be person, has a university degree, and has tutoring for most of his
life, he has a Teneor position in a prestigious university, and although hes IQ did not
change he had many resources that his counterpart did not. He also is well connected in
his field. The other twin has the same degree, but does not have the same social standing
as his brother, and as they begin to discuss political and social topics they find they are
very different in ideology. Same but different, thanks to the nature/ nurture component.
2. What is the self? According to Charles Horton Cooley, explain the looking glass self
(discuss the three phases). George Herbert Mead also discusses the stages of the self: identify
differences between I and me.
The looking glass self as Charles Holton. Describes it, is how we come about to define
ourselves as who we are, by using our assumptions of how others see us, as a mirror
reflecting back at us.
Holton argues that the process is accomplished in three stages.
The first one being what we picture of how others see us, the second is using that picture
and then analyzing what they think of it, the third one being our definition of ourselves

based solely on those assumptions. George Herbert Mead argues there are two
components of the self, one being the I and the other one being the Me. The I, is our
behavior, the things we do, such as walking, eating, and so on. The Me on the other hand
is when we applied our experiences and skills acquired through our life, to plan our
actions and judge them based on those past experiences. We can think of it as making an
educated guest and thereby behaving in ways that the reactions of others will be positive.
What is meant by significant others? How are significant others related to the self?
Mead states that the self represents the interaction between the I and the me. Mead
believes that we become to see ourselves as who we are, mainly by our interactions with
our significant others, those being the individuals In our lives that have the most
significant impact on us, such as family, friends, coworkers and so on. With time, Meads
argues we come to see that our significant others have come to shape their self of sense
by a larger social network.
Identify Meads three-stage process of self-development.
There are three stages to this realization process. The first one is the Preparatory Stage;
this stage begins when kids imitate those around us. They might not know what the words
mean or why there are certain reactions to some things in life, but when they see those
around them reacting in one way or speaking in a certain way, they do it too. They do this
up to the age of three, after that they begin to put meaning to the symbols, symbols being
gestures, and the words we use. They not just repeat what their family members say, now
they start relying on their friends and the TV to develop their skills of communicating
through symbols.
The second stage is the Play Stage, during the ages 3 to 5. Children
pretend to be someone else, they play of being a parent, a doctor, a superhero and so on.
Meads states, that this point kids easily switch their role playing, they act as different
individuals each time with no problem. This may not be taking so critical to the selfdevelopment to the children as when they reach the age of 6. Childrens role play is
a critical part of our self-development. The role taking we choose, is
similar to the self-looking glass, children assume what or how others react to
certain behavior in a particular time, and using those assumptions they go about on how
to behave. An example the book uses is how children learn to ask for something in the
right time, not when their parents are mad and tired, but at time where the answer would
most likely be yes.
The last stage is the Game Stage, which takes place between the ages of 6 to 9.
Here, children learn to appreciate that everyone plays a role in society, and the success
now is based on each individual playing their part in connection to a group, a group
which has different expectation for each individual. The generalized other, Mead says is
when a child acts, he is now taking into consideration others, their expectations, and the
contribution he or she is making to the group

3. Explain the dramaturgical approach. What occurs on front-stage? What happens in

backstage? How can Erving Goffmans idea of impression management and face-work be
used to understand social behavior?
Erving idea of impression management and face-work can be used to understand social
behavior. Impression management allows us to see how alter our appearance, according
to the audience. For instance at work we can be serious and professional, at church we are
kind and courteous, at the club we are wild and daring because those are the
characteristics that are acceptable and rewarded with positive attitude in each of those
places. We want to avoid negative opinions or perception of ourselves so we engage in
face work, we make different efforts to ensure that we are not embarrassed in any area of
our lives, We can do this by justifying our actions, as when fail an exam and we argue
that none of the material we were tested on, was presented in the class.
4. Identify the agents of socialization.
Family, School, Peer groups, mass media and technology, work place, religion


What is the role of schools in gender role socialization?

Family is the most important agent of socialization; school comes in second reinforcing
social orders. School is also broadens our knowledge of society and this gives us a new
perspective of society, it helps us acculturate to new concepts, methods or ritual, as well
as capabilities. School also helps us understand our role to play based on gender. It
assigns certain behaviors, action, and expression
unique to each gender.
How has technology (computer, cell phone, email, & TV) influenced the socialization
It is a double edge sword, which can bring h families together that is otherwise away.
Keep you well informed of events taking place in time. This can also be a bad thing
because it exposes a person to all the bad events in life. It replaces our
face to face
interactions and removes the intimacy of our interactions. In early century it would have
not affected children at all until probably when reaching the teens years. However, it is
not the case nowadays. We see children being subdued by the screen of a phone or a
tablet, to allow parents to run errands undisturbed. It weakens their emotional bonds.
5. What are total institutions?
An institution that regulates all aspects of a persons life. Examples: Prision, army, etc.
Identify Goffmans four traits of total institutions.

a)All aspects of life are conducted in the same place under the control of the
single authority.(witt,84)
b) Activities take place with peers in the rank or situation.
c) The activities take place without consent of the participants.
d) The purpose of the institution is to reinforce its purpose. The person sheds its
individuality and adopts the notions of the institutions.
Discuss how a degradation ceremony is used to mortify ones sense of self.
The participants are subjected to a series of activities to breakdown down their
individuality and manipulate their behavior to comply with the ideology and model of the
6. How does society deal with an elderly population?
There is a wide spectrum on how each culture engages with their elders. Some see them
as wise council and treat them with respect while others see them as unproductive
members of society.
Discuss differences between disengagement theory and activity theory?
Is when a person takes it upon themselves to go into isolation, cutting all social ties with
friends and family as well as most group activities. This comes as a sense of how close to
death they feel they are. Although sometime the individual does it unconsciously.
The activity theory, Tells us that the people that stay active in society tend to age better.
The interaction create stronger ties, which in consequences gives them a better lifestyle,
they will have access to more resources as a whole due to socialization.
Finally, provide solutions to ageism.
I think one of the ways to shun the concept that elders are not contributors to society is by
involving them in mentorship programs, elder people have a wealth of knowledge that
can be shared and past down to future generations. Elders feel segregated because they
are grouped with their peers without engaging with new generations. Sometimes they
might feel that they are not needed at all. On the other side of the spectrum we have the
children and youth of the foster care system. They have a great need for guidance; they
need role models and people to become their paternal and maternal figures. They also feel
segregated. Having young minds relate to experience minds can create a beneficial
network for the community, the elders feeling they are contributing into someones life,
and the youth finding that someone cares. They could be a great complement to each