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DESlGflOF

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STRUCTURES
1978
Engineering

Technology

Primarily
Canal

to

the

Pertaining

Design

Structures

of

of

Small

Less

Than

100-Cubic-Feet-Per-Second

Capacity

UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT
OF THE INTERIOR
BUREAU

OF

RECLAMATION

A. J. Aisenbrey,
R. B. Hayes
H. J. Warren
D. L. Winsett
R. B. Young
Denver,

Colorado

Jr.

“As the Nation’s principal conservation agency, the Department of the
Interior has basic responsibilities for the wise use and conservation of
our land and water, energy and minerals, fish and wildlife, and park
and recreation resources. The Department
also has a major
responsibility for American Indian reservation communities and for
people who live in Island Territories under U.S. administration.”

REVISED

UNITED

STATES

REPRINT

GOVERNMENT
DENVER

1978

PRINTING

OFFICE

: 1974

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402
and the Bureau of Reclamation, Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, Attention:
922,
Stock Number 024-003-00126-l

IV

Preface

“Let man have dominion over the earth and
let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding
seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after its
kind.” So is it written in the Book of Genesis.
The availability of water has determined the
course of empires in many civilizations. When
made available, its use for irrigating crops has
been practiced for thousands of years by many
peoples of the world. But only since the late
1800’s has man applied scientific knowledge to
watering drylands to increase crop production.
The wise use of soil and water resources has
changed millions of acres of once barren
wasteland and desert into productive farms
supporting prosperous communities.
Development of water resources by the
Government to provide irrigation water for the
arid lands of the western United States was
initiated when the Reclamation Act of 1902
was passed
during President Theodore
Roosevelt’s administration.
Because of his
strong leadership ability and contempt for
abusive exploitation of our natural resources,
he became regarded as the steward of the
public’s welfare.
Reclamation engineers and scientists through
the years have developed canal structures for
i rriga tion systems which can effectively
perform
their intended
functions.
This
publication has been prepared to illustrate the
application of canal structures having design
discharge capacities up to 100 cubic feet per
second. Several types of canal structures have
been standardized for this capacity range and
are presented herein. Structure sizes required
to discharge these flows are relatively small;
however, engineering principles used in their
design are also applicable to canal structures of
greater capacity.

The need for this publication
became
apparent by the number of requests received,
both foreign and domestic, during the past
years. It is intended that this book provide the
design engineer with a source of condensed
information for use as a guide in efficiently
designing small canal structures. The design
engineer must realize, however, that sound
engineering principles and judgment must be
exercised in the selection and utilization of the
structures, and that the use of design methods,
procedures, and other information
herein
remains his responsibility.
There
are occasional
references to
proprietary
materials or products in this
publication. These must not be construed in
any way as an endorsement by the Bureau of
Reclamation since such endorsement cannot be
made for proprietary products or processes of
manufacturers or the services of commercial
finns for advertising, publicity, sales, or other
purposes.
The text of this publication was prepared by
a design team comprised of Bureau of
Reclamation engineers from the Engineering
and Research Center at Denver, Colorado,
under the overall direction of H. G. Arthur,
Director of Design and Construction.
The text was coordinated and edited by A.
J. Aisenbrey, Jr., Civil Engineer, Hydraulic
Structures
Branch. Team members who
authored the presentations for the canal
structures were R. B. Hayes, D. L. Winsett, and
R. B. Young, Civil Engineers, Hydraulic
Structures Branch and H. J. Warren, General
Engineering Reference Branch.
Engineer,
Editorial
guidance,
final review, and
preparation of the manuscript for publication

PREFACE

VI

was performed by W. E. Foote, General
Engineer, of the Technical Services Branch.
The revised reprint was edited by R. D.
Mohrbacher,
General Engineer, Technical
Services and Publications Branch.
Many photographs used in the book were
obtained through the cooperation of various
Bureau of Reclamation offices and assembled
for selection by R. S. Dinsmore, Civil
Engineering Technician, Hydraulic Structures
Branch under the guidance of D. L. Winsett.
Illustrations were prepared in the Drafting
Branch, Division of Engineering Support by L.
L. McGhghy and W. D. Anderson under the
guidance of W. W. Groom and direction of B.
F. Wilson.
Special recognition is given to Dr. J. W. Hilf,
Chief, Division of Design, G. N. Thorsky,
Chief, Division of Engineering Support; A. T.
Lewis, Chief, Hydraulic Structures Branch; G.
W. Birch, Head, Canal Structures and Bridges
Section and engineers in this section for their
support, guidance, and counsel.

The engineers who authored and edited this
publication wish to express a special thanks to
the staff of the Media Unit who worked many
long and hard hours to obtain a quality
publication. Other thanks are directed to the
printing assistants, production unit personnel,
and those who coordinated the work flow.
Food and fiber, essential to the well-being
of mankind begins with the smallest viable
seed, which when its fruit is harvested may
provide substance to placate the hunger of
man.
To believe that even the smallest seed will grow
is
To believe in the force of will.
To transform the desert into a living oasis is
To transform despair into hope,
That all mankind may be enriched
And share in the power of Charity.

Contents
Page
Preface

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

V

Chapter I-General Requirements and
Design Considerations-Continued Page

Sectiot2

1-8.

Chapter I-General Requirements and
Design Considerations
A. GENERAL

REQUIREMENTS

SW riotI

l-l.
l-2.

l-3.

Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . .
(a) Conveyance structures . .
(b) Regulating structures
. .
(c) Water measurement structures
(d) Protective structures’ : : :
(e) Structure components and
appurtenances . . . . .
0 ther requirements
. . . . . .
(a) Canal . . . . . . . . . .
(b) Other structures . . . . .
(c) Soils exploration
. . . .
(d) Hydrology
(e) Sedimentation : : : : : :
(f) Operation and maintenance . . . . . . . .
B. DESIGN

l-4.
l-5.
l-6.
l-7.

General

.
.
.
.
:

2
2

.
.
.
.

l-l 1.
1- 12.
1-13.
l-l 4.

:
.

6

CONSIDERATIONS

. . . . . . .
1. Loads
General . . . . . . .
Dead load weights . .
Operating deck uniform
loads
. . . . . . .

. .
. .
. .
live
. .

6
. .

Lateral pressures .........
(a) Water ...........
(b) Earth ...........
(c) Construction and operating equipment wheel
surcharge ........
(d) Ice ............
(e) Wind ...........
l-9. Other pressures .........
(a) Uplift ...........
(b) Hydraulic transients ....
(c) Seismic ..........
l-10. Wheel loads transmitted to
buried conduit .........
(a) Highways .........
(b) Railroads .........
2. Stabilit.)

7
7
7

8
8
8

Bearing capacity .........
........
Sliding coefficient
Overturning ...........
...........
Percolation

3, Hydraulics
l-l 5. Hydraulic control
........
1- 16. Hydraulic head losses ......
(a) Friction ..........
(b) Transitions and bends
1-17. Discharge coefficients
......
(a) Orifice
..........
(b) Weir ...........

9
9
9
9

9

10
10
10
10
10
10

...

4. Structural Considerations
l-l 8. Reinforced concrete .......
(a) Allowable stresses .....

10
10
VII

VIII

CONTENTS

Chapter I-General Requirements and
Design Considerations-Continued
(b)

l-20.
l-21.
l-22.
l-23.
l-24.

Page

Section

Section

l-l 9.

Chapter II-Conveyance StructuresContinued

Minimum reinforcement
requirements
(c) Minimum wall thickness’
(d) Fillets
. . .
. . . .
(e) Cutoffs . . . . . . . .
Structural steel and welding
5. Cunul
Freeboard . .
. . . . . . .
Winter operation
. . . . .
Profile sheet . . . . . . . . .
6. Forms ji~r Structures
Monolithic concrete . .
. .
Precast concrete
. . . . . .

11
11
14
14
14
14
14
14
16
16

2-l 0. Structure components
......
(a) Pipe
...........
(b) Transitions
........
(c) Pipe collars ........
(d) Blowoff structures .....
(e) Canal freeboard and
erosion protection
....
(f) Wasteways
(g) Safety features ’ 1 1 1 1 1 1
2-l 1. Hydraulic design considerations
.............
2-l 2. Design procedure
........
2-l 3. Design example .........
(a) Given ...........
(b) Determine
........

26
26
27
27
27
28
28
28
28
29
29
32
32

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY
D. BENCH

l-25.

Bibliography

. . . . .

17

Chapter II-Conveyance Structures
A. GENERAL

2-l.

Purpose . , . . . . . _ . . .
B. ROAD

2-2.
2-3.
2-4.
2-5.

2-6.

2-7.
2-8.
2-9.

CROSSINGS

Purpose and description
.
Application
. . .
. . .
Advantages . . . . . . .
Design considerations
. .
(a) Pipe
(b) Transitions ’ : : : :
(c) Pipe collars . . .
(d) Canal erosion protection
. .
. . .
Design example
.
. .
(a) Given .
. . . . .
(b) Determine
(c) Check of design. : :
C. INVERTED

19

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

: :
. .
. .
. .
. .
: :

19
19
21
21
21
22
22
23
23
23
23
24

SIPHONS

Purpose and description
. . .
Application
. . . .
. . . .
Advantages and disadvantages
of inverted siphons . . . . .

24
24
26

AND

ELEVATED

FLUMES

2-14. Purpose and description
.....
(a) General ..........
(b) Bench flumes .......
(c) Elevated flumes ......
1. Hydraulic Considerations
2-l 5. Flume section ..........
b
(a) Ratio..........
d
(b) Slope and velocity .....
(c) Freeboard .........
2-l 6. Transitions
(a) Genera; : : : : : : : : : :
(b) Inlet
...........
(c) Outlet
..........
(d) Freeboard .........
(e) Cutoffs ..........
2. Structural Considerutions of a
Rectangular Bench Flume
2-l 7. Flume section ..........
(a) Stability
(b) Wall loads : : : : : : : : :
(c) Concrete thickness .....
(d) Drainage
.........
(e) Joints ...........
(f) Safety requirements
....
2-l 8. Design example .........
(a) Given ...........
(b) Determine
........

38
38
38
38
39
39
39
40
40
40
40
41
41
41

41
41
41
41
41
41
42
42
42
42

(a) Bends . . . (b) Transitions . 2-32. 65 65 65 65 65 . . . (e) Freeboard . . . . 63 64 64 64 . . Design example of a type 1 pipe drop with a control and pipe inlet . . 2-25. (b) Determine . . . (d) Trajectory (e) Stilling pool 1 : 1 1 (f) Wave formation . . 1 . . . (e) Outlet . (a) Upstream transition (b) Inlet . . . (c) Rectangular inclined channel . . Advantages and disadvantages : : 66 66 66 66 66 F. 48 50 . . . . (a) Given . . . . . 2-24. . Pipe Chute 2-37. . . 104 104 105 105 106 108 115 116 . . . . . . (c) Pipe (d) Outlet transitions ’ : : : 2-30. . (c) Determine hydraulic setting for stilling pool by using table 2-1 (d) Alternative method for ’ determining stilling pool invert elevation . (a) Given . . . (d) Stilling pool . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 1. . (a) Type 1 (b) Type 2 : : : : : : : : : : . . . . 2. . . . . . . 63 2-33. 50 59 59 59 59 . 2-22. . . 1 . . . . . Design example of R. (c) Chute section . . (d) Determine additional dimensions . . 61 61 61 61 62 62 . 2-36. . . (a) Given . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 65 . CHUTES ’ . . . . . . . (b) Inlet to drop . I. . . . . Design procedure . . . Advantages and disadvantages 2-23. . . . . . Pipe chute 2-27. . drop with control inlet and stilling pool outlet . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS IX Chapter II-Conveyance Continued Structures- Chapter II-Conveyance Continued Structures- Scctiofz E. . . . . . 2-26. . . 131 . . Structure components . 2-28. . . (a) Manning’s coefficient of roughness(n) . . . 2. setting for stilling pool . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . Purpose and description . . . . . 104 . . . . . 98 99 99 . Percolation . . Design example . . . . (a) Upstream transitions . . . . 66 67 67 67 96 : 1 . . . Type 2 pipe drop structure components and design considerations (a) Baffled’outlkts ’ : : : : (b) Stilling pools (c) Outlet transition 1 1 1 1 (d) Design layout . . . . . . . . Purpose and description . . . . . . 2-3 5. . . . . . . Bibliography . (b) Pipe cover . . (b) Determine control inlet dimensions . . . (c) Percolation . . . . . . 96 98 98 98 98 98 . . . . . . . . Type 1 pipe drop structure components . Design considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Determine check inlet dimensions (c) Determine hydraulic’ . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 1 . 1 . 2-20. Purpose and description . . Function . . . . . . (d) Freeboard . Rectungular Inclined Drops 2-21. . . . . . Design example of R. . . . 101 : : 1. . . DROPS Page Section 2-19. . . . . . Hydraulic design . BIBLIOGRAPHY 2-38. . drop with check inlet and stilling pool outlet . . . . Open Channel Chute 2-34. 62 Page 2-29. . . Type 1 pipe drop design considerations . . . .

. . . (h) Pipe diameter . . . . . . . (b) Parshall flumes and weirs . . . . . . . INLETS H. . Design example . . . . . . (d) Overflow sidewalls . . . . (b) Determine . . . . . . . (a) Assumptions . . Purpose and description . (c) Inlet opening . . F. . BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . 3-20. Purpose and description . . . . . G. . TURNOUTS 3. . . . Design considerations . . . . . . . . (d) Sidewalls . . (f) Floor of inlet box and pipe invert . . 3-6.X CONTENTS Chapter Ill-Regulating Structures Chapter Ill-Regulating StructuresContinued A. 168 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 . . . . . . . . 3-l 7. . . . . . . . . . (c) Head loss . Combination structures . . . . 146 146 146 146 146 146 . . . Design example . . . . 3-l 0. . . 3-28. . 3-25. . : : 134 134 135 136 136 . . . . . . . (b) Stoplogs. . 3-8. . . . CHECK AND PIPE Page 3-l 9. . . . . . . . . . . 3-23. . . . . . . Structure numbering . A. . Application . . 3-5. (b) Determine . . 3-26. Application . 3-2 1. . . . 170 170 170 . . (e) Headwall . . . . . Design considerations (a) Stability and percolation. . . (g) Walk planks . . . . . . (f) Width of inlet box . . . DIVISION INLETS Set lion . . . . . . . . . . (b) Erosion protection . . . . . 3-4. . GENERAL secrion 3-1.1 1. . . . . 3-29. . 3-l 2. . . . . (c) Control notch . Design example . . . . . 3-16. . 3-9. . . and deck . . Design considerations (a) Upstream earth transition . . (a) Given . . . . (b) Percolation and stability (c) Hydraulics (d) Miscellaneous’ : : : : 3-l 3. . . . 150 151 154 . . . . . Description and purpose . Design considerations . . (c) Constant-head orifice structures . . . Design considerations (a) Upstream transitions 1 (b) Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKS 3-2. 3-22. . . . 3-24. . . . 150 . . . . . . . 133 B. 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 168 . 139 139 140 140 D. . . 146 146 149 149 . . . . . gates. . . . (i) Pipe vents . . . . . . . . Structures GENERAL Purpose . Purpose and description . . CONTROL AND PIPE . . . 178 1 . . . . 3-l 5. . Description and purpose . . (a) Velocity . 179 . . Turnouts without water measuremen t . . . 136 136 136 C. . 3-3. . . CHECK-DROPS 3-7. . . (e) Headwall . Design example . Bibliography STRUCTURES 3-l 8. Chapter IV-Protective E. . 162 4-l. . Design considerations . . . . . . . . . Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design example . . . . . . . . . (g) Inlet invert elevation (h) Pipe diameter . Turnouts with measurement (a) Flow meters . . . . Purpose and description . . . Structure numbering . Spacing . . . 3-27. . . . . . . . . . 3-14. . . Page Regulating structures . . . . . . Design example . . . . 170 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 173 173 173 . .

.. Design considerations ..... ........ 190 (b) Slide gates 190 (c) Radial gates ... .... 4-5..................... 198 (b) Solution ... CROSS-DRAINAGE STRUCTURES 4-l 9.......... Lifts and hoists . P+?tT 192 4-l 1........... (d) Pool ... Design considerations ... (c) Wasteway outlet .... (i) Operation ... 202 4-l 8... Side Channel Spillways General .......... 189 (a) Usage ...... . Design example . Miscellaneous considerations ..... 4-3........... (b) Wasteway capacity ......CONTENTS XI Chapter IV-Protective StructuresContinued Chapter IV-Protective Continued Structures- SECtion B....... (b) Cross-drainage alternatives ... .. 198 (a) Assumptions ............ (a) Overflow crest .. (c) Head ...... (f) Wasteway outlet structure ... Design considerations ........ WASTEWAYS See tion 4-2................ (a) Siphon crossings .. (d) Trajectory 191 192 (e) Outlet ............. 192 (c) Operation . 4-4..... General .... (e) Crest ....... (a) Wasteway inlets .... (c) Wasteway channel and channel structures ........ (b) Solution (c) Check of hydraulics’ : : : : 179 179 180 180 181 181 181 181 181 181 182 182 182 182 182 184 184 184 184 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 187 2. 197 (h) Siphon breaker (i) Pool 197 (j) Outlet transition 1 1 1 1 1 1 197 (k) Protection .... 192 (b) Percolation ... 198 4-l 6.................. (b) Wasteway outlets ...................... (d) Natural drainage channels ......... 192 (c) Hydraulically controlled .. (a) Protection .......... 189 189 (c) Types of gates .. 4-9. 195 (a) Usage ........ (d) Appurtenant canal structures .............. Location and number ..... 4-8..... (b) Description 195 (c) Function 195 (d) Appurtenances .... 1.... .... 195 ................ (e) Pipe . (b) Side channel (c) Wasteway turnout gate .. Limitations . Gated Wasteway Turnouts 189 General .. (b) Power-operated lifts or hoists . .... (a) Manually operated 192 lifts .. (a) Assumptions .. 192 192 4-l 3..... C.... .............. 4-7.. Wasteway capacity considerations (a) Spillway ’ : : : : : : : : : (b) Wasteway turnout gate .... : : : : : : 196 196 4... ..... Hydraulics 190 (a) Inlet 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 190 .... 196 197 (d) Entrance .. 197 .............. 192 192 4-l 2. 197 197 (f) Throat .. .... General . 4-10 PZgC Description .15..... 193 (b) Solution 3.. 197 (1) Percolation .......... ......... Design example ................ 198 4.............. Design example ........ (g) Percolation (h) Protection ... ...... 4-6.. 192 (a) Assumptions .......... (g) Downstream leg . 196 (b) Capacity ... ..................... .. Check Inlet Wasteway Turnouts 201 4-17.. 196 (a) General ... Siphon Spillways 4-14... 202 202 202 . General ....

.... . .. .. .. . .. . .. Chapter IV-Protective Continued SWrim 203 203 203 204 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 206 206 206 207 207 207 207 207 209 209 209 210 210 210 211 211 213 . . . . .. ... (a) Inlet .... . . (b) Pipe velocity . 4-27. . 2. (c) Inlet transition . Culverts 4-20.. . ... . Design example . . . ... . Concrete overchute hydraulics . .. . . General .......... .... Rectangular concrete drain inlet to earth section .... (e) Stilling pool . 4-26... (b) Conduit . . (d) Pipe outlet . .. Outlet types . . . . . . 4-40. . (e) Determination of inlet or outlet control .... .. .... 4-25. Outlet energy dissipators . .. 3.. ... .. . (c) Design capacity . (b) Types . . . 4-2 1. . . . ..... . 4-39. Inlet (a) Type’1 ’ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (b) Type 2 ..... . (a) Inlet .. . (d) Type 4 . . Pipe drain inlets .... (b) Gravel blanket drain inlet . . ... .. .... (f) Inlet control hydraulics (g) Outlet control hydraulics . Pipe overchute hydraulics . . 4-3 I. .. (a) Concrete transitions . General . (e) Percolation .. . Inlet types . .. Other types of drain inlets ... .. . Hydraulics .. . (c) Type 3 ... . Conduit . (f) Protection .. . (a) Inlet transition . (b) Protection . .. .... .. .... .. 4-22.. Profile .. . . . Design example .... (d) Canal bank ... . 215 216 216 216 216 216 218 218 218 Structures- (a) (b) 4-37. (b) Pipe velocity ... (a) Bank heights . (b) Critical flow .... (c) Verification of hydraulics by the Bernoulli method . . Other considerations . . .. 4-29....... 4-33. .... ... .. . . Concrete transitions . Profile ... 4-44. _ . . ... .. Conduit . ... Alinemen t .. .... Pipe collars ... . .. .... . (b) Solution . . ....... . ... . (a) Rectangular conduit (b) Pipe conduit .. ... (c) Outlet (d) Percolation’ : : : : : : : : (e) Protection . . . 4-34.. 4-23.. . . .. . . (b) Outlet energy dissipators .. . ... (a) Rectangular concrete drain inlets to a concrete-lined canal . Outlet ... (a) Design capacity . .. .. .. (b) Solution . . . 4-36..... .. .. ... .... ..XII CONTENTS Chapter IV-Protective StructuresContinued Page (c) Cross-drainage capacity 203 1. 4-42. ........ ... Page 218 218 218 218 220 220 220 221 221 221 221 221 222 224 224 224 224 224 224 225 230 230 231 231 232 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 236 236 236 237 237 237 237 237 ... 4-38.. (e) Precast concrete transitions (f) Earth transitions : : .... Overchutes General ... .. . .. .... ... (c) Chute . ... . (d) Hydraulic control .. . Alinemen t . . . .. .... .... 4-28... 4-32. (b) Flume .. Capacity .. .. . . .. (a) Assumptions .. . . . (a) Assumptions . Druin In lets 4-41... ....... (a) Location ... .. ..... . . . (c) Pipe diameter . . .. .. . (d) Outlet pool .. 4-24. 4-35.... . .. . . . . ................ 4-30. . .. .... ... (a) Rectangular section ... (c) Pipe diameter ... (c) Percolation .. . (d) Chute hydraulics .. ... . ..... . . 4-43. . . Protection .

. .. 5-4. .. . . .... .. . Disadvantages . 246 . . (b) Solution .... Design example with submerged-flow discharge Use of tables and figures for discharge and free-flow determinations . . . (d) Head on weir ... . ... .... . WEIRS 5.... (c) Head losses ....... . ..... . (d) Head loss .... ...... . (c) Weir setting . 5-l 5.. Determination of upstream canal water surface ... Application . . 5-28..... . ... . . (a) Velocity (b) Requirements’for accu: ’ ’ ’ rate flow measurement .... ...... (c) Size determination ... Types of measuring structures B. (a) Requirements .... ... Types of flow ... ...... Design example of selecting and setting a weir .. . . (b) Head losses .CONTENTS XIII Chapter IV-Protective StructuresContinued Chapter V-Water Measurement Structures-Continued Section Pap Sectiorl PLlgCY 4-45...... BIBLIOGRAPHY . . (a) Assumptions .. .. 5-l 8.. ... Bibliography .. (a) Weir blade . Advantages and disadvantages ...... MODIFIED . Types of weirs . 295 295 295 295 295 295 296 296 H. Advantages . ..... ... . BIBLIOGRAPHY 4-46. .. ..... .. ... ... GENERAL 5-1. . 5-27... 5-7.. Chapter V-Water 24 1 Measurement Structures A. Design considerations . 247 .. (a) Solution . .. 5-3. .. Design considerations .. 5-l 2.. .. 248 248 F.. 244 245 245 245 . . .. Design example with freeflow discharge . Description ..... OPEN-FLOW 291 291 29 1 291 291 291 METERS 5-25.. . 297 ... (b) V-notch weirs . Disadvantages ... .. ... Design example . .. 5-l 6.. .... 248 248 . .. . .. (a) Rectangular and Cipolletti weirs . . 5-20.. .......... 5-8.. . .... Head-discharge relationship .. . 5-l 7.. 5-6. . . . .. Purpose and descrjption . . . Advantages . ... .. Description . D. 5-24. PARSHALL ... .. STILLING 243 FLUMES Description .. . Design example ..... . ..’ tionship .. 259 259 WELLS 5-I 1.. 5-2 1..... . (a) Head discharge rela....... .. 5-10... . Requirements for accurate measurement .. 5-19. . Bibliography .. .. . Purpose and description 266 266 266 266 273 273 273 273 273 273 273 273 BOXES 5-22.. . . . (b) Weir selection .. (a) Free-flow discharge (b) Submerged-flow discharge . 5-5..... .. .. ...... ..... . Size selection .... weir relationship ... G...... . ... 260 260 E. Purpose and description . 5-26....13. 237 237 238 5-14. (b) Wve (c) Approach’channelk.. PARSHALL 5-2.. 5-23.. . . ... C.. WEIR FLUMES 5-9.. Adjustable weirs . Design criteria ... 260 261 26 1 262 262 D. 260 5-29. .

(a) Usage .. . .. .. . . Chapter VII-Transitions Erosion Protection and A. . (b) Types of vertical sleeve valves . (b) Cross-drainage pipe structure transitions . . .. . 7-7. . 6-8. Type 5 transitions . . (b) Sleeve valve design . Type 3 transitions .. .. . .. .. . . . Design considerations . TRANSITIONS 1.. . .. Basin width design procedure Design example . . . . .. (b) Determination of the basin dimensions . . . BAFFLED DROPS General .. (f) Outlet transition . (a) Given . . . . . 6-3. .. . .... . . (b) Inlet control features . . (c) Water surface angle . .. 299 299 299 300 300 301 301 301 301 ... . . 6-l 3. . (e) Uplift stability . . . (f) Sliding stability .. (d) Channel erosion . . .. Design Considerations for Pipe Structure Transitions 7-3. . .. . (g) Outlet protection . . . (c) Determination of erosion protection requirements . . .. 323 .XIV CONTENTS Chapter VI-Energy Dissipators Chapter VI-Energy DissipatorsContinued Section A. 333 .. .... (a) Assumptions . . Page (a) Inlet conditions . . (b) Head losses . . (b) Solution .. . 6-10.... ..... 322 D. 322 322 .. Standardization . . Design example .. 7-8. .. . . . .. . 6-12. .. . . .. . Hydraulic design . 6-4.. . . BAFFLED 6-5. (b) Capacity . Cutoffs . . . . . . . . 325 325 326 .. 7-2. .. . Page Energy dissipators . . . . . 7-5. . (a) Pipe submergence . Sediment and debris . . . . .. . Type 4 transitions . (a) Description . E. .. . ..... .... . . . .. . GENERAL Section 6-1. . . .. . Bibliography . . Hydraulic considerations . 6-2.... 326 327 327 328 330 330 330 330 330 331 . .. _ .. . . 302 303 303 304 304 304 304 . .. . . . . . . . B. ... ... 6-6. . 7-10. .. . ... . . 7-l.. . . 2. . . . 7-4. (c) Inlet ... C. . .. . (g) Miscellaneous considerations Design example . (d) Baffled apron dimensions .. Type 1 transitions (brokenback) . . .. 7-9. .. . .. . (e) Armor plating . .. Type 2 transition .. 308 309 321 321 321 321 321 . . .. . . . . . . . . . Purpose and description . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY 6. . . .. . . .. .. .. . .14. APRON .. General .... EROSION 335 335 335 336 336 336 336 342 342 3 42 342 342 343 344 344 345 345 PROTECTION 7-l 2. . Protection . . . . .. . . . . . (c) Hydraulic requirements (d) Well dimensions . (d) Limitations . . . .. . . Design considerations . . . ... 345 ... . .. (c) Usage of vertical sleeve valve stilling wells . . .. .. . B. . . . 7-6.. . (c) Miscellaneous features . 321 .. 6-9. . .. Earth transitions .. VERTICAL SLEEVE VALVE STILLING WELLS 6-l 1.. . . : : 1 .... (b) Solution . . (a) Assumptions . . General Purpose and description ... . . . 7-l 1. .... . Types (a) Inline canal structure transitions . .. ... OUTLETS Purpose and description . . . .... . . (a) General . . . 6-7..... .. ..

(d) Bends for reinforced plastic mortar pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air vents . . . . . 8-8. . . .59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ (c) Bends for asbestoscement pipe . . . . . . . . Asbestos-cement pressure pipe . Bibliography 362 364 9-1. . . . . . . . . 8-9. 8-13. Pdge (a) 345 347 347 383 383 DEVICES Types . . Section C. . Inverted siphons . . 8-19. . Corrugated-metal pipe . Precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe . . . . . . 371 . 364 365 . . . . . . 373 . . . 349 349 6. . (g) Joints for welded steel pipe . . . . 9-2. . . GENERAL Pipe and pipe appurtenances Hydraulic head losses . . 359 359 . . . . . Fencing . . . . . . . . 9-3. . 373 . Safety cables . . . Pipe safety barrier . (e) Bends for corrugatedmetal pipe . . . . . . . . . . . Precast reinforced concrete culvert pipe . . . Welded steel pipe . ’ ’ . . . . C. . 373 . . . . . . . 8-4. . PIPE 8-3. . BIBLIOGRAPHY 7-16 Bibliography . siderations (b) Bends for precast con-’ f Crete pipe . . . . Pipe joints . . . . Safety racks . BIBLIOGRAPHY APPURTENANCES 8-10. . . . Cross-drainage structures . . . . (c) Joints for culvert pipe (d) Joints for corrugatedmetal pipe . . . . . . . . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY 9-4. . . . . . 371 . PIPE _ 8-14.xv CONTENTS Chapter VII-Transitions and Erosion Protection-Continued Section Chapter VIII-Pipe and Pipe Appurtenances-Continued Page 7-l 3. 8-l 5. . 365 . . . 8-7. . . 375 . 383 . . 347 Chapter VIII-Pipe and Pipe Appurtenances A. . . . 371 371 371 . . . . 359 . . . A. . . Hazard exposure classification . Pipe bends (a) Purpose and design con-. . . Other structures . . . . 8-6. . . . Pipe safety barrier Safety nets . . . . . . Step-type pipe tapers . D. . . 371 . . Pipe collars and percolation . . General . Pipe embedment . . 8-l 1. . . . . . . . . Safety ladders . . . 8-2. 8-l 8. . 8-12. . . 3. . . . . . 3 98 384 384 393 393 393 394 394 396 B. . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforced plastic mortar pressure pipe . Warning signs . . 373 . . . . Other pipe . . . . (b) Joints for precast reinforced concrete pressurepipe . . . . . 372 . SAFETY . 8-5. . . . . 8-l 7. 375 379 379 382 Chapter IX-Safety . . . . . . . . 8-l 6. . . . . . (e) Joints for asbestoscement pressure pipe (f) Joints for reinforced plastic mortar pipe . . . . . . 7-15. . 359 361 362 Purpose and design considerations . . . . . . Pipe earthwork . 7-14. Guardrails . . . . . . . . . . 8-l. . Blowoff structures . . . 373 . . . . . Bibliography . .

. . Page Fishing on Hungry Horse Reservoir. . . . . . l-5. . . 3-2. Wasteway and drain rectangular inclined drop dimensions and reinforcement . . . Washington . . . l. . Free-flow discharge through 6-inch Parshail measuring flume in cubic feet per second . 2-3. Page 413 401 Appendix B-Conversion Factors B-l. . 5 . . . . Boating on the Rogue River Project. Oregon . . . . . Uniform flow in trapezoidal channels by Manning’s formula . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . 155 6-1. Arizona . . . 409 LIST OF TABLES Table 2-l. . 3-1. . .CONTENTS XVI Appendix A-Glossary Appendix C-Computer Program of Terms Page SCCtiOtl See tion C-l. . . . International System (SI metric)/U. . . . Gila Project. . . . . . . Table 5-2. 81 . Irrigating sugar beets on the Boise Project. . Uniform flow in trapezoidal channels by Manning’s formula . 5-1. Discharge of 90’ V-notch weirs in cubic feet per second . . Irrigating corn using siphon tubes. . Friction losses for circular conduits . 3 3 l-7. . . Program 223-E3WSP . . . . capacity 20 cfs . . 3 . Red Willow Unit. . . 56 . . . . . . Discharge of constant-head orifice turnout in cubic feet per second. . . . . . . . 70 5-4. . . Page Open canal system supplying irrigation water to citrus groves. . . . . 5-6. . Discharge of standard suppressed rectangular weirs in cubic feet per second . Sprinkler irrigation in the Coachella Valley. . . List of symbols and abbreviations . Uniform flow in circular sections flowing partly full . . . . . Figure l-4. 253 254 275 281 288 290 301 350 384 252 LIST OF FIGURES Figure l-l. . . . .S. 2-5. in cubic feet per second . 2-4. . . . . Safety fence classification . . . . .through g-foot size. . . Discharge of standard contracted rectangular weirs in cubic feet per second . . . . 2-6. . . Montana . . . . . California Irrigating fruit on the Yakima Project. 124 . Type 1 pipe drop with concrete outlet transition . . 53 5-3. . . 2-2. 127 5-5. Discharge of standard Cipolletti weirs in cubic feet per second . . Idaho . Nebraska . . . . . . . 5 . . . . Page Free-flow discharge through 9-inch Parshall measuring flume in cubic feet per second . . 8-l. . Recommended discharge . . . Customary Conversion Factors . Free-flow discharge through Parshall measuring flumes. . 130 5-7. 2-7. . . Page Canal and lateral rectangular inclined drop dimensions and reinforcement . . . Type 1 pipe drop with earth outlet transition . . capacity 10 cfs . l-3. .1. Discharge of constant-head orifice turnout in cubic feet per second. . . l-2. . . 156 9-l. . 5 . . 2 l-6. . . . . . . .

. . . . 15 . . Road crossing plan and section Jacking and threading pipe under roadway . Series of rectangular inclined drops . 2-6. . . 2-32. . . . Rectangular inclined drop in operation . . . Inverted siphon inlet transition and 60-inch-diameter precast concrete pipe . . . . 16 . . . . 2-13. 2-14. . Pipe drop with baffled outlet and pipe collars . 2-46. . . Surging in a stilling pool caused by unstable flow in a chute structure . . 2-28. . . . . . . . 1-I 0. . . . Stilling pool and outlet portions of a spillway structure . . l-l 2. . Freeboard for canal banks and freeboard for hard surface. 2-25. 2-9. 2-37. 2-8. . . . . Type 1 pipe drop with earth outlet transition . . . . . . 103 . . 26 . . 2-36. 111 112 112 . . . . 2-27. . and earth linings . . Schematic profile of bench flume . 2-35. Type 1 pipe drop-plan and ’ ’ sections . buried membrane. . Rectangular inclined droptype 1 . . . 36 39 39 . . Inverted siphon under construction . 2-47. . . . . . . . . . . Placing precast concrete transition . . . . . Slide gate being operated to control flow through turnout Road crossing . . . . . 80 96 . . . 21 . 49 . . . . . 48 . . . Final layout of inverted siphon . . . . 51 . . General notes and minimum requirements for detailing reinforcement . 39 39 . . . . 2-l 5. sition. 2-18. . Concrete bench flume . . Invert. 48 Figure 2-20. . . . . . . partially backfilled Precast concrete turnout inlet being lowered into position on mortar pad . . 2-30. . In-place precast concrete tran. . . . . . 2-2. Typical rectangular chutes . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10. 2-22. . . . . 46 47 . . . . . . . 30 . Pipe drops . . . . 109 110 111 _ . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . 26 . . 2-l. . . 2-45. 40 45 . . . . 2-24. 49 . . . Rectangular inclined dropp type 2 . . . . Early day elevated flume . Terminal wasteway with a rectangular inclined drop into a stilling pool . 2-26. . . 103 . . . 2-4. . . . Stilling pool with end sill . . Theoretical waveless chute section . 97 102 . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 .CONTENTS XVII Page Figure 1-8. . water surface. . . l-1 1. 2-5. Tailwater and jump elevation curve . Determination of sump elevation for type 1 pipe drop . . . . . . . 25 . Pipe drop with baffled outlet . . . . 2-l 2. Preliminary layout of inverted siphon . Rectangular inclined drop with control notch inlet . . . 16 . . . Rectangular concrete chute on a steep slope . . . . . . . Inverted siphon plan and section . Type 1 pipe drop with concrete outlet transition 2-3 1. 2-2 1. . . . . . Concrete bench flume . . . . . . 115 . . 2-7. . 103 107 . 12 . . 2-l 9. . . . 2-4 1. . . Rectangular inclined drop . . . . 2-42. . . . . and energy profiles of a chute strut ture . . . 68 . . . 112 113 . . . . . .16. . Rectangular inclined drop under construction . l-l 3. 2-33. . . . . . . 2-29. . 16 . 2-3. . . . . . Design of free-flow siphon inlets . . . . . . . . 2-40. Weep hole with gravel pocket . . . . . . . . . 2-l 7. . . . . . Energy loss in hydraulic jump 2-38. . . . 2-34. . . 31 . . . . . 69 ’ . . Type 2 pipe drop-plan and sections . . . . . Cross section of bench flume . . Elevated flume crossing natural drainage . . . . Pulsating flow in steep chute . . Criteria for slug flow . 1-9. . . . . . . . . 2-39. . . . Transition lengths . . 17 19 20 . . . . . . 2-11. 2-23. . . . . . . . . . 52 . . Shape and slope criteria for slug flow . . . . . . . . Concrete pipeline for bench construction . . Precast concrete transitions in various stages of comple tion . 2-43. 1-14. 2. . . Unstable flow at shallow depth 2-44. . . . . . . . Page . . 49 50 50 . .

. 192 . 3-l 7. Wave sweeping through the outlet transition of a stilling pool . . . . . . Standard check structures . . 3-39. . . . . 162 163 . . . . . . . . Completed turnout structure ready for backfilling . . Concrete check structure . . . . . 115 117 121 123 . . 3-24. . . . . Concrete check-drop . . Division structure using 2-foot adjustable weirs . . 3-l 2. . . . Standard check-drop structures 3-14. . . 163 . . . Chute with stilling pool 2-50. . _ 4-13. . . . . . . 3-3 1. Pipe division box . . Side channel spillway in operation in foreground. . . 185 . . . 182 . Check inlet to 42-inchdiameter pipe siphon . . . and wasteway gate at far end of spillway crest . . . with side channel spillway 4-6. . 193 . 3-35. 3-21. 144 147 149 149 149 150 151 151 151 152 152 152 153 157 Figure 3-28. . . . . . Standard check-drop structures 3-l 3. . . . . . Two-barrel constant-head orifice turnout . . . . . . Constant-head orifice structure used as a check . . . 160 . 195 . . . . 4-3. . . . . . 4-12. . . 3-5. . 139 . . . . Side channel spillway used as a wasteway turnout . . . Check and pipe inlet in operation . . . . Precast concrete turnout inlets . . 3-29. . . . Lateral turnout gates . . . 3-36. . 3-18. . . _ . 4-8. . 158 159 . General plan of typical canal with wasteway turnout . . 3-25. . . 189 . . . 180 . . 3-33. _ . Turnout structure in earth channel . . . . . . . . Concrete check with slide gate 3-10. _ 3-26. . . . . Radial gate wasteway turnouttypical sections . . . . . . . . Drop structure using a weir for regulation . . . _ . 4-4. . . . . . . 3-4. . . Flow through turnout being measured with an open-flow meter . 186 . . . . . . . . 3-l. Stilling pool on pipe chute _ . . . . . Operator removing stoplogs from a check-drop structure 3-8. . 191 . 4-2. 3-30. 3-38. Control notch graphs . Page . . . . . . . Division structure with flow over 18-inch weir in foreground . . . 166 167 172 176 . . . 3-15. . 4-7. . . . . . 4-l 0. . . 4-9. . . . . 3-22. . . Side channel spillway-typical sections . . 3-l 1. . . . . . . 2-5 1. 183 . . Check-drop maintaining an upstream water surface . . 3-34. . 3-l 9. . . . . 3-32. . 187 . Check and pipe inlet . Siphon spillway with siphon breaker pan . . . . 3-40. Standard check structures 3-7. . . . . . . . 133 134 134 135 137 138 . . Check inlet to pipe structure . . . . Check inlet to pipe structure . . . . . . . Completed turnout inlets in casting yard _ . 4-l. . . . 4-5. . Standard dimensions for a 3-foot check-drop structure . . 163 164 . . . . . Pipe chutes . Dimensions for a constant-head orifice . . Constant-head orifice turnout . .XVIII CONTENTS Page Figure 2-48. . . 140 140 140 140 141 142 . . . . . . . . . Division structure with pipe inlet . Control and pipe inlet . Constant-head orifice turnout inlet . . . 3-37. . . . . Side channel spillway-outlet hydraulics . . . . . _ . . . Radial gate used in combination with overflow spillway . . Turnout 3-16. . . . . Division structure . 3-6. . . . 2-49. . . 4-l 1. . . . Farm turnout outlet . . . Operator adjusting orifice gate on a constant-head orifice turnout . . . . . Control notch maintains water surface above a drop inlet to a pipe structure . . Constant-head orifice turnout with stilling wells . 3-20. . . . . . 3-27. . . . . _ 3-23. . 3-2. . . General plan of typical canal . . . 3-3. . 180 . . Radial gate wasteway turnoutsubmerged flow . . Wasteway turnout with side channel spillway and slide gate . . . . . Precast turnout inlet in place in canal bank . . . Wasteway turnout at left. . . 3-9. 165 . . . . . . . Division structure used as outlet to turnout . _ . . and radial gate check structure at right side of photograph . 190 .

.typical plan and sections . . . . 238 . 5-6. Concrete drain inlet dimensions . . . . 4-30. . . . Typical suppressed weir in a flume drop . . . . . . Concrete box culvert with conCrete percolation collars . 232 . Overchute-chute hydraulics 4-37. and nomenclature .XIX CONTENTS Figure Figure 4-14. . . . 5-8. 196 198 198 199 201 203 204 . . Precast concrete pipe culvert with type 3 inlet transition . . 231 . 206 207 . . 4-l 8. . . Rectangular concrete dram inlet to a concrete-lined canal section . . . . 249 . . . . 208 210 211 2 14 2 15 . Steel pipe overchute on the Colorado-Big Thompson Project . . . . . . . . . 243 . 248 . . 4-20. . . 204 . . . . . . . 4-33. Standard contracted weir discharging at free flow . . Diagram for determining rate of submerged flow in a 6-inch Parshall flume . . . . Culvert hydraulics . . . 4-44. . constructed prior to construction of canal . . . . 4-32. profile . . . . . . . . 1 through 8 feet wide . . 263 . . Plan and profile of typical culverts . . Culvert-typical 4-29. 231 Pafit2 . 4-36. Siphon spillway hood at left. . Concrete weir structure with standard con tracted Cipolletti weir . . . . . . . . . . 4-l 7. . 222 _ 225 . 4-41. 244 244 ’ ’ . 5-4. . . Baffled outlet at end of a culvert . . Relationship of flow depth to the flume crest elevation . 4-22. Open-flow meter attached to a concrete pipe 5-5. Overchute. 4-3 1. Check and pipe inlet spilling over crest . . . . . . . . . Culvert. . 236 . . . 4-l 6. . . . . . . 4-38. . . . . . Siphon spillway-typical sections . Drain inlets-plan and sections 4-43. . . . . . 4-26. . . Flow through a 9-inch Parshall flume . . . . . . . . 219 . . . . . . . . . 4-25. . . 4-27. . . . 243 . . Precast concrete pipe culvert with precast concrete inlet transition . . 4-24. . . 250 . profile. 261 . 205 . . . . . . Diagram for detemrining correction to be subtracted from free-flow discharge to obtain rate of submergedflow discharge through Parshall flumes. General plan of typical canal with siphon spillway . . . . 251 259 . . 5-l 1. 5-l 0. . . 5-2. . . . . . _ . . . Standard Parshall flume dimcnsions . 5-7. 4-l 9. 250 . . . . . . 262 . . 4-2 1. Overchuteevertical drop hydraulics . . . 5-9. . . 4-35. . . . . . 251 . Drain inlet-plan and sections 4-42. . . 5-l. Artist sketch showing Parshail ’ flume in a canal . . . . _ . . . . 5-l 4. . . . . .13. Pipe drain inlet-plan. . . . 2 16 . . . . . 5-l 2. . 217 . . . . Rectangular concrete overchute . .typical plan and sections . . . . . 226 . . . . . . . . . Concrete box culvert with baffled apron drop at outlet . 5-l 5. . Drain inlet on far bank of earth section canal. . . . and hoist for radial gate check at . 5-3. . . . Overchute-typical . . . . Rectangular inclined drain inlet to earth section . . Modified Parshall flume 5. . Head loss through Parshall flumes. . . 4-23. . . . . . . . 4-28. . . . . . . . . Drain inlet with flap gate to prevent reverse flow . . . 244 . . . . . right side of photograph 4-l 5. . Weighted-creep method profile _ . 233 234 235 . Diagram for determining rate of submerged flow in a 9-inch Parshall flume . . radial gate for wasteway turnout in center. Recently constructed Parshall flume . . . . Water flowing over a standard Cipolle t ti weir . Overchutes. _ . 4-39. . . . . . . . . . . . 4-40. . 4-34. . . . . . . 205 . 1 through 8 feet wide . Double-barreled pipe culvert with concrete percolation collars . . . and motor-operated gate hoist for turnout gate in foreground . . . . . Siphon spillway with siphon breaker pan in place .

.. . . 7-7. . . . 6-l 5... . Head loss coefficient for the standard sleeve valve .. ... .. . . . Pipe collars . . . . Longitudinal section turnout and weir box .. .. .4..... Orifice of the standard sleeve valve . . . . .. . . 5-30.. . ... .. . . .. . .. 6-7. . Type 9 baffled outlet (i-20.. . . . . .. 367 . Type 3 baffled outlet .. . . . Corrugated-metal pipe used for road crossing . 6-23. . Concrete transitions-type 5 7-4. . 6-5.. 6-2 1.. . . . . . . . . .. Sill curve dimensions . 5-22. . . 8-l 2. .. . . . 324 325 327 . Artist sketch of turnout with open-flow meter attached . . 5-26. Thrust forces on bend . . .. . . . . 361 362 . . . .. . Type 5 baffled outlet . . 6-25. 340 . . . . Type 2 baffled outlet . . . Downstream wingwalls . . . . .. 361 . 6-9. . . . . 6-6. . ... 5-24.. . Baffled apron drop design . . . . ’ filling . ... . . . . . Outlet transition for openflow meter 6-l. 6-22. .. lk.... 8-10. Large baffled outlet Design width of basin .. ... . .. . 360 . . . . 5-25. . . . . 6-26... 8-4. 5-28. .. . . 5-23. .. . . 5-20. Overhead welded steel pipe crossing . 361 . . . . .. .. . 8-3.. Typical sleeve valve installation for pipe turnout . ’ . . . .. . . 6-l 2. . Concrete transitions-type 2 7-5. .. Type 4 baffled outlet . 366 . 6-3.. . . Installation of corrugatedmetal-pipe road crossing ... . . . 8-5. . ... . Baffled apron d. Welded steel pipe flume .. Precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe in trench prior to backfilling .xx Figure 5-16. . . . 2: .. Erosion protection .. . . Staff or weir gage installation . 7-l. . . . Baffled apron drop with wingwalls located upstream from the outlet end . 328 329 ’ . . .. . . . . Cipolletti weir stmctures5 feet to 16 feet . . . . _ . 6-l 3. 5-l 7. .. . 361 . Water surface drop and total head loss across baffles and weir gage stilling well of 4-foot weir box . . 319 320 ... 5-3 1. . . . Cipolletti weir in a permanent bulkhead-free-flow conditions . . . Type 6 baffled outlet . . Baffled apron drop with inlet control notches . 329 335 337 338 339 . . Forms for thrust block on 54-inch-diameter precast concrete pipe .. Staff or weir gage . .. . Type 8 baffled outlet Page 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 291 292 293 294 295 296 300 301 301 301 305 306 307 308 309 3 10 3 11 3 12 3 13 3 14 3 15 3 16 3 17 3 18 Figure CONTENTS . . . Three-foot weir box . . 8-6.. . .e ba$. . . Two-foot movable weir . 341 . ... . 8-7. 5-18. Typical inlet types . . . ing well . Typical sleeve valve and still-. 8-l. .. 8-9. 7-6. 362 363 .. . 6-14. .. . Typical vertical sleeve valves 6-24. . 342 346 . . Head loss coefficients for pipe bends . .... 364 . 6-8. . Concrete inlet transitionstype 4 . .. 6-l 7. 323 . . Concrete transitions-type 1 7-3.. Handwheels. 6-2. . .. . 368 . . .. 6-4. 6-16. . Adjustable weirs-2 and 3 feet wide 5-2 1.. . .. .. Cipolletti weir structures12 inches to 4 feet . . . Type 10 baffled outlet . Asbestos-cement pressure pipe bends . . . . .. Concrete inlet transitionstype 3 . Four-foot weir box 5-29. . 6-l 9. 328 . .‘and’i inches . 8-2. Type 1 concrete transition 7-2. . . Precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe used for inverted siphon . . . 8-8. . . . . Three-foot movable weir .. . 6-10.. . 6-l 8.. . Division structure with adjustable weirs . . 8-l 1. .. 5-27. 6-l 1. .. . . . . . .op defo. Type 1 baffled outlet . . . Precast concrete culvert pipe bends .. . .. .. . . . 5-l 9. ... . Upstream wingwalls . Page . . . . ... . . . 6-27. . ’ . Precast concrete pressure pipe bends .. . Sleeve valve stilling well arrangements .. Type 7 baffled outlet . ... .. . . . Type 4 inlet concrete transition . . . ... . Vertical sleeve valve stilling well dimensions 6-28. . 7-8. .

. . . . . . . . 9-8. . . 3 77 378 380 381 9-13. . . . . . . . 372 9-l 0. 394 395 . . . 9-6. . and safety rack at siphon inlet Safety fence along a chute . 8-23. . . . . 9-5. 8-15. . . . Safety ladder . . Pipe earthwork detailsreinforced plastic mortar pipe-earth and rock excavation . . Safety rack on inlet transition . . . 9-14. . Safety cable with floats upstream of a siphon inlet . School and urban fence . . . . . Rural fence . . . . . . . . 382 9-17. Safety net and cable . . . . . . . . handrail. . Two-rail handrail-42 inches high . . . . . . . 9-20. . . . . . Typical pipe handrail installation along sides of inclined drop and stilling pool . 8-17. . . . . 382 385 386 387 388 389 9-18. . . and safety fence at siphon inlet . . . Three-rail handrail-42 inches high . . 395 396 397 . . 8-20. 9-2. . 9-12. . . . . . . 9-19. 9-3. Safety rack . 390 Page Safety fence. Precast concrete pipe embedment . . 94. Manhole and blowoff for concrete pressure pipe . . . . 369 . . . . Pipe earthwork details-precast concrete or asbestos-cement pipe-earth or rock excavation . . Pipe safety barrier . . . . 9-15. . . . 8-22. . . . . 8-2 I . safety cable. . . . . . Safety ladder and safety cable with floats upstream of a siphon inlet . . . . . . . . . .13. . . 9-2 1. . Stock fence with wood posts . . . . 398 399 . . . 8-l 6. . . . . safety net. . . . 390 390 . . . . . . . Precast concrete pipe jointstypes B and B-l . . . . . . . Stock fence with steel posts . and having handrails on both sides of walkway . . . . . Warning sign. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14. Safety net and cable at siphon inlet . 390 . . . . . . 394 . Check inlet with safety fence. . . . . . . . . 16-inch steel ladder . . . 398 . Rope safety net upstream of checked siphon inlet . 391 . . . Concrete pipe air vent . Wire mesh safety net at siphon inlet . . . 392 . . . . Asbestos-cement pressure pipe and reinforced plastic mortar pressure pipe bends . . Deer fence . . 9-9. . Step-type pipe taper . Precast concrete pipe joint& copper seal-type D . 395 . . . . . Safety cable with floats . . . . . . 370 . . 9-22. 9-16. . 8-24. . . 393 . . . 373 374 9-l 1. . 9-l. 9-7. . 8-l 8. 8-l 9. 376 . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS XXI Figure Figure 8. Blowoff for precast concrete pipe . .

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water delivery to the land must be provided by a reliable and efficient irrigation system. Such structures include: (1) inverted siphons to convey canal water under natural channels. (a) Corzveyance Structures. JR. AISENBREY. (2) road crossings to carry canal water under roadways. Wasteway structures also are used to control flow in a canal.< Chapter General Design Requirements I and Considerations A. however. because of topography or existing manmade features. Reclamation. farmland oasis as illustrated in figure 1-l. and outdoor recreational uses. An increased crop yield of premium quality is very likely if the proper amount of moisture is made available to the crop when needed. to use inline canal structures to convey water along the canal route. division structures are used to regulate the discharge in each direction. regulation of canal discharge is primarily controlled by outflow through turnout structures. The conveyance canal and its related structures should perform their functions efficiently and competently with minimum maintenance. and measure the canal discharge and also to protect the canal from storm runoff damage. In addition to transporting irrigation water. Regulating structures are also capable of raising the canal water surface higher than would normally exist when the canal is flowing 1 . A variety of recreation is provided by reservoirs as shown in figures l-3 and 1-4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS l-l. This may be a canal headworks structure adjacent to a diversion dam on a stream or river. a canal may also transport water to meet requirements for municipal. A canal is frequently used to convey water for farmland irrigation. Structures. ease of operation. or a pumping plant located on a reservoir or large canal. and minimum water loss.’ A.-To fulfill a project purpose o f p reducing crops or increasing crop production. The design capacity of the conveyance. Bureau of discussed throughout this publication is limited to 100 cubic feet per second. -Many different types of canal structures are required in an irrigation system to effectively and efficiently convey. a turnout from a larger canal. (See fig. it is usually necessary. and (4) drop or chute structures to safely lower the canal water down a hillside. regulating. (3) bench flumes to conduct the water along a steep hillside. l-2. they are more commonly thought of as protective structures as their primary function is to discharge excess canal flows and thereby protect the canal from damage. parched soil may need only water to change it from a sparsely vegetated. thirsty desert to a high-yield crop. -Regulation of canal discharge begins at the source of water supply. A sun-drenched. and water measurement structures ‘Civil Engineer. Downstream from the source of water supply. Purpose. (b) Regulating Structures. Where canal flow is to be divided and directed in several directions. Hydraulic Structures Branch. industrial. J. -In addition to the canal itself. l-2). regulate.

thereby enhancing the conservation of this great natural resource. Open canal system supplying irrigation CANAL STRUCTURES water to citrus groves. (c) Water Measurement Structures. Equitable water distribution to the users is a primary consideration. and constant head orifices are the more common types.SMALL 2 Figure 1-1. weir boxes. Arizona. weirs. Parshall flumes.-Provisions must be made in an open irrigation system to . Water measurement also tends to prevent unnecessary wasteful water management practices. PSO-300-l0S86 at less than design capacity. although sometimes used as an inline canal water measurement structure. Selection of the type of structure best suited for a particular installation is discussed in chapter V. Check structures are spaced at appropriate intervals along a canal to provide this capabili ty . A check structure.-Efficient management of an irrigation system insists that measurement of the rate-of-flow and volume delivered be made. open-flow meters. (d) Protective Structures. Gila Project. for example. is used to raise the canal water surface when the canal is flowing at partial capacity so that a turnout structure may still deliver its designed capacity. The constant head orifice. is more commonly used in conjunction with a turnout and therefore is discussed in detail with regulating structures. Several types of water measurement structures or devices are used.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Figure 1-2. Irrigating AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS corn using siphon tubes. Fishing on Hungry Horse Reservoir. Nebraska. C448-100-148 Figure 1-4. Boating on the Rogue River Project. Oregon. Montana. P328-701-6140 Figure 1-3. C447-100-S0 3 . Red Willow Unit.

(2) Pipe app ur tenawes. -Nearly all canal structures are made of several different structural parts which together make up the complete structure. water delivery cannot be made by gravity. racks. (3) Tratzsitions. or through siphon spillways. Figure l-5 shows furrow irrigation of crops from a header ditch. for example. Energy dissipators are discussed in detail in chapter VI. manholes.I 4 externally protect the canal on the uphill side from damage by storm runoff water. guardrail. However. or by misoperation of the canal system. (3) rotation or demand system for turnout deliveries. (4) water losses from evaporation and seepage. through a turnout. Wasteways evacuate excess canal flows over side channel spillways. metal.-Many requirements vital to a complete and competent design of a canal water-delivery system are beyond the scope of this publication. These parts. air vents. and also to assist in their escape if inadvertently entered. Several different transition configurations of reinforced concrete are used. l-3. ladders. and (5) anticipated efficiency of water application to the crops. Considerations for the selection of the canal hydraulic properties include erosion resistance for the banks and invert of an earth canal. -Transitions connect a canal or natural channel to a structure inlet or structure outlet. blowoffs. Cross-drainage structures are used to direct storm runoff flows under the canal through culverts. (a) Canal. (5) Safety features. or into the canal by drain inlets. Soil characteristics and climatic conditions should also be evaluated. -Safety features are used to prevent humans. or welded steel. (e) Structure Components and Appurtcnamzs. If. Figure l-7 shows water delivery by gravity from the canal. (4) Etzergy dissipators. Cross-drainage structures and wasteways provide this protection. Records of actual water use for conditions similar to the system to be designed are valuable guides for estimating the quantity of water required for each acre. by impact SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES on a baffled apron. Energy dissipation may be achieved by a hydraulic jump in a stilling pool or by impact in a baffled outlet. See chapter IX for a more detailed discussion of canal safety features. corrugated reinforced plastic mortar. -Appurtenances include such items as pipe collars. sideslope stability. through radial gated spillways. Earth transitions are used as required to vary base widths and invert slopes. the additional cost of pumping would be included in an economic study. hydraulic efficiency. over the canal in overchutes. to the farmland.-Design capacity for an irrigation canal is determined by the maximum water demand which is primarily dependent on the following considerations: (1) the area to be irrigated. livestock. the more basic considerations are briefly discussed in this section to remind or acquaint the reader of other essential design data requirements. by impact and valve losses in a high-head vertical energy dissipator. Other Requirements. and signs are used as safety precautions. asbestos cement. and wildlife from entering a canal and canal structures. and are discussed later in chapter VIII. -Energy dissipators are used at the outlet ends of drop or chute structures to dissipate excess energy. Pipe is made from one of several different materials such as reinforced concrete.. (2) crops to be grown.-Pipe is commonly used for placed that part of a structure underground and which may or may not be subjected to internal hydrostatic bursting pressure. or simply by a vertical drop of a few feet into a pool of water. Various types of fencing. See chapter VII for a detailed discussion of transitions. Selection of the appropriate pipe material is dependent on several considerations discussed later in chapter VIII. Location of the canal with respect to the land to be irrigated is primarily influenced by topography and economic considerations. (components and appurtenances) include: (1) Pipe. nets. . and sprinkler irrigation is shown in figure l-6. and internally protect the canal from excess canal flows caused by storm waters entering the canal. Excess energy may also be dissipated by a hydraulic jump within a pipe.

Utility crossing structures are provided for existing utilities such as gas. water. oil. California. utility crossings. bridges. Soils investigation along a canal and at structure sites is required to: ( I) identify the soil materials to be excavated. (3) determine the foundation adequacy for canal structures and lining. electricity . Tunnels are used where it is more economical to convey canal water through a ridge or hill than to: (I) pump water over the obstruction. (5) determine canal sideslope stability. Fish screens and ladders are special structures at or near the source of canal water supply. (7) determine underdrain requirements for lined canals. if the monetary value of hydraulic head in the canal system is particularly high. sampling. However.2 Figure J -7. or (3) construct a canal section requiring a very deep cut. (2) identify the soil for potential use as canal embankment. C4-10o-I88 ~'" Figure 1-6. frJ. and (8) 2Numbers sec. Idaho. (c) Soils Exploration. (2) convey the water along the hillside or around the ridge. and communication lines. Screens exclude fish from a canal whereas ladders permit migration in the natural channel.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN Figure 1-5. and fish screens and fish ladders are not included herein. LC830 CONSIDERATIONS 5 (b) Other Structures. (6) assess erosion resistance characteristics. -Detailed discussions of structures such as tunnels. C-33-IOO-80 operational flexibility. 1-25. Utility lines may cross over or under the canal. sewage. Sprinkler irrigation in the Coachella Valley. and frequently require special design considerations to comply with the utility owner's requirements and the canal design criteria. in brackets refer to items in the bibliography . Irrigating Washington. and economics.rit on the Yakima Project. (4) determine the need for canal lining. a cost comparison of a bridge and a road crossing structure may be warranted as the head loss through a pipe road crossing could be significant. and testing are also very important [ I] . Methods and procedures for drilling. -The following very generally and briefly discusses some of the more important considerations associated with a soils exploration program. Bridges for roadway traffic over a canal are generally used for canals of much greater capacity than 100 cubic feet per second. The need for canal lining and selection of the type of lining are also determinations which must be made. Irrigating sugar beets on the Boise Project.

over the top of the pipe for an inverted siphon under the drainage channel. It is somctimcs necessary to locate a source of borrow material for canal embankment. and are appropriately sized to provide for hydraulic.6 SMALL determine water-soluble sulfate ion concentrations.‘ . insects. an CANAL STRUCTURES admonishment by the eminent soils engineer Karl Terzaghi must always be borne in mind: . results of subsurface exploration still a wide margin for interpretation. -Aggradation and degradation studies for a natural drainage channel provide the necessary data to determine earth cover required. show concrete dimensions and reinforcement steel. (d) Hydrology. In addition. if extensive enough could cause an empty pipe to float. Experience has shown that a well maintained and operated canal system usually has dedicated personnel-people who are justly proud of their work and take pride in what they do---people who curt. (e) Sedirnerztution. Foundation treatment however. “[41 Sound judgment is a requisite in all soil exploration programs. a designers’ operating criteria (DOC) is usually provided to assist operation and maintenance (O&M) personnel in adequately protecting the canal system from unnecessary damage which could otherwise be caused by misoperation or inadequate maintenance. (2) adequate built-in overflow capacity for inline canal structures to limit infringement on the canal bank freeboard for emergency operation or misoperation of the canal. may be required to protect the structure from expansive soils or from undesirable settlement of low-density material. and stability design considerations. and relatively erosion resistant if hard-surface canal lining is not used. The runoff area contributing to a natural drainage channel. Although a well planned and executed soils exploration program may be conducted. (3) . whereas aggradation could create external earth loads great enough to crack or otherwise damage the pipe. aquatic growths. le&e B. for backfill adjacent to structures. Soil material to be excavated has one of two classifications: rock or common (soil). Sulfate concentrations in the soil samples and water samples indicate the relative degree of potential sulfate attack on concrete [ 21. Fly ash is also sometimes used in the concrete mix for sulfate resistance [ 31 . ( f) Operation md Muirzterzarzcc. The reaches of a canal which travcrsc low density soils highly susceptible to hydrocompaction should be well delineated. extending Degradation. structure settlement caused by foundation consolidation will usually be small in magnitude. structural. Ifydruzrlic desiglz provides: ( 1) adequate discharge capacity for inline canal structures. -In a Bureau of Reclamation designed system. and storm frequency to be used for design are all infiuential in determining the design capacity for cross drainage structures. A rigorous maintenance program should include control of weeds. possess adequate remolded shearing strength. and for foundation pads under the structures. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS l-4. Therefore. -Canal structures which have been standardized in this publication. the depth to subsurface water levels if present in any exploration hole should be rccordcd. for example. The materials remolded and used for canal embankment construction should ideally be nonexpansive. be relatively impervious. to convey the flow at normal canal water depths. Canal structures discussed in this publication are relatively small and consequently foundation pressures are quite low. The soil in its natural state should also possess these qualities. when properly selected and hydraulically set.-The canal system should be reasonably well protected from damage which could occur from storm runoff. and pests. General. Specifying the appropriate type of cement used in the concrete mix is usually all that is required to safeguard the concrete. the ground slope and vegetative density of the area.

otherwise a uniform live load of 100 pounds per square foot is used. This results in an additional uniformly distributed lateral pressure (rectangular pressure diagram) of 60 psf from the backfill surface to the bottom of the wall. Dead Load Weights.) 62. and (3) provide foundation pressures less than the maximum allowable bearing pressure. the terms dry and saturated are used.-Commonly used dead load weights for small canal structures are presented in the following tabulation: Load Water Backfill Dry Saturated Compacted backfill Dry Saturated Concrete Weight. Loads l-5. The pressure diagram is assumed to be triangular. The pressure diagram is triangular with the resultant force acting at one-third the height above the base of the pressure diagram. l-6.-Ice loads on structures should be . 1-7. Operating Deck Uniform Live CONSIDERATIONS 7 Loads. 1. and shear stresses imposed by reasonable loads on the structure. and wheel loads. Unless unusual soil properties exist. An additional lateral load equivalent to 2 feet of earth surcharge is usually used. -Lateral pressures from several different sources are imposed on walls of structures. Standardized canal structures have been structurally designed to resist moist earth active lateral pressure equal to 30 psf per foot of depth and saturated earth active lateral pressure of 85 psf per foot of depth. (a) Water.4 pounds per square foot (psf) per foot of depth is caused by water. see bibliography reference [ 5 1. the same as for water. Resultant forces from these pressures must be adequately resisted by the reinforced concrete.-Loads which canal structures must capably resist include dead load weights. ft.4 100 125 120 135 150 To conveniently differentiate between soils which are above and below the water level in a soil mass. -Walls of structures should be designed to withstand construction and operating equipment wheel loads which are transmitted through the earth adjacent to the structure. Stability design pro vidcs: adequate structure dimensions so that for most soil foundation materials. the pressure caused by earth is sometimes referred to as an equivalent fluid pressure. Lateral Pressures. -A fluid pressure of 62.-Active earth pressures may be determined using Rankine’s solution of Coulomb’s equation [ 51 . with the resultant force acting at one-third the height above the base of the pressure diagram. Because of this similarity with the fluid pressure of water. live loads on operating decks. bursting and uplift pressures. General. the structure will: (1) resist sliding and overturning. thrust. but exclude structural design and stability analysis. For a detailed discussion of earth pressures on concrete retaining walls. Decks for radial gate hoists require special structural design considerations which are not included herein. and (4) structural proportioning of certain transitions to minimize hydraulic head loss. (b) Eurtk. (d) /cc. Design examples for structures which have not been standardized illustrate a recommended hydraulic design procedure. these values are considered adequate for design of small canal structures. lateral pressures. (c) Construction a17d Operutirzg Equipment Wheel Surcharge.-Operating decks for structures using stoplogs are designed for a uniform live load of 150 pounds per square foot. Obviously the soil adjacent to a structure is not ovendry and does possess a certain moisture content./cu. 1-8. Structural design provides: appropriate concrete thicknesses and reinforcement steel patterns for structural members to resist bending moment. (2) prevent percolating water from removing foundation materials. (Ibs.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN adequate structural proportioning and appropriate hydraulic setting of structures to permit excess energy dissipation with minimum water turbulence at the downstream ends of the structures. Standardized canal structures are designed to withstand this additional load.

Stilling pool floors. usual Reclamation practice is to provide a pipe class to withstand a total equivalent cover of 20 feet when the top of pipe is 3 to 15 feet below the top of the railroad tie. Temporary stress increases caused by seismic loads would therefore be minor. are subjected to uplift pressure from downstream water levels which may saturate the soil behind the wall to a significantly higher elevation than the water depth in the pool just upstream from the hydraulic jump. (e) Wind.5 6. These transients are u sually of insignificant consequence in a small. l-l 0. l-9. The top of pipe installed under a railroad roadbed is usually at least 3 feet below the top of the railroad tie unless otherwise specified by the railroad. -Uplift pressures.8 considered if wintertime canal operation is required. (a) Highways. 11. (b) Hydrudic Trarzsients. Wheel Loads Transmitted to Buried Conduit. reduce the effective weight of a structure and are therefore particularly significant in the stability analysis. (c) Seismic. -Pipelines crossing under highways and railroads must be designed to withstand surcharge loads from trucks and locomotives. (b) Railroads. -(a) U#ift.7 9. For design convenience. Wheel load effect is negligible when the earth cover is more than 8 feet. The magnitudes for ice thrust presented in bibliography reference [ 51 may be used.9 For earth covers less than 2 feet. (2) 20 percent for earth covers of 1 foot 1 inch to 2 feet.0 8. Additional load caused by impact is included in the total equivalent cover previously discussed. Wheel load impact factors used for earth covers less than 3 feet are as follows: (1) 10 percent for earth covers of 2 feet 1 inch to 2 feet 11 inches. -Pressure surges in a pipe and bore waves in a canal accompany any change of flow in the system. Concentrated wheel loads are transmitted through earth cover and distributed at the top of pipe where they are considered to be uniform loads.8 1. Jacking casing pipe through the railroad embankment is a common requirement.-Equivalent earth cover for highway wheel loads is based on criteria of the American Association of State Highway SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Officials [6] (AASHO). Height of earth cover. Pipe used to convey the canal water (carrier pipe) is then installed in the casing pipe. For an E-72 railroad loading [ 71. Other Pressures. and concrete masses are all small. special provisions such as concrete encasement of the pipe or slab covers are required. and (3) 30 percent if the earth cover is 1 foot or less. The increased loads are minor since the earth. open irrigation system and are therefore generally omitted from structural design considerations. such as detours and safety precautions. which may be caused by water percolating under or along the sides of hydraulic structures. Pipe is selected to withstand this total equivalent earth cover. -Additional earth and water pressures imparted to small canal structures by earthquakes are not included in the design considerations.1 8. the uniform loads are converted to equivalent heights of compacted earth cover and added to the actual earth cover. .3 8.1 7. Weep holes are used to lower the saturation level. for example.4 I 9. as may be required by a highway commission should be included in the design specifications.9 1. water. feet 2 Total equivalent earth cover for wheel loads shown.6 9. The following tabulation shows total equivalent earth cover for various heights of earth cover over the top of the pipe with H-15 and H-20 truck wheel loads. A gradual rate of change of flow minimizes the magnitude of hydraulic transients.-Wind loads on small irrigation structures are not included in the structural and stability analyses.2 9. Special provisions. -Design and installation of pipe under a railroad often requires special provisions to comply with the railroad company requirements.8 8.

The resultant of all forces acting on the structure should fall within the middle third of the structure base to provide safety against overturning. This location of the resultant also provides a more uniform bearing pressure on the foundation. -Foundation bearing pressures for small structures are of small magnitude and will ordinarily be less than allowable bearing pressures for the various soil types [51. -All standardized canal structures have sufficient cutoff and structural lengths to provide a percolation factor of 2. When installing pipe in rock. acting normal to the assumed sliding plane. Overturning. and to preclude unequal settlement and resultant cracking of pipe. For a more detailed discussion of percolation. for low-density or expansive foundation soils. Stability 1-l 1.5 or more. Hydraulic control is at the downstream end of a structure if the downstream water surface influences the height to which the upstream water surface must rise. however. Bearing Capacity. This is considered adequate for most soils to prevent piping of foundation materials from beneath or adjacent to small structures. Upstream control for example will usually exist for a relatively short culvert conveying storm runoff under a small canal where the outlet channel water surface is several feet below the upstream pipe invert. the sum of the stabilizing moments must exceed the sum of the overturning moments on the structure. and EN = summation of forces. -Any structure subjected to differential lateral pressures must capably resist the tendency to slide. Hydraulic Control-In the competent hydraulic design of any hydraulic structure it is necessary to first determine the location of the water surface control. the upstream water surface is controlled at the inlet end.13.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN 2. Overexcavation is also sometimes used for foundation treatment of low-density soils. Resistance to sliding is developed by shearing strength along the contact surface of the structure base and the foundation. CONSIDERATIONS 9 l. l-1 2.35 is used unless unusual soil conditions exist. The nonexpansive soil surcharges the underlying expansive soil and thereby can adequately reduce the foundation movement.35 where: CH = summation of lateral forces acting parallel to the assumed sliding plane. Hydraulics 1-15. Foundation treatment may be required. the control is at the upstream end of the structure. Percolation. Maximum upstream and minimum downstream water surfaces subject these structures to unsymmetrical loads which tend to cause overturning. Shearing strength developed by cohesion is omitted and only that developed by mechanical friction at the base and foundation interface is used for sliding analysis of small structures. 1-14. Checks and check-drop structures are perhaps the most critically loaded small canal structures subject to overturning. hydrocompaction by ponding will sufficiently consolidate soils of low density. nonexpansive soil is a usual treatment for expansive soil foundations. This may be expressed as: g= 0. Ordinarily. the foundation should be overexcavated and replaced with a gravel or earth cushion to permit a more uniform bearing pressure for the pipe. In this instance. the maximum differential hydraulic head across the structure causing percolation is of short duration. reduced by uplift. This is essential to effectively utilize the design strength of the pipe. or by shearing strength within the foundation material itself. Under ordinary operation. -To prevent overturning. and the . If the downstream water surface does not influence the upstream water surface. Sliding Coefficient. the size of pipe. An allowable sliding coefficient equal to 0. see subchapter VIII C. 3. the downstream water surface does not control the upstream water surface. The upstream pipe invert elevation. instead. Overexcavation of the foundation soil and replacement with compacted.

asbestos cement. and steel. Downstream hydraulic control exists for a properly designed inverted siphon when flow is at design capacity.h. in the expression K. which is at critical depth.10 assumed entrance loss are all factors which determine the height to which the upstream water surface must rise to discharge the flow. -(a) Allowable Stresses. hydraulic control is at the siphon inlet if the downstream water surface is low enough to permit the water to enter the siphon at minimum energy. see chapter V.1. used in the orifice equation [8]. location of the hydraulic control may be determined by inspection of the structure profile and the normal channel or canal water surfaces at each end of the structure.6 0. C. 1. a hydraulic jump between the points is indicated and hydraulic control will be at the inlet. A 20 percent reduction in the n value is used as a safety factor in the hydraulic analysis of excess energy dissipation for those structures which perform this function. -The Manning formula.50 - The value for C in the orifice equation is primarily dependent on the hydraulic entrance conditions. a Bernoulli equation can be written between pairs of consecutive points. Discharge Coefficients. If a Bernoulli balance is attainable between all pairs of points from the outlet through the inlet. Losses associated with convergence and divergence of the water prism are discussed in chapter VII. Subsequent chapters of canal structures using the orifice equation indicate ar appropriate C value for a specific design. For a comprehensive discussion of weirs. and the angle for a miter bend or the degree of curvature of a circular curve. the discharge coefficient. 4.-For a conduit flowing full.78 0.75 0. by the relationship . Beginning from a known downstream water surface. The magnitude of the loss is dependent on the water velocity.O. Values for C and equations for the more commonly used weirs are: Weir Rectangular Rectangular Cipolletti suppressed contracted Weir equation Q = 3. is primarily dependent on the geometric shape of the weir and contraction of the sheet of water flowing over the weir.024 is used for corrugated-metal pipe. It may then be assumed that the water depth in the pipe at the inlet is at critical depth. If. Reinforced Concrete.8 0. which show concrete .013 for precast concrete. For all a monolithic concrete canal structures. The basic weir equation [8] is Q = CLH3/‘. Roughness (friction) coefficients used for pipe are n = 0. In other cases the Bernoulli theorem [ 81 should be used to determine the hydraulic control location..33 L H3i2 Q = 3. The appropriate value for the discharge coefficient.7 0. -Standardized canal structures included herein. Values of C may be related to an entrance loss coefficient. -Transitions are used to geometrically change the water prism shape and cause acceleration or deceleration of the flow. indicates the magnitude of the assumed entrance loss. a Bernoulli balance is not attainable between two consecutive points. [8] V = L$!S r2/3 sl/z. Losses.82 1. is used to determine friction losses in a canal system. reinforced plastic mortar. Structural Considerations l-l 8.78 1. C. Values commonly used are: c Ko 0. -(a) Orifice. For partial discharges.014 is used. For many structures. (b) Weir. -(a) Friction. K. (b) Trunsitions and Bends. Hydraulic Head l16. -Weirs are commonly used to measure the rate of flow of water.56 0. that is. Q = CAdm.33 (L . at minimum energy. roughness coefficient n = 0.17.04 0. SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES A change in the direction of flow causes bend losses. however. Pipe bend losses are discussed in chapter VIII.TH) H312 Q = 3. while n = 0. downstream control exists. The canal water surface at the downstream end of the siphon controls the upstream canal water surface.367 L H3 2.

. ._.. and an LF = 1. .35 percent CONSIDERATIONS 11 Exposed to freezing temperatures or direct sun . showing. . .. . . the minimum concrete thickness of cantilever walls should be 1 inch per foot of height (5 inches minimum) for walls up to 8 feet high. . . .25 percent Exposed to freezing temperatures or direct sun . . were designed by the working stress method based on a ccncrete strength of 4. . .8 as a load factor. Other minimum requirements and general notes for designing.30 percent For slabs with joint spacing greater than 30 feet and: Not exposed to freezing temperatures or direct sun . . . . .. -The minimum reinforcement used for canal structures should be No. . . .) for concrete and 24. . .000 psi tension (f. . . . In unexposed faces of concrete having two-layer reinforcement. ( b ) M i 11i m u m Reinforcement Requirements. . . . . . . . . . and reinforcement steel having a specified minimum yield strength of 60. The following criteria should be used to the cross-sectional area for determine temperature or minimum reinforcement. . 0.000 pounds per square inch (psi) at 28 days (fb ). .. (c) Minimum Wall Thickness.. . the dimension from the line of fixity to the free end is doubled to determine if the reinforcement requirement should bc based on a length not exceeding 30 feet or a length greater than 30 feet. . . . . . (2) Douhlc-layc‘r reinforcement.. . figure l-8 should be used for general notes and minimum requirements for detailing reinforcement. fY = 40. . . For walls exceeding 8 feet in height. Allowable working stresses used were 1. . . . . .. . . the minimum concrete thickness should be 8 inches plus 3/4 inch for each foot of wall height greater than 8 feet. . nominal minimum concrete thicknesses and minimal reinforcement steel patterns control the design. 4 bars (l/2-inch diameter) at 12-inch spacing when reinforcement is placed in a single layer. an additional 0. .10 percent Face not adjacent to earth nor exposed to freezing temperatures or direct sun . . For many of the smaller standardized structures. If a slab is fixed along any line.000 psi (f. . . . 0. . . . . .500 psi.15 percent Face not adjacent to earth but exposed to freezing temperatures or direct sun . 0.-For slabs with joint spacing not exceeding 30 feet and: Not exposed to freezing temperatures or direct sun .-For joint spacing not exceeding 30 feet and with: Face adjacent to earth . . the minimum reinforcement should be No. . 0. In these cases the concrete and steel strengths indicated could be reduced without jeopardizing structural integrity. . . When using the illustrations of standardized canal structures presented herein as construction drawings. 4 bars at 18 inches. .05 percent of reinforcement steel area is required in that direction.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN thicknesses and size and spacing of reinforcement bars.. .40 percent Walls and other structural members should have a total percentage of horizontal reinforcement equal to the sum of the percentages required for both faces as determined for double-layer reinforccmcnt. . . or where exposed faces of concrete are reinforced. .--To provide ease of concrete placement and insure good bond between the reinforcement and concrete. Reinforced precast concrete pressure pipe was designed by the ultimate strength method using fb = 4. 0. .20 percent If a structural member exceeds 30 feet in any direction parallel to the reinforcement.800 psi compression (f. . . .. The percentages of reinforcement steel areas listed are percentages of the gross cross-sectional area of the concrete to be reinforced: (1) Single-layer reinforcement. and detailing reinforcement steel are indicated on figure l-8.000 psi. . 0.).) for reinforcement steel. 0. Reinforcement spacing should not exceed three times the thickness of the member for reinforcement and twice the temperature thickness of the member for stress bars. .

103-D-1 194 . requirements for detailing reinforcement (Sheet 1 of 2). Str”ct”rei’.Acl General notes and minimum CANAL STRUCTURES ifs.12 SMALL coocrete Figure I-8.

‘ES. 103-D-1 194 THAN /P” .GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FILLET 13 IP”OR TYPICAL TYPICAL OFFSET GREATER BLOCKOUT RECESS :Seco”d r*ope concrete Shown ) Figure l-8.5 DETAILS DETAILS SECTION TYPICAL FILLET CORNER A-A DETAILS General notes and minimum requirements for detailing reinforcement (Sheet 2 of 2).

additional water depth resulting from a rougher friction coefficient than used for design. and to accommodate removal of forms. fillets are not ordinarily required for these purposes. The passive resistance of earth behind a cutoff increases the resistance of the structure to sliding. . If velocities are fast enough to prevent formation of an ice cover. Data from canal plan and profile sheets are essential for design of the canal structures. if excessive erosion should occur in an earth canal.2 feet per second. (4) canal location to minimize disturbance or relocation of existing features.~Fillcts are used to relieve stress concentrations. Fillets used at the base of cantilever walls are usually 3 inches for walls up to 8 feet tall. (e) Clrtojjs. Additional forces caused by expansion of the ice cover or by ice lenses in clayey foundation materials should be considered. Explanations of the welding symbols and required welding procedures are included in bibliography reference [ 91 5. 6inch fillets which may be formed by excavation lines for the structure are commonly used at the junctions of cutoff walls and floor slabs. These criteria should be used where protection is indicated on structure illustrations. Freeboard provides for a canal water surface higher than normal which may be caused by sedimentation in the canal. and waves produced by wind or surges which accompany sudden changes in flow. 1-21. Cutoffs also protect a structure from undermining. Profile Sheet. Structural Steel and Welding. For small canal structures. and if allowed to accumulate on racks at inlets to structures will cause backwater. Criteria to determine if erosion protection is required.14 SMALL (d) I. Figure l-9 shows the vertical distance which canal lining and canal banks should be extended above the canal normal water surface to provide adequate freeboard. requirements for the canal Freeboard structures are also discussed with each structure. (2) canal water surface requirements for turnout deliveries. -Many design examples of structures in this publication refer to a canal profile sheet. and the type of protection required. although this resistance is usually omitted in the stability analysis. Cutoffs should be used for structures in a concrete-lined canal as well as earth canals. -. Erosion protection of coarse gravel or riprap is frequently required at the ends of structures in an earth channel to control erosion. provide increased strength. Winter Operation. Freeboard. 1. Strength requirements for steel shapes used to fabricate safety devices such as handrail and ladders are also nominal. (3) canal location with respect to topography within and adjacent to the canal prism. Many illustrations in subsequent chapters show welding requirements for metal parts. are discussed later in subchapter VII B and shown on figure 7-8. Criteria for lengths and thicknesses of cutoffs are also included in subchapter VII B. frazil ice may form.s. Special requirements for canal bank freeboard at structures such as inverted siphons and drain inlets are discussed in the appropriate subchapters for each particular structure. Carnal l-20. l-22. Nominal size members are used to provide sufficient rigidity. excess flows caused by storm runoff entering the canal through drain inlets. facilitate concrete placement. The development of the canal profile requires close coordination of data obtained from several different studies including: (1) canal design capacity. and (5) the canal cross section. --Winter operation of a canal system where temperatures are subfreezing may require additional canal and structure freeboard to permit wintertime design capacity to flow under an ice cover. Xanal lining and canal CANAL STRUCTURES banks are extended above the canal normal water surface as a safety measure to protect the conveyance system from overtopping.19. -Structural steel used with small canal structures is primarily for stoplog and gate frame guides. All dimensions and strengths of metalwork used in standard canal structures are included on the illustrations. At subfreezing temperatures an ice cover readily forms when velocities are less than 2. However.illcf. temporary misoperation of the canal system.The primary purpose of cutoff walls is to increase the percolation path to prevent piping of foundation material and reduce percolation.

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Placing precast concrete transition. Slings are frequently used to lower precast concrete structures into position at the jobsite.-It is sometimes advantageous to use "knock-down. Figure 1-12. After carefully placing the structure-form into position. Forms tor Structures 1-23. place and tie the reinforcement steel in the forms. -If a sufficient Figure 1. A construction procedure that has been used successfully is to assemble the specially designed forms in an area remote from the construction site. 1-24. partially backfilled. it may be economically advantageous to precast them in a yard and haul them to the jobsite for installation. Two asbestos sheets each having graphite on one side only and with the graphite surfaces in contact are sometimes used to provide such a surface. and completed transitions in the precasting yard.10.SMALL 16 6. St an d ard structures discussed in this publication which require a deck for operational purposes. broken-back transition as a component part of a road crossing structure. Precast Concrete. In-place precast concrete transition." reusable steel forms for monolithic concrete construction of small irrigation structures. for placing a precast concrete transition. PX-D-72830 . To provide a uniform bearing surface for precast concrete structures. A mortar bedding for a precast concrete inlet to a turnout structure is shown in figure 1-13. concrete is placed for the entire structure. P-707-729-2134 CANAL STRUCTURES number of structures for a small canal system are identical. The bearing area at one end should have a very smooth surface to permit temperature-induced elongation or contraction of the deck without causing additional shear and bending moment stresses on the structure. Figure 1-12 shows an inplace. Mono/ithic Concrete. Precast concrete transitions in various stages of completion. Figure 1-10 shows concrete being placed for a transition. P-707-729-1763 Figure 1-11. as shown in figure I-II. Precast decks are used for the longer spans and are not mechanically connected to the basic structure. a thin layer of mortar at least an inch thick should be placed on the foundation surfaces just prior to placing the structure. and then haul the unit to the jobsite. show either precast walk planks or a precast deck.

59." American Railway Engineering Association.." American Welding Society.729-1769 17 Figure 1 -14. Precast concrete turnout inlet being lowered into position on mortar pad.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Figure 1-13.1962. 1971.." Bureau of Reclamation.' . [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] "Design Criteria for Concrete Retaining Walls. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1-25. August 1971. McGraw-Hill Book Co. N. P(F)-200-5717 NA c." Bureau of Reclamation." Bureau of Reclamation.707. H. E. W. "Concrete Manual. Karl. Bureau of Reclamation. January 1967. "Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. February 15. 1974. lQ7.. "Fly Ash Increases Resistance of Concrete to Sulfate Attack. C-1224. Current to March 13. Eighth Edition. "Earth Manual. p. p. Terzaghi. [1] [2] [3] [4] Bibliography. King. 1963. Second Edition. Slide gate being operated to control flow through turnout. "Handbook of Hydraulics. 1. "Manual for Railway Engineering. Tenth Edition. F . Vol. 1969. "Structural Welding Code.1975." Fifth Edition. "Does Foundation Technology Really Lag?" Engineering News-Record." Report No.V. and Brater." American Association of State Highway Officials.

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inverted siphons. and II F. chutes. -Conveyance structures are those structures such as road crossings. Application. and pjpelines that are used to safely transport water from one location to another traversing various existing natural and manmade topographic features along the way. In accomplishing these objectives the road crossing conduit may have a straight line profile (see fig. Engineer. Pipe conduit is generally used for these purposes. B. The straight line profile conduit (road crossing) is designed for flow with little or no internal hydrostatic pressure. 2-1). II GENERAL 2-1. Hydraulic Structures Branch. Road crossings which have vertical bends in their profile function either as inverted siphons. drops. Canals and pipelines will not be discussed in detail in this publication and the technical dissertation of the other conveyance structures will be restricted to those having a capacity of 100 cfs or less. 2-2).«Chapter A. or chutes. II E. Purpose. 2-3. Bureau of 1 Figure 2-1. as discussed in these sections. Road crossing. or a profile like that shown in figure 2-4 with vertical bends as discussed later in subchapters II C. flumes. -Available hydraulic head and cost considerations usually determine the 1 Civil Reclamation. Generally. the hydraulic gradient is near or below the top of the pipe. YOUNG 2-2. ROAD CROSSINGS R. Purpose and Description. for capacities up to 100 19 . that is. drops. B. canals. feasibility of using pipe for conveying water under a roadway or using a bridge over the waterway. -Road crossings are used to convey canal water under roads or railroads (fig.

103-D-1253. CANAL STRUCTURES .SMALL Figure 2-2. Road crossing plan and section.

The hydraulic design of a road crossing pipe consists of selecting a pipe diameter that will . The minimum pressure pipe class permitted for each is B 25 [ 4] [ 5] . and have proven a reliable means of conveying water under a roadway. The required gage (wall thickness) of CMP for a given height of earth cover and surcharge load from vehicles can be determined from manufacturers' tables. Design Considerations. watertight joints may be necessary irrespective of internal pressure. canal erosion at the ends of the road crossing in earth canals is minor and can be controlled by transitions and rip rap or gravel protection. asbestos-cement. However.2 If RCCP is used. A typical set of tables is provided in bibliography reference [2] . or concrete pipe is often established by past experience. easily designed and built. Bridge design is beyond the scope of this publication and consequently is not included. Road crossings usually cause less roadway interference than a bridge both during and after construction.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 21 cfs. and cost considerations. asbestos-cement pressure pipe (AC). Type F joint design and gaskets for type F joints should be in accordance with the American Society for 2Numbers in brackets refer to items in the bibliography. this pipe design may also be determined from manufacturers' tables. 2-3).The pipe may be steel corrugated-metal pipe (CMP).Selection of the appropriate pipe class is explained later in the discussion of Inverted Siphons. Type B pipe joints (fig. 2-5. Figure 2-3. A typical set of tables is provided in bibliography reference [ I] . However. Precast concrete pressure pipe with type R joints (rubber gasket joints) or asbestos-cement pressure pipe with rubber gasket joints is used to insure watertightness.-(a) Pipe. All pipe subjected to internal pressure should have rubber gasket joints to insure positive watertightness. or precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe (PCP). section 2-38. subchapter II C. see Testing and Materials [ 3] design of the joints in the taper on the tongue and than 3-1/2° measured from on the inside surface of the provided that the pipe is such that the groove is not more a longitudinal trace pipe. -Pipe road crossings are relatively economical. precast reinforced concrete culvert pipe (RCCP). Pipe installation is sometimes accomplished by jacking the pipe through the roadway foundation (fig. Where watertightness of the pipe is of m in or concern.In Reclamation RCCP pipe is used for roadway crossings having little or no internal water pressure. Under some roadways. it is more economical to use pipe rather than a bridge. corrosion environment. Normally. 2-4. Advantages. type F joints may be substituted for type B joints. the selection of either corrugated-metal pipe. Jacking and threading pipe under roadway P-707-729-2007. 8-15) are generally used where RCCP pipe is permitted. A road crossing permits both continuous roadbed and continuous side drain ditches which otherwise might drain into the canal. considerations involved with the selection include hydraulic efficiency.

except where a control structure is required. earth.5 11. Side slopes should not be steeper than l-1/2 to 1. An accelerating water velocity usually occurs at the inlet of a structure and a decclcrating velocity at the outlet. -~Pipc collars may be required to reduce the velocity of the water moving along the outside of the pipe or through the surrounding earth thcrcby preventing removal of soil particles at the point of cmcrgence. subchapter VII A. This provides a low point at the end of the pipe to facilitate draining should it become necessary. Farm roads are frequently ramped using 10 to 1 slopes (10 percent grade) when necessary to provide minimum earth cover requirements. and combination concrete-earth transitions are used for this purpose. P below the upstream normal water surface elevation. (See discussion of Check and Pipe Inlet and Control and Pipe Inlet subchapters III F and III G. additional transitioning is then accomplished by an earth transition for an earth canal and by lining for a transitioning concrete concrete-lined canal. a check inlet or a control inlet is used.22 result in either: (1) a maximum allowable velocity of 3. The pipe is set on a minimum slope of 0. Another alternative available to the designer for achieving minimum cover requirements is to set the upstream pipe invert a distance greater than the pipe diameter plus 1.5 times the velocity head of the pipe flowing full (diameter + 1.5 hvp) from the upstream normal water surface elevation in the canal. such as road crossings. or sagged for any other reason. All crossings with 36inch-diameter pipe or larger. the base width and invert will seldom match that of the canal. All pipe crossings with velocities in excess of 3.) If one of these structures is required. (c) Pi/w Colluvs. The following road crossings require either a concrete transition or some type of concrete control structure at the inlet and a concrete transition at the outlet: All railroad and state highway crossings. the minimum distance from the ditch invert to the top of the pipe should be 2 feet. Standardization of concrete transitions is a means of reducing costs. (2) a maximum allowable velocity of 5 feet per second for a pipe with concrete transitions or other concrete inlet and outlet structures. For relatively short structures.5 feet per second discharging in to an earth canal. -Transitions are generally used both at the inlet and outlet of structures. it is usually economically desirable to also use a concrete outlet structure and size the pipe based on a maximum velocity of 5 feet per second. Pipe with bends in its profile to provide the required earth cover. However. If roadway ditches exist and are extended over the pipe. Roadway widths and side slopes at the crossings should match existing roadway widths and side slopes. This is accomplished by a transition being designed for a range of canal and structure conditions. Concrete. Therefore. (2) At farm road crossings a minimum earth cover of 2 feet should be provided for both the roadway and the ditches. Any road crossing where the . subchapter Ii C. The maximum upstream invert elevation of the pipe is then determined by subtracting the pipe diameter and 1.5 feet per second for a pipe with earth transitions or. Transitions reduce head losses and prcvcnt canal erosion by making the velocity changes less abrupt. SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES (b) Tmuifiom. is discussed with Inverted Siphons. If there is a need for controlling the water surface elevation upstream from the road crossing. The pipe hydraulic design should be examined to determine if the resulting earth cover from the top of the roadway to the top of the pipe meets the following minimum requirements: (1) At all railroad and road crossings (except farm roads) a minimum of 3 feet of earth cover should be provided. it is generally more economical to omit concrete transitions if established design criteria will permit the omission.005 from this upstream invert elevation. the maximum vertical distance from the canal invert to the pipe invert should not exceed one-half the pipe diameter. For the design of transitions see the discussion on Transitions. if concrete transitions are standardized. or as otherwise specified. As might be expected.

class III with type B joints. (normal depth at Sta. (8) dz = 1.El. (7) El. For a pipe discharge of 1.10 . D = El. at A .91 ft. (b) De tcrmirze: ( 1) Pipe size (see table on fig. (3) Canal Q = 15 cfs. (2) Type of roadway = farm road.30 ft. (9) NWS at Sta. In this example the 30-inch-diameter concrete culvert pipe. 2-2). D = 5406.2r4 I3 ( > (from Manning’s equation [ 61) Pipe hydraulic properties may also be taken from table 8. or PCP. F . (normal depth at Sta.50 + 0. Material costs and other considerations previously discussed will determine which pipe diameter to select.85 ft. (14) Control structure at inlet not required.5407. (12) Side slopes of roadway = l-1/2: 1. A).CONVEYANCE 23 STRUCTURES canal water surface is significantly higher than a potential point of relief for the percolating water.63 ft. (13) El. (11) Width of roadway = 18 ft. (5) d. D + d. either the 24-inch-diameter pipe with concrete transitions or the 30-inch-diameter pipe with earth transitions may be used.785 x dia. and with earth transitions will be used. (4) Hydraulic properties of 30-inch-diameter pipe for Q of 15 cfs: A = area of pipe = 0. V = 5 fps) or a 30-inch-diameter pipe with earth transitions (max. = 1.5 fps) will be hydraulically acceptable.91 R = hydraulic radius =wpA =7. V = 3. and in addition whether the pipe should be CMP. the table shows that either a 24-inch-diameter pipe with concrete transitions (max. (2) Need for concrete transitions.58 = 5407. (5) El.2 Q 491 15 V = velocity in pipe = A= = 3. -(a) Giver1: (1) Type of waterway = earth canal. top of roadway = El.5 hvp) = 5408. .Downstream canal NWS El.52 + 1.15 ft. (6) NWS at Sta.06 f. A detailed discussion of the design of pipe collars and cutoffs as related to percolation may be found in subchapter VIII C.58 = 5408.(pipe diameter + 1.52 (from a profile sheet).1. For design of protection see the discussion on Protection. D>.10. Since the crossing is for a farm road and both diameters are less than 36 inches. -Protection is often used adjacent to structures in earth canals where erosion may occur.38.00133 2. or PCP. B) x 2 + roadway 3See section l-16 . (3) Pipe type: CMP. 2-2) = 1. n = assumed roughness coefficient3 = 0.85 = 0. = 5406.s. 2-6. where g = gravitational acceleration wp = wetted perimeter = 71x dia. 2-2). RCCP. 4. A = 5406. h vP V2 3.22) = 5405.5 (El.80.4 = 0.oo. = 5406. A= El.80 = 0. subchapter VII B.10 ~ (2. = 7.58 ft. (6) Approximate length of pipe (see fig.58 ft. F = 5411 .22 + 1.06’ = velocity head in pipe zZ = 64. (10) F (water surface differential) = Upstream canal NWS El. = 5408.5 cfs.’ = 4.22 (from a profile sheet). should be examined to determine if collars are required. A+ d. (4) El.p. (d) Cutd Erosiorl Protcctiorz. Pipe collars may also be necessary to discourage rodents from burrowing along the pipe.013 sf = friction slope of pipe 1 = n2 V2 = 0. Design Example (see fig. B = NWS El. RCCP.

5 represents a l-1/2 to 1 side slope. the maximum length to drop ratio of 4 to 1 is used. B .00133 = 0. C = El.‘i[le. = 0.0 feet the cover is satisfactory. of pipe) = 5411. of pipe = 3 x 2.00 ~ (5405. The structure should operate without ‘Op.5 hvp + h.58 ft. B = 5406. The excess head of 0. If concrete transitions are required for a road crossing the inlet and outlet transitions will usually be identical. Extend protection to 12 inches above canal water surface.-Minimum earth cover for farm road crossing is 2 feet. (7) Drop in pipe = length of pipe x slope of pipe = 34.. B + dia. 2-8. By inspection. Purpose and Description. and depressions.5 pipe velocity heads for inlet and outlet loss combined plus pipe friction loss. -Inverted siphons figures 2-4. (1 1) Assume losses in road crossing are 1.9 x 0. and height of protection.58 ft. Computed losses = 0. coarse gravel (type 2) Length = 4d or 5 ft. Refer to subchapter VII A and design example of inverted siphons subchapter II C for procedure used in design of type 1 concrete transitions.50) = 3. A siphon is a closed conduit designed to run full and under pressure.14ft. 2-7.21.38 . F = 0. and for road crossings without concrete transitions: Inlet protection = none Outlet protection = 12-m.005 = 0. INVERTED SIPHONS R. As 3.24 SMALL width = 3(541 1. 2-5.5405.03 foot (0. ( 1 2) P~okctiolr. extend protection for full length of transition.00 .21 =-1. railroads. or 1.14 or 6. D . A . ~ (1) Compare computed losses with the loss provided on profile sheet. If the side slope is 2 to 1 use 2 instead of 1.17 ft (8) El.27 foot. select type. (2) Trunsition slopes. Closed conduits with straight profiles under roadways and railroads may also function as inverted siphons with internal pressure.38 + 2.22 . length. Application.5 = 7. B. 19. F . Loss provided. C.5 ft. and 2-6 (sometimes called sag pipes or sag lines) are used to convey canal water by gravity under roads. = 1. = 4 x 1.30 0.27) provided on the profile sheet is inconsequential and the hydraulic design is considered adequate.5405. various types of drainage channels. where h. (c) Check of Desigrf. -Economics and other considerations determine the feasibility of using a siphon or another type of structure to .01 ft. YOUNG’ excess head when flowing at design capacity. = 6. cit. This is flatter than 4 to 1 and therefore within the criteria limits.5 feet is not much greater than the required protection length.12 feet is greater than the minimum required 2.30 foot. Downstream = El. -To reduce turbulence and provide for relatively smooth transitioning of the water prism.52 . CANAL STRUCTURES Because the transition length of 7.38) + 18 = 34.El. The 1. For d. or d. (3) Cover on I. (9) Length of earth transitions = 3 x dia.38 = 1.drop in pipe = 5405.9 ft.6 to 1. = length of pipe x friction slope.12 feet. If required. min. C = 5406. other structures.17 = 5405.0.3 ft.-Use figure 7-8 to determine if protection is required.27 ft. p.22 + 35 x 0. (10) Drop in transitions Upstream = El.(El.5 in the previous equation. Closed conduits with excess head are discussed in subchapters II E Drops and II F Chu tcs. Approximate cover on pipe = El.5 to 1.5405. the slope of the downstream transition is also satisfactory. The design ratio of the upstream transition is 7.El.

CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES Figure 24. Inverted siphon plan and section. 103-D-1254. .

Designations of A. construction. The use of an elevated flume would be an alternative to a siphon crossing a depression. drain channel or another manmade channel. Advantages and Disadvantages of Inverted Siphons. pipe bends. Costs of design. while the associated number such as 25. it is more economical to use a siphon rather than a bridge. P-328-701-7259A. 15. 100.-Inverted siphons are economical. Figure 2-6.26 SMALL accomplish the previous objectives. There may be. B. especially in high population density areas. Figure 2-5. p 499-700-520.-(a) Pipe. Structure Components. 50. instances These pressure pipes are classed as to their capacity to withstand external loads of cover and wheel (equivalent earth cover) and internal hydrostatic head measured to the centerline of the pipe. pipe joints. Bridge design is beyond the scope of this publication and consequently is not included. and maintenance are factors that may make an inverted siphon more feasible than another structure that might be used for the same purpose. The use of a bridge over a canal would be an alternative to a siphon under a road or a railroad. and other pipe appurtenances may be found in chapter VIII. Normally. 2-9. Generally. and 150 represents feet of hydrostatic head. C 50 would be pressure pipe for 15-foot maximum cover and 50-foot maximum head. 125. Precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe (PCP). C. . CANAL STRUCTURES where the value of the head required to operate a siphon may justify the use of another structure such as a bridge. and 20 feet of cover respectively. all with rubber gasket joints. 75. asbestos-cement pressure pipe (AC). easily designed and built. for capacities up to 100 cfs. Inverted siphon under construction.The closed conduits discussed in this publication are generally pipe. All pipe subjected to internal pressure should have watertight joints. An inverted siphon may present a hazard to life. Inverted siphon inlet transition and 60-inch~iameter precast concrete pipe. canal erosion at the ends of the siphon is inconsequential if the structures in earth waterways have properly designed and constructed transitions and erosion protection. and D represent 5. For heads up to 150 feet precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe is most frequently used but any of the above types may be used depending on their availability and cost considerations. and have proven a reliable means of water conveyance. See chapter IX for safety features. or reinforced plastic mortar pressure pipe (RPM). As an example. 10. Additional information regarding pipe. are used to insure watertightness. however. 2-10.

CONVEYANCE

STRUCTURES

The pipe profile is determined in such a way
as to satisfy certain requirements of cover, pipe
slopes, bend angles, and submergence of inlet
and outlet. Pipe cover requirements are:
(1) At all siphons crossing under roads
other than farm roads and siphons crossing
under railroads, a minimum of 3 feet of
earth cover should be provided. Farm roads
require only 2 feet of earth cover and are
frequently ramped using 10 to 1 slopes ( 10
percent grade) when necessary to provide
minimum cover requirements. If roadway
ditches exist and are extended over the pipe,
the minimum distance from the ditch to the
top of the pipe should be 2 feet.
(2)
At
siphons
crossing
under
cross-drainage channels, a minimum of 3 feet
of earth cover should be provided unless
studies indicate more cover is required
because of projected future retrogressions of
the channel.
(3) At siphons crossing under an earth
canal, a minimum of 24 inches of earth
cover should be provided.
(4) At siphons crossing under a lined
canal, a minimum of 6 inches of earth cover
should be provided between the canal lining
and the top of pipe.
Roadway widths and side slopes at road
and railroad siphon crossings should match
existing roadway widths and side slopes, or
as otherwise specified. Side slopes should
not be steeper than l-1/2 to 1.
Pipe slopes should not be steeper than 2
to 1 and should not be flatter than a slope of
0.005.
Changes in PCP pipe grade and alinement
(bends) may be made with precast elbows,
with beveled end pipe, by miter cutting pipe,
or by pulling joints. Changes in AC and RPM
pipe grade and alinement may be made by
miter cutting pipe or by pulling joints. See
chapter VIII for further information
on
bends.
(b) Trunsitiom -Transitions
are nearly
always used at the inlet and outlet of a siphon
to reduce head losses and prevent canal erosion
in unlined canals by causing the velocity
change between the canal and pipe to be less
abrupt. Concrete, earth, or a combination of
concrete and earth transitions are used for this
purpose.

27
The following
siphons require either a
concrete inlet transition or some type of
concrete inlet control structure, and a concrete
outlet transition:
All siphons crossing railroads and state
highways.
All 36-inch-diameter
and larger siphons
crossing roads.
All siphons in unlined canals with water
velocities in excess of 3.5 feet per second
in the pipe.
Standardization of concrete transitions is a
means of reducing costs. This is accomplished
by having a single transition cover a range of
canal and structure conditions. The base width
and invert of standardized transitions will
seldom match those of the canal. Additional
transitioning is then accomplished with an
earth transition where earth canals are involved
and with a concrete lining transition where
concrete-lined canals are involved.
For relatively short structures, such as
siphons crossing roads, it is frequently more
economical to omit concrete transitions even
though the length of pipe will increase and size
of pipe and protection may also increase. For
further discussion on Transitions see chapter
VII.
If there is a need for controlling the water
surface elevation upstream from the siphon, a
check and pipe inlet or a control and pipe inlet
is used. (See discussion of Check and Pipe Inlet
and Control and Pipe Inlet, subchapters III F
and III G.)
(c) Pipe Collars.-Pipe
collars are not
normally required on siphons but they may be
needed to reduce the velocity of the water
moving along the outside of the pipe or
through
the surrounding
earth thereby
preventing removal of soil particles (piping) at
the point of emergence. Pipe collars may also
be necessary to discourage rodents from
burrowing along the pipe. A detailed discussion
for design of pipe collars and cutoffs as related
to percolation may be found in chapter VIII.
(d) BlowofT Structures. -Blowoff structures
are provided at or near the low point of
relatively long inverted siphons to permit
draining
the pipe for inspection
and
shutdown.
maintenance
or wintertime
Essentially the blowoff structure consists of a

28
valved steel pipe tapped into the siphon barrel.
Blowoffs may also be used in an emergency in
conjunction with wasteways for evacuating
water from canals. Short siphons are usually
dewatered when necessary by pumping from
either end of the siphon. If annual wintertime
draining is not required, breaking into pipe
smaller than 24-inch diameter for emergency
draining is an economical alternative to
providing a blowoff.
A manhole is often included with a blowoff
on long siphons 36 inches and larger in
diameter to provide an intermediate access
point for inspection and maintenance.
A detailed discussion for design of blowoff
structures and manholes may be found in
chapter VIII.
(e) CaauI
Freehourd
urzd Erosion
Protection-The
canal bank freeboard
upstream from siphons should be increased 50
percent (1.0 foot maximum)
to prevent
washouts at these locations due to more storm
runoff
being taken into the canal than
anticipated or by improper operation. The
increased freeboard should extend a distance
from the structure such that damage caused by
overtopping the canal banks would be minimal;
but in any event a minimum distance of 50 feet
from the structure.
Erosion protection is often used adjacent to
siphons in earth canals. A discussion of
Protection is presented in chapter VII.
(f) Wustewuys. --Wasteways are often placed
upstream from a siphon for the purpose of
diverting the canal flow in case of emergency.
For design of wasteways see the discussion on
Wasteways, subchapter IV B.
(g) Sufkty Features. -Safety measures must
be taken near siphons to protect persons and
animals from injury and loss of life. Safety
features are discussed in chapter IX.
2- 11. Hydraulic
Design Considerations. Available head, economy, and allowable pipe
velocities determine the size of the siphon pipe.
Thus, it is necessary to assume internal
dimensions for the siphon and compute head
losses such as entrance, pipe friction, pipe
bend, and exit. The sum of all the computed
losses should approximate the difference in
energy grade elevation between the upstream
and downstream ends of the siphon (available
head).

SMALL

CANAL

STRUCTURES

In general, siphon velocities should range
from 3.5 to 10 feet per second, depending on
available head and economic considerations.
The following velocity criteria may be used
in determining the diameter of the siphon:
(1) 3.5 feet per second or less for a
relatively short siphon with only earth
transitions provided at entrance and exit.
(2) 5 feet per second or less for a
relatively short siphon with either a concrete
transition or a control structure provided at
the inlet and a concrete transition provided
at the outlet.
(3) 10 feet per second or less for a
relatively long siphon with either a concrete
transition or a control structure provided at
the inlet and a concrete transition provided
at the outlet.
The velocity or pipe size of a long siphon is
economically,
of particular
importance.
because a slight change in pipe size can make a
great change in the structure cost.
Head losses which should be considered are
as follows:
( 1) Convergence
loss in the inlet
transition.
(2) Check structure losses when a check
is installed in the inlet.
(3) Control
structure
losses when a
control is installed in the inlet.
(4) Friction and bend losses in the pipe.
(5) Divergence
loss in the outlet
transition.
(6) Transition friction losses are usually
ignored for the size of structures in this
publication.
(7) Convergence and divergence head
losses in earth transitions when required
between the canal and concrete transition
are usually small and are usually ignored.
The total computed head loss is usually
increased by 10 percent as a safety factor to
insure against the possibility of the siphon
causing backwater in the canal upstream from
the siphon.
The hydraulic head loss in a transition is
dependent on the difference of the velocity
heads in the canal and the normal to centerline
section of the closed conduit. Coefficients of
velocity
head considered adequate for
determining head losses in a broken-back type
of transition are 0.4 for the inlet and 0.7 for

CONVEYANCE

STRUCTURES

the outlet, therefore the losses would be
0.4Ah, for inlet and 0.7Ah, for the outlet
transitions.
Coefficients of velocity head considered
adequate for determining head losses in earth
transitions from the canal to a pipe are 0.5 for
the inlet and 1.0 for the outlet. Therefore, the
losses would be 0.5Ah, for the inlet and
l.OAh, for the outlet transitions.
For minimum hydraulic loss, it is desirable
to provide a seal of 1.5Ah, with 3-inch
minimum at pipe inlet and no submergence at
the pipe outlet. The seal is equal in height to
the vertical drop from the normal canal water
surface to the top of the siphon opening. If the
siphon has both upstream and downstream
concrete transitions it may be economically
desirable
to construct
the downstream
transition the same as the upstream transition.
If the outlet seal is greater than one-sixth the
height of opening at the outlet, the head loss
should be computed on the basis of a sudden
enlargement and the loss for both earth and
concrete outlet transitions would be 1.OAh, .
For additional discussion on Transitions SW
chapter VII.
If there is a check and pipe inlet or a control
and pipe inlet for the siphon see subchapters
III F and III G for their hydraulic design.
. Pipe friction losses arc determined by using
Manning’s formula as is explained in section
2- 13 or by using table 8- 1.
Pipe bend losses are detcrmincd by using
figure 8-l as is explained in chapter VIII.
Special hydraulic considerations must be
given to the inlets on long siphons where,
under certain conditions, the inlet will not
be come sealed. On long siphons, such
conditions may result when the canal is being
operated at partial flows (flows less than design
flow) or at full design flow when the actual
coefficient of friction is less than assumed in
design. Under such conditions, a hydraulic
jump occurs in the pipe and may cause
blowback and very unsatisfactory operating
conditions.
Figure
2-7,
which
is
self-explanatory, should be used to determine
proper performance of inlets to long siphons.
Pipe slope or diameter should be changed to
meet the requirements noted on the figure.
Another way of solving the air problem is to

29

place properly designed air vents at locations
where air might accumulate. This procedure is
ordinarily used only as a remedial mcasurc for
an existing siphon with blowback problems.
See discussion on Air Vents in chapter VIII.
2-12. Design Procedure. amStepsrequired for
design of a siphon include the following:
( 1 ) Determine
what inlet and outlet
structures are required, and the type and
approximate size of pipe.
(2) Make a preliminary layout of the siphon
profile (siphon and required inlet and outlet
structures) using the existing ground line, the
canal properties, and the canal stations and
elevations at the siphon ends (fig. 2-8). This
layout should provide pipe requirements of
cover, slope, bend angles, and provide pipe
submergence requirements at transitions, check
and pipe inlets, or control and pipe inlets.
(3) Compute the siphon head losses in this
preliminary
layout. If the head losses as
computed
arc in disagrcemcn t with the
available head, it may be necessary to make
some adjustment such as pipe size or even the
canal profile.
If the computed losses are greater than the
difference in upstream and downstream canal
water surface, the siphon will probably cause
backwater in the canal upstream from the
siphon. If backwater exists, the pipe size
should be increased or the canal profile revised
to provide adequate head.
If the computed losses are appreciably less
than
the
difference
in upstream and
downstream canal water surface it may bc
possible to decrease the size of pipe, or the
canal profile may be revised so the available
head is approximately the same as the head
losses.
(4) On long siphons where the inlet may not
be sealed there is the possibility of blowback
and unsatisfactory operating conditions. The
inlet
should
be checked
for proper
performance
and adjustments made if
necessary.
(5) Determine the pipe class. The pipe class
can be determined from the amount of
external load and internal head shown on the
pipe profile.
2- 13. Design
Example
(see fig.
2-4.)-Assume
that an earth canal crosses a

30

SMALL

CANAL

STRUCTURES

SECTION

“, I

I

FREE

FLOW

“,
y,
r;
i,
C
s

SIPHON

A-A

INLET

Velociry
for free flow, ‘Feit/sec
: Water depth for free flow, feet
Surface
width for free flow. feef
: Hydraulic
radius for free flow, feet
: Diameter
of pipe. feet
z Siooe of oioe

Fxperfmentol
curves
of cri+icol
Froude
numbers
see A SC E lronscct:on
,943
En’ro,nment
of Air rn F:owrnq Waler-Closed
Condrts
page ,435

NOTES

54"

26"

535

264

24:

Cl3

367

349

895

24"

016

208

378

543

54'
54'
54*
54-

72>
So?Diego

Sta

1hi3+50

San Diego sio PPO*+OP

N

Id

1

012
010
Cl0
010
OS0
010
010
010
0'0
010
010
o/2
010
010
010
010

48"
54'
48
48"
48"
48"
48"
48"
48"

tt

61

P60

1490

0033

567

029
,T

305

i 25
10
10 0
/I 90
4

194
171

2716
,935

134

3053

POP
185

2198

9 95

iz 15
10 95
13 70
Ii 35

3643

192

2563

PI2

3714

104

19
211
262

0336

355

4

377

190

I3
15

3114

I

Figure 2-7. Design of free-flow

Stphon inlets marked thus Q, hove g!ven trouble
rn
operation
and nir outlets
were instoiied
in some cases
to
reireve
the blowing
bock
of o/r and wafer
Ailother
siphons
hove not given trouble in operotlon
Study made indrcotes
that free flow si hon miets designed
so that Froude number
WI// not /oil o ff eve the critical
curves
established
by experiments
WI// give sotrsfoctory
performance
Procedure
to determine
Froude
number
For o given 0 ,diometer
D, slope S. ond coeff
n, colculote
the following
o y, Using Monningk
Formula
b

4

c v;

1383

ii

20

733

17
80
00

t

siphon inlets. 103-D-1255.

CONVEYANCE

ST ‘RIJCTIIRFS
Os‘sots
6f*OS1=

1
= H ‘I3

,SZ’I

1,

=‘p

H .VlS

P’
$

I’

Lo
-2
w

-0
GIll

IE’SOPS = 3 .I3
f9+6tl=
3 271’5

ZS~9OPS = v ‘I3
LP+6PI = v ‘VlS

z
,SZ’I =‘P

(1

31

32

SMALL

state highway and an inverted siphon is the
most feasible type of structure for conveying
water past the highway.
(a) Giwn; (Refer to preliminary layout, fig.
2-8.)
(1) Type of waterway = earth canal.
(2) Feature being crossed = state highway
at right angles with canal E.
(3) Q = 15 cfs.
(4) Sta. A = 149 + 47 and Canal Invert
El. A = 5406.52 (from a canal profile sheet).
(5) d, = 1.25 feet (d,, normal depth in
canal).
V, = 2.1 f.p.s., hvl = 0.07 ft.
(6) NWS El. at Sta. A = El. A + d, =
5406.52 + 1.25 = 5407.77.
(7) Sta. H = 150 + 49 and Canal Invert
El. H = 5405.50 (from a canal profile sheet).
(8) d, = 1.25 ft. (d,, , normal depth in

STRUCTURES

same transition for both inlet and outlet.
(2) Tvpc o,t’ pipe. -This pipe will have
internal pressure and will be passing under a
state highway, therefore, it should be either
precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe
(PCP), asbestos-cement pressure pipe (AC),
or reinforced plastic mortar pressure pipe
(RPM) each having rubber gasket joints. In
this example assume that because of
availability and costs it is advantageous to
use PCP.
(3) Pipe size. (SW tuble on fig. 2-4.)-For
a relatively short siphon having concrete
inlet and outlet transitions, the pipe would
be sized for velocity of about 5 feet per
second. Then for a discharge of 15 cfs the
table suggests that a 24-inch-diameter pipe
may he used.
(4)
Hydraulic
properties
of
24-inch-diameter pipe for Q of 15 cfs.
A = area of pipe = 0.785 x (dia.)2
= 3.14 ft.*
Q 15
V = velocity in pipe =A=-~

callal).

v2 = 2.1 f.p.s.. h,Z = 0.07 ft.
(9) NWS El. at Sta. H = El. H + d, =
5405.50 + 1.25 = 5406.75.
(10) Width of roadway = 26 ft.
(11) Side slopes of roadway ditch and
canal embankment = l-1/2 to 1.
(12) El. top of roadway = El. J =
5407.26.
(13) El. edge of roadway shoulders =
5407.00.
(14) Control
structure
at inlet not
required for turnout delivery.
( 15) 1LX-inch-deeproadway ditches.
(16) Canal Sta. J at ($ roadway = Sta.
150+00.
(17) Canal bank width = 10.0 ft.
(18) Canal bank freeboard at outlet =
normal canal bank freeboard = 1.3 ft.
(b) Determirw.
(1)
Inlet
and
outlet
structure
requirements.-The
siphon crosses under a
state highway; therefore, some kind of
concrete inlet and outlet structures are
required. Since a control structure is not
needed at the inlet, use a concrete transition
for both the inlet and the outlet. Use type 1
transitions (fig. 7-2, chapter VII) and use the

CANAL

= 4.77 f.p.s.

2

V2 4.77
11 = velocity head in pipe ==m
vP
&
= 0.35 ft.
whcrc g = gravitational acceleration.
wp = wetted perimeter = 71dia.
= 6.28 ft.
r = hydraulic radius =$=-- 3.14
6.28
= 0.5 ft.
n = assumed roughness coefficient3
= 0.013
sf = friction slope of pipe

Hydraulic properties of pipe may also be
taken from table 8-l in chapter VIII.
(5) Additional canal bank freeboard at
upstream end of siphon.-Additional
canal
bank
freeboard
= 0.5
of normal
3See

section

1 -I 6

CONVEYANCE

33

STRUCTURES

freeboard = 0.5 x 1.3 = 0.65 ft., use 0.7 ft.
(6) Canal bank El. at Sta. A = NWS El. +
regular freeboard + additional freeboard =
5407.77 + 1.3 ft. + 0.7 ft. = 5409.77.
Extend the bank at this elevation a distance
of 50 feet upstream from the siphon to
minimize damage which could be caused by
overtopping.
(7) Canal bank El. at Sta. H = NWS El. +
freeboard = 5406.75 + 1.3 ft. = 5408.05.
trailsitioil
hydraulic
Illlet
(8)
setting. -The transition invert elevation at
the headwall (Sta. C) is based on the
hydraulic seal required at the top of the
headwall opening and the vertical height of
the opening, Ht. Pipe slope affects this
vertical dimension since Ht = - D
where
COScyl
D = pipe diameter and 01~ = angle of pipe
slope at headwall. The scaled value of cy, is
usually adequate since a small error in o(~
will not significantly affect Ht. The scaled
value ofa, is 12O.
Ht =so

=os=

2.04 ft

Hydraulic seal required = 1.5 Ah, = 1.5(hvp
- h,,) = 1.5 (0.35 - 0.07) = 0.42 ft. which
is greater than 3 inches (0.25 ft.) minimum
seal required, therefore, 0.42 foot should be
used. Transition invert El. C = NWS El. at
Sta. A ~ (1.5 Ah, + Ht) = 5407.77 - (0.42 +
2.04) = 5405.31
If the transition invert at the cutoff (Sta.
B) is set at the canal invert, the difference in
invert elevations of the transition (p) is
5406.52 - 5405.31 = 1.21 ft. = p. See figure
7-2 for p. The maximum p value for the inlet
is-$ D and the maximum
outlet is $D.
and outlet
which isiof

p value for the

Therefore, by making the inlet
identical, p cannot exceed+D
2 or 1.O ft. (see subchapter VII

A). Use a p value of 1.0 foot, then the inlet
transition invert El. B will not be the same as
the canal but will be El. C + p or 5405.31 +
1.00 foot = 5406.3 1 which is 0.21 foot

lower than the canal invert at Sta. A. The
invert slope for a IO-foot-long
earth
transition resulting from the use of p = 1.0
foot should not be steeper than 4 to 1 (see
sec. 7-l 1). The actual slope = 10 to n Inv. of
earth transition = 10 to 0.2 1 = 48 to 1 which
is flatter than 4 to 1 and therefore
permissible.
(9)
Outlet
trausitiorz
hydraulic
setting.
-To
minimize
headwall
submergence, set the downstream invert
elevation (Sta. G) of the transition at canal
invert. Then the transition invert El. G =
canal invert El. H = 5405.50. For the inlet
and outlet transitions to be identical, p = 1.0
foot. Then transition invert El. F = El. G - p
= 5405.50 - 1.00 = 5404.50.
The height of headwall opening (Ht) at
station F is,

Ht-!?v

cos a2

2.00
= A 2 00 ------=
cos 12O - 0.978

2.04 ft.

Submergence of top of opening =
(dz + p) - D
= (1.25 + 1.00) - 2.04
cos a2
= 0.21 ft.
This submergence should
one-sixth Ht for minimum
One-sixth Ht = y

not exceed
head loss.

= 0.34 foot which is

greater than the submergence of 0.21 foot.
Therefore, the loss for the outlet transition
is minimum and may be calculated using the
equation 0.7nh,.
(10) Drop in water surface elevation
(available head) = NWS El. Sta. A - NWS El.
Sta. H = 5407.77 - 5406.75 = 1.02 ft.
(1 1) Before establishing detailed siphon
elevations and dimensions, use a preliminary
siphon layout (fig. 2-8) and determine
approximate total head loss and compare
with head provided. Scale the dimensions
and angles as required. This study will
indicate if the pipe diameter or canal profile
should be revised.
Total siphon head loss with 10 percent
transition
safety
factor = 1.1 (inlet
convergence loss + pipe friction loss + bend
losses + outlet transition divergence loss).

SMALL

34
Pipe length scaled = about 72 feet.
Pipe bend angles scaled = about 12’
(assume single angle bends).
Approximate total head loss H, = 1.1 (hi
+ h,- + h, + h,) where hi is inlet loss, h, is
pipe friction loss, h, is pipe bend loss, and
h, is outlet loss.
H, = I. I[ 0.4nh, + pipe length x sf
+ Ch, x 2 + 0.7nh,]
H, = 1.1,0.:(0.35
~ 0.07) + 72 x 0.0044
+ (0.04 x 0.35) 2
+ 0.7(0.35 ~ 0.07)]
= 1.1 [ 0.1 1 + 0.32 + 0.03 + 0.201
= I. 1 (0.66) = 0.73 foot

STRUCTURES

and downstream
identical
upstream
transitions, the column for water surface
angle of 25’ should be used.
The relationship of pipe diameter D to
normal depth d in the canal is determined
for use in the table and is equal to
3.00
--x
D= 1.25

d= 1.6d.

By interpolating in the table between D =
1.5d and D = 2.0d, dimension C would be
C= ,.,D+(;:;;

$,,:,D

= 1.8D +++(0.5D)
= 1.9D

Head provided by canal profile = 1.02 feet
which is 0.29 foot more than the 0.73 foot
required for this preliminary layout. This
excess head will cause a slight drawdown in
the canal upstream from the siphon and will
result in faster than normal velocities for a
short distance. For this design example
assume that this velocity is noneroding so it
is not necessary that the profile of the canal
or the size of pipe be revised.
( 1 2) Trurlsitiofl
dime~zsioll,
J’ (jig.
7-2). -Dimension y should be determined so
that the freeboard provided at the cutoff
will be 0.5 foot as indicated in subchapter
VII A.

CANAL

- 1.8D)

= 1.8D + O.lD

Then C = 1.9D = 1.9 x 2 = 3.8 feet
Use C = 4 feet 0 inch. This may or may
not match the canal bottom width.
Additional transitioning of bottom width
should be included in the earth transition.
(15) Depth a/Id thickness of’ tramitioll
clrtojj: -Referring
to the appropriate table
on figure 7-2, for normal depth in the canal
of 1.25 feet, the transition cutoff depth, e,
should be 24 inches and the thickness, tw,
should be 6 inches.
( 16) Corlcretc
trunsitiorl
lellgth, L (fig.
7-2). ~
L = 3 pipe dia. = 3 x 2 = 6 feet

y = (NWS El. Sta. A - El. B) + F,
= (5407.77 - 5406.3 I) + 0.5
= 1.46 + 0.5 = 1.96 ft.

( 17)

Therefore. use 2 feet 0 inch.
( 13)

Trarlsitiorl

dirnerlsion,

u

(jig.

7-J). -Freeboard at the transition headwall
for pipe diameters 24 inches and smaller
may be the same as the freeboard at the
cutoff. Therefore the top of the headwall is
set at the same elevation as the top of the
wall at the cutoff and is equal to:
El. B + y = 5406.3 i + 2.00 = 5408.3 1
a = El. top of wall - El. C
= 5408.31 ~ 5405.31 = 3 ft. 0 in.
( 14) Trutlsitiofl
dinzerzsiorl, C. -Refer to
the table on figure 7-2, to determine C. For

Trallsition

dinwmiolz

B

(jig.

7-?I.-The width of the base at the headwall
is B and is equal to 0.303 x D = 0.303 x 24
inches = 7.272 inches. Use B = 8 inches.
e m b r d rn e II t
a I1 d
(18)
Pipe
bclzds.-Embedment
details for the pipe at
the headwalls and construction requirements
of the pipe bends are discussed in chapter
VIII and shown on figures 8-14 and 8-l 0,
respectively. Since the deflection angles of
the bends will be less than 45’, only one
miter is necessary. Also because the pipe
diameter is less than 42 inches, a banded
mitered pipe bend may bc used with a
minimum band thickness of 1 inch. Since
the hydraulic thrust caused by the bend is
directed into the pipe foundation, stability
of the bend is probably sufficient.

CONVEYANCE

STRUCTURES

Unusually poor foundation conditions in
addition to high heads, large diameter pipe,
and large deflection angles may, however,
require that the thrust be considered when
determining the foundation reaction.
(19)
Firzul siphon
prof’ile
(fig.
2-Y). -Using the elevations, dimensions, and
earth slopes previously computed or given,
determine the final structure stationing, pipe
elevations, and pipe slopes.
Stations C and F at the transition
headwalls are controlled by the roadway
earthwork dimensions and side slopes and
headwall thickness. From figure 2-9 it can be
determined that station C must be at least
34.36 feet upstream from the roadway
centerline.
Sta. C = Sta. J - 34.36 ft.
= Sta. (150+00) - 34.36 ft.
= Sta. 149+65.64 (or less)
Use Sta. C = Sta. 149+65
Sta. B is then
= Yta. C - 6.00 feet
= Sta. (149+65) - 6.00 feet
= Sta. 149+59
and Sta. A becomes
= Sta. B ~ 10.00 ft.
= Sta. (149+59) - 10.00 ft.
= Sta. 149+49
The small difference in the given value for
station A (149+47) and the computed
station (149+49) is not significant enough to
require any canal invert profile changes.
Stations F, G, and H are determined in
the same manner as stations A, B, and C.
From figure 2-9 it can be determined that
station F must be at least 30.38 feet from
the roadway centerline.
Sta. F = Sta. J + 30.38 ft.
= Sta. (150+00) + 30.38 ft.
= Sta. 150+30.38 (or greater)
Use Sta. F = Sta. 1SO+31
Sta. G is then
= Sta. F + 6.0 ft.
= Sta. (150+3 1) + 6.0 ft.
= Sta. 150+37 and
Sta. H becomes
= Sta. G + 10.0 ft.
= Sta. ( 150+37) + 10.0 ft.
= Sta. 150+47

35
Here again the difference between the given
and computed values for station H is small
and will not require any canal invert profile
changes.
Stations D and E are selected to insure
that a 2-foot minimum of earth cover on the
pipe is provided at the roadway ditches. The
inverts of the V-ditches are located 15.25
feet from the roadway centerline. Therefore,
the pipe bend inverts should be located
about 16 feet from each side of the
centerline of the roadway.
Then Sta. D = Sta. J - 16.00 ft.
= Sta. (150+00) - 16.00 ft.
= Sta. 149+84
El. D is determined by subtracting the pipe
diameter, the shell thickness, and the
minimum cover from the elevation of the
ditch invert.
El. D = (5407.00 - 1.5 ft.) - (2.00 ft.

+ 0.25 ft. + 2.00 ft.) = 5401.25.
Determine Sta. E = Sta. J + 16.00 ft. =
Sta. (150+00) + 16.00 ft. = Sta. 150+16.
El. E is determined by subtracting the
product of the distance between stations D
and E and the pipe slope 0.005 (which is a
minimum slope) from El. D.
El. E = El. D - 32 ft. x 0.005 =
5401.25 - 0.16 ft. = 5401.09.
Upstream pipe slope (S, ). Slope of the pipe
between stations C and D is calculated as
follows:
Horizontal distance = Sta. D ~ Sta. C
= (149+84) - ( 149+65) = 19 feet
Vertical distance = El. C ~ El. D
= 5405.31 - 5401.25 = 4.06 feet
vertical distance _ 4.06 ft.
horizontal distance
19 ft.
= 0.214

s1 =

Angle of the slope is the angle whose
tangent is
= 0.214, (Y* = 12OO5’

SZ’I -‘P CANAL STRUCTURES .36 SMALL 60’lOtS 91+051= 7 -25 = 3 ‘13 3 ‘VlS 3 c F I IE’SOPS= 3 ‘13 S9+6W = 3 ‘VlS -0 d zS’90tS= v ‘13 v ‘VlS 6P+6*1= f -- I .

by one-third if the path is horizontal and between structure and earth. The difference in elevation between the canal water surface and the roadway ditch is 2. Since pipe slope is relatively flat. 19 ft. Assume that collars are not needed to discourage burrowing animals but collars may be necessary to slow the percolation of water along the pipe even without their burrows.El. This excess head will cause faster than normal velocities. the total head loss in the siphon is: H. (2 1) Erosion pro tectiow -Refer to figure 7-8 in chapter VII B. From station D to station E.1[0. = 1.1 (0. vertical distance s.0. use horizontal distance = Sta. Therefore. E = 5404. 012 = 12’51’ (20) Final siphon head losses.41 ft.20) = 0. L. = horizontal distance = 3.35) x 7 + 0. x 2 + 0.228 Angle of the slope is the angle whose tangent is 0.4(0.5 + 4. The weighted creep ratio. B) x l/3 + (outside diameter of pipe) x 1 + (earth cover on pipe) x 2 = (2 x 2) x 1 + (25) x l/3 + 2.07) + 66. From station E to station F 15 ft. (149+84) = 32. = 0.CONVEYANCE 37 STRUCTURES Downstream pipe slope (S3).5401.3 + 2. and finally through the earth to the ditch invert. -Refer to subchapter VIII C.29 + 0. 15 ft.Sta. percolation factor. 1[ 0.Sta. a slight water surface drawdown will occur for a short distance upstream from the siphon.4 + 32.68 ft. F ~ Sta. (22) Pipe collars. E = Sta. required to prevent piping is assumed to be 3. = (2 x vertical dimension of cutoff) x 1 + (Sta.Sta. + pipe length x sf + C h. Horizontal distance = Sta. D . (150+16)= 15 ft.0 ft.02 + 0. Total pipe length = 19.978 = 19.1 (hi+h.1 (inlet transition convergence loss + pipe friction loss + pipe bend losses + outlet transition divergence loss).4 ft.09 = 3.50 .Sta. F .11 + 0. = cos 12’05’ 0. _ 19 ft. D .68 foot). Determine the weighted creep length (L.0044 + (0.35 . (150+16) . D = Sta.0 + 8.02 feet) is greater than the head required (0.+h. = 1.0.4Ah. C) coscl. and by two if the path is through earth.4 ft.0. then along the outside of the pipe to the top of the pipe. E ~ Sta.8 x 0.0 = 18.5 x 1 +2x2 = 4.228. Since the head provided (1. or H. Weighted creep lengths are derived by multiplying the path length by one if the path is vertical and between structure and earth.) H.04 x 0.35 .Sta.7 (0.07)] = 1. El = cos cl2 cos 12’51’ =g&= 15. Determine slope of the pipe between stations E and F.8 feet .-Total final siphon head loss with 10 percent safety factor = 1. (150+31) . F .0 + 15.+h.4 = 66.] P Determine pipe length: From station C to station D Length = (Sta. = 1. ) from the inlet transition to the first roadway ditch assuming the seepage water flows along the bottom side of the siphon from station B to station D. Vertical distance = El. For this design example assume that these velocities are still noneroding so neither the canal profile nor the pipe size need be revised.7nh. The water depth in the canal is less than 2 feet so protection is not required at the end of the siphon. Length = (Sta.8 ft.3 feet (AH).41 ft.

-subchapter 1 B) and the hydrostatic head measured to the centerline of the pipe will not exceed 25 feet.s. CANAL STRUCTURES to have blowback because the air that might be entrained due to a possible freeflow inlet and hydraulic jump will probably be carried downstream and exhausted at the downstream end of the siphon. Where severe rockfall problems may be encountered. pipe collars are not needed. 19. Where there is a possibility of falling rock damaging the flume. and because of the the availability of precast concrete pressure pipe with rubber gasket joints that can usually be more economically constructed under natural drainage channels or depressions. Flumes supported above the ground with reinforced concrete.1 ft. or natural drainage channels. YOUNG’ 2. Purpose and Descriptiorr.--A bench flume is usually rectangular in shape and made of reinforced concrete (fig. 2-l 0 and 2-l 1). cit. protective backfill should ‘Op. The structure is short and the pipe may be drained by pumping from the ends so a blowoff is not required. B. structural steel. (24) Blowhack. . aesthetics. 4-30). If the rockfall is only over a short reach of flume it may be preferable to provide a reinforced concrete cover for this reach. (23) Blotvojlf: -Refer to subchapter VIII C. Flumes are also used at locations where there is restricted right-of-way or whcrc lack of suitable material makes construction of canal banks undesirable or impracticable. -Refer to section 8-16. (c) Elevated Flumes. The pipe designation will then be 24 B 25. 2-I 2 and 2. (26) S~jbf~> jeutlrvcs.0). This siphon structure is short and not likely D. Flumes supported on a bench excavated into a hillside are called bench flumes (figs. be placed to near the top of the flume wall adjacent to the hillside.2) is greater than that assumed to be necessary (3. Because the elevated flume is so limited in its usage it will not be discussed in detail in this publication.sof’ PCP. especially with flumes for small discharges. -Refer to chapter IX. or to convey canal water over other waterways.13). -Elevated steel flumes with a semicircular shape were commonly used at one time to carry canal water over natural drainage channels or depressions.3% SMALL Determine the percolation factor (PF) that this weighted creep distance will provide. -(a) Germcrul. Overchutes. p. 2-l 7) with inlet and outlet transitions to the adjoining canal.I 4. BENCH AND ELEVATED FLUMES R. could be economy or practicality of construction and maintenance. These overchutes are usually steel pipe or rectangular reinforced concrete channels. are a type of elevated flume used to convey cross-drainage water over a canal. Since the percolation factor provided (8. or timber are called elevated flumes (figs. (25) C1as. discussed in subchapter IV C (fig. Elevated flumes now are seldom used because of associated maintenance problems.--Flumes are used to convey canal water along steep sidehill terrain. it may be more economical and practicable to use precast concrete pressure pipe in a trench and provide 3 feet of earth cover as is shown in figure 2-14. Excavation into the hillside to form the bench should be of sufficient width to provide for an access road along the downhill side unless other provisions have been made for a road. Some reasons for using a bench flume along steep sidehill terrain rather than a canal or pipeline.-The equivalent earth load on the pipe will not exceed 10 feet (3 feet of earth cover + H20 loading is a total equivalent earth cover of 9. environmental considerations. therefore class B 25 PCP is satisfactory.. (b) BcJtlchfl~r?ze.

however. velocity.000 1 and 0. A narrower section may also be in this range the respective values of area. Because velocities in a flume are ordinarily greater than in an earth canal.D-4592 Figure Early flume. a narrower section may be more economical alang a steep hillside where rock excavation is required. If.CONVEYANCE Figure STRUCTURES 2. Although this ratio is often used. For example.100 and for any flow between 0 and lOO cfs. day elevated flume. P42-D-45751 necessary because of limited right-of-way. and therefore. A study of tratios in regard to hydraulic efficiency and construction costs ( excluding excavation and backfill) indicates that an accePtable-} about 1 and 3. 2-13.Flume most hydraulically Section. Concrete bench flume. (b) Slope and Velocity. Hydraulic Considerations 2-1 S .10. Concrete bench 39 Figure 2. a steeper slope will be required. PX.12. -(a) Ratio ~- The efficient rectangular bench flume section is one with atratio ratio is in the range between equal to 2 [ 6] . Elevated flume crossing natural drainage. Flume design velocities are ordinarily substantially slower than critical velocities. subcritical flow exists. For any *ratio Figure 2-11. other considerations may suggest that the flume should be narrower or wider.-The most economical flume section will have velocities greater than those allowed in an earth canal. . and wetted perimeter are nearly identical for any slope between 0. yet a wider section reduces the wall heights which could effect economy. P336-D-48829 1.

This criteria applies not only to the nume design slope but also to the actual flume slope due to construction tolerances that could otherwise result in supercritical slopes. 2. where concrete transitions are required for inline structures they are usually broken-back (type 1) transitions for the capacity range in this publication. Where the flume velocity is not much more than the canal velocity. 2-l 6. resulting in increasing velocities through the inlet transition and a drop in the water surface by an amount sufficient to produce the necessary increase in velocity and to overcome friction and transition losses. and anticipated method of operation. ( c) Freehouvu’. for example. and facilities downhill from the overflow. design velocities are faster than critical. is nearly always steeper than critical slope resulting in supercri tical flow. The canal base width should. transitioning from the canal section to the flume section is usually required to provide a relatively smooth water surface and to conserve energy.005. resulting i n undesirable water surface undulations. -Wherever a bench flume is used with a canal. As discussed in chapter VII. Studies also show that with these ratios and capacities a rectangular flume invert slope of 0. or 3 and for capacities of 100 cfs or less the slope of the flume invert should not be steeper than s = 0. flume.002. Flume slopes should be substantially flatter than critical slope because flows at or near critical depth tend to be rather unstable. supercritical flow exists and the bench flume performs hydraulically as a chute and an energy dissipator is required at the structure outlet. be uniformly varied to match the flume base width and flume wingwalls should be provided to retain the canal banks and to serve as cutoffs to prevent flow along the outside of the flume. Studies show that with the i ratio equal to 1. curvature of alinement. Figure l-9 may be used as a guide for determining minimum freeboard for flumes. This is usually also true with transitioning from flume section to canal section.SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Compacted backf i 1I Figure 2-14. Concrete pipeline for bench construction. Using an n value of 20 percent less than the nominal design ii. -Usually flume velocities are greater than canal velocities. velocity of water. such as the size of flume. See subchapter II F for chute design. ( b) lizlet. --Bench flume freeboard should be correlated with the adjacent canal freeboard so that overflow from either will result in the least amount of damage to canal. Transitions. -(a) Gerzerul. Neglecting the transition friction loss. a verification should be made to see that the depth does not approach critical depth where the bottom might be raised above design grade due to construction tolerances. which is usually small. an abrupt change in water prism from canal to flume may be permitted. however. especially if the canal section is unlined. and . 103-D-1258 Freeboard for flumes will depend upon a number of factors.

and 12 inches for depths of 2. in general. The joints are usually butt joints without elastic filler except that elastic filler joints should be used from the PC to the PT of curves and adjacent to transitions.-The flume should be provided with rubber water stop joints every 25 feet. 2. an ice load must also be considered. -Freeboard at the transition cutoff adjacent to concrete canal lining. (c) Comvetc Thichwss.3 ah. Structural Considerations of a Rectangular Bench Flume 2-l 7. be a minimum of 24 inches deep for water depths up to 3 feet at the cutoff. -Concrete thickness at the base of vertical cantilever flume walls is determined by conventional reinforced concrete design methods. . (e) Joilzts. 41 resistance to sliding from uphill b&ckfill pressure must be provided. whereas the transition invert elevation at the flume is set below the flume normal water surface by an amount equal to normal depth in the flume. is used for difference of water surface (LIWS). The ratio of the horizontal forces to the vertical forces should not exceed the coefficient of sliding. The resultant of all forces considered in the analysis for sliding should intersect the base of the flume within the middle-third to provide bearing pressure over the entire base width. and 3 feet for water depths greater than 6 feet.5) nh.00 feet. Then $-$ should be equal to or less than 0. The transition invert at the cutoff and at the flume is set in the same manner as the invert for the inlet transition except 0. or buried-membrane canal lining is usually the same as the lining freeboard.25 feet.5 Ah. In unlined and earth-lined canals the minimum freeboard should be 6 inches for water depths up to 1.35. -Considerations for the structural design of a concrete bench flume section must include the deadweight of the flume and the backfill loads outside the flume with and without water in the flume. A saturated earth load and wheel loads are used where appropriate. the water surface inside the flume is assumed to be at the top of the walls..26 to 2. Flume Section. (e) Cutofjk -Transition cutoff walls should. Freeboard at the flume end of the transition should be the same as the flume freeboard. (d) Druirzage. the total drop in water surface is 1. The transition invert elevation at the cutoff is set to match that of the canal. For flume walls which retain backfill. Bell joints are not recommended. neglecting friction. If wintertime operation is required.3 Ah. other hard surface. for a broken-back inlet transition loss. The length of the inlet transition is determined by using a maximum convergence angle of 27-l/2’ between the water surface and the transition centerline.00 feet. -After backfill requirements have been determined. -The outlet transition divergence loss for a broken-back outlet transition to a rectangular channel is approximately 0.. The floor thickness is usually made the same as the wall thickness at the junction of the wall and floor. (c) Outlet. -(a) Stability.01 to 5. -Pipe drains are intermittently placed under the flume to remove storm runoff water or any other water which might otherwise collect behind the uphill flume wall and cause stability and foundation problems. the internal water pressure is usually omitted for this size structure and only the exterior earth load due to the backfill is used. is equal to (l-0. If backfill is not required behind the walls. = 0. 2 feet 6 inches deep for water depths of 3 to 6 feet. If the deadweight of the empty flume does not furnish the required resistance to backfill pressure on the uphill side.5 Ah. The length of the outlet transition is determined by using a maximum divergence angle of 22-l/2’ between the water surface and the transition centerline.5 Ah.35. 9 inches for depths of 1. (d) Freeboard. The minimum concrete thickness should be 6 inches for 24-inch cutoffs and 8 inches for cutoffs deeper than 24 inches. The total rise in the water surface from the flume to the canal. (b) Wall Lauds. The friction coefficient for sliding of concrete on earth is frequently assumed to be 0.. and is usually uniform across the width of the flume.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES assuming 0. the base may be extended to engage additional earth weight.

Design Example..0001 to 0. Flumes in class A. At the upstream end of the flume structure the canal station is l+OO and the invert elevation of the canal is 1000. h.8 Ah.09. ft. Slight deviations from these values are not objectionable and will exist if the head loss provided by the drop in canal water surface.8 (. is also the most economical.0. where Y is the drop in canal invert provided for the structure. l-16). The head loss provided for the bench flume structure is therefore 1. A = 43. -Most flumes with capacities of 100 cfs and less do not require safety facilities because they are generally in a low exposure classification.f = Y ~ 0.014 (see sec. V = 2. L. is different from the actual flume loss. b = 10 ft.025.39 ~ .08.80.30 f.9 ft.95 ft. s = 0. At the outlet the rise in water surface ideally will be O. Fencing or guardrail may also be required to keep animals and vehicles out of the flume and to protect operating personnel....20 feet. Excavation for the bench will be in rock. This is especially necessary if the flume is backfilled to the top of the hillside wall.. d = 3.3nh.00 ft. It can be shown for these ideal hydraulic conditions and for the same canal hydraulic properties at each end of the flume. and in addition a combination of the depth and velocity of water in the flume is not considered hazardous. Flumes with wall heights greater than 3 feet will require escape ladders at 500-foot intervals to permit a person to climb out. B.. (5) Use broken-back inlet and outlet transitions from the earth canal to the flume set tion.39 ft. for slopes 0. Debris and loose rock is not expected to be falling so the uphill flume wall will not require backfill. -Bench (1) Bench f’lume excavation for construction of the flume will be in rock on a fairly steep hillside. assume that preliminary computations for transition lengths show will be inlet transition that the approximately 15 feet long and the outlet transition approximately 20 feet long. = 0. n = 0. section.0.5 sq. . that the drop in rectangular section invert from the inlet to the outlet of the rectangular flume will be equal to: AInv+ = Y . Assume that the head provided will permit a flume velocity of about 5 feet per second and hvf = 0.. assume that of the acceptable flume sections previously mentioned the one with a i ratio equal to about 1.Mh.100 and flows 0 to 100 cfs.p. R = 2. For economy of construction including excavation costs.00056.25 = 0. = 1.s. = 1.08) = 1. or C exposure areas will require fencing to prevent persons from entering the flume. At the downstream end of the flume structure the canal station is 6+50 and the invert elevation of the canal is 998. (2) Pipe drains will be required under the flume to remove hillside runoff water from behind the uphill flume wall. 2-l 8. Assume that a 6-inch drain every 100 feet will fulfill this requirement. CANAL STRUCTURES (6) Flume roughness coefficient n is assumed to be 0. the drop in water surface from the canal to the flume using a broken-back transition will be equal to 1. will then be station 6+50 minus station l+OO minus 15 feet minus 20 feet = 5 15 feet.8 Ah. (4) The earth canal has the following hydraulics properties at each end of the flume: Q = 100 cfs.00. S:S = l-1/2:1. (3) An access road adjacent to the flume on the downhill side will not be required since a natural bench exists a short distance downhill from the flume and will be improved to provide access. (1) A bench flume is to be used along a canal alinement to convey the canal water along a steep hillside. Then nInv. from the inlet to the outlet of the flume. The rectangular flume length. See chapter IX for additional safety de tails.0. For ideal hydraulic conditions. (b) Determine. -(a) GiverI. Further.20 -. and F.SMALL 42 (f) Sufety Requirements.20 .

23. For S.72 ft.21 ft.211x 123) . Assume that the tolerance for construction allows the invert to rise 1 inch (0.25 = 9. or 3 and capacities are not greater than 100 cfs.0037 calculated using an n of 0. Design slope is 0. = 0.314 x 8.1 1 f.48d2 ‘3 = = 2.2 and 100 V= m= ft. = xc 9.08 foot irregularity. 16d2 I3 = y 1 b = 4 ft. hvf = 0. A = d*.005 when the $ ratio is equal to 1.64 and velocity head.16d2’3 also “+JB By equating d2 the two expressions for velocity.58 + 4.25 x 2. 2.& x (0. R =$ R2/” = 0 48d2/3 R2/3 Sll2 ~. .0018 which is much flatter than the critical slope of 0.33d and Using Manning’s formula [ 61 v = 1. + b = 2 x 2.75 = 0. 2. Then A = d2 = 17.00 184.0018)~‘~ 106. .L = c5 = 0. Design of flume section may therefore proceed.314 q2’3 = 0. = 3 q. and-=b d b= 4.21 5.0 1 1.0. the depth at this irregularity will always be greater than critical depth for invert slopes flatter than 0. Then A.49 foot This velocity is reasonably close to the assumed velocity used in calculating S.0037 d”13 = 46. Then loo-.011 in the computations for critical slope. Determine critical depth and critical slope to see if the flume invert slope is flat enough to insure that design flow will be stable.014 determine Use the water depth and velocity for a $ ratio = 1 then.23 s. _ 10. = b x d.98 -= 1.204 = 2. or 4. 3 in.0018 and II = 0.1 x 0.5 cfs and d. rounded to 0. R.58 = 10.17 9. Determine what effect this will have on the flow using an n of 0.011 x 9.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 43 The resulting flume invert slope is then equal to: n1nv. = 0.08 foot) at random points above the normal invert elevation.. L.2 100 Q = m= v. wp = 3d.98 ft.11)2 = 0.25 feet. so this is probably satisfactory.41 ft. = . Studies show that with this n value and this 0.0018 For It has been recommended that the slope should not be steeper than S = 0. Because the value b has been rounded off to 4 feet 3 inches or 4.21 ft.486 dz4.s.25 ft. wpc = 2d.01 1.58 ft.r 0 95 s. =-A. q=Q 6 = 4.29 d = 4. = 4.413 (nV)2 =(3.p. Use n = 0.002 for subcritical flow design. normal depth for the flume section must be recomputed.4 1 wpc RC4’” = 1.

21 foot. 0.. Normal depth could also have been determined by using table 2-5.52057 1 7. L 17. There is a theoretical rise in water surface in the outlet transition of 0. + 0. R.0018.26 1.93 = 1.-As the hydraulic control is downstream the outlet transition should be dcsigncd first. until Q = 100 cfs (see tabulation below). This shortage of head is small and insignificant but will cause a very slight rise in water surface upstream from the flume.0018)“2 = 106.5 nh.p.5 Ah. Q = 1. the comparison of total head loss to head available is sufficiently accurate. 0.65 12.41 1.41421 2 L2 = ~ 7.486 = &&-f . = 27-l/2’ = xQua. d.4R2 13 S’ 12 AR213 (0.80 at station 6+50..34 -t 0. Since the computations indicate only a slight water surface rise in the canal at the upstream end.20 4.15 = 997.15 feet.08) which equals 0.63 12.s.50 ~. (2) revise the flume invert slope.41 1.5(0.26 Q.07 foot. 2-15). The total head loss (H.. ft.4.25d) (2d+4. A WP R 213 1.8 (0. There is only 1. Sb = 0. calculated head loss.0. - and velocity therefore.25 ft.0018 x 515 0. is therefore 4.2 feet Use L. or (3) revise the upstream or downstream canal invert elevations as required to pi-ovide the precise.50 AR2’” Assume different values for d. = = = = 0. ft.15 17.8 feet 0.4142 1 Use L2 = 20 feet (3) Outkt tvmsition elevatiorls. 998.85 17.. cfs (4.014. It is desirable at this stage of the design process to compute the total head loss of the bench flume structure and compare it with the head available.50 AR2’3) 101 100 . 1001.) is composed of three parts: (1) inlet transition convergence loss: (2) bench flume friction loss.14 x 0. and n = 0. the canal velocity head at both the upstream and downstream ends of the flume structure was based on flow assumed at normal depth in the canal. then proceed back through the structure to design the inlet transition. sq. + h.8 ah.52057 = 14.08) + 0. or 0. % (4.44. tan 0 1 = p = 0.80 ~ 0. + Sf x L 0. tan 0 2 = y= 0. H. = 15 feet O2 = 22-1/2O max.loo . = o.0. = 0. The upstream invert elevation is then: El. Normal depth..21 . (2) Lerzgth oj‘ trmsitiom (fig. ft.50 foot.63 h.38 = 17.3 nh. Note that in the computation for total head loss..25) 4.5.38 L. The invert elevation at the upstream end of the outlet transition is therefore set below the canal normal water surface by an amount equal to the water surface rise plus normal depth in the flume..27 ft. and (3) outlet divergence loss. CANAL max.20 feet of drop provided in canal water surface between the flume ends so the available head is deficient by 0.55 STRUCTURES If the difference in the computed head loss and the available head is considered to be significant.44 SMALL Find normal depth for b = 4. several alternatives are available to the designer to theoretically make them equal: (1) revise the flume width. Assume A.50 .0424AR2’3 = 4..67 f . wp. The downstream invert elevation is set at the canal invert elevation which is El.

Transition lengths.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES Inlet 45 transltton Figure 2-1.5. 103-D-1259 .

S.44 +(Sta. The station of the upstream end of the outlet transition is station 6+50 minus 20 feet which equals station 6+30. + flume normal water depth + flume velocity head = El. 103-D-1260 I- Outlet transition Canal - .50 = El.00 + d + h. U. ~ h. Schematic profile 1 Flume ~ of bench flume. The downstream invert of the inlet transition is set at the same elevation as the upstream invert of the flume. Equate the two above equations: 1003.02 feet Assume different canal water depths d. The energy elevation at the downstream end of the inlet transition is determined as follows: Energy El. Assume a canal water depth equal to 3. 6 + 30 .93 = 998.80 Z-16.) = lOOO. flume invert El.Sta.0018 ’ Bench Figure El 1001. ~~11.46 SMALL C4) III IL’ t tralzsitio?l elevatiom.00.. required = Energy El.02 + 0. 998.00 = 3.15 + 0. 1+ 15) 0. NWS NWS n ws 0 Outlet \ I r n dn= 4.3(11.S. = Flume Inv. Figure 2-16 shows a schematic profile of the flume.3(h. ~~0.r -.3(11. flume invert El.r .00’) sb =0..) The energy elevation at this station is also = canal invert elevation + canal depth + velocity head in canal = 1000.02 ~ 1000.02 The energy elevation required at the upstream end of this transition to discharge CANAL STRUCTURES design flow through the flume is determined as follows: Energy El. ~ 0.02 + 0.37 The upstream invert is set at the canal invert elevation which is El. 1000. 1003.37 + 4.3(h.h.) = 3.OO+dth.W’ dn = 3. until the following energy balance equation is satisfied: d + 11. or d + 11.44 + 0. -The station of the downstream end of the inlet transition is station l+OO plus 15 feet which equals station 1+15.02 ft. = D.. at the downstream end of transition + transition loss = El.11. 1003. + length x slope = 997.07 feet.) = 1003. El.0018 = 997.

s. .08) = 3.p. Original / ground surface I 3.08 foot Substitute the above appropriate values in the energy balance equation to determine if a balance exists: d + h. but 0.02 = 3.02 3.08 . Therefore.07 + 0.23 f. use a 5-foot O-inch wall height and 0.07 foot of canal freeboard is insignificant. . then : A = 44.’ / les \ Compacted wshlon of selected moterlal Figure 2-Z 7. -Refer to figure 7-8. h.85 ft.9 feet. 2. Protection is not required in the canal upstream from the flume. Assume in the design example that there is a long reach of canal between this flume and the next upstream structure and the depth in the canal will have returned to normal.00 feet.0. (5) Flume fkeboavd.02 3. = 0.02 Since a balance does exist the assumed canal depth of 3.0. damage would be of less consequence if the bench flume walls were overtopped rather than the canal banks being overtopped.h.07 feet instead of the normal depth of 3. * V = 2. -Assume that in the design example.. so determine if about 1 foot of freeboard will be sufficient for the flume.17).75 foot will be adequate freeboard. (6) Erosim protection.3(h. Downstream from the flume the protection requirement is a 12-inch layer of coarse gravel extending about 8 feet beyond the transition and to an elevation 12 inches above the normal water surface elevation. 103-D-I 261 . This means the canal depth is 3. The canal freeboard is 1. Cross section of bench flume.) = 3.0. It can also be assumed that the loss of 0.50 .CONVEYANCE 47 STRUCTURES therefore any backwater from the flume will not affect the next upstream structure.3(0. From the curves in figure 1-9 it can be determined that about 0.85-foot freeboard (fig.07 feet is also the actual canal water depth.85 foot will result in a wall height of 5 feet 0 inch.

. Subchapter III C. Function.p.I.) drops (figs. baffled apron. A canal along this same terrain would ordinarily be steep enough to cause severe erosion in earth canals or disruptive flow in hard surface lined canals. rectangular inclined. CANAL STRUCTURES DROPS 1 R.~ 48 SMALL E. YOUNG General 2-19. and 2-22) and pipe drops (figs. and pipe drops. They are particularly adaptable to the situation where the downstream water surface elevation may vary because of such things as degradation or an uncontrolled water surface.cit. Rectangular inclined (R. P. Figure 2-20. Rectangular notch inclined drop with inlet. Overchutes. Usually a pipe drop will be selected for the smaller flows and an R. drop. B. Baffled apron drops (fig. I. -The function of drop structures is to convey water from a higher to a lower elevation and to dissipate excess energy resulting from this drop. Economics dictate if it is more practicable to use a pipe drop or an R. 6-3) may be used for nearly any decrease in water surface elevation where the horizontal distance to accomplish the drops is relatively short. Subchapter IV C. 2-24. Rectangular inclined drop. 2-18. Series of rectangular inclined drops.19. 2-20. The water must therefore be conveyed with a drop structure designed to safely dissipate the excess energy. drop will be selected for the larger flows. Figure 2-18.328-701-7738 lOp. discussesvertical drops with blocks. 2-34) are usually used where the drop in elevation is greater than 15 feet and where the water is conveyed over long distances and along grades that may be flatter Figure 2-19.I. 2-23. A further discussion on baffled aprons may be found in subchapter VI B. If the drop crosses another waterway or a roadway it will probably be more economical to use a pipe drop. Baffled Aprons. Check-Drops. 2-21. control .I. and 2-25) are used where the decrease in elevation is in the range of 3 to 15 feet over a relatively short distance. Different kinds of drops that may be used are vertical. Chutes (fig. 2-19. discusses vertical drops without blocks for drops of 3 feet and less.

Rectangular inclined drop under construction. Rectangular Figure 2-23. . Pipe drop with baffled outlet and pipe collars.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES Figure 2-21. P 328-701-8417 inclined p 222-116-53590 drop in operation. p 222-117-36402 49 Figure 2-22.

The economic study should compare costs of a series of drops and a chute. Rectangular Inclined Drops Figure 2-25. 2-20. about 200 feet of canal should be the minimum between inlet and outlet cutoffs of consecutive drop structures. drop not only conveys water. The danger is that sufficient tailwater depths may not exist to produce hydraulic jumps in the pools. 2-26 and 2-27) is a rectangular shaped structure with constant width that conveys water from a higher elevation to a lower elevation.I. it is sometimes economically justifiable to spend considerably more for a chute than for a series of drops. P-328. with drops too closely spaced on a steep slope. Further hydraulic design considerations are included with the discussion of structure components. The R. Very broadly speaking.-A rectangular inclined (R. Also. Pipe drop with baffled outlet. drops should not be so 2-21. taking into account advantages and disadvantages pertinent to the specific conditions. PX-D-31406 CANAL STRUCTURES closely spaced as to possibly preclude uniform flow between outlet and inlet of consecutive structures. Minimum required field data will be the hydraulic properties and bottom grade elevations of waterway sections above and below the drop. and a profile of the ground line at the drop location with information about the foundation material. -The hydraulic design of a drop should be completed before the structural design with only general consideration initially being given to the structural details. The decision as to whether to use a chute or a series of drops should be based upon a hydraulic and economic study of the two alternatives. and thus shooting flow may develop through the series of drops and possibly damage the canal. Since the maintenance costs for a series of drops is usually considerably more than for a chute accomplishing the same function. Purpose and Description.) drop (figs. Pipe drops. 2. From a hydraulic viewpoint. This drop in elevation may be any amount between 3 and about 15 feet. problems of excavation and backfill may make such construction undesirable or prohibitive. Hydraulic Design.50 SMALL Figure 2-24.701-9502 than those for drops but yet steep enough to maintain supercritical velocities.I. particularly where checks or control notches are not used at the inlets. A more complete discussion on chutes will be found in subchapter II F. but it also stills the water after it has reached the lower elevation resulting in excess .

Rectangular inclined drop-type 1. 103-D-1262 .CONVEYANCE 51 STRUCTURES F&we 2-26.

Rectangular inclined drop-type 2. 103-D-1263 CANAL STRUCTURES .52 SMALL t m TYPICAL SLIDE ASSEHBLl SAT E Figure 2-27.

7” I 28’ 8” 5” 50 5 7’.‘-0” 3 ‘. 0” . 8 I6 3 1780 2. ” 6 IO 4 IO80 Pi0 IO ~6’ 4’ 2” 2 58’ 8” 5 7 ” 6 II 5 I220 ?f3 2.IO’ ? 34’ 8” 5” If 2 6.-o 4. 4 47 470 I65 4 55 560 165 4 6 I 630 /6 5 4 68 7/o iG5 4 75 790 I65 4 Hi 860 65 4 88 940 I65 4 59 600 ?05 61 " 2 6.-/o 3 00 9” 5” 7’ 8 I4 7 164G 26C 2’-5 7 - i . 5” 7’ 6 13 3 1470 250 0 7’ 4’ 12 ~0’ 4’- 8’ 2 94 9” 5” 7’ 6 14 4 1630 250 ‘$0’ 4’ 9’ 3 03 9’ 5” 7 ” 6 15 4 1740 250 Y’-0 3’ IO 2 29 8” 5” 6. ” . I IO’-6 4’. 5” 7’ 6 I! 2 143c 26C /2.5 ” 2 25’ 8” 5” 13 0 IO 5’- 5” 23” 9’-6’ 3’.4 ” 2 IS’ 8” 5” ii 0 IO 5’- 0” 22” 9’~ 0’ 3 ‘.’ 5” 6 8 / 830 210 3’. 860’ 3’. 2-26 and 2-27) l- QUANTITIES FLOOR REINF -0NGIT REINF 4ALLS 5 3’~ 8 ” 12” 5’.8 ” 14” 6’.3” I 84’ 8” 5” 61 " 2 64" 6. 7” 2 42’ 30 15 4- 0” l9. ‘8 6 ’ / 710 210 3 ‘~ 7 ” 2 18’ 8. 2 70 8” 5” 7 ” 6 12 2 1300 250 6’- 6” 2’ 3’ If’-6 4’~ 6’ 2 83 Y’. 2’ 2 53 8” 5” 6i’ 6 IO 6 / 100 255 2s2 //CO 4&t’ 2 72 8” 5” 6. " 30 IO 3’.: 7’ 2’.0 2 41 8” 5” 61’ 6.I’~0 4’.IO” 18” 7’-6’ 3’ /” I 8Y 8” 5” 70 IO 4’~ 3” 20” 8 ~0” 3’ 3” 2 03’ 8” 5” 90 10 q’- 8” PI” 8’-6- 3 ‘.6” j ‘.’ 0 15 6. J YDS R I- EINF S TEEL 1LB.L " 6 94 990 PO5 5” 7” 6 IO 3 1090 205 8” 5” 7” 6 II I 1190 205 ’ 36’ 8” 5” 6. Q #AX.‘~ 2” 15 0 15 6’ 30 TO 50 20 70 20 5-6” 90 20 /I 0 20 I3 0 20 15 0 20 7-6” *‘.8 ” / 7” .0 ” / 63’ 8” 5” II 0 5 1’.8’ 2 87 9” 5” 7’ 8 13 4 15oc 255 2 2 -5 12’~ 0 4. inclined LP drop (Sheet dimensions and reinfbrccrnent 1 of‘3).’ 6 12 I 1310 25. 8 IO 2 103c ?6C 8 I/ 7 1236 76i If 0 25 ’ I3 0 25 7-R’ I5 0 25 8’ 30 30 56.-/o 3 00 9” 5” 7’ 8 14 6 164C 255 2.2 3 22 IO” 6” 7. 4. " 6.5 l/SC ETA1 LBS. 103-D-1264-1 TYPE REINFORCEMENT LAYER LB LF 53 IN HP dz + hvz h t t' /" 65 5.0” 2’.p’ .4 ” 50 15 I’- 5” PI’ 8’~ 6’ 70 is 4’.0’ - lose with I 30 ‘3 (for 2’ 23 5’ - 2’. 71’ 8” 5” I3 0 5 +‘.p ” I 77.g ” . OF W EEP HCILES r POOL POOL fks.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES Table 2-1 .-Carla1 and lateral rectangular S INGLE Si H HAX. 0’ L 3 If’-0 4’~4’ 2 77’ y ” 5” 7 I’ 6 13 2 1440 210 5’ 0” 20’ 8’-6’ j’.5 5 P’-7 13’-0 5’. 9” I 41’ 8” 5” 70 5 3: 8” 15” 6’. 8 ” 16” $o’ L/O” I 70’ 8” 5” 50 IO 3’. 8 5” 15 0 5 5-O” 18” 7’~ 6” 3’. " 6.0” !‘..4 ” 24’ II 0 I5 r’.IO” 23’ 946’ 90 I5 5’. 4 1330 2’0 8’.4 ‘/‘-6 4’. ” 6 83 830 250 5 0” ?3’ 9’../” 54’ 8” 5” 90 5 I’~ 0” 16” 6’. 4 / 7” 7’-0” 3’.-6 l2’-6 5. 6 92 920 255 IO’-0 4’. 4 2 66 8’ 5” 2’- 3 If’-0 4’ 2 85 9. 5’ 30 25 5-2” 22 5 0 25 5’ 6” 24 70 25 6’ 0” 90 25 6’ ‘ONC.6” 2 15’ 8” 5” 6:....6 3’-10’ 2 39’ 8” 5” (jf ” 6 9: 980 ? 50 6f ” 6 10 7 /i/O 250 24” z’- Co’ 0’ $ 10’~ 0’ 4&l’ 2 56 8” 5” 6 -0” 24’ 2’.-o’ 3 I/ IO” 6” 7. " 6.’ 8 17 8 i98C 255 Y’-6 4’. ” 6 93 960 210 10’ 0’ 4’ 0” 2 48’ 8” 5” 6. . " 6t " 6 69 700 105 6 78 800 ?05 6 96 900 PO5 t. 6” 2 33’ 8” 15 0 IO 5’-IO” 3’.‘.-z’ II’ 4’~ 3’ 2 69’ 8” 5” 7 ” 6 1. " with N 3. 50 30 :-Ii:’ 70 30 6’- 90 30 7’.

50 350 qi?T 7500 350 *4@ 6 yixt I #4(as I 24 9 f4@7$ 345 7900 350 3060 350 *4@ 8 1930 355 *4&s 7 2350 355 #4@ 6 2730 355 *4&J 7 3020 355 2100 395 395 #4@8 tf4@7i #4@8 196 #4@7 ‘f4@ 7 *4(&v 22 7 2530 “4@6j 4t4@ 7 #4g7 26 3 3010 #4@6j 395 #44@62’ ft4@7 29 3 3360 395 #4@7j #4@7. 2880 #4@io 1740 350 -8 21. ” 8 8 8 IO 8 7 ‘I 8 8 IO 10 10 IO 10 IO IO IO IO IO IO 10 IO 10 -A 7 ” ” 7itf 2 6f ” 3 46’ 10” 6” 3 80’ i2” 6” 7 ” 4 06’ 12” 6” 7 ” 4 27’ 1. 1 ‘EINF TEEL L8S. 7” 7” 7” 7. 6. *44gs 208 2270 400 #4@6 #4@ *44gs 24 0 2600 400 7 “4@5i 3330 400 #44@5j 3710 400 .-Continued. CANAL FLOOR POOL RElNF. 7f #4@ 6. 103-D-1264-2 SINGLE TYPE I REINFORCEMENT LAYER IN H MAX Q MAX dz ‘F ‘0 LP h HP N 0 OF HYEEP H OLC .3” 3 56’ ii” 7. t’ t STRUCTURES (. ” 6” 8 1” 6.-Canal and lateral rectangular inclined drop dimensions and reinforcement (Sheet 2 o.f3).l I ZA’: FLOORS 5’-2” 1 3 26’ 1 IO” 1 7” Ii” I I” / /” 7” /” MlSC ‘ETAL LBSI I M1 s 1800 260 #4@9 1990 260 #4@8 2200 260 qE7 iz30 295 8 #4@6 1500 295 5 +T 1710 295 8 #4@8 1970 295 +- 2150 295 2400 295 2600 295 %jic /4/o 310 6” IO” 1 QUANTITIES TRANSV % -4@71 I 9” -* 7. ” 7 ” 7 7 ‘4@6.for use with figs.’ 8 #4@/0 1700 310 IO” 7” 8 #4@8 2010 310 /I” 7” 8 #4@7i 2240 310 ” 8 #4@ 2530 310 7i ” IO 7j 12” 12” 2 / I’ 6.SMALL Table 2-I. 2-26 and 2-27) POOL 1 iTt?UCT NO. 2770 310 ft4@8 # 4@38 1610 345 1950 345 w 2230 345 ‘4@7 345 #4@6 2510 -.i ” IO” 7.

m~m downstream assumed “n” value “H” is the vert~col gradlent “d. NETIP‘ I fL9S. 4 85’ 15” 7” 12’. o” 16” ~ 20” 24’ 3 9” 5’.gn based on o compress. o gate When o gate with o speclfled herght IS not ovorlable.3 IO’.I next determrned downstream greater at energy o guide o speclfred 28 days ovorloble wrth .I ” 3’.-Canal 55 and lateral rectanmlar DOUBLE inclined drop dimensions and rcinforcenlent (Sheet 3 of.n.I( .n should be determrned des..0” 96’.Y -~~ 2-2” 20 24” 25 24” 8’.n..3). then from d.” IO ‘4@$ 64@t5 *4@6 396 i?g 5 JANDARO 8” DIMENSIONS CHECK MISC.IO” ~~7 3-2” 42”~ 16” 5 2’ 7’ylj 48’. 6’-6” 3’0” /I’.2oy j-6” 5’. 2-26 arzd Z-271 ‘” 1*4@5.36” 6’~o” 3’-0” IO’..6” DESIGN CRITERIA Structure No 5-3 rndrcotes Q = 5 c f s H = 3 ft The djmensrons of the control notch ot the #n/et of the structure 0 and 20% of desrgn 0 wrth control notch graphs OS shown .m~m strllrng pool length IS 4d. 24” 5! 6” . I ” 4’.6 INLET 1 TYPE I ONLY 1 T a b + MIN. herght should be “red with oppropr~ote frame height A. 7” 3rm.6’ 100 J’L6” 12’. 103-D-1”264-3 TYPE 2 REINFORCEMENT LAYER LF LE .th.’ 2’. IO 0 . and d. 7 IO -10” 7 ii -8” 3’.800 P s .6” 3’.mum ylefd strength of 60.gn example The b = $$$ base wrdth of the The m. . 0” 36”X 12” 2’.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES Table 7-I.-Continued.” The the height d.ng pool IS obtolned by The m.n.5 II’. 0’ 50 2&X 60 $6” 70 80 3 0” 78’.” 15 24” 2’.II II’-3” 3’.c concrete des. .9’.I d6” 3’. 0” 84’. 6” 60’. 4 /O-IO” 3’.d-5” 3’.IC iP’.6” 90 3’~6” P-0” 96.27” 6’~o” 40 24” g’.5 POOL FLOOR REINE STEEL fLBS. The m. 6’. 0” 66’.mum freeboard for the strll. i’ 3’.n.ve strength o working stress of 1. Monol.000 P s .0” f-2’.6” 12” 20” 3 6” 5’.45” 6’.0” 90’142” 6’. 33” 6’.. 22” 5’.3” 3’.s.I I 33.o” 72.nvert El of the strll!ng pool IZ found by subtroctrng gradlent The m.0” 4’. 7 to’.n.” IS formula “d. Lo Ho M/N HS c d GA TE SIZE LT I‘RAML “T _I I_: 2 I” 5 2 4” 10 24” 2’. 0” 6’. =-$‘+ structure LS determjned from the energy grodrent for full desrgn for the channel by 20% ond comput!ng fall from the normal upstream energy of j* th downstream or end from figure of the hydrouljc formula copoc~ty IS determrned by the depth gradlent to the m~n!mum tump and may be for reducrng der.th V.To” 90.45” 6’.mum drstonce between chute blocks and floor blocks Rernforcement steel desrgn IS based on corkrng stresses of m..gn the downstream determrned from energy the 2-37 moy be determrned by usrng figure Z-37.006 of 4. a I/‘- 3’.g 7’-4” 5 02’ 15” 8” 13’.x39.+hVp urrng IS Ed 24.0 pO’. 7” 3’.2 20’~6” 7’76’ 5 17’ 16” 8” 4” IN lfor use with fi.0” 7 . .8 IO *4@5 +%@I6 ‘4@7 331 8.o” 2’. 8 3’. 0” 30 24” g’. 6” 54.I ” 3’. /o *%$6 tt4@15 *4@6 374 8. ‘t4@ *4= ‘4@16 #4@ 7 31 9 ‘4@5 ‘4@6 ‘4@ 7 34 2 “4@6 *4 ($15 +4@/6 37. con be from the figure P 2-33 os with s ! P *./ ” 3’. 6” 4’-o”-- 3’.000 w. 0” 8’.IG IO’.

- POOL FLOOR POOL -- “4@ 12 REINF *4407.9 1 680 ( 205 .SMALL 56 Table 2-2.7 12. 103-D-I 265-l SINGLE I LAYER TYPE REINFORCEMENT CANAL (for use with STRUCTURES figs.!.v and drain rectangular inclined drop diwlensions and reinforcement /Sheet I of3.~ Was1ewa. OUANTlTlES 6. 2-26 and 2-27) I IN _.

.27) I IN POOL FLOOR .-Continued.Wasteway and drain rectangular inclined drop dinlensions and reinforcement (Sheet 2 of.?/. 103-D-1 265-2 SINGLE LAYER TYPE REINFORCEMENT (for use with figs. 2-26 and 2.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 57 Table 2-2.

+h.‘.~.800 p s I When o gate wrth o specrf.” IO Iy 4 (a 5.mum freeboard for the strllrng pool . 2-37 “d.gure 1 TYPE I ONLY CRITERIA Structure No 5-3 rndlcotes Q = 5 cfs H = 3 fl The d.-~ I. llfq. The invert El of the strll~ng pool IS found by sublroctrng srodrent Th.000 p s ! of s 4. FLOOR 1 WALLS CONC (‘” s”.3 3990 30.J 310 I 345 345 350 4 44’ 14^ 7” 4 46’ 14” 7” 4 63’ 14” 7” 4 77’ 15” 7” - 8” ~. TRAINS”..ned The from of the slructure os shown rn the m!n#mum downstream energy grodjent for full desrgn assumed ” n ” value for the channel by 20% ond computing charges Into an uncontrolled channel. .1 3650 32.:“E: ‘Oy 1 1LBS..mens. I1 IS the herghl of the dowstreom end of the hydroultc d2 =--$+ $-+$ or from f. o control must crrt~cal deoth ot the control sectfon should be used “Ii” 1s the vertrcol foil from the normal upslreom energy gradrent d.000 with P next be delerm#ned. OF t h IN CANAL REINF LAYER QUANTITIES ‘ONSIT REINF.ed herghi IS not avorloble. -.n.2 3360 ‘4@7 30.9 3840 t@ 7 If4@7 IO 350 355 355 355 395 395 395 10 400 400 400 STANDARD CHECK DIMENSIONS DESIGN base w#dlh of the structure 1s delerm.__ II 4 75’ 14” -7” 4 90’ 15” 8’ 8” i 8. ‘f4 ($15 0 . ” may be deiermrned by us.000 P s I Monolrthrc concrete design based on o compressive strength *ire** of 1.n. *Gi.” ]“@5j ‘4@6 1 -L I ~~~ ‘t4@7 28.58 SMALL Table 2-2.s obtolned by The m. t’ FLOOR POOL OUTER H”.mum drsionce between chute blocks ond floor blocks Rernforcement steel design 1s based on working stresses of yreld strength of 60. con from us!“g figure IS 8d.n.* V. . 2-26 and 2-27) POOL NO.. the downstream 2-33 os wllh I greater ot energy o gurde o speclfred 28 days oval minimum wrth fable o worklng herght .mum strlllng pool length IS 3d. RElNF STRUCTURES (for use with figs.Wastewa)’ and drain rectangular inclined drop dimensions and reinforcement (Sheer 3 of3/. and d.-Continued.6 8” IO z 8” IO *4@6 ‘4@6 8.ng figure 2-37 then from d. 24. 103-D-1265-3 DOUBLE TYPE 2 REINFORCEMENT LAYER de h:.ons of the control notch ot the rnlet 0 and 20% of desrgn 0 w!th control notch graphs The INLET formula should be desrgn example 3609% b = h+350 delermlned for desrgn copoc~ty 1s determIned by reducrng the When the strllrng pool dlsthe depth be provrded by the ovtlel structure and to determrne the downstream energy gradrent grodrent lo the rn~n~nwm downstream energy jump ond moy be determlned from the formula. m. o gale should be used with oppropr~oie frame height A. The m.:‘.

but this is not considered serious.5 foot. An earth transition may require erosion protection. The inlets can be made to incorporate a control notch. If there is a control or check inlet side overflow walls for emergency situations should be included. the notch is designed for the varying discharge. The overflow sidewalls. The depth of the notch will be equal to or slightly more than the depth in the canal at normal flow. When a check inlet is used the transition usually must provide for a gradual decrease in invert elevation from the waterway to the opening in the structure. The 59 inlet must be designed so that the full capacity can be discharged into the drop with normal depth in the canal. For design of protection see the discussion on Erosion Protection. the outlet. the inlet to the drop should be designed to provide a control section which will prevent racing upstream and scouring of the canal.5 feet. 2-23. and the downstream transition. drop is about 1. however. -In an earth canal requiring no check.1. The invert of the notch should be the same elevation as the canal invert. figs.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES energy being dissipated. A control notch which requires slightly more energy than that available from normal flow conditions in the canal will cause a slight rise in water surface elevation in the canal. If canal bank freeboard is based on figure 1-9. with tops set at the same elevation as the top of the notch. The R. The sidewalls.I. When using a control inlet there is not a change in invert elevation from waterway to structure. subchapter VII B. figures 2-26 and 2-27 are of sufficient length to permit design flow to go over the sidewalls with complete blockage of the notch. the percolation and sliding resistance should be checked. The inlets and outlets can be easily adapted to either an earth or a lined waterway. Generally. The top of the notch should be at the same elevation or slightly higher than the normal upstream water surface. It is important to provide adequate gravel or rock protection of outlets discharging into unlined waterways. The trapezoidal critical-depth control should be proportioned in bottom width and side slopes for varying discharge from design flow to 0. (a) Upstreurn Trumitiorzs.-The inlet to an R. (b) Inlet to Drop. the water surface rise is minimized by part of the flow being able to overflow the sidewalls. also provide for emergency overflow into the inlet structure if there should be an obstruction of the notch or if the flow in the canal is greater than design flow. drop may be any of the following: (1) Criticd-depth corztrol sectiolz. -The principal hydraulic elements of an R.1. For any flow in this range the notch causes the upstream canal water depth to be at or very near normal depth. drop are the upstream transition. The inlet should be symmetrical about the centerline and. 2-22. Advantages and Disadvantages. It may also be proportioned to control 011ly one specific discharge. 2-26 and 2-27) is set low enough so that the flow at the beginning of the incline will not affect the flow through the control . and operated.I. -Rectangular inclined drops are easily designed. drop structures in figures 2-26 and 2-27 are designed to provide this stability. the resulting freeboard will still be about 0.2 design flow. The inlet of the structure may also serve as a control to regulate the water depth in the channel upstream from the drop. The invert to the inlet structure (elevation B. the inlet. -The upstream transition produces a gradual change of velocity from waterway to structure. drop should have adequate percolation path and sufficient resistance to sliding. and additional stability may be obtained by increasing the length L. For the critical condition of canal flow at or near full design flow.I. built. The maximum fall in water surface for any one R. if unusual foundation conditions are encountered. or a weir. whenever possible. the stilling pool. For method of notch design for control of varying discharge see subchapter III G. Structure Components. of sufficient distance from horizontal bends upstream as to limit undesirable wave action due to unsymmetrical flow. the short inclined channel. The invert slope to a check inlet should not be steeper than 4 to 1. The standard R. a check.

The checks in such cases are utilized as a control to prevent racing of the water upstream from the inlet.I. in the table of dimensions. For a lined canal. For the extreme condition of flow at canal design capacity and complete closure of the opening. Checks may also be used to shut off the canal flow if there is some provision such as an upstream wasteway to allow the canal flow to go elsewhere. If this freeboard is much less than 0. For unlined canals up to a capacity of 100 cfs. if the inlet becomes obstructed.SMALL 60 notch. Slide gates may be operated automatically. the hgth of the sidewalls should be increased until the canal freeboard is about 0. Stoplogs longer than 6 feet are difficult to handle. The floor of the inlet structure (elevation B) is set a distance H. The sidewalls. The depth of flow over the walls and closure is dependent on a coefficient of discharge. the width of the structure. or if the inlet is closed.5 foot when the gate is closed and all of the normal canal flow is spilling over the sidewalls and gate. to be approximately the same elevation as the top of the side overflow walls. The width is usually the same as that detcrmincd by the width requirement for the stilling pool. The vertical distance H. with their tops set at the same elevation as normal water surface in the canal.5 CANAL STRUCTURES foot. never higher. This velocity is considered as the maximum desirable for ease of stoplog handling. If these gate sizes are not available and the next greater available height is used. Stoplogs may be used in vertical guides for water depths of 5 feet or less. The l&inch clearance between the top of sidewalls and bottom of walk planks (figures 2-26 and 2-27) provides clearance for the passage of floating debris that might otherwise obstruct the flow of water over sidewalls.-Check structures are often combined with the inlet to drops. The area of the inlet opening should be proportioned to limit the design flow velocity to about 3.5 foot for this overilow condition. Without a center pier. The gate sizes in the table of dimensions (tables 2-l and 2-2) cause the top elevation of the gates. generally the minimum freeboard at the inlet should be the same as for the lining. and the flow in the canal. If the width of the inlet is greater than 6 feet and stoplogs are used. provide for emergency overflow into the structure if the gate or stoplogs are not appropriately set for a particular flow in the canal. the length of the walls. Expressed differently. when closed. (2) C’llec~li.-Sometimes a measuring weir is required at the inlet to an R. elevation B is set low enough to prevent the flow into the inclined section from controlling the canal water surface. (3) Weir. the minimum freeboard should be 6 inches for water depths to 1.25 . the opening has two gate frame guides for installation of a gate or for use as stoplog guides. Walk planks provide a platform for operating a gate or handling stoplogs. the taller gate may cause the canal freeboard to be less than 0. in addition to their usual function of raising the water surface to permit diversion through upstream turnouts during periods of partial flow in the canal. The inlet structure also has wingwalls and cutoffs for the purpose of retaining canal earthwork and for reducing seepage from the canal. the inlets in figures 2-26 and 2-27 are designed so that there will continue to be about OS-foot canal bank freeboard if freeboard design is based on figure 1-9. This inlet closure could provide for isolation of a canal reach in case of canal embankment failure or for maintenance purposes. The check inlet structure also has wingwalls and cutoffs for the purpose of retaining the canal earthwork and for reducing seepage. See subchapter V E for a discussion on water measurement structures pertaining to weirs. drop. tables 2-1 and 2-2 (sheet 3) is great enough so that design flow into the inclined section will not cause backwater in the canal. a center pier with stoplog guides should be added so shorter stoplogs can be used. For greater depths the guides should be placed on a slope of l/4 to 1 to facilitate handling. below normal water surface in the canal. The elevation of the inlet opening should be the same or lower than the invert of the canal.5 feet per second.

The outlet transition further reduces velocity and turbulence of the water thereby reducing erosion in the channel below. b= 360a Q+350 where b = width of pool in feet and Q = discharge in cubic feet per second. a concrete-lined canal. . Where uninterrupted use or long duration of flow is expected. For rectangular pools and discharges up to 100 cfs. . the minimum pool length should be 4 d. there is a tendency for the water to flow along the surfaces of the structure or through the surrounding soil from the higher elevation to the lower. and a straight rectangular channel with vertical walls tapering from pool wall height to zero. Cutoffs at the ends of the outlets should be a minimum of 24 inches deep and 6 inches thick for water depths of 0 to 3 feet over the cutoff. -Where water stands at different elevations above and below a structure. or a natural channel and prevents or lessens downstream erosion. The friction loss on the incline of an R. 12 inches for depths 2.1 to 7 feet. The necessary depth. drop is also neglected which provides an additional factor of safety for the stilling pool. This reduced n should be 0. backwater for the jump may be provided by building a control into the outlet transition.01 to 5 feet. such as in most wasteways or structures 61 carrying floodwater. (d) Stillillg Pool. the elevation of the pool floor may be determined by subtracting (dq + hVT) from the minimum downstream energy elevation. The slope of the incline may be as steep as l-1/2 to 1 but is usually 2 to 1.1 to 9 feet. drops with flows up to 100 cfs do not require curved trajectories. 15 inches for depths 5. and 18 inches for depths 7. The velocity that the water will attain in passing from the higher to the lower elevation will depend on the hydraulic head differential. (e) Outlet. Where an earth transition is used at the inlet or outlet.26 to 2 feet. A portion of the transitions may be made in earth provided the velocity at the downstream cutoff is not too great for the soil. See subchapter I1 F for design of stilling pools.I. d. -Stilling pools for hydraulic jumps are installed at the lower ends of R.-The outlet of an R. the width of pool may be obtained by the empirical formula. at the lower end of the pool may be computed by the pressure-momentum equation or may be determined as demonstrated in the design example. Riprap or gravel protection is used as required on the earth transition section. The minimum downstream energy gradient for the hydraulic jump computations is determined by using a reduced n value.8 times the assumed design n for the canal. -The channel is rectangular in shape. Obviously. These smaller values of n are used as a factor of safety against possible lower canal water elevations than indicated using the rougher n value. the tops of these transition walls should be the same elevation as the stilling pool walls. The vertical height of the walls may be determined by computing the depth in the section with theoretical velocity and adding freeboard of 12 inches for flows up to 100 cfs. If there is not downstream water surface control in the channel. straight or curved diverging vertical walls extending into the earth canal banks on either side. 9 inches for depths 1. Some of the more common types of outlets used are: Broken-back transition. and the permeability of the soil. therefore the incline will intersect the level inlet invert and also the level pool invert.1. the length of the path that the water is required to follow. Where broken-back or warped transitions are used. it is possible for percolating water to attain a . See subchapter VII B for protection. R. See subchapter II F. Percolatiorz. the minimum pool length should be 3 d. When use of a stilling pool is to be intermittent and for short duration of flow. and 2 feet 6 inches deep and 8 inches thick for warer depths from 3 to 6 feet.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES feet. . and it is usually practical to make the base width the same as that required for the pool or inlet section. it should be a minimum of 10 feet long. (c) R ectalzgulav hclined Ck~r~nel. For a controlled downstream water surface. drops to obtain the required loss of energy between the lower end of the inclined channel and the downstream pool.I.I. drop connects the pool with an earth canal. 2-24.

(5) NWS El.~ (1) Type of waterway = earth canal.83.p.89.83 ft. In the table. = 5392.06 = 5408. = 5408. a = 4 feet 0 inch. at Sta.89. drops. It is sometimes necessary to lengthen the inlet structure or provide cutoff collars to lengthen the path of percolation on the standard R. d. = 5 feet 7 inches in the was determined by emergency table side-overflow requirements. at Sta.83 = 5394.0 ft.s.00 + 2. of 50 (table 2-1.83 + 0.89 ft.00 + 2.. (11) There is no requirement for a check upstream from the drop. L. (1) Standard dimensions b.00 (from a profile sheet). 2.02235 v = 1. H. H. (3) Type of conveyance structure = R. In general. = 0.. s:s = l-1/2: 1 h. See subchapter VIII C for discussion on Lanes’ weighted-creep ratio.. at Sta. S = 0. NWS + h.83 + 0.0005 0. = 5406. (4) The value used for H.025 2. = 5394.4.06 ft. D = 5392. and the value of H” = 2 feet 9 inches minimum was determined by the requirement that El. sometimes called percolation factor. was determined by adding 18 inches to H. A + d. Drop With Control I&et arid Stilling Pool Outlet (see figs. The value for b = 6 feet 6 inches in the table was calculated from the formula: The value of L. -The topography for the canal alinement is assumed to be such that the general ground drops abruptly at this point and a drop structure is the feasible way to convey the water to the lower elevation. Since the . (9) NWS El.trol is required to minimize erosion in the canal for flows in the range of about 0.00 (from a profile sheet). D = El.2 to full design flow. figures 2-26 and 2-27. ( 2) The procedure and calculations required to select the appropriate control notch are explained in detail in subchapter III G. as computed by Lanes’ weighted-creep method. CANAL STRUCTURES (6) Energy El. (b) Detcrmirlc~ Corltrol lrllct Dinlemiorls. A = El.91 f. A slope of 5 to 1 is common. 2-26 and 2-27 arid tables 2-1 arld 2-2). b = 5. (2) Hydraulic properties of the canal at inlet and outlet of structure: Q= s= n= E= 50 cfs 0. at Sta. From the above table. drop with stilling pool. sheet 3) for canals and laterals. Select T = 2 feet 10 inches. 2-25. D = El. 6 in. A = 5406.. A = NWS El.I. The length of the percolation path along the structure.SMALL 62 velocity sufficiently great to move the soil particles with consequent hazard to the foundation of the structure. + h. H. (4) El. (3) T should be equal to or greater than normal depth in the canal. (10) Energy El. must not be less than the value selected for T. D + d. the slope of the percolation line along the backside of the walls should be held to a slope not steeper than 3.50.5 to 1 (horizontal to vertical) from the canal water surface at the cutoff to any point at the top of the inclined channel or stilling pool walls. = 4 feet 3 inches minimum.1. top of bank = 5410.83 = 5408.83. but a con. B is set low enough so that hydraulic control of the upstream canal water surface is at the control notch. (a) Give/~. should bc such that the phreatic line does not intersect the tops of the inclined channel or stilling pool walls. The need for cutoff collars and the length of the portion of the inlet between the inlet cutoff and the incline may be decided by the susceptibility to percolation and seepage. = 2. The design example in subchapter III G is for the same hydraulic conditions and therefore only the design values will be repeated here: P = 20 inches. s”~ = 0. and a are read from dimension table Structure Q max. (8) El. and N = 4 ft. Desigu Example of R.I.06 = 5394. The type of soil will govern the choice of the maximum allowable slope of the assumed percolation lint.83 feet. (7) El.

~-~-. must bc H. = 2 feet 10 inches. So minimum energ)’ at Sta. L. 11 = 12 inches.. from dimension S~OWII on table 2-1 (sheet 3) thercfor LEX 6 ft. Settitg for Stilliqq (1) Determine the minimum downstream energy at station D for design flow using an II value of 0. - critical d. 6. = 2. Use H = 15 feet t’or determining structure number. 6 in. A + T = 5406. D + E = 5392. weep holes. use H.3 1433q’ ‘3. = N + 3 in.00 + 2.8 x 0.1 (shec t 3) for standard dimensions.4 foot. From Manning’s equation 161 AR*‘3 zz Qn 1.25 6. 12.28 feet.02 feet. = 5. A. C) = minimum downstream energy elevation (d? + h. (7) Determine El. ft.486 x 0.6. H. ft.25 feet*. = -64.50. = 0.5 .606d.53 I--- d2.. The invert elevation of the notch is equal to El. A = db+l. = 5 ft. each side = 4 ft. = 3 feet 3 inches.00 + 2. a 11d cstimatcd quantities may bc taken from figure 2-27 and table 2-1. R =$ 21. top of notch and side overflow walls.69 and q 2’3 = 3.61 4. = 16 feet 0 inch.i. V = 5 06 = 0. H.25 fps. A ~~ minimum energy El. = 5408. d. = 2 feet ? inches min.61 = 14.50 2. top of notch and sidewalls . C) would be to USCfigure 3-37. = 6 ft. (3) Determine stilling pool invert elevation (HI.53 feet.08 AL= 22.08 = 2. t = 6 inches.83 .ft. + 18 inches = 4 feet 4 inches.H.83.01 9. = 1. d = 11 inches.486 S’ ‘* = 30.2. D + d + h.. sq. ----. = 2 feet 6 inches.0 5. ft. subchapter II F and make the following computations: (1) Determine Assume different water depths.1 = 50 x 0. (d) A Iternutiw Mc~thod jijr Detwmiuing Stillirlg Pool It~vcrt Elrvation. use 5390. (2) Determine H value H = energy El.22 ft. b mill. ft.59. L. L. b . 11..83 = 5408. This structure is for a canal so LISCtable 2.02 feet = 5390. energy at Sta.12 14. The assumed d of 2. R2’3 . = 6 feet 2 inches. wp = b+3.40 sq. L. D. 9.25 2. c = 7 spaces.7.0 db sq. D = El.12 1. Other additional information regarding wingwalls. b.01 14.65 - equation depth in pool d.02235 depth is 2.5d2. = 10 feet 0 inch. so normal Assumed d. at Sta. B = El. and A = 22. in the canal and solve for AR2’” until AR2’3 = 30. (8) Determine El. = 2 feet 9 inches.6 1.25 9. (5) The value for H. where q = 6Q-B. Using Tuble 2-1. rcinforcemcnts.. cutoffs. 0 in.60 5. 3.87 22. Structure number = Q-H or 50-I 5.53 + 5. d.560 1 s7s ~- ft.025 1.50 i2.8 the normal II value. (c) Deterrnirle H)~drolllic Pool hi. concrete thicknesses.53 feet properly balances the Manning equation. ft.83 = 5406. or. = El. From this table b.2) = 5394. ---An alternate determination of stilling pool invert elevation (El..37 9. The normal depth could also have been determined by using table 2-5.606d. Mill. and t’ = I: inzhcs. lSd*. section from I-2.61 feet.896.. + 6 in. 6 in. E = d + h. (6) Determine minimum jnside width of inlet structure with control notch. 6 in. A. at Sta.CONVEYANCE 63 STRUCTURES value T = 2 feet 10 inches exceeds the tabulated value for H.1 (see tabulation below).00 which for this example happens to equal El.: = 10 feet 5 inches. sq. + hvz = 4. ft.6 1 = 5394. min.. ft. = 5408.89 5394. D = El.

A + d. = 17. A = NWS El. s’ ‘* = 0.08. = 5406.83.40. ( 1) Type of waterway = earth canal.00 + 2. + hV2> = 5394.p.83 + 0. of 50 (table 2-l) (sheet 3). D + d. b = 5. B is set low enough so that hydraulic control of the upstream canal water surface is at the check opening.7 . = 17.(3. NWS + h.2. . d.I (3) Obtain CANAL pool invert = minimum downstream energy El. and 11. (3) Type of conveyance structure = R.83 = 5408. top of sidewalls = El. The value for b = 6 feet 6 inches in the table was calculated from the formula: . at Sta. d.91 f. (b) Detcrmirw Check Inlet Dirnetkora( I ) Standard dimensions b.p. A.92 + 0. d. (4) El. L subchapter II F. = 0.06 foot stilling STRUCTURES way to convey the water to the lower elevation. (a) Given. at Sta.184 x 1.89 ( 1 1) A cheek inlet structure is required at the inlet to provide diversion requirements to turnouts.4 = 0. s:s = l-l/2: 1 h. 1. = 0.5 x 3. Design Example of R.224 = 3. and a drop structure is the feasible Q= s= n= E= 50 cfs 0.’ v2+ = &= Vi h v2 zr-= 22 (7) Determine elevation (El.s. for depth.0 ft. (3) El. C). d. NWS in canal . = 0. arc read from dimension table Structure Q max.0005 0.83. and H.224 foot (5) Determine d.06 = 5408. L.83 . = 5408.60 ft. (8) El. drop with stilling pool.43 x d.l. (5) NWS El. Drop With Check Inlet aizd Stilling Pool Outlet (see figs.45 ft.83 = 5394. (2) El. (9) NWS El.92 = 25.83 + 0. = 17.96 f. + h.92 feet (6) Determine A. A = El.=36m Q + 350 The value of L. = 2. but .00 (from a profile sheet). (10) Energy El.83. = 5392. NWS in canal = 5408.43 (4) Determine d.75 = 5406. D = 5392.89. = 5394. top of bank = 54 10.00 (from a profile sheet).I. = 5 feet 7 inches in the table was determined by emergency side-overflow requirements and H. at Sta.06) = 5390. V. = o.SMALL 64 H (2) Determine 42 values 2 c and 4 by using 1 above value of F and table in figure 2-37. D = El. B = El.83 ft. = 2 feet 9 inches minimum was determined by the requirement that El. at Sta.184 x d. The check should be furnished with a gate because of the desire to automate the check.184 dz d. (7) El.06 = 5394.H.43 x 0.02235 v = 1.96’ -64. (6) Energy El.63 use 5390.22 = 0. d.50 2-26. = b d2 = 6. D = El. minimum = 5408.s.025 2.00 + 2. (2) Hydraulic properties of the canal: zzyL2$ = ‘1. -The topography for the canal alinement is assumed to be such that the terrain drops abruptly at this point. 1. A = 5406. 2-26 atzd 2-27 and tables 2-1 and 2-2). d.Cd.89 ft.61 .

and number of walk planks are also read from the Standard Dimension tabulation on table 2-1 (sheet 3): Gate size = 78 inches x 33 inches Frame Ht. B should not be higher than the canal invert. Pipe Drops 2-27. 2-28. provided they are constructed of durable pipe . (b) Tvpe 2.50.7 c (5) d.06 ft. (8) El. = 2 ft.1. (1 1j H. 2 in. 2-28. if there is a possibility of having weeds in the water. a check. then H. D e t c r m i II e Cd) Dirlzeil. Purpose and Description.00. Drop with control inlet discussed in section 2-25. therefore make El.= 11. canal invert = 5406.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES this is higher than canal invert. (3) d. It is generally used in preference to the type 1 pipe drop if sediment and debris is carried in the water. = 3.-The type 1 pipe drop (figs.5406. 6 in.83 feet. -The following dimensions and elevations are identical to those for the R. Advarltages and Disadvantages. (14) c=7. set tion 2-25. (10) L. If this drop has a reinforced concrete outlet transition the full pipe velocities may be as high as 5 feet per second.83 . and 2-3 1j is a practical and economical drop and is used as an inline canal structure where the possibility of clogging is minimal. A pipe drop can easily be taken under another waterway or a roadway. If the type 2 pipe drop is a cross-drainage structure it may have a reinforced concrete inlet transition. = 6 feet 0 inch Number of planks = 11 (cj Detemiw Hydruz~licaSettirg jhv Stilling Pool. drop with control inlet. (1) Minimum downstream energy elevation = 5394. If there is a control or a check inlet there should be side overflow walls for emergency flows. V. especially for small discharges. 2-29. but may have only an earth outlet transition if the full pipe velocities are not greater than 3.1. With a type 2 pipe drop the excess energy dissipation must be accomplished at the outlet with either a baffled outlet or a stilling pool. 3 in.5 ft. (6) d. -A pipe drop conveys water from a higher elevation to a lower elevation. 3. 2-30. = 10 ft.00 = 2. (2) H = 1. A pipe drop not only conveys water but it must also dissipate the excess energy and still the 65 water after it has reached the lower elevation. 0 in. (4) Gate size. The type 1 pipe drop should have a check inlet or a control inlet. hV2 = 0.‘.-These dimensions are also identical to those for the R. frame height. = 25. built. z 1. (a> Type I. (7) A. This drop in elevation may be any amount between 3 and about 15 feet. (4) .45 ft. The inlets can be readily adapted to either an earth or a lined waterway and the outlets can be easily adapted to an earth or a lined canal or to a waterway where there is no downstream water surface control. The type 2 pipe drop should have a check inlet or a control inlet if the drop is an inline canal structure. B = El. The two general types of closed conduit drops are type 1 and type 2. The inlets can be made to incorporate a control notch. = 3 ft. Another type of drop structure should be used for cross drainage. (15) d= 11 in.siotis.6 1.224 ft. C = 5390.92 ft. However. El.96 fps. (9) Lp = 16 ft.-The type 2 pipe drop figure 2-32 is a practical and economical drop and is used as an inline canal structure or as a cross-drainage structure. and operated. a stilling pool should be used because of the difficulty with weeds clogging a baffled outlet. Pipe drops require very little maintenance.22 ft. or a weir. = 5408. The pipe is sumped an amount required to create a hydraulic jump in the pipe which dissipates the excess energy. Pipe drops are economical. = 0. (13) L. = 6 ft. (16) h= 12in. -Pipe drops are easily designed. = 1. 0 in. (12) b.5 feet per second.

This transition invert slope should not be steeper than 4 to 1. on all drops with 36-inch-diameter pipe or larger. Type I Pipe Drop Desigrl Considerations. The type 1 pipe drop (sumped drop) should not be used if there is a strong possibility of the pipe becoming clogged with sediment.2 design flow.5 and 5 feet per second. Usually clogging is not a problem with a type 2 pipe drop because its profile lends itself more readily to self-cleaning. It is important to provide adequate gravel or riprap protection at outlets discharging into unlined waterways. -The transitions may be earth or concrete. (a) Upstrrurrz Trurlsitiorz. on all pipe with velocities between 3. -The reinforced concrete pressure pipe (PC?‘) or asbestos-cement pressure pipe (AC). the pipe. 3-_)Y). pipe may be precast (c) Pipe. the inlet to the drop should be designed to provide a control notch which will prevent upstream racing and scouring of earth canals. the drop may have a weed screen on the inlet or the pipe may be sufficiently sized to discharge this material if it should get into the pipe drop. The maximum fall for any one pipe drop is about 15 feet. and the outlet transition. With a control inlet there is no change in invert elevation from the normal waterway to the structure and the length of either an earth or concrete lining transition is 10 feet.2 9. Concrete transitions and combinations of concrete and earth transitions are used for these purposes. -The hydraulic design of a type . To prevent this. For further discussion of check and pipe inlet. the check serves as a control to prevent racing of the water upstream from the inlet. (b) ///ler. For a detailed discussion of a control and pipe inlet and a method of notch design for control of varying flow. The check inlet can also serve as a cutoff point in a canal provided there is a wasteway or some other structure that can take the flow that otherwise would continue down the canal.66 having good rubber gasket joints and provided the bends are properly made. A properly designed control notch will cause the upstream canal water to be at or near normal depth for discharges ranging from design flow to 0. An earth transition may require erosion protection which is discussed in subchapter VII B.-A check and pipe inlet structure is often used at the inlet to a pipe drop. It may SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES also be proportioned to control only one specific flow. in addition to its usual function of raising the water surface to permit diversion through upstream turnouts during periods of partial discharge. By adjusting the gate or stoplogs. and the length of this transition is also 10 feet. see subchapter Ill F and figure 3-38.-When a check structure is not required at the inlet to a type 1 pipe drop. -The principle hydraulic elements of the type 1 pipe drop arc the upstream transition. There is also the possibility of the drop becoming clogged with weeds or debris. With a check inlet the transition provides for a gradual change in invert elevation from the waterway to the opening in the cheek structure. Concrete outlet transitions in earth canals are required on those drops that cross under railroads and state highways. (d) Olltlet Trulzsitiom-Outlet transitions can reduce earth canal erosion and can provide smooth flow by making the velocity change less abrupt. (2) C’ht~~li utd pipe irdet. 2-30. This may be desirable when water delivery downstream from the drop is not required or when maintenance downstream is required for reasons such as canal embankment failure. A type 1 outlet transition (broken back) is ordinarily used with a type 1 pipe drop. The inlet should be an adequate distance from upstream horizontal bends as to limit undesirable wave action due to unsymmetrical flow. 2. The inlet must be designed so that the full capacity can be discharged into the drop with normal depth in the canal. the inlet structure. Figure 3-39 has standard dimensions for inlet control structures with flows up to 100 cfs. and as previously stated.-The inlet to a type 1 pipe drop may be cithcr of the following: ( 1) co11 trol urld pip inlet (jig. For the design of transitions for pipe structures and standard pipe transitions see the discussion on transitions subchapter VII A. Type I Pipe Drop Structure Componerzts. see subchapter III G.

Farm roads require 2 feet of earth cover and are frequently ramped using 10 to 1 slopes ( 10 percent grade) when necessary to provide a If roadway minimum cover requirement. With a properly designed control notch. with consequent hazard to the foundation of the structure or possibility of the water developing an unrestricted channel around it. >+ = (P. ((.) for a drop with an earth outlet transition. Obviously. The sumped section of pipe is set with the upstream end at this elevation and with a minimum slope of 0. 2-29). There are standard designs for type 1 pipe drops with a concrete downstream transition for capacities up to 50 cfs (fig.5 feet per second or less for a pipe with only an earth transition at one or both ends or (2) 5 feet per second or less for a pipe with a concrete structure at each end. (b) Pip COIVV. The length of the sumped section must be at least 4d. (a) BcJ/zds. with beveled end pipe or by pulling joints where grade and alinement can be established on a sufficiently large radius. This elevation can be determined by this procedure as is demonstrated in the design example or by using information on figures 2-29 and 2-30.-Changes in pipe grade and alinemcnt (bends) may be made with special fittings. 3-30) and standard designs for type 1 pipe drops with an earth outlet transition with capacities up to 22 cfs (fig. + Mzk. This is the pressure momentum equation for a hydraulic jump derived from Newton’s second law of motion. On figures 2-29 and 2-30 type 1 pipe drops have been standardized so the entire pipe 67 profile can bc designed using these figures and accompanying tables 2-3 and 2-4. should be great enough to dissipate the difference in water surface elevations using an appropriate assumed weighted-creep ratio. Standard dimensions for check and pipe inlet structures sllown on figure 3-38 provide for this. the length of the path. The location of the inlet structure may be decided by the susceptibility to percolation and seepage. stilling is accomplished by providing a depressed (sumped) section of pipe near the outlet end.500 or flatter.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 1 pipe drop includes selecting a pipe diameter for a given capacity that will result in (1) a velocity of 3. If the type 1 pipe drop has a control and pipe inlet or a check and pipe inlet the invert at the beginning of the pipe should be low enough so the hydraulic control is at the inlet to the inlet structure instead of at the pipe inlet. The inclined portion of the pipe should be on a slope of 0.) length of pipe between the upstream sloped pipe and the transition but part of this distance can be sloped pipe as shown in figure 2-28. The weighted length of the percolation path along the structure or through the surrounding material as computed by Lane’s weighted-creep method. The velocity the water will attain in passing to the lower elevation will depend upon the difference in elevation. and the soil itself.-foot min. (6-foot min. + M. Type 1 pipe drops can be designed and built for flows greater than 50 cfs but ordinarily it will be more economical to use . See chapter VII1 for detailed information on bends. ditches exist and are extended over the pipe. the minimum cover from the ditch to the top of the pipe should be 2 feet. (c) Pwcolutiorz. the standard dimensions shown on figure 3-39 for control and pipe inlets also provide for this. by miter cutting pipe. The drpth at which the bottom of the pipe is to be depressed below the downstream water surface can be determined from the equation (P. To dissipate the excess energy from the supcrcritical velocities in the sloped part of the pipe profile. A drop with a concrete outlet transition should have at least a 5 D length for the sumped section and should also have a 4d. -Water has a tendency to flow through soil or along a structure to reach a lower elevation. The table on figure 2-3 1 may be used to select pipe sizes. it is possible for percolating water to attain a velocity sufficiently great to move the particles of the material through which it is passing.005 towards the downstream end.I rectangular inclined drop for larger capacities. Pipe collars may be required to reduce the velocity of the water moving along the outside .--At all railroad and road crossings except farm roads a minimum of 3 feet of earth cover should be provided for pipe. See figure 2-28 and the explanation and procedure following this figure for determination of the elevation of the pipe invert at the beginning of the jump.

(10% safety factor) P bend.% =A.E tronsltlon to determine cross section orea A.=irea Of full pipe 5. of pipe flowing partially I. -TheoretIcal G Drop wtth earth PROCEDURE: Use hydroullc tables ond Y. Assume values 2. Solve for 8. Hydraulic head losses such as entronce. Comp&e Y.-hV Figure 2-28. 4. = .-d. Compute b][7] full.frictlon. = qof sump elevation for type 1 pipe drop. y. of i d.+hv. Elevotlon repeat until computed of sump =El. v. Theoretical Equation for d. tronsltlon .% + $ QhV 9 F -I. 2 nv = v.+M. downstream E G -h. A. 2 P Determination VI “v. of water is omltted from all values. F =Actual = A2E + y d =m+!i-+& 2 b] D] d. v. Concrete El.= $ 6.Y. F and error.ond exit are omitted K=d2-B +A. A. and A. CANAL STRUCTURES EG-. because they are small. P.ld. -v. 103-D-1266. for assumed $ by usmg hydraulic 7. By trial tobles A.SMALL 68 NWS-. for 9. SOIW 10. from $ andjfound in hydraulic tables @] c73 3.=P*+M* NOTE: Wt. A2g F=d.

let . Type 1 pipe drop with earth outlet transition-explanation sheet for table 2-3.er second haglnq an earth outlet transition.pe and MItered LONGITUDINAL p. 103-D-1267.mum water surface drop for d pipe drop htructure 15 15 feet.pe bends SECTION NOTES Per Thee itandsrd dwgni are for fla. For flows greater than 22 cubic . itandard dwqn tablei extend il~qhtly beyond thii wax ~mum. Ordinarily the rrux..pe Fiqure 2-30. Figure 2-29. design of the PIPE structure wst be perforw.Earth Check and control tran>\t \on structure lenqth / Earth out L2 p.& 1~~3 than 23 cubic feet For flow\ qreater than 22 cubic feet pr second It IS iecond. probably rare ccon~n~cal to USE a concrete out let transItton and J ir~ill ler p. Ha*wer.

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00 6.50 6.50 4.00 12 36 13.49 16.50 14.34 24.08 0.00 22’.07 6.07 2.27 10.50 6.49 37.40 37.00 5.64 4.6 1 2.81 12.00 4.50 5.05 0.00 7.14 7.00 14.88 0.67 0.07 40.50 19.81 1160 10.06 1.50 5.30’ 0.98 25.00 4.08 2.00 13.30 0.87 0.00 4.07 16.05 1.63 3.61 31.oo 150-O’ 0.44 0.34 21.50 4.12 11.08 2.59 3.99 5.38 0.35 0.15 16.82 0.50 12.67 12.00 4.76 0.18 foot VP = 3.00 0.50 16.50 6.50 12.73 3.50 10.06 1.92 4.00 5.34 17.50 16.07 1.46 12.06 1.06 1.23 32.49 0. F b2 b3 h4 f-2 L3 l-4 S3 Submergence dL2 d.62 3.05 0.12 43.eter WITH Outlet of p.50 6.23 of p.00 6.54 3.30’ 0.58 3.45 9.50 13.21 4.82 17.04 0.07 32.51 14.pe = 18 Inches 2.50 4.91 0.20 0.99 0.07 11.66 31.78 20.oo 7. and Pipe Inlet noted VP = 2 83 fps 5.00 13.5 I 3.00 4.00 8 79 10.40 0.70 4.00 70.00 6.50 19.20 0.00 3 00 150.90 11.64 6.50 5.55 0.50 9.07 2.66 31.00 3.00 3.05 1.20 14.38 0.50 4.30 0 73 2.08 2.70 and Pipe Inlet Control AJI values are in feet unless otherwne 4.05 1.74 15.46 2.81 7.95 39.07 2.07 1.60 10.70 3.60 3.76 0.20 0.74 4.06 1.oo 8.49 17.00 5. + hr.60 16.49 0.00 5.00 15.58 0.96 0 55 2.66 34 70 14.44 15.50 4.06 I .43 27.50 8.82 3.13 16.87 0.00 7.00 17.74 13so 7.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 3.50 14.61 2.50 10 00 3.00 d-0 0.06 1.10 11.07 26.50 5.04 0.66 3.57 8.00 14.43 2.20 8.50 5.73 0.50 20.30 0.50 5 .50 5.23 0.90 23.06 1.50 16.14 0.46 0.81 15.80 13.79 3.05 Inlet hvp = 0.93 0.20 0.97 0.00 15.00 0.47 28.08 2.47 0.50 13.66 35.00 3.33 35.71 13.08 2.06 1.05 14.80 11.00 5.00 4.55 10.00 11.50 17.00 5 .14 13.00 4.48 17.58 2.40 14.49 40.70 9.91 16.90 10.50 9.70 0.53 1.49 0 04 0.08 2.00 12.30 10.40 16.50 19.0 0.14 0.00 5.59 3.00 15.50 6.00 6.84 0.67 2.59 4.63 11.56 2.08 0.50 5.98 12.66 25.50 8.07 1.00 4.00 4.81 6.50 14.49 35.51 2.44 0.60 11.91 0.10 0 05 0.50 11.50 7.50 8.m.03 0.71 3 06 19.00 4 00 BENDS 4.08 2.52 6.00 13.50 10.69 46.26 33 50 15.07 19. hameter F L23 b4 f-2 L3 f-4 S3 Submergence P dl+hv.34 I8 00 12.06 1.30 24.87 0 05 0.51 2.35 25.oo 22’.06 1.00 3.61 0.50 6.26 0.)-(1 ld2+hvp) R = 2.64 11.50 4.58 049 2.66 2.49 3.30 14.79 0.50 3.50 40 50 18.63 3.20 13.38 0.70 12.27 3.50 20.80 9.07 2.60 13.10 14.80 15.30 11.17 17.50 4.10 14.07 1.06 1.76 0.05 0.06 1.81 0.00 4.50 5.49 0.97 0.80 14.07 2.05 0.83 17.04 0.45 2.47 10.00 7.52 7 00 8.25 46.43 3 15 30.50 5.14 15.50 4.00 13.84 0.97 0.05 0.85 5.42 8.53 0.16 44.81 8.56 2.34 23.50 12.00 4.00 9.24 23.40 14.26 6.99 40.3.17 0.99 0.81 9.-Type I pipe drop with earth outlet tramition PIPE Check Q = 5 cir F h2 h3 ha L2 L3 f-4 S3 Submergence 2 d.81 8.64 0.34 0.58 0.07 1.oo 15O-0 0.00 15.66 37.00 5.60 13.01 26.29 0.00 4.00 5.64 0.00 7.55 0.20 0.50 14.47 7.61 2.86 15.05 1.11 0.06 1 34 26.81 13.66 29.07 42.82 21.00 0.59 3.08 2.66 22.07 39.49 6.07 41.47 14.78 35.30 0.50 11.lI 0.00 0.00 14.00 15.08 0.07 1.30’ 0.20 12.94 24.00 22’.40 16.50 feet 5.50 18.91 38.06 0.00 9.00 0.68 2.00 11.52 8.67 3.87 0.41 12.35 .60 14.67 0.97 = l.59 2.60 12.00 13.60 12.ld2 + bvp + h3 h4 D.00 lS0-O 0.58 0.+hv.94 12.10 12.48 3.07 2.61 16.34 22.66 19.44 3.07 19.20 12.26 9.49 39.79 4.49 15.69 33.82 0.89 7.00 13.06 1.50 2.00 5.5 1 2.97 17.00 5.05 0.64 0.64 0.50 6.91 0.00 0.43 38.61 0.48 9.90 42.00 0 65 2.34 15.07 1.02 0.07 31.44 0.08 28.07 12. F h2 b3 b4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence d2 LX dl + hv.80 13.13 8.08 2.90 12.50 4.81 14.16 21.68 12.93 0.73 0.74 19.00 4.00 3.40 14.00 11.54 2.30 16.52 0.50 4.07 2 07 27.65 32.00 11.50 12.41 0.00 22’.50 5.00 5.40 0.50 4.50 3.71 3.30 12.54 5.80 11.12 29.07 38.50 6 00 12.07 1.20 45.08 0.50 4.59 0.88 6.60 9.70 18.00 8.50 11.03 0.00 70.52 5.07 10.50 9.07 28.24 4.35 0.69 2.88 0.49 41.00 22’.59 9.55 2.56 2.50 17.85 0.89 4.49 33.00 7 .50 0.90 5.86 22.81 3.50 feet 6.10 9.00 7.36 11.ameter 16.02 Submergence 8.44 3.30 14.51 3.47 3.26 9.06 Inlet 7.79 0.17 0.47 10.20 22.00 11.40 0 05 0.49 2.00 10.20 10.65 3.50 18.52 9.52 100 9.38 0.00 15.91 F=(d.50 15.14 0.07 18.50 8.50 8.52 0.71 3.34 14.25 0.00 IS.50 5 00 5.11 20.67 3.82 0.40 10.00 15.05 0.02 18.00 D.oo 8.07 17.14 7.55 5.63 2.50 18.50 5.61 2.00 22’.50 13.00 2.00 4.06 I 66 30.78 16.11 0.34 2S.87 37.50 3.50 4.07 30.13 10.70 9.25 0.00 0.83 15.80 3.64 0.50 4.43 2.5 1 3.12 foot 5.29 34.13 9.52 29.42 4.Table 2.50 II.70 13.50 6.70 2.66 2.74 3.82 0.46 13.26 0.30’ 0.73 0.10 0.02 0 05 0.00 14.50 13.42 3.00 10.00 6.57 4.50 6.65 2.39 26.50 13.50 15.20 1100 4.65 17.66 36.56 42.50 5.27 6.50 19.07 20.52 10.00 17.23 5.20 16.94 10.00 14.50 8.00 11.oo 0.23 0.55 7.07 1. -Continued.50 19.07 2.53 0.00 12.50 6.19 5.85 10.59 3.14 12.07 31.17 0.08 2.66 MITER Transition 103-D-l 268-2 4.06 0.11 0.40 12.00 4.00 2.30 12.10 13.05 1.00 150.66 33.00 5 .47 3.55 0.34 16.32 of prpe hv 8.66 24.41 0.50 17.08 42.59 3.50 4.06 1.53 41.90 8.50 10.36 36 50 16.90 15.80 7.00 4.57 30.90 13.06 1.34 2 96 2.50 16.49 34 70 15.50 13.80 10.83 36.90 9.10 17.07 29.50 5.79 0.00 11.40 11.47 4.66 21.22 7.55 363 44.50 0.07 2.67 0 07 2.26 0.00 13.50 13.74 34.00 13.40 ipr 2.50 4.07 2.55 3.61 0.80 13.40 0.50 11.79 0.00 3.00 5.31 0.50 18.00 4.31 0.66 Q = 6 cis DROP Earth (to be used with fig.50 4.29 0 78 3.00 14.09 15.50 10.50 18.61 0.50 11.06 1.26 5.00 70.24 8.60 10.34 27.70 15.00 10.29 0.22 6.80 12.35 7 50 5.02 13.50 14.76 3.06 1.OD 5.92 9.07 43.50 5.30 14.50 4 .40 14.62 2.05 0.05 1.35 R = 2.08 2.00 3.07 2.78 0.68 3.73 0.66 23.00 9.50 4.66 19.00 9.19 31.70 0.06 1.44 3.05 0.20 14.05 0.50 7.55 3.05 27.00 0.07 2.50 16.43 050 2.08 2.50 1.50 15.50 15.50 12.06 1.29 0.47 13.pe = 18 Inches hvp = 0.50 5.31 10.07 1.56 15.47 8.30 0.33 12.50 4 .59 43.04 0.29 3.07 13.06 1.50 15 76 0 63 3.70 10.00 6.49 36.20 9. dl+hvl=R+h2+0.17 17.97 3.50 I1 55 0.70 13. Z-ZY/.56 3.32 15.50 16.00 6.50 3.03 41.07 2.81 14.50 9.30 0.50 10.66 20.00 4.00 70.35 2.23 0.59 0.30 11.07 1.50 10.00 5 .78 0.10 8.52 7.00 6.90 43.66 32.46 0.50 19.96 2 65 2.16 5.00 12.66 28.05 0.47 2.17 0.02 0 05 0.50 11.00 12.07 1.66 45. + hv.49 38.14 0.37 2.46 39.67 0.00 8.96 10.0 052 2.44 0.

50 17.66 26 30 14.74 3.34 21.34 17.97 0.55 4.40 30.08 2.10 10.65 37.52 9.05 0.49 0.10 17.05 0.48 9.66 28.57 13.08 a.70 0.58 0.08 2.25 0.24 5.74 3.50 5.37 0.26 0.75 40.20 2.49 13.50 5.00 5.00 feet 2.30 15.08 2.60 14.00 15.44 3.10 16.00 10.46 0.79 0.06 1.95 15.66 22.05 0.50 10.66 31.00 5.00 6.81 14.84 3.55 3.64 0.54 2.82 of pipe .06 I.67 2.66 30.11 0.40 0.00 5.00 3.87 17.66 27.00 4.50 16.66 29.99 0.50 2.50 15.50 17.50 10.50 5.08 0.58 35.17 0.90 Suhmergencc “2 b3 h4 L2 L3 L4 S3 d2 LX d.00 7.01 17.79 11.26 5.00 5.50 7.00 14.81 12. + hv.42 8.07 12.90 43.64 0.00 0.41 0.63 2.pe = 2.00 22’.08 2.59 3.82 12.95 14.44 24.35 0.02 0.10 39.10 13.20 12.70 2.05 0.71 3 58 27.07 2.50 20.06 0.50 5.5 1 2.66 3.59 3.50 4.03 0.hr 8.07 42.00 5.34 25.8 I 15.32 44.00 22’.40 17.30 0.90 12.50 13.68 2.07 19.50 17.99 0.00 10.50 17.91 0.50 20.50 18.90 0.24 26.00 1120 12.00 9.08 2.54 7. + hv.50 9.50 9.50 4.55 2.48 3.48 3.05 0.00 4.50 3.07 39.00 0.19 10.15 11.46 2.00 5.50 4.60 3.23 0.08 2.70 12.60 2.40 11.50 12.05 0.99 16.00 10.Table 2-3.13 23.00 0.66 35.41 0.06 1.00 15O-0’ 0.50 14.00 13.50 20.93 9.50 4 00 0.16 2.00 13.50 12.67 0.00 12.50 14.70 3.81 10.50 4.76 0.16 dl+hv.90 10.07 1.87 (I.81 7.00 4.68 2.00 0.00 4.05 0.00 12.50 6.5 I 10.80 14.81 9.91 18.00 5.05 0.05 0.20 9.00 12.00 4.06 16.03 0.52 7.00 5.69 3.00 5.20 11.82 17.02 17.15 13.41 10.2C 0.50 3.50 5.70 13.93 13.50 3.00 11.00 4.23 0.52 11.00 16.49 40.79 0.--T)~pe I pipe drop with earth orrtlct PIPE Q = 7 cfs k “2 h3 h4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence d2 L d. 1.50 15.00 0 47 3.66 3.00 6.07 18.82 0.81 4.50 13.50 10.52 5.50 6.70 0 06 1.52 0.50 5.50 6.50 14.00 22’.00 4.80 12.00 18.93 45.08 2.50 5.50 7.00 12 24 13.80 16.57 2.07 31.54 26.00 4.29 0.50 12. + hv.75 31.50 19.70 0.50 5.52 0.00 feet 4.33 fps Inlet 2.00 15.34 15.05 21.37 45.40 15.31 0.32 0.50 12.50 14.00 150.96 46.06 1.78 0.55 0.66 20.5 1 33.44 31.00 0. Suhmergencc “2 h3 h4 L2 L3 L4 S3 d2 LX d.34 22.81 7.64 12.50 0.73 0.84 10.08 2.60 8.07 33.49 25.00 22’.07 1.00 8.81 5.00 11.50 13.09 2.00 70.66 27.50 4.31 3.50 4.64 0.60 10.00 12.06 1.50 9.00 7.52 10.16 0.30 0.00 5.06 0.00 4.90 13.65 3.51 2. I?-ZY).00 7.55 3.66 21.00 16.30 0.38 0.17 0.30 0.pe = 2.07 16.50 8.56 0.73 0.34 23. F h2 hi h4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence d2 LA d.50 8.84 0.07 1.50 6. 103-D-1268-3 BENDS V.07 I .08 2.00 150.70 0.61 0.53 3.96 19.07 1.52 0.00 4.44 IO.90 10.09 0.08 2.50 20.60 2.50 17.91 0.88 0.h4 .00 II.50 10.44 3.50 8.81 11.76 0.44 0.50 0.07 1.34 18.59 3.31 0.84 5.72 39.84 0.05 38.34 26.52 7.00 3.07 32.60 13.14 8.00 22’.43 3.00 17.14 (1.60 11.50 3.50 10.20 0.31 0.78 0.07 2.0’ 0.91 4.15 40.71 3.97 0.00 5.82 10.60 10.06 1.55 0.40 5.50 14.00 16.11 0.50 5.00 4.00 14.16 15.47 2.00 5.00 0 64 2.05 0.81 13.07 1.07 14.07 31.40 4.07 38.23 0.43 3.00 15 17 17.60 14.50 4.00 2.50 12.36 7.15 8.66 31.50 4.14 10.50 16.64 0.05 0.48 5.81 13.70 14.17 6.49 38.20 15.13 7.40 13.52 4.20 15.10 0.20 11.55 3. DROP Earth WITH Outlet of p.40 0.82 0.09 2.60 16.68 38.50 3.61 4.70 16. mchcs 3.50 4.70 3.35 0.81 8.57 3.93 35.80 10.84 33.90 14.07 1.20 12.47 7.41 0.58 0.60 15.00 70.-Continued.56 4.86 11.00 4.50 5.56 0.47 Submergence = l.58 3.00 13.60 2.68 17.49 42.06 1.25 0.61 2.07 13.87 0.20 14.13 foot Inlet R = 3.00 10.07 I .97 10.66 32.69 3.50 6.00 13.50 8.02 0.80 32.50 18.0 046 2.00 5.65 3.25 20.50 20.30 13.97 0.20 19.50 5.14 6.46 6 50 5.07 29 IO 15.32 28.00 14.50 19.88 0.70 Q = 8 cfs F tramitior? (to hc frscd with MITER Transition .08 7.93 0.35 3.66 24.60 11.Diameter 16.30 0.44 0.20 17.67 9.50 15.80 3.57 2.50 5.66 23.49 15.83 15.10 12.17 foot VP = 3.ld2 + hvp + h3 .34 19.50 11.61 3.05 0.67 3.85 .50 3.06 1.50 11.90 7 83 8.78 3.67 0.50 16.00 0.11 0.79 41.42 46.50 18.07 1.09 2.50 19.82 16.32 16.49 39.06 1.00 6.5 I 3.28 27.50 13.00 4.16 9.89 44.05 0.50 5.55 0 05 0.00 70.53 3.00 l5O-0 0.50 7.00 5.06 1.71 4.ocI 14.00 4.00 4.50 20.70 30.30 0.55 12.78 4.19 5.57 2.29 0.00 5.50 18.97 2.83 6.32 0.05 0.00 5.08 0.00 3.06 1.00 14.58 3.47 2.58 2.16 7.53 2.36 29.06 1.75 3.50 3.26 6.07 30.64 3.00 13.22 4.30 17.08 2.50 4.50 15.00 5.48 8.81 9.46 0.45 2.30 0.07 1.00 4.66 33.26 0.47 32.50 12.00 4.05 0.08 4.50 10.79 0.26 0.30 15.27 14.00 6.50 15.50 7.76 0.06 I .89 249 0.67 0.16 14.00 13.82 42.52 6 00 10. mches hvp = 0.93 0.06 1.00 7.82 16.62 28.00 20.08 2.07 I .06 0.00 15.73 10.00 5.50 5.46 4.84 12.24 42.99 0.34 20.00 7.30’ 0.00 15.40 12.50 8.50 17.09 0.49 36.07 1.14 0.80 II.00 4.28 43.81 8.00 6.50 4.83 14.00 6.50 7.44 Dnmeter of p.90 13.00 II.30 15.50 11.49 17.50 18.01 15.70 11.05 0.52 0.69 13.66 25.49 37.50 6.30 6.62 3.70 10.45 3.00 3.38 0.07 2.50 8.61 0.07 40.83 7.34 16.00 6.37 0.07 1.80 13.54 34.50 3.50 16. + hv.47 6.35 0.00 3.0’ 0.61 3.50 6.50 5.64 2.15 18.59 11.73 0.00 5.82 9.55 3.07 1.00 12.15 12.90 16.50 18.52 3.00 lSO~O 0.06 1.50 16.66 36.07 1.10 0.99 0.49 41.65 3.30 13 50 5.30 12.61 14 73 0.89 12.50 6.60 13.00 14.=29lfps h”P = 0.49 11.82 3.14 0.41 0.64 15.52 7.19 41.78 15.77 4.09 22.89 34.00 3.50 4.00 5.07 I .35 2.50 0.97 36.00 4.05 0.00 9.40 14.50 4.50 9.56 2.94 0.50 2.93 9.07 17.00 8.07 35.50 4.82 15.10 9.08 2.00 7O-30 0.17 0.67 4.61 0.00 5.50 7.00 4.50 19.00 14.03 0.87 5.14 0.61 3.82 4.10 14.30 15.07 I .07 II.70 10.50 5.46 0.06 I .41 4.29 0.05 0.86 43.67 3.50 15.00 4.73 14.11 17.49 12.30 17.49 16.50 12.66 29.00 22’.50 II.88 0.07 1.21 25.00 4.14 5 17 0.50 7.08 2.34 24.00 150.46 0.07 14.50 5.30 II.00 15.07 I .49 9. Dlamcter 2.66 34.28 3.58 0.50 8.00 14.00 12.07 43.67 8.52 8.08 2.29 21.00 8.30 0.07 37.39 23.60 3.07 28.16 4.84 0.61 0.26 0.07 1.64 0.36 17.05 0.06 9.54 10.29 0.00 0.00 9.00 13.85 R = 3.fig.64 0.88 0.79 0.34 22.50 13 20 9.00 12.50 4.50 13.70 1500 4.50 13.07 1.08 2.=K+h2+0.00 13.09 2.94 0.00 11.61 36.03 0.06 1.06 1.50 15 II 0.54 2.17 24.00 6.70 16.00 6.50 11.23 0.50 0.07 19.34 19.51 5.00 8.07 41.44 3.47 4.

52 8.22 0.75 0 80 3.46 2.77 0.31 0.52 2.81 0.60 3.98 11 31 12.07 19.61 4.64 3.80 14.60 11.59 3.50 15.50 6.07 1.36 11.37 26.70 16.68 10.50 8.00 13.08 2.50 II.50 3.81 2.42 3.00 12 36 13.00 6.30 16.00 7.10 0.67 13.07 1.00 22'.53 2.18 17.58 271 11.00 22'.96 42.56 2.00 7.50 12.97 0.50 5.00 14.-7)~pe PIPE Check Q = 9 CfS F h2 h3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d.00 15.34 28.50 16.50 16.50 13 83 0.01 8.70 0.71 0.88 0.06 1.06 081 16.07 15 20 1250 4 00 6.13 0.08 1.42 4.02 0.07 1 34 19.50 17.48 3.08 16.07 1.74 3.00 7.50 18.55 0.50 7.10 9.05 052 5.50 15.03 15.95 0.08 1.78 0.08 1.56 4.47 3.00 70.50 4.50 3.24 0.77 0.50 17.50 16.40 14.33 4.50 13.08 2.50 9.00 4.50 3.18 0.50 5.20 12.50 6.92 4.28 0.59 3.06 0.00 10.57 0.13 0.50 11.00 13 01 13.00 15.00 0.78 0.05 37.05 0 07 1.00 4.26 7.54 0.58 0.50 14.06 1 07 16.0 0.80 11.78 3.46 3.33 8.00 3 00 5.50 19.86 14.92 0.00 4 00 12.53 3050 14.79 4.40 17.00 3.33 20.66 38.29 0.50 11.00 150.30 17.05 0.14 0.30 17.08 1.34 24.50 11.49 3.00 15O-0 0.10 0.50 20.24 0.07 40.76 30.50 15.05 0.09 2.50 5.00 11.00 470 4.67 0.50 10.ld2 of pqx MITER Transition BENDS andPipelnlet Control A" values are m feet unless otherwse and P~pelnlet noted VP = 2.57 0.35 6.58 3.00 13.58 0. Table 2-3.50 15.23 0.50 5.34 21.44 0.50 10.50 9.50 4.15 3.11 0.46 23. -Continued.59 26~50 13.90 40.80 15.60 4.50 8 09 0.67 8.00 70-30 0.81 31.25 42.37 4.00 12.65 4.49 2950 14.71 3.49 40.28 0.50 4.27 4.35 14.66 10.82 0.90 16.05 0.50 4.54 0.62 0.93 0.00 6.00 12.00 IOcfr WITH Outlet of pipe = 24 Inches 2.05 0.08 2.00 15.65 2.01 0.28 19.07 1.92 8.46 0.10 16.60 0.71 961 10.50 4.50 10.56 0.06 1.00 0.47 7.36 12.00 5.50 14.00 0.53 3.50 12.66 7.00 10.50 9.fig.43 16.95 3.00 4.52 8.64 0.50 14.71 3.87 39.11 0.00 1450 4.00 5.50 5.66 29.26 6.08 1 66 36.07 1.50 17.15 0.41 Q= F hameter DROP Earth 103-D-12684 b”P Lnlct R = 3.35 0.64 3.58 294 12.82 0 08 1.85 32.67 28.92 7.21 22.64 0.61 271 850 6.00 10.50 8.50 10.54 8.00 15.30' 0.60 15.07 37.55 0.00 4 00 046 2.00 14.00 5.00 11.10 17.61 0.39 15.13 foot m 4.48 5.Diameter ofpipe hv .50 10.00 2.00 5.75 h2 h3 h4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence dL+hv.00 3.50 3.60 11.66 3370 15.50 11.83 10.25 0.08 2.34 18.64 2.00 5.50 5 .00 4.02 0.50 4.81 14.80 37.07 1.60 16.30 0.08 1.00 13.66 0.33 5.50 15.00 a.30 12.20 12.84 0.40 0.50 5 00 15O-0' 0.62 3.80 0.81 10.33 13.64 3. hvp= 016faot Met R.71 4.99 13.07 35.10 15.00 13.95 10.03 13.50 9.50 4.62 0.25 feet 0.90 11.54 3.53 3.25 feet 4.00 7.55 3.64 33.70 16.00 0.07 39.07 1.40 14.30 12 00 3.50 16.86 fps 3.50 12.42 17.47 2.24 7.06 1.05 0.06 0.70 14.65 3.02 44.95 0.00 15 00 4.25 23.83 F=(dl+hvl)-(l.00 4.50 2.79 17.07 1 34 26.00 12. Z-ZYI.07 1.00 15.00 602 6.50 11.42 2.50 16.80 13.50 18.00 8.20 15 00 4.09 5.19 0.50 18.08 2.35 0.00 4.26 0.00 3.73 0.50 14.91 15.04 0 75 3.10 12.50 4.86 0.08 2.07 1.57 3 72 35.06 Submergence 0 h3 .26 0.66 31.50 7.64 2.30 12.44 360 32.00 10.89 11.50 6.68 7 08 0.07 21.05 0.49 0.07 31.50 19.06 1.00 5.04 0.00 17.13 16.61 9.33 44.70 0.66 31.00 5.66 3740 16. 3.81 17.00 4.00 10.51 2.70 13.50 4.01 12.07 20.50 5.81 11.00 4.80 16.43 3.00 13.06 081 12.41 27.44 3.07 17.13 39.66 34.04 18.50 19.37 21.03 14.00 3.90 10.30 15.70 15.66 28.66 12.51 0.84 0.82 13.18 9.26 5.50 8.00 ISO-0' 050 3.00 13.05 0.66 24.+ +hqJ dl+hvl= R+h2+0.81 0.20 14.03 0.29 43.00 3.20 16.52 0.45 9.55 3.07 18.50 4.34 25.00 14.68 2.64 0.17 0.07 32.88 0.49 0.66 27.00 12.46 0.34 10.50 18.50 2.00 8.60 068 3.81 970 11.48 0.95 0.57 2.09 19.00 0.07 1.08 15.50 3.58 6.68 3450 16.13 20.10 13.41 2.60 12.66 31.41 22.20 0.66 30.00 5.34 27 30 14.50 5.00 4.00 0.69 14.00 6.15 0.81 15.06 1.56 31.06 1.63 27.00 3.46 3.34 19.07 39.39 0.87 0.30' 0.30 15.06 1.58 7.06 15.50 11.06 4.00 5.60 3.05 052 7.00 a.59 8.30 16.56 3.67 0.89 0.07 1.00 5 00 10.06 1.00 5.64 0.50 5.07 1.25 0.06 0.09 38.00 4.50 5.00 5.81 3.69 12.00 4.50 6.44 0.07 33.03 2.20 13.01 3650 17.91 5.71 13.90 13.07 38.40 0 06 0.72 3.00 15.52 11.50 6 95 0.24 6.77 9.06 0.74 4.+hvl d2 LX F h2 h3 h4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d2 LX d.37 249 5.00 70.66 26.50 4.73 16.50 7.63 3.68 11.50 16.00 6.44 3.57 6.52 4.52 6.70 11.30 1002 10.17 0.52 10.72 2.05 0.07 166 32.00 10.03 5.26 7.00 4.40 15.58 2.00 5.90 15.90 13.67 3.05 0.22 0.42 0.51 0.00 10.06 0.50 8.23 18.08 2.00 12.18 fp.86 048 3.50 4.07 1.19 0.08 2.33 0.12 29.92 064 3.50 18.93 41.50 19.50 0.07 1.00 4.68 3.05 0.50 6.95 16.60 11.08 2.97 11.46 4.06 0.66 30.50 3.00 4.47 2.98 0.91 0.29 0.38 14.89 0.45 9.14 0.99 0.30 14 00 5.61 0.99 43.81 0.07 1.91 0.08 0.34 = Lld2+ hv.50 7.66 0.08 2.42 2.53 2.20 0.40 12.99 0.00 11.00 4 00 13.31 0.80 0.40 11.01 0.62 3.34 = 24 Inches VP = 3.05 0.50 14.07 34.48 3 97 35.50 18.52 007 1.05 0.26 8.50 19.00 2.81 13.39 0.h4 .17 40.25 5.93 34.45 28.35 11.10 10.52 9.50 5.00 12.08 2.76 36.50 4.89 33.07 36.63 11.34 20.00 5.07 14.50 4.03 008 2.21 41.20 17.73 008 1.07 19.07 1.69 593 0.37 5.00 7.05 14.07 41.50 19.80 10.00 3.I pipe drop with earth outlet transitiorz (to hc’rls~d with .16 12.23 0.00 7 33 7.00 4 00 14.00 15.00 7O-30' 0.40 6.07 16.58 5.50 3.52 7.34 29 10 14.84 38.50 13.50 4.55 3 17 21.oo 0.42 0. + hvl 3.09 249 41.50 5.72 15.00 5.50 6.00 4.06 0.00 10.36 0.50 0.50 20.50 10.66 25.33 2.00 14.50 13.74 15.00 14.06 0.00 5.66 3.29 1091 0.. d2 LX F h2 "3 h4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d2 LX dl + hvl lhmeter 2.50 3.81 12.81 13.00 7.50 8.30 0.66 35.50 4.09 2.50 2.

53 42.96 2.00 5.52 22.50 11.40 13.50 13.54 0.00 11.00 15.21 5.36 17.50 2.51 0.12 6.81 7.ld2 + hvp + h3 h4 .50 5.52 18.73 0.50 15.00 12.50 8.54 c.40 15.80 8.07 0.96 10.12 0.30 16.50 5.50 4.45 3. 2-2Y).08 12.08 2.01 9.26 13.26 11.00 19.60 15.00 11.00 15OxI)’ 0.00 4.16 16.62 2.50 6.83 0.00 3.34 0.05 4.58 21.10 0.56 3.10 6.50 5.57 11.57 3.00 6.00 0.93 0.00 16.50 5.50 15.00 3.53 3.52 20.00 3.07 0.07 33.50 15.49 0.10 12.08 2.81 23.00 2.33 0.00 70.05 4.66 20.08 1.00 4.79 42.07 1.06 Submergence = l.97 0.50 4.46 8.06 0.50 3.19 0.70 15.22 35.07 12.07 12.77 0.71 0.50 21.50 6.10 10.61 3.00 4.70 11.06 15.07 35.81 29.00 14.34 42.50 16.07 0.20 14.09 2.50 6.50 9.49 0.05 3.59 10.50 6.41 8.85 44.50 10.66 0.30 0.50 8.09 2.50 20.20 12.09 2.50 5.03 3.08 1.00 8.57 17.09 2.50 12.00 14.62 0.41 18.67 3.ld2+ hvp) d.00 11.56 3.00 8.10 0.07 0.46 0.50 13.20 16.89 0.50 11.00 12.00 4.40 13.20 13.81 16.0 0.99 0.45 3.35 2.5 1 4.50 6.18 3.26 16.71 46.00 14.00 4.81 7.70 13.00 9.77 4.08 1.50 15.50 20.20 12.38 0.31 0.07 1.00 4.07 10.14 20.50 5.50 20.09 2.68 23.30 13.06 0.00 4.77 25.49 35.66 21.74 0.64 0.00 0.50 5.05 2.30 15.80 14.52 0.52 19. + hvl) .39 0.47 4.50 11.30 15.34 41.00 6.11 0.76 10.30 16.00 ls”-0 0.07 34.05 0.50 4.08 0.84 0.76 7.00 4.04 4.34 17.49 36.50 19.49 39.87 0.00 15.06 8.02 11.14 13.50 12.44 fps Inlet R = 3.37 27.64 0.30 0.26 36.49 3.41 4.62 2.84 5.06 0.19 14.50 20.30 16.25 15.30 18.50 10.72 24.40 5.60 15.07 31.99 30.80 14.66 3.30 14.50 4.07 10.00 8.91 43.48 3.41 2.07 26.08 2.50 20.69 6.07 0.00 5.50 31.39 15.40 0.00 15.52 5.50 17.00 22’.08 2.42 7.50 4.52 5.80 11.72 15.25 0.24 23.08 2.pe = 30 Inches Inlet R = 3.41 2.00 6.53 32.00 4.79 0.7s feet 3.07 30.54 3.02 0.00 HO-0 0.68 0.41 0.50 14.50 5.00 9.62 44.50 12.44 29.11 0.49 4.07 38.39 17.39 10.74 15.43 3.97 0.50 13.41 3.00 19.70 15.50 13.97 13.50 16.04 0.39 6.00 10.52 2.50 15.06 0.50 9.00 14.30 0.39 4.48 0.06 0.35 38.00 16.50 14.76 0.00 4.69 38.73 4.61 4.38 2.08 0.74 6.00 13.26 3.00 5.4 1 2.90 28.73 12.60 12.81 26.32 13.00 16.66 19.17 21.66 24.09 foot VP = 2.62 5.45 9.07 31.20 18.00 8.34 15.40 12.19 10.90 46.04 31.00 0.58 2.06 0.63 2.62 2.4s 0.84 12.90 17.06 1.00 15.5 1 3.00 4.00 7.50 0.06 0.06 0.00 0.74 10.50 6.30 0.00 70.41 28.58 4.47 3.90 11.92 0.38 0.00 150.09 2.15 8.50 6.47 5.30 18.90 14.00 11.50 21.00 3.08 2.81 27.62 3.81 0.34 16.44 0.08 1.11 19.61 3.08 2.49 40.00 12.08 1.99 16.50 14.48 3.34 43.Diameter 8.80 13.26 0.91 10.00 0.26 14.34 26.00 10.00 14.07 1.09 6.81 24.07 1.72 39.00 0.50 18.50 18.00 4.76 7.21 22.50 2.80 2.91 42.20 15.26 0.07 0.02 0.60 11.58 0.-Type I pipe drop with earth outlet transition PIPE DROP Earth WITH Outlet (to be used with fig.19 foot 2.29 0.82 0.00 16.58 43.59 3.05 0.75 0.07 13.60 13.59 3.95 0.88 4.86 27.24 0.67 2.50 7.50 3.47 30.06 0. MITER Transition 103-D-1268-5 BENDS Check and Pipe Met Control and pipe Inlet Au values are m feet unless otherwise noted Q= F h2 h3 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence d2 LX dl+hvl F “2 4 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence 9 LX dl+hvl Submergence dl+hvl h2 “3 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 d2 LX F h2 “3 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence dl+hvl d2 LX Diameter of pipe = 24 inches VP = 3.07 37.72 5.60 11.92 0.50 16.0 0.46 3.50 7.81 9.57 2.06 14.06 0.67 0.07 11.78 0.25 0.64 0.78 0.12 0.52 17.63 22.30 0.51 3.06 0.50 6.91 9.00 12.00 6.00 10.64 36.50 17.10 15.46 0.20 4.95 0.82 43.00 10.50 10.00 12.06 0 10.30 F = (d.17 0.40 0.50 9.80 12.38 2.88 0.50 14.07 1.36 0.10 15.53 3.50 4.50 18.48 3.50 11.93 0.88 13.05 0.84 9.49 34.50 11.13 33.50 13.63 0.67 4.81 28.07 1.00 2.50 3.73 14.00 3.00 6.91 14.40 13.06 13.82 0.60 13.00 5.01 7.17 34.43 3.65 0.30 0.50 10.13 0.90 11.10 18.00 11.50 17.55 0.00 12.91 0.50 4.6 1 0.60 3.72 9.50 18.07 1.07 1.50 4.40 15.07 1.63 3.34 14.98 0.00 12.52 3.10 0.26 12.50 3.50 4.22 0.50 16.06 1.00 7.00 5.73 13.50 2.00 14.08 2.56 0.49 3.00 5.57 2.00 11.73 17.49 33.50 2.31 0.74 8.70 0.66 23.00 13.50 12.00 4.79 0.07 5.72 16.60 hvp = 0.00 70.62 35.44 0.25 feet 7.01 0.87 45.16 5.31 0.50 4.86 0.60 0.42 0.52 19.49 32.83 0.00 4.05 5.07 1.50 5.00 8.27 24.07 32.50 21.07 1.50 5.63 4.38 4.34 18.05 4.50 8.14 0.00 8.08 2.87 17.50 9.22 17.88 0.99 0.52 6.55 0.5 I 4.61 0.20 0. -Continued.80 9.07 28.00 3.06 0.00 6.50 0.43 3.70 17.53 10.04 0.00 7.50 19.07 27.64 0.07 30.07 1.56 3.67 0.70 0.53 3.00 5.34 40.70 17.88 10.70 4.06 1.39 14.71 4.23 0.89 0.00 7.09 0.75 7.00 14.19 9.30 12.40 16.00 22’.10 14.00 5.09 2.67 3.81 30.73 9.22 0.52 17.06 0.08 2.50 19.00 5.07 29.31 25.30 0.50 13.23 0.49 38.08 1.00 11.07 0.03 17.00 5.60 17.00 2.06 0.95 29.63 3.67 45.20 13.69 13.05 0.50 19.00 5.00 3.06 1.00 6.14 0.52 21.03 0.57 4.07 11.00 150.07 1.00 7.70 12.00 4.23 11.27 0.08 1.69 0.50 10.26 15.16 0.72 0.03 0.45 0.50 17.33 0.30 0.50 3.00 13.50 7.50 7.00 12.66 19.75 40.29 0.40 39.50 12.07 1.17 0.06 0.45 2.81 26.66 37.4 1 9.00 0.50 18.95 15.80 17.49 2.80 6.47 19.08 32.54 2.62 12.50 9.50 15.05 3.50 5.00 10.78 4.50 15.07 0.69 3.67 8.50 4.63 3.50 19.50 6.52 0.40 18.68 4.76 0.06 1.69 13.78 0.09 7.00 13.00 14.25 0.50 18.57 6.00 3.51 0.45 15.84 0.50 3.49 37.44 40.91 0.00 22’.28 12.50 4.07 31.50 8.00 16.66 22.80 11.44 3.3s 0.07 1.07 1.00 6.00 4.50 8.04 14.56 33.81 25.50 10.00 15.57 0.50 0.15 7.50 7.(l.30 14.90 14.56 3.57 3.50 fps hvp = 0.10 14.39 3.00 6.50 4.00 14.00 9.64 3.70 3.Table 2-3.49 41.00 15.37 3.73 0.50 4.10 14.50 11.31 37.59 34.09 2.68 3.60 15.56 3.00 5.50 16.09 2.65 3.71 2.50 7.07 25.07 36.06 0.53 2.50 4.92 12.62 7.50 6.07 of pope hv .81 8.36 0.00 11.77 41.91 41.87 0.48 0.46 2.83 8.50 5. + hvl = R + h2 + 0.07 1.07 17.70 15.00 7.95 0.45 4.50 17.09 2.50 12.50 16.05 0.4s 7.40 11.68 2.10 16.28 5.50 5.00 3.86 0.20 0.74 3.50 7.00 7930 0.10 10.00 10.50 14.84 0.40 12.90 13.00 22’.74 15.06 0.41 0.00 16.50 13.44 3.35 0.07 18.53 3.58 0.00 4.07 0.34 39.98 Q= F 11 cfs 12cfs Dmmeter of p.50 7.08 1.60 12.50 8.52 20.50 3.

50 0.50 15.00 15O-0 0.00 13.56 13.08 1.91 6.71 5.44 0.05 38.05 2.95 10.20 15.06 0.38 0.89 33.08 0.00 11.50 4 00 5.39 0.00 3.65 4.98 0.50 8.20 lb.14 0.34 40.75 feet 7.26 11.08 1.00 0.50 4.00 2.76 29.00 15O-0 0.00 3.50 2007 0.50 9.64 17.69 0.34 31.45 2.03 11.56 3.30' 0.72 4.07 26.00 6.26 8.52 1250 12.40 12.60 2.22 15.10 15.20 15.84 0.50 18.34 33.0b R = 3.00 13.25 0.50 14.50 5.96 35.00 0.30 3.ld2 + hvp + h3 .02 37.31 0.93 16.65 2.41 4.50 15 48 0.74 0.16 14.20 008 I34 31.-Continued.62 3.42 3.45 0.00 0.73 4.30 15.07 0.08 1.07 1.50 0.75 3.69 16.50 lb.00 3.81 19.50 16.50 18.10 7.48 3.07 1.13 16.14 0.60 6.50 15.35 0.66 2.50 15.22 16.00 70.42 0.00 14.44 24.81 24.22 6.20 17.21 0.50 3.99 11.08 166 36.82 31.19 9.59 28.50 5.31 0.80 11.59 3.70 14.00 4.52 10.80 0.80 0.50 18.91 and Pipe Inlet Control AU values are m feet unless otherwise VP = 2.00 17.55 3.49 3.50 4.03 44.08 1.52 14.67 3.23 0.90 11.00 12.08 1.00 13 00 4.81 20.70 16.08 1 34 34.30 lb.88 0.50 17.00 11.91 5.55 0.60 14.50 15.52 0.50 2.00 2.19 8.17 0.06 0.49 2.00 3.00 2.94 40.12 6.5 1 4.06 0.08 1.59 7.29/.21 18.36 0.50 7.60 12.00 13.68 9.00 0.30 13.30 14.81 17.00 lb.30 0.90 13.00 3.00 15.25 2.50 3.00 11.00 2.08 1.50 13.00 15O-0 0.40 16.50 8.25 0.48 4 08 39.00 lb.50 17.00 7.25 7.00 4.77 34.81 9.50 20.50 5.06 0.07 0.84 16.10 0.07 1 .76 0.46 0.50 4.94 9.50 4.06 0.50 7.41 12.66 43.00 15.33 18.16 13.31 0.05 0.07 21.91 4.50 5.00 11.50 3.70 16.66 41.01 0.50 9.00 11.74 33.00 16.00 14.33 F = (dl + hv.71 32.84 7.87 0.02 0.30 17.83 0.80 13.00 9.65 0.00 22'.00 15O-0 0.04 0.53 12.47 13.50 14.08 1.00 3.34 36.29 17.90 14.00 MITER Transition 4.64 3.61 8.25 19.30 15.26 10.43 3.51 6.61 0.35 0.00 8.96 41.50 3.07 1.70 15.a7 26.95 12.80 15.20 13.99 13.10 15.64 2.00 15.00 11 87 1244 0.66 39.50 12.91 0.02 0.66 37.52 17.40 14.45 4.50 11.07 1.28 20.00 5.06 0.83 11.49 0.59 3.00 11.50 13.10 11.81 21.00 22'.95 8.63 3.00 4.57 16.50 4.07 0.49 0.06 0.42 0.81 19.49 2.00 22'.01 43.47 2.42 5.40 0.17 17.08 1.45 21.75 13.79 0.65 fps 5.50 12.50 11.08 1.90 16.64 0.27 0.97 0.06 0.64 0.75 5.00 12.30 0.52 16.50 5 00 150-O' 0.00 4.Table 2-3.79 0.07 27.32 21.08 166 38.07 28.85 fps dl+hvl=R+h2+0.45 3.81 20.32 10.39 17.30 17 00 4.07 31.50 17.51 26.50 13.29 0.61 25.05 5.00 2.90 11.34 34.50 7.26 12.05 0.60 14.70 4.52 13.70 3.00 15.70 14.30 17.36 22.57 14.20 0.07 1.07 0.00 8.06 0.82 36.07 22.50 lb.16 0.21 0.80 lb.00 4.50 4.84 070 4.50 4.00 150.66 3.44 4.07 1.91 0.84 0.50 12.54 0.80 12.01 0.08 1.00 5.50 10.86 32.50 2.11 40.00 15.09 3.34 39.80 2.64 0.59 3.50 10.00 lS0-0’ 0.77 7.76 6.70 11.08 1.58 5.50 21.07 0.31 0.52 15.54 2.60 14.86 0.00 14.12 13.66 42.37 19.0 0.53 3.78 0.50 lb.40 16.26 8.07 0.00 8.89 0.50 5.50 17.30 15.00 400 10.13 9.12 2.07 25.93 2.88 13.50 17.22 12.00 6.25 0.69 3.fig.09 13.51 15.10 0.81 22.10 13.50 8.91 0.07 12.00 ISO0.71 8.25 lb.34 32. + hvl 13 cfs Diameter h2 h3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d2 LX dl + hvl F h2 “3 “4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence hvp = 0.63 3.50 10.79 30.58 0.50 6.00 5.26 9.00 5.00 4.01 25.41 0.07 1 .14 10.07 0.08 1.72 071 3.53 3.00 lb.45 16.00 4.30 0.10 lb.50 4.54 3.06 0.62 3.50 12.50 16.50 14.81 18.50 13.26 7.06 0.23 4.00 15.27 5.00 5.65 30.74 10.59 4 18 42.00 2.60 12.00 3.85 10.00 0.) Diameter (l.05 103-D-1268-6 BENDS 4.06 13.60 2.50 6.98 10.67 0.06 12.34 30.36 0.59 3.45 0.99 0.07 0.55 27.00 5.07 0.93 0.88 38.64 0.93 0.55 0.50 12.34 32.50 17.48 25.00 4.00 5.08 1.57 24.99 0.00 22'.07 0.23 0.08 1.60 3.50 6.96 14 73 008 166 35.50 400 0.00 10.16 14.67 6.30 16.00 5.70 0.07 0.55 4 15 41.00 3.48 3.50 3.30 46.33 0.00 17.00 5.00 4.81 19.00 400 15 34 lb 26 0.06 0.66 40.10 0.50 13.09 5.50 20.30 12.05 17 03 0.50 20.57 13.09 46.87 15.73 28.50 3.08 1.44 3.43 2.61 0.ld2 + hvp) of pope = 30 Inches VP = 2.30' 0.60 2.50 4.00 7.50 21.50 14.36 11.20 12.68 0.54 2.34 28.58 0.74 17.52 11.50 7.00 Inlet 7.00 4.40 13.47 4.49 3.54 3.08 0.49 10.51 3.67 3.70 15.50 15.82 0.90 3.86 0.00 12.46 3.43 7.77 6.50 5.06 0.78 0.50 20.00 14.99 36.50 19.-Type I pipe drop with earth outlet transition PIPE DROP Earth Check Q= F “2 h3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence dl+hv.50 2.69 27.88 0.10 13.25 0.26 0.08 1.50 2.20 15.00 3.70 12.h4 D~ametcr R = 3.44 2.59 2.00 8.45 3.17 0.67 0.55 2.65 26.61 5.07 1.05 WITH Outlet 4.50 6.60 12.52 15.78 3.00 15.06 0.72 7.63 0.50 0.50 10.81 10.90 15.91 39.66 15.81 19.07 1.00 6.08 1.00 4.61 14.06 0.50 18.00 0.63 3.13 foot Submergence = l.50 8.75 feet of pipe hv lb.00 15.54 14.06 45.82 0.50 5.78 7.34 38.49 22.07 0.30 14.10 17 00 4.54 3.27 45.50 4.50 21.62 4.09 166 43.07 23.79 35.00 70.50 3.59 0.30 9.07 1.52 14.47 9.10 10.62 3.97 0.58 2.00 7.06 0.05 0 08 1.08 4.50 11.73 4.60 12.00 11.18 11.42 6.98 0.00 3 00 8.60 2 ? z xl .00 5.20 13.21 4350 20.58 3.07 1.1 1 foot 8.80 14.08 15.00 3.50 11.68 3.a7 29. d2 LX F h2 h3 4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d2 LX d.81 23.28 8.06 0.50 21.25 3.50 19.50 4 00 0.50 8.52 3.40 0.46 3.95 and Pipe inlet nored 5.26 9.99 42.00 4.52 13.00 0.66 42.50 3.40 15.50 4.34 37.53 23.10 0.04 11.66 3.48 0.50 19.26 6.07 0.50 lb.52 18.03 0.00 5.12 8.85 37.08 1.08 1.51 7.11 0.72 0.09 1.00 13.51 10.63 0.04 0.89 8.60 15.06 0.69 0.50 7.30 0.00 4.73 0.00 9.41 2.50 4.50 10.00 11.00 70.75 4.49 3.52 0.20 13.58 3.34 35.07 1.45 8.50 5.00 0. 2.34 33.63 3.50 8.67 3.19 9.92 0.06 0.07 27.82 !4.50 9.06 0.00 7O-30 0.06 0.07 30.50 7.00 9.58 3.56 3.87 0.56 3.50 9.00 4.50 15.11 0.34 41.50 4.50 4.07 1.08 1.81 lb.50 19.89 0.00 lb.00 4.40 23.39 0.90 11.60 lb 50 4.68 31.34 29.00 12.00 5 00 12.00 7.04 14.00 0.93 7.50 5.07 31.08 1.70 0.26 7 00 11.24 44.62 29.46 3.30' 0.60 14.50 13.50 4.50 12.93 34.38 0.16 0.70 12.07 0.59 0.50 5.41 0.92 0.71 3.59 4.46 0.50 18.00 13.41 20.00 4.50 12.00 12.65 3.50 4.63 9.67 3.24 5.65 6.07 24.29 0.50 18.00 15.50 10.12 0.50 14.51 3. Inlet hvp = 0.30 0.66 10.05 Q = 14 cfs F of pipe = 30 mches (to be used with .06 0.99 10.00 13.83 0.

90 15.45 3.50 21.96 8.83 13.15 5.38 0.49 0.62 4.08 1.5 1 4.07 16.26 fps hvp = 0.05 0.48 2.59 4.63 0.81 23.00 7.50 3.79 26.00 2.10 0.71 21.44 0.51 0.07 0.14 13.53 17.97 0.00 15O-0 0.00 15.50 3.00 10.00 5.81 13.00 14.Dnmeter 16.29 0.72 14.90 14.88 5.09 2.60 15.00 0.00 4.50 5.52 8.82 15.46 4.48 0.81 11.08 1.86 6.33 40.00 6.59 3.93 0.60 18.07 43.04 0 59 3.07 0.50 4.11 6.60 12.09 1.75 17.31 0 07 0.66 32.50 13.10 II.63 3.00 12.00 10.00 70.07 41.30 0.ld2 + hvp + h3 h4 .57 46.54 3.75 feet 5.00 8.80 12.00 4.50 20.68 0.08 1.66 31.00 11.50 3.li 0.85 24.50 4.35 0.50 13.07 20.00 15.05 fps 3.50 10.00 12.01 7 50 6.09 2.19 of pope = 30 inches VP = 3.00 4.13 12.90 2.97 0.10 18.60 4.49 43.79 4.00 2.50 13.09 2.50 14.50 4 45 43.34 15.00 11.42 17.40 15.60 15. 18.49 44.44 0.50 5.50 18 16 0.06 0.00 150.74 4.50 7.19 32.00 14.00 ls”-0 0.06 Submergence = l.50 5.10 0.44 15.98 11.16 10.46 18.40 18.50 14.51 17.16 14.09 2.58 3.57 of pipe .26 5.84 0.08 1.41 0.38 14.00 3.07 15.66 32.31 0.50 11.39 0.00 5.84 0.00 0.06 0.17 0.50 5.10 17.06 0.50 14.55 4.07 37.50 15.70 15.00 4.34 25.08 1.59 2.23 0.50 10.98 3.80 0.69 44.06 0.50 7.52 3.07 18.95 30.70 17.08 1.64 22.20 19.07 39.00 8.20 14.52 9.37 41.78 7.60 42.00 11.78 0.21 11.83 27.72 0.50 4. d2 LX of p.59 3.34 19.70 0.33 12.40 13.64 4.41 4.00 4.64 0.00 7.25 0.06 0.47 5.20 16.91 F = (d.68 3.06 0.07 0.09 2.40 17.63 3.00 5.08 1.79 9.08 1.52 10.97 10.07 40.50 20.81 14.06 0.50 4.39 37.00 7.93 0.50 21.50 15.00 3.87 0.34 24.52 7.98 0.17 36.34 22.00 70.07 1.30 16.40 15.00 150-O‘ 0.10 34.20 14.50 4.50 11.12 7.26 6.00 3.59 5 55 0.07 19.18 4.13 11.50 4 43 38.06 0.07 18.00 7.50 8.00 4.66 3.06 0.34 27.00 22’.00 13.54 3.00 8.07 16.50 7.55 0.00 19.50 4.27 8.51 4. Z-29).50 17.00 6.81 12.09 2.27 0.00 0.02 0.54 0.65 0.27 12.00 5.23 33.48 39.07 34.09 1.26 0.45 3.52 40.07 0.80 14.50 4.27 0.68 3.98 27.00 4.30 0.89 0.98 0.50 6.86 3.00 10.00 0.07 1.00 16cfs WITH Outlet and Pipe Inlet Control All values are m feet unless otherwise 2.81 14.77 46.82 0.98 31.50 4.50 4.65 0.66 30.00 5.00 12.65 3.95 9.00 4.00 19.53 3.79 8.51 0.45 0.91 7.06 0.78 0 06 0.50 15.02 9.88 0.64 0.33 10.23 0.90 16.47 4.00 13.4$ 0.34 25.00 4.50 5.00 17.40 16.07 1.08 1.06 0.07 1.40 16.46 0.04 13.47 12.11 30.50 18.68 0.50 13.50 2.65 4.50 15.00 4.64 3.00 15.16 0.29 39.08 1.50 14.00 22’.50 6.95 9.07 41.07 0.09 2.61 0.00 7.25 6.00 6.49 0.07 17.99 0.09 1.17 0.87 0.50 18.00 12.50 12.50 18.09 2.59 8.50 20.64 4.10 14.80 15.50 0.08 10.40 0.00 14.65 43.30 0.34 20.72 24.15 foot VP = 3.22 .38 0.65 2.50 1.55 3.50 9.58 18.92 5.50 7.34 26.67 0.19 12.00 10.50 IO.41 42.67 0.76 0.50 4.94 9.80 15.10 11.00 5.00 4.35 36.50 16.50 6.29 14.50 16.52 0.05 0.49 42.52 3.50 7.07 1.50 8.46 4.58 0.47 3.54 0.64 4.93 7.00 13.22 4.21 37.50 20.34 24.70 0.04 0.76 0.00 6.09 2.59 5.68 4.00 4.81 13.00 3.60 13.78 4.00 5.50 15.79 0.00 2.00 4.30 16.50 10.10 0.60 4.50 11.24 13.87 28.30 13.59 7 84 0 07 1.48 0.38 16.74 4.31 0.44 3.11 0.03 0.50 21.10 0.60 .31 0.18 12.80 17.08 1.91 0.58 2.00 5.07 35.94 8.66 26.68 13.08 1.09 2.84 16.34 21.49 3.66 37.82 4.66 31.54 3.92 0.69 3.42 3.30 16.73 3. + hvl) 9.50 17. -Continued.64 2.08 1.50 4.38 14.73 0 08 1 66 35.69 0.34 23.20 18.00 12.52 12.(l.94 6.50 2.70 12.89 25.07 42.00 3.74 0.70 15.52 11.34 23.25 0.00 18.83 4.10 16.29 9.18 10.46 4.80 0.00 4.07 19.57 3.63 3.66 33.13 35.00 6.31 10.68 12.50 16.30 18.73 45.36 5.91 Q= F DROP Earth (to be used with .09 2.00 15.5 1 19.58 0.66 36.82 0.07 21.06 8.50 9.56 4.26 6.91 29.27 5.10 16.46 3.48 3.45 10.79 11.09 2.00 8.89 0.20 0.00 11.50 17.07 38.00 3.08 1.00 22’.00 5.64 0.26 7.pe = 30 mchci 3.79 5.00 16.00 5.74 0.50 4.74 4.55 4.51 2.00 5.50 19.50 8.00 5.50 17.81 17.30 14.66 27.12 10.50 12.69 23.68 3.12 9.70 17.07 1.45 11.50 12.00 14.07 0.63 0.70 17.45 3.50 18.07 22 60 15.01 0.50 13.08 1.46 3.35 13.06 0.00 14.00 0.44 8.50 5.66 29.42 17.30 0.07 29.00 16.41 0.07 0.ld2 + hvp) dl+hvl=R+h2+0.50 5.08 1.52 3.50 4.54 2.00 4.33 13.00 5.00 12.43 4.00 6.50 21.Table 2-3 Type 1 pipe drop with earth outlet transition PIPE Check Dmneter Q = 15 cfs F “2 h3 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence dl+hvl d2 LX F h2 h3 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence d2 LX dl + hvl b2 “3 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence d2 LX dl + hv.50 5.07 1.33 0.50 17.67 2.00 15O-0 0.57 3.29 0.01 12.08 1.09 2.09 2.00 13.50 4.08 1.07 40.90 12.78 0.08 1.81 16.00 13.09 1.75 25.81 15 20 13.50 16.20 14.00 4.41 4.00 7.30 18.18 17.52 0.57 3.07 1.06 0.08 1.50 18.62 19.50 13.50 8.07 1.50 12.50 3 00 150-O’ 0.50 4.00 12.00 14.50 13.00 11.50 15.81 5.64 0.50 2.50 5.30’ 0.69 4.94 4.45 7.52 10.09 17.46 6.07 39.00 13.66 34.50 19.60 15.02 32.26 7.00 5.25 Diameter MITER Transition 103-D-1268-7 BENDS and Pipe inlet noted hvp = 0.65 11.65 3.06 33.11 7.07 33.60 17.46 13.73 15.50 5.63 10.50 13.94 26.78 0.90 17.50 14.66 31.50 5.10 14.00 15.07 1.20 2.00 15.00 lo-30 0.00 12.83 0.50 4.36 0.08 1.50 5.88 0.61 0.61 3.50 5.50 10.00 17.00 14.00 5.30 18.30 0.00 4.50 12.52 8.00 14 00 4.25 0.00 2.75 feet 2.25 38.08 1.20 0.27 34.45 0.50 3.84 0.50 4.50 0.50 17.60 13.07 0.50 6.26 0.0 0.50 17.68 4.14 0.00 18.03 0.11 8.50 4.08 1.10 19. F “2 h3 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence dl+hv.06 0.20 16.hv 9.91 0.71 3.00 8.00 3.66 20.09 2.60 R = 3.85 17.78 4.00 7O-30 0.50 12.fig.42 0.00 22’.06 0.12 0.46 0.00 4.39 0.80 12.34 29.00 14.50 5.70 13.51.50 9.30 0.07 1.00 15.59 5.73 0.17 15.07 19.07 38.06 0.50 19.57 16.15 31.52 4.40 13.70 17.59 4.50 15.90 12.11 9.50 20.99 0.55 20 50 11.50 4.56 41.00 6.06 0.00 3.14 0.92 0.45 0.01 0.17 16.86 0.05 15.50 8.55 4.07 1.42 4.86 11.29 4.69 0.48 4.07 36.63 3.00 0.50 3.72 10.06 0.00 3.66 31.52 9.35 0.02 0.00 5.07 0.76 22.50 20.52 7.50 8.42 0.67 3.40 0.52 3.03 28.00 4.50 9.26 5.66 28.53 45.30 17.07 I.50 15.00 150.50 4.12 0.00 8.81 12.50 10.50 19.30 0.49 16.50 16.17 foot Met 2.50 5.09 2. Met R = 3.31 35.60 13.10 2.50 3.21 9.59 21.66 30.00 0.33 2.65 3.00 4.08 0.08 0.60 6.34 28.00 5.59 3.50 4.00 5.21 9.0 0.79 0.30 15.

50 4.48 14.81 10.30 0.55 4.24 13.48 3.30 0.50 12.25 13.81 31.94 13.00 4.00 14.39 12.60 23.31 0.20 0.00 4.50 15.81 6.00 5.09 2.10 foot Inlet 8.50 10.71 40.60 0.60 16.52 6.40 16.95 23.47 3.08 1.63 24.66 21.50 8.00 8.00 11.09 13.40 16.20 13.71 0.34 18.50 12.80 42.08 1.78 0.00 5.93 6.52 18.00 11.10 C n .08 0.21 0.50 18.50 4.19 foot inlet R = 3.07 34.42 3.78 0.52 3.50 9.00 15 27 17.80 4.33 15.00 4.00 5.06 5.63 4.36 0.62 0.08 1.00 12.29 0.25 11.00 3.33 0.ld2 0.49 38.75 19.02 0.07 40.50 4.76 4.+hvl h3 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 d2 LX F h2 b3 4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence d2 LX dl + hv.32 11.81 26.88 5.54 8.81 30.00 4.50 4.60 3.07 0.00 4.65 4.50 11.00 5.29 0.12 0.00 13.50 4.17 0.64 0.32 2.00 2.81 32.00 14.00 5.64 0.91 2.30 15.15 0.10 2.07 29.50 18.67 4.08 0.50 14.50 18.23 29.63 3.50 4.58 3.09 26.45 4.81 11.66 25.97 0.90 14.00 12.07 0.69 3.50 16.00 8.65 4.00 14.06 0.00 14.49 37.oo 0.46 0.50 17.93 0.20 17.00 0.61 13.80 2.07 1.13 4.99 0.50 16.00 8.36 0.60 4.50 18.08 0.50 17.62 38.00 7.60 16.00 14.41 17.00 17.50 4.50 9.08 1.00 16.21 44.08 1.30 0.07 39.50 21.00 15.50 4.50 Il.93 0.98 7.09 2.81 9.52 4.50 6.65 9 93 10.38 0.61 17.00 15O-0 0.34 42.50 7.23 0.52 23.25 feet 6.57 4.67 0.07 35.07 0.06 1 07 37.95 0. d2 LX F h2 h3 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence dl+hvl d2 LX WITH MITER Earth Outlet Transition and Pipe inlet Control of pope = 30 inches and Pipe inlet VP = 3.19 25.01 6.08 9.70 18.60 9.95 9.52 24.00 16.60 12.00 12.20 9.50 0.30 0.07 0.66 0.65 3.07 0.04 0.30’ 0.10 0.72 27.50 11.00 70.35 0. 2-29).52 20.60 18.42 0.59 4.56 3.70 4.05 0.54 15.83 0.07 0.06 (l.67 3.00 0.00 7.08 0.50 8.31 0.40 16.04 24.14 2.50 3.08 1.50 8.50 4.30 0.61 4.45 0.87 0.00 15.50 20.00 5.22 11.08 7.37 12.60 13.30 0.50 16.30’ 0.81 0.30 13.02 37.48 3.80 13.50 9.16 11.50 4.54 0.00 0.39 3.07 31.50 12.20 15.06 0.50 6.00 70.93 16.50 5.52 7.07 34.48 0.50 3.90 12.45 18.30 14.07 0.69 26.72 3.08 1.50 6.50 8.79 13.00 10.42 6.50 4.50 15.81 12.09 1.33 h2 h3 ha L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence d.69 0.59 0.70 16.06 4.00 12.39 0.50 0.00 8.-r~pc I pipe drop with cart/z outlet transitio/z (to be used with fig.07 0.90 22.57 0.50 21.50 2.49 39.62 3.60 13.47 4.34 17.43 3.09 2.50 11.07 36.00 5.74 3.83 11.00 11.07 0.06 4.64 10.10 0.~~~~~ 2-3.13 0.25 0.66 5.50 5.31 6.50 16.52 5.98 46.54 0.11 0. 17cfs Dnmeter 2.10 40.50 7.46 3.60 15.00 11.60 3.05 38.00 13.53 4.00 4.66 26.49 42.20 15.07 1.00 14.00 70.08 1.48 5.84 0.07 1.00 6.08 1.07 1.49 0.30 19.50 6.10 2.66 3.52 0.67 3.ld2 + bvp + h3 h4 Dmmeter of pipe hv 9.51 0.26 0.29 14.50 13.50 14.23 0.00 5.70 14.00 9.50 18.44 0.26 16.50 4.00 6.00 5.84 0.07 38.07 17.50 2.50 17.50 3.00 4.74 0.00 6.17 0.00 0.00 6.50 14.10 17.73 0.59 16.62 3.49 7.46 fps hvp = 0.67 0.00 4.50 4.27 0.30 0.00 0.25 0.59 15.49 4.00 70.20 12.00 12.70 0.50 16.08 1.00 22’.07 0.79 4.95 0.59 10.00 3.50 20.41 0.10 0.07 32.61 0.09 2.80 16.78 0.50 9.30 17 .58 3.81 27.44 34.84 0.00 5.58 0.00 3.19 0.50 8.13 41.26 8.64 0.86 3.52 20.07 0.00 70.26 17.80 12.00 17.50 17.46 3.87 0.28 0.50 15.09 2.40 15.50 3.41 3.87 32.63 0.00 4.50 13.96 35.47 2.50 20.00 4.00 12.78 29.64 3.91 0.96 7.45 10.49 0.00 4.94 45.06 D = (dl + hvl) BENDS 3.50 6.88 0.6 1 0.34 20.81 30.08 1.73 0.58 22.18 28.84 15.34 43.69 11.00 15.00 6.00 2.00 20.00 10.00 13.50 5.66 22.14 14.50 19.66 24.00 13.oo 4.00 15.50 11.49 3.50 5.66 3.08 1.00 16.50 4.98 0.07 0.94 9.40 0.00 13.50 19.66 27.00 15O-0 0.41 4.18 0.00 6.50 10.44 0.40 0.08 0.68 3.57 3.06 4.56 4.93 14.14 0.80 2.52 22.04 12.50 19.06 5.10 2.60 3.72 4.62 4.00 16.50 4.84 31.50 5.42 3.49 19.59 11.80 6.50 7.50 21.41 0.11 0.07 0.39 0.14 27.86 0.81 28.26 14.40 19.29 10.09 2.13 3.10 2.95 5.50 10.26 13.48 4.92 Diameter of pope = 36 mches VP = 2.50 7.27 2.50 20.00 150-o 0.89 0.56 0.60 13.92 0.00 9.81 5.31 17.07 0.53 3.08 1.00 8.70 18.00 4.70 18.60 13.07 0.49 41.50 19.79 0.47 3.10 20.70 16.60 16.08 0.07 35.00 3.80 20.50 5.10 12.00 R = 4.73 4.00 12.00 5.89 0.43 4.00 22’.50 13.09 2.oo 12.50 13.24 8.50 20.50 15.+hv.03 0.90 33.50 15.08 1.64 0.30 15.41 2.69 4.20 17.66 25.30 0.00 4.52 25.50 13.50 3.00 17.40 33.50 15.70 0.40 4.00 18.30 19.53 36.59 4.00 3.26 12.63 7.10 15.97 17.00 7.58 0.05 4.83 7.49 43.07 39.53 3.26 46.14 5.70 13.00 3.55 0.18 43.31 0.00 10.48 0.24 0.50 19.00 14.40 13.52 19.80 18.62 8.85 43.00 10.50 5.99 36.93 17.53 4.68 4.75 28.07 33.80 14.07 0.50 2.77 0.10 12.34 11.50 19.47 4.50 22.50 7.50 8.07 36.37 2.69 4.08 1.69 12.64 3.93 34.10 15.10 17.00 5.00 3.45 4.90 16.06 Submergence = l.79 0.16 6.52 0.28 7.00 5 00 0.80 0.35 0.08 1.30 0.06 0.07 31.05 0.98 6.9’9 0.75 + hvp) 8.49 35.54 3.26 15.34 0.72 0.91 0.51 0.94 8.06 0.23 45.43 13.50 14.50 3.50 21.53 3.38 0.55 3.00 15.80 16.94 9.22 15.00 12.10 14.02 5.49 4.30 0.01 0.07 16.00 15. -Continued.60 9.00 22’.10 2.06 0.25 0.46 0.76 41.07 1.45 4.41 0.88 8.08 0.07 33.07 15.67 39. PIPE Check Q= F h2 Submergence d.00 0.50 14.47 3.50 4.07 41.00 12.00 22’.25 16.00 4.43 3.50 13.50 4.55 0.52 19.60 hvp = 0.00 7.32 31.50 4 .66 28.70 12.06 4.50 7.34 19.90 18.20 14.08 1.43 13.07 0.57 14.90 15.20 14.97 0.50 9.50 10.07 0.50 20.85 21.15 42.62 3.00 3.12 10.50 9.65 17.55 21.74 12.07 0.91 16.10 2.09 2.37 16.26 0.26 15.09 2.82 0.06 5.30 17.26 10.20 0.50 4.00 15.03 8.92 12.18 7.34 19.60 14.09 2.52 8.70 16.52 21.50 14.06 0.07 13.48 2.94 15.50 12.50 3.49 40.00 4.52 7.81 31.45 Q = 18 cfs F DROP 103-D-1268-8 dl+hvl=R+h2+0.08 0.50 10.00 7.00 13.46 3.90 12.00 11.00 3.58 37.76 0.20 15.82 0.55 3.02 0.44 3.76 0.50 12.06 5.88 0.14 0.26 10.07 1.50 17.00 20.00 70.00 7 .27 14.52 3.60 16.04 7.08 1.00 6.75 feet 4.30 17.00 15O-0’ 0.49 14.89 44.81 29.58 3.08 0.56 3.50 6.00 0.50 15.98 0.27 30.54 fps 0.40 14.50 12.16 0.01 0.48 3.03 0.08 1.00 4.00 7.14 8.55 15.43 4.07 14.34 5.20 19.00 6.00 4.07 30.60 17.68 9.36 32.50 10.50 17.66 23.50 16.50 5.08 1.60 3.09 2.09 10.

10 0.38 0.09 1.93 0.41 4.36 0.34 37.5U 10.00 150-O 0.78 0.52 14 30 14.57 3 36 12.29 7.45 3.29 0.71 13.09 1.50 4.62 3.09 14.53 45 50 2172 12 SO 9 (19 S"binerI!ence Inlet 1'2 '13 "4 l-2 L3 L4 s3 2.20 34.59 3.58 17.50 8.39 15.00 11.52 3.95 16.50 0.26 10.39 0.08 0 81 24.00 4 "0 7O~30' 0.92 0 = 20 ct\ r R = 4.30 16.96 7.30' 0.06 outlet DROP Earth transition WITH Outlet MITER Transition (IO he rrwl with fig.91 16 64 0.00 11.50 354 16.45 l(1.69 12.64 0.45 3.51 4.60 17.54 4.50 20.50 5.60 0.08 IO7 33.49 0 06 3 64 2.05 5.08 I .50 17.50 4.29 0 08 0 XI 27 30 16.00 966 9.87 0.31 0.93 26.14 0.58 4.22 II.23 40.30 0.60 13.66 4.06 4.00 2 00 6 73 6 31 0 07 0.39 I1 52 3.10 rrrt hv 3.50 3 00 051 3 31 II.00 R 80 I3 00 d2 L.9U 13.20 14.50 7 18 3.58 3 X6 24.50 10.62 0.54 3.27 4.07 26.07 0 81 8.x2 0.41 0.0 0.55 0.50 I3 5u 2.65 3 94 3150 16.45 17.10 . h2 h3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 d2 L.55 3 85 28 SO 15 22 0.60 15.74 746 0.90 17 00 5.00 3.69 9.08 0.00 5 00 0 51 sutmcrgcnce d.50 1024 0.26 II. ICC.26 0.07 0.91 0 08 0.69 3 96 27 50 14.13 0.14 9.54 4.16 8.17 14 73 0 09 1.00 4.50 948 0.07 0.39 II 67 008 1.62 18.08 I .49 3.93 0.64 4.19 10.81 2450 16.00 7.07 28.81 23.08 081 18.00 21.07 3 I 00 16.09 lb.66 41.08 IO7 31.50 20.07 I7 15 17.00 0.00 5.0‘ 0.00 6 27 5.47 1397 0.24 0.82 0.38 0.00 4.50 4.22 0.52 1620 14.20 16.00 3.81 25.41 0.65 3.05 2.88 (I.10 16.08 0.00 0.50 4.35 3950 19.08 0.50 21.07 0.55 0 07 0.00 5.-~vpc I pipe drop with earth PIPE o= I L2 3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 S"b~llCUXilW d2 LY dl + h"] I Subnlcrgence d.81 0.59 3. 8.17 3350 17.52 7.63 2150 1254 9 13 899 0 07 0.61 6.78 0.00 4 00 22".58 4.34 38.66 1950 il.98 2.50 20.44 4.70 0 "7 0.40 15.52 IS.00 14 00 14 35 0 08 1.71 10.00 15 74 16 26 0 09 I34 39 30 17 50 5 .10 12.01.50 15.07 27.14 0.66 4200 18.60 I3 50 2.82 23.50 II 01 0.25 d.50 4.26 14 30 14.49 4.4 I 0.06 0.50 7.76 25.60 15.09 1.40 17.07 0.09 I 34 41.00 3.68 4.00 0.07 0.00 6.87 0 06 3.60 20.00 7.89 4 10 36.92 053 3.38 45 50 21.05 0.5c 948 0.m 14.42 0.64 3.50 18.00 11.00 051 3. 103-D-l 268-9 BENDS 19‘1s 3 39 2.81 21 70 15.40 46.34 15.00 4 00 741 7.00 5.47 43.52 0.30' 0.06 3 31 2.34 0.28 0 61 4 I4 37.96 17.50 18 66 0 4 38 19 I‘ 62 3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 dL2 d.69 3.50 7 0" 1250 7.34 40.0' 069 4.33 IO.50 13. Xontinued.52 18 00 14 50 4 00 808 7 84 0.30 364 0 06 5.50 7.67 0 OX 0 XI 28.50 051 4.oo 15.50 12 15 049 378 2250 12.34 43.95 0 62 3.96 3 25 0.10 17.22 15 88 0.90 14.44 4.50 15 98 0.62 1741 0.26 36.50 17 89 0.08 1.50 14.00 3.20 17.95 4.00 13.00 4.50 14.72 9 32 9.34 11.33 0.68 3 70 20.21 9.00 11. 3.00 22'.07 0.09 8.09 166 4020 18.64 X.50 4.38 4.82 9 16 O.26 12.00 11.42 15.30' 0.00 17.62 4.00 0.50 15.40 0 06 9.00 16.08 I 34 37.27 IL.50 4.78 8.10 0.56 3.50 17 00 4.50 20.50 11.50 I5 98 0.39 5.83 0.84 0.80 0.30 18 00 5 00 150.52 U.07 0.26 12.47 4.70 17 50 5.00 6.50 14.RI 25.50 19.07 34.43 3.06 56 32 50 04 Submergence = I Id2 +t.50 5 00 0.+hv.66 3.06 4 05 3 2s 0.56 3.32 43 50 20.00 15.70 16.34 39. + h3 h4 D~mctcr R = 4.36 2.46 0.03 0.50 11.66 4300 18.52 17 IO 14.50 16.50 871 19.00 5.50 680 0.40 3.00 15O~O‘ 0.50 11. + hv. 3.07 0.47 3.56 1950 0.00 14.81 22.40 I6.63 3 66 22.34 34.05 15.54 20.Table 2-3.40 14.50 3 00 1088 IO.50 II 71 12 15 13.09 1.50 17.13 0.44 O.79 26.06 11.01 0.62 4.00 70.50 3.00 4.56 0.45 1052 IO.40 17.50 15.99 0.00 17.30 16.50 lS.07 0.30 1358 0 08 I 07 32 XC.86 0 46 3.64 3.47 14.08 107 29 IO 16.50 5 .04 7.X2 27 50 14.62 391 30.00 18.08 0.00 15".95 5.99 28.81 22.07 0.43 301 5.06 4.50 13.57 16.1 I 7.77 19 90 IS ou 3.52 8 31 8 23 0.61 0.56 46.26 13.50 7.60 13 00 5.57 11.50 10.52 18.34 14.00 33.32 13.20 14.43 3.70 1700 5.00 063 4 38 4050 19.60 13.40 17.14 32.52 19.36 1450 9 X6 0.44 42.45 3.56 3.50 7.50 3.56 0.55 4.00 2.17 IO.34 33.34 0.70 15.79 0.00 1.00 4 00 12.00 I2 96 13.01 IO. 2-ZY).26 10.87 15 50 II 09 1.02 0.26 15 20 14 00 2 00 7 07 6.00 15.62 0.57 0.08 I 07 31 90 16.19 15.71 4 02 0.79 0 09 1.00 6 00 12.50 12.81 29.39 3.4U 13.41 3.50 22.50 14 0" 2.95 0.58 0 OR I34 32 80 17.07 35.50 7.50 6.52 20.50 19.07 35.v.00 6.50 2.0(1 3.00 I4 50 4.41 41.00 15 00 4.on 5 92 5.80 15.50 21.07 16.06 5 05 4.90 25.04 II.08 1244 0.97 0. 9.95 4.95 6 70 0.+hv.08 1.34 42.9 I 008 1.55 3.oo 16.07 0.92 12.50 9.35 IO.08 O.57 0.60 15.25 ot ppc 0.50 6.50 12.70 1650 4.42 12.00 4.81 4.50 400 12.00 6.00 13 66 13.50 16 75 0.76 0.60 16.72 24 50 13.81 23.44 l6.50 5 . 0.00 16 00 4 00 I? 62 t 2.00 3.03 0.00 11.34 36.50 18.50 44.17 I.50 4.07 0.88 29.50 14.62 4.50 19.17 38.30 16.08 0 07 0.50 16.07 0 26 II.26 9.23 II so 8.50 4.59 3.0‘ 0.x0 15.36 0.08 1.20 16.00 2 00 7v-30 0.00 15O-0 0.66 0 65 4.91 32. 16.09 I34 38 40 I8 00 5 00 16.49 3.35 44.00 3.00 14.70 13 00 10.09 1.00 15% 0.83 0.60 5.06 650 6.51 15.70 13.40 0.oo 16.64 0.82 14 35 0.08 0 07 0.43 3.50 2.50 17 50 5.81 898 x.27 17.50 17.26 13. +hv.07 0.00 6.09 1.49 0 06 .50 22.52 16.50 9 09 063 342 13.00 844 X23 0 07 052 19.18 0 60 3.20 0.46 4.04 34 50 17 51 0.11 0.50 I8 2x 053 4.00 12.42 4.10 18 on 4 00 060 4.00 7D-30 046 3 21 5 72 5.00 4 00 13.08 0.73 I2 OS 0.08 107 30 00 17.37 369 23.50 (1.65 3.60 17 on 4 00 14 69 15.66 4.00 3.00 7.81 26.48 17.11 0 ox IO7 36.40 15.50 13 30 15.07 0.50 8.50 15.10 31. 0.23 35.75 0. 07 0.08 1.=R+h2+0.49 9.06 7 "0 12.29 42.73 0.6.50 4.71 IO.50 2.62 7.10 14.29 37.26 4150 20 19 0 52 4.llh!I 373 2.00 150.08 0.60 3.w 5.20 0.52 17.20 39.hO 0.17 0.09 1.49 4.50 3.50 4.51 0 45 4.79 17.48 4.02 29.06 30.00 13 12 13..00 15".00 IO.08 IO7 30.74 21.50 4.08 0.46 3.50 5.

69 3 YY 25 50 14 07 16.00 1221 12.07 21 30 16 50 4.00 14.15 0 66 3Yl 21 51) 12.80 347 287 0 06 U.52 1340 14 50 4.05 17 03 Cl.95 0 63 339 1050 8.50 12 Y? 0 7.I 445 4 02 0 07 0 26 Y 70 14.97 II. 0 48 X86 8 YY 0 08 0 XI ?I 71) 16 U.08 URI IY 90 15 50 3 00 0 51 3 78 20..62 0.52 4 5S 41 50 20 19 0 55 458 42 50 20.74 1950 I.50 Y 09 0 55 355 13 51.34 30 0" 0 4 30 I5 0 4 31 16 047 423 32 50 I6 75 67 16 50 98 70 19 50 36 4 00 5 84 555 0 07 iJ. 28.09 .80 LB no 5 00 0 64 4. Y 09 0.06 4 20 364 0. "2 "3 114 L2 L3 L4 s3 "2 J-L 3 79 25 07 2h 90 50 00 4 13 3 64 (I (17 0 26 X.00 4 00 22".64 13 20 0.09 I 34 31 90 17 50 5.I 8 76 899 0.u9 I66 40 20 1x50 4 00 16.00 Oh6 3 h5 I5 5(1 IO 24 6.76 4 24 30.0x //RI 19 00 15 50 3 00 8 23 0.66 41.UC 5 I7 0 07 0 52 12. +'I".70 ih 00 3 00 Y 3x 0 08 1.50 4 00 15 14 lb64 o. (to 103-D-1268-10 0 m I 2 RY 1'2 "3 "4 L? L3 L4 Si 2 IO 0 Oh Submrrpcn& d.50 22 IO z z .Yh 17 03 0.00 IO 83 II 29 0 08 I .54 4 21 31.30 18.04 I4 35 15 I.10 1..I.80 13 50 2 ".79 4.13 27 50 14.hl 4. I Submcrgcncc E23 "4 L2 L3 L4 % d2 L.09 I66 37.08 I 07 26.65 3.08 I 07 25.50 4 00 15%.00 b 5 0 0 14 15 4 0 52 3 29 8.00 7"~30‘ 0 61 3h2 . 00 17.Ui) 3 .00 0 57 401 27.14 11.00 1048 IO. I x.10 0 55 3x2 21.33 0 70 3 45 II 50 H 71 04Y 3 50 12.07 226O 1650 4.I 71) 3.50 17 89 0 3 5 6 I llrp 3 0 .81 46.50 1062 9.850 4 uu 954 Y 76 0.00 7".?I 0 XI 11 IIJ 15 so 3 00 742 7.I 45 3 73 17 50 11.x2 u 09 I34 3.10 15.00 15% 0 6 I 4.50 64.30 0 44 448 39 50 1942 1299 1358 0 09 I34 32 80 1750 5 00 13 33 13.I 7 13 2 d.60 I8 51) 4 00 14 24 15 11 0 09 I66 36 50 18 50 4.66 40.50 19 04 0 55 457 39.89 064 4.Table 2-3.20 15.450 4 00 6 5 0 0 I4 14 4 17 93 lJ7 52 3u 5U /.w 2 00 4 76 4.00 5 09 418 0 07 0.66 34 70 IX. 3 x7 2250 .00 4 00 II.19 066 467 12 50 2057 0 70 471 43 50 20 9s 0 75 4.15 5 55 0 07 II.61 43.30 0 52 4 112 24 5U I369 13 22 1397 0.00 15% 0.34 29 10 17 50 5 00 II87 12.?h 7 00 I3 wi 2 00 7<'~30 0 45 3 24 7.07 24 50 16. 22 611 16 00 400 .0.08 1.600 4 00 15O~O.50 2 00 4 4 0 i) 1I.50 19.b? 16 64 " UY I. 14 2 x4 40 07 26 60 00 00 5 17 47x 007 0 26 Ii 60 14 00 2 00 551 5 17 007 0 52 1250 I4 00 7"~3U 0 50 3 28 Y 50 7 95 056 3 34 IO 50 8 33 062 3 39 II 50 87.75 44 50 ?I 34 0.52 II.07 026 8 80 13.10 26.50 15 22 0 72 4.08 I 07 2x.68 45 5U 2. d .35 0 09 1. 15% 0 71 444 38.46 36511 1828 1356 14.39 0 3 19 .50 4 uu IO 57 IOYI 0 08 1.34 33 50 17 13 0.00 15.50 4 00 22O~30 0.82 4.89 1473 0 09 166 35.1 3.20 19.I OX 0. 0 70 442 35.16 0 08 107 23 60 16.08 0 XI 21.00 4. 7.00 4.07 0.00 II 17 II67 0.50 4 00 5 42 5.5 752 746 0.83 0.650 10.46 348 13.lU I2 50 6 00 I3 (IO Submergcncr d.08 I U7 25 40 16.69 16.911 .50 7 5h u 57 3 34 Y 51. -Continued.34 32. 6 50 631 0.09 134 31.52 1340 .66 39..00 ..9') 23 50 13.50 948 0 08 I 07 0 08 1 07 u.40 1650 4.00 4.64 4.66 39 30 1Y.66 42.07 26 30 16 50 4 00 1092 11 29 008 1.38 34 50 17 5.0x 0 . 2-29).50 21195 0.lJO 4 00 22".07 0 52 15 20 I4 50 4 00 h h 0 0 16 I5 4 84 70 07 52 20 00 00 7 18 7 08 IJ 07 U 52 17.1 15.00 IZ.50 453 38.40 18 50 4 UIJ 14 94 15 88 0 09 I66 38 40 19 00 4 00 15 28 I6 26 u 09 1.91 2350 13 30 15 39 I6.ou I2 30 12.00 4 00 16.30‘ 1J 70 3.K7 13 58 0 0') 1.51 1205 0.. 3 00 9 20 Y 38 0 08 .79 II 10 1.M 3 14 249 0 06 5.750 5 00 28.45 IO.31 36 50 18.64 13 20 0.00 3 00 15".19 I U.uo 5 00 059 4 33 35 50 17.9 I 0.28 Oh7 4.66 43 nu 19.W 5.95 24.50 4.x I :8 00 15 51~ 3 00 7 85 7. 0 09 I66 36 50 lX.60 15 5U 0. + In .07 0x1 I8 00 15 00 3 00 15o-u 0.50 1942 0 58 4 60 40.18 17 79 0 09 1.35 0 09 I 34 34 71.75 4.I 8.10 19 00 4 ur.50 6 80 988 IO.82 0 OH I34 3 I 00 17. 948 0 60 3 60 14. 72 X. 0 48 452 40 50 1981 0.66 4.57 0 5x 4.60 . L.50 15 22 0 63 4 13 2950 I5 hU 0 52 3 Ul 5.50 7 18 9.60 0. 17 8 ?(I 8 23 O.50 2 00 452 402 II 07 0.66 43.09 I66 4 1.111 19.30' 0 69 4 7.01.10 I1.66 17.6 I 3 X6 20.5U 21 72 945 9.0' .w 19. = K + 11~ + 0 Oh 07 93 07 52 30 00 00 = .50 Y 86 59 13 50 41 0 66 3 19 6 50 6. 34 3370 18. 057 4 06 25 50 14 07 16. + h".26 IO 60 14 uo 2."" 5 00 12. ftw.(I7 27. 067 344 I? 5(.. 4650 22.x1 I6 20 15.50 12.26 Y 70 13.50 5.00 12.50 14.311 1700 4.40 0.160 14 00 4.14 (I.50 1981 0 62 4.50 14.50 16 36 057 4 30 32.50 I? 15 14 70 15 50 0 09 I66 37 411 .I 56 x2 50 77 0.12 0 52 3 78 IX 50 11.09 1.00 17.50 16 75 ".46 .08 0 81 20 80 ih.08 I (17 24 50 16 50 4.08 0 81 19 90 16 00 3 00 842 R61 Il.00 0.09 1.31 17. 0 57 3 i2 6.69 4.63 4 65 44 5v 21 34 0 66 4.292 0.50 5.50 12 54 0 6.41 631 0 07 0 52 15.20 17.82 2.71) 0 07 0.45 3.50 3750 1866 17.5"-(I‘ 0 52 403 26 50 1445 0 3 7 7 387 3 25 0. 3 23 249 0 06 355 287 0 06 63 17 50 18 0 69 323 8 50 7 56 lO2l 10.09 I34 33 7u 1750 5 00 136X 14.30 I7 00 4.20 29 10 1.44 0 09 I34 30.D .001 6 i6 6.41 0. 01 II JO 3 70 1850 II 39 14 02 14 73 0 09 I34 35 60 IX 00 5.00 1950 4.2h IJ UY 1. 50 20.50 I5 98 0.40 37 50 1866 0 = 22 it\ 2.08 I (17 23.1.84 0.14 IO 52 (I..50 1483 U60 4 10 28.51) 13.66 3 66 17 50 I.52 .00 4 00 22~~-30 U47 4.20 29 50 15.54 1x7 I 3 95 22.-Type I pipe drop with eurth outlet transitio!i be used with fig.01 7 08 7.7R 45.09 .UO 4. d.

pe drop with a flow greater than 49 cubic feet per second. Precast concrete pressure pope wth mitered pope bends shown. The max. standard design tables extend slightly beyond this n~aximun. These standard designs are for flows less than 50 cubic feet per second.length Check and cantro /El and ‘-Concrete LONGITUDINAL tranwtion SECTION NOTES The pipe slopes used WIII allow the subitltutlon of 7% preczst concrete elbcws for the mltered p!pe bends. 103-D-1269. bends. It ~111 be necessary to actually design the pipe drop. Ordinari Iy the ~wzx!rnum water surface drop far a pipe drop strucm ture IS I5 feet.mum velocity II. ‘lydraul. neg!ected. For flows greater than 49 cubic feet per second It is probably more economical to use a rectangular lncllned drop Ftgures 2-26 and 2-27 If It should be desirable to have a p. Figure 2-30. and exit have beer. Type 1 pipe drop with concrete outlet transition-explanation sheet for table 24. AC or RPM ray be substituted. . the pipe at the outlet equali 5 feet per second for p.c head IOSSES due to entrance.G . However. frlctlon.pe flowlnq full.

65 125 u.00 7.00 4.50 21.88 29.55 3.34 29.59 2.30 6.50 19.50 IOU2 0.04 L.43 1.40 6.30 7.12 1350 7.14 25.56 0. 07 27.00 3 00 8.74 1750 9.10 003 0.17 0 45 3 04 23.00 5 00 14 29 15 II u "4 1. 37 40 7.50 7.40 7.55 u 04 107 13.05 2.46 478 003 U 66 116U 5.60 6.00 3 uu 838 861 0.35 u.10 7.39 3150 14.UU 7.17 0.82 3350 15.14 2.79 15 50 0 105 2 07 37 40 10.03 U 26 8.50 7.81 2 35 10.61 0.00 14.50 11.0" 7 00 6 00 16.07 24.12 15.50 20 35 1743 18. = R + h2 + 0.86 2.6 I 41.53 7 00 5.02 0.97 0.06 0.07 14 30 7 uu 4 00 5.50 I6 14 0 64 291 36.00 5 00 70.40 0 77 i 95 21.50 II 55 0.89 In.66 10.5b 3.20 7.05 0.50 7.00 3.691 17.86 45.21 46.46 IO.u5 2.22 27.50 650 16.12 8.uu 13. d .60 2 38 20.53 3.54 18.88 0 05 248 38.03 0.04 1.50 4.71 2 90 20.7.49 0.88 31 00 7.340 b.81 0.50 11.49 0.04 8.94 0.88 30. 0.73 17 79 0.50 5 05 0 55 I83 7 50 5.43 32.06 (l.20 0.56 2.86 4670 9.07 23.18 26.50 13 85 I.03 0.35 30.09 24.10 7 00 6.08 6.82 U 6O 3 I2 43.9u 7 00 7 00 15" 0 83 3.74 25.38 0.50 15.00 4 00 15" 0.ld2+hv.79 0.UU 3.14 1242 13.50 0.52 24.26 4 64 4 40 0.53 5.94 0.03 0.76 0.03 0 39 1250 6 UU 3 uu 5 64 5.00 1343 15.69 45.u3 0 26 7 90 6.04 1.88 26.00 9.uc 2.61 4.34 34 70 7 00 5 00 05I 2.70 u 04 1.39 12.80 2.00 (1.50 1691 0.50 12.01 32.05 2.61 18X 8.53 6.30' 0.10 7.03 (1.55 0.50 16.79 18.07 22. d.00 5.58 36.3. 9.64 I5 50 0 04 1.50 1167 0 84 3 73 10.00 2.80 10.30' 0.00 5.98 I5 88 UW 1.50 16 53 3.81 0 66 193 9.50 543 0.35 0.99 0.05 2 07 33 70 lO. + hV .15 II.00 5.97 7 0.47 3.54 2.80 21.76 0.22 8..31 0.70 950 450 0.59 2.48 40 20 10 00 6 00 15 15 .00 5 00 13.46 12.04 I88 31.04 u 80 17.04 1.3.05 2 07 36 50 lU.78 In.80 18.20 064 3 15 44.50 17 29 0.00 0.85 34.66 I =(d.73 2.94 0.23 0 04 1.34 3 1.50 d.04 IO7 26.08 6.05 248 43.50 6.50 13.74 21.50 964 064 2 84 19. 19.48 3.70 861 0..37 10.04 1.84 12..10 5.03 10.+hv.04 1.00 067 2.50 067 3.81 370 39.93 2.56 4.94 0.03 0 53 16 20 6.40 0. + hv.80 347 33..50 10.21 48 50 21.UO 15.69 46.50 fret 2.00 5.amefer ofpqe 18. 0 78 2.00 3 00 5 30 5 17 0.52 0.00 6.82 402 003 0.50 19.50 21.07 12.30 7 00 h.50 10.97 0.00 8.UU 6 00 2 ou 0 = 4 CfL I Subrnergcncr h? h3 h4 L? L3 L4 s3 d2 L.80 7.60 6.28 2.66 3.73 7.26 9.29 0.00 5.26 5.66 970 5.50 21.11 0.ou 11.58 u.61 4300 7.50 7.97 0 04 1.00 7.52 3.48 42 00 IO.50 34.50 650 22'.30 7.10 4 78 u 03 0.50 1079 068 245 22 50 I.41 0.12 10.96 4.52 13.64 0 04 161 40.31 18 50 964 0.50 5.50 4.34 33.00 200 3.00 7 00 5 00 12 19 12.08 50.74 22.07 25.09 18 18 0.50 15.00 4.94 4650 20.00 lO.50 6.04 I 34 lY.38 0 58 2.05 2.50 15.50 14.4b 0.30.12 17.00 6 00 16.50 13.33 50.03 1.80 20 80 7.00 3.50 150 0.88 27.ou 5.64 0.76 068 3. h2 h3 h4 L2 L3 L4 s3 d2 L.70 7 00 5.50 4.05 2.6.05 248 39.26 6.98 3 64 0. + hv.00 22'~3U‘ 0.70 650 650 8 37 9.00 6.08 1358 0 05 2.OU 600 15.34 31.50 b 96 Oh9 2 07 12.00 J UU 3.89 13.00 4.57 2.00 9.90 5 00 4.00 4.04 1. "2 h3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 dz LX lnlct 0.04 1.34 32 80 7.0" 15C' 0.54 1320 0.50 22".91 45.50 5.48 41.75 6.00 150 0.50 .52 2.50 1741 005 2.31: 17.39 .18 0.50 16.54 35.70 10.4.55 u 03 0.00 15" 073 3 24 47.75 3.50 18.04 1.00 4.34 1990 7 uu 5.00 7.5 I 3.40 1000 6.56 0.20 0.08 0.50 10.50 20.10 7 00 3 00 15') II.61 2 88 35.50 12.63 15 50 8.14 0.39 11.00 7.50 21.98 47.50 3 30 49.72 249 2350 11.07 34.UO 6 "0 16.76 10 14 0.91 0.90 7.73 0 79 2 I6 14.05 1.63 2.77 3 66 38.87 7 08 0.04 17.18 45 50 .28 17.53 4 01 48.40 7.58 3 27 28.20 060 3 88 44 50 19 59 0 63 3.40 11.04 1.69 29.10 0 u3 0.00 4.00 5.70 b UU 2.07 28 20 7 00 4.00 11.03 1.80 42.00 7 00 .64 u 05 2.13 5.91 0.90 7.81 16.038 11.50 5.94 14 73 u u4 I 34 35 60 7.60 14.50 6. Submeieencc = 1 Id2 + hv.61 43.00 3.00 320 3.00 4 00 7".00 7.30' 0.OU lb.48 43.53 0.08 hv 1.12 1.34 20. 6 bb 6 7U (1.04 1.72 5.58 u.50 9.11 0.34 0.00 5 00 13.32 0.64 2.00 1071 12.00 4.67 2 94 37.50 11.60 7.60 5.12 0.34 17.23 0 04 OR.50 2074 4.82 0.40 U 64 242 21.00 22.83 2 20 15.15 7.PIPE 0 I 112 sutmerpcnce "3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 d2 L.32 0.67 0.04 1.03 066 10.70 3.90 lU.07 16 20 7 00 4.50 18.05 0 04 I.99 u 04 0.w 0.38 0.90 7.00 3.67 0.uo b 00 16.50 870 9 76 0.00 5 00 0.60 7.34 18.10 lUO0 6.88 28.50 14.50 9.05 2.50 17 29 0 74 3 uu 39 50 1767 0 5u 3 03 10.44 051 3.ou 6.050 6.50 6. 41.62 27.32 0.47 IO.03 0.06 1244 0. 17 0.00 5.84 43.50 18 06 0 54 3 06 1150 1844 u 57 3 UY 4250 18.5U 1270 13.UU 5.82 0.50 19.80 10.63 3.00 4 00 on7 2.00 7.04 0.00 071 2 97 38.00 4.00 5 YH 5 93 u 03 0.23 071 3. + h3 h4 d.04 1.04 1.19 18.5" 849 II.50 6.72 2.10 5.00 640 7.11 068 2.00 7O-30 0. tllv.26 0.49 Ill 6.39 15.70 10.76 14 35 11.98 .50 4.00 12.04 II 29 0.04 1. I Submcrgcnce dl +llv.80 19.20 7 .38 12.00 7.00 7. 2 bH 2.50 2150 2.00 5. 4 02 0 u3 0.25 0.59 2.50 .53 2.08 9.04 I61 39.56 25.00 5.10 7.03 0.04 .93 0 04 1.80 b 00 200 (1.04 1.00 9.80 5.50 1423 048 2 76 31.00 3 00 0.997 0.03 0.50 13 cl8 17 22 19.30 7.82 0.13 19.85 17.00 14 47 16.00 ISO 0.35 19.70 7.00 12.15 4.14 9.00 13 24 13.04 1.00 3 uu b 32 6.49 12 05 0.50 22'.66 8.79 32.50 15.03 24.26 0.69 44.50 19.61 38.40 7 "0 6 00 15 33 16.50 18.703 o.90 2 87 0.65 3.50 12.26 0.00 5 00 14.88 .39 1060 6 00 3 00 3 01 249 0.70 10.00 7 38 8.43 0.03 1.48 2.69 7 84 0 "4 0.24 I6 5U 8.74 2 68 16 50 8 87 0.32 005 1.00 5.39 14.43 5.50 15.62 331 29.04 1.04 1.34 36.03 1.46 0.00 4 00 5.00 3 00 n 04 8.10 5.04 1.63 258 1450 8.01 5.62 37.30 7 "0 4.34 9 70 10.70 272 30.05 1.64 2 03 I I.33 287 1LO3 0 26 7 0" 6 UU 2.30 I 0.85 0.59 067 3.04 I61 42.50 13.20 6.50 8.50 6.53 7.09 1413 0 05 2 07 35 6U 1o. I' Suhmer~rnce d.03 OW 1.60 650 6.00 7 00 5 00 7 04 7 n4 0.61 3.34 30.50 6.00 11.14 23.00 6.30' 0.00 7O-30 056 2.50 658 0.74 0.86 44 80 9.56 2. 74 13.00 1.00 11.00 0.UO I5 69 16.00 4.79 2.72 3.019 0 R2 3.04 107 15 20 7 00 4 00 6.00 5 00 12.88 R = 2.65 2850 13.50 6 20 1080 11.00 6 00 14.52 0.04 49.41 DROP Concrete WITH Outlet MITER BENDS Transition 1 if\ 1 34 7.50 7.6 I 4.50 7 00 5 00 14.44 0 04 1.59 26.04 1.28 9.00 7.79 5.j 10.7 I 3.

50 7.17 05.5” 20.00 12 80 16 26 0 “6 4.14 2.6” 3.54 4.14 37.64 0 “6 3 3. 0 06 3.53 4.59 2 84 I2 5” 7 34 0.50 9.67 0.“” 7.96 0.47 8.5” 12.00 103-D-l co N 270-2 lnlct R = 2.55 0.00 .7” 6.28 18.60 10 “0 7 . II 8 27 “3 “6 31 1” “0 “0 14 6.70 6.00 2 13 2.03 1.04 40 50 18.97 12.98 31.06 4.90 1” oo 7 00 II 28 13.5” 11.0” 4 00 2.50 4 50 3 07 3 64 0 “3 I.07 6.oo 4.00 15” 0.05 3.62 4.50 15.31 19.49 28 20 10.52 2 17 11.19 26.00 6 “0 7.66 3.68 46.66 3 38 15 50 8.53 3.340 9.50 7.00 5 00 70.30 0.“” 44.25 44 50 19 59 0 5” 5 3” 45 50 19.64 0.61 0.90 6.52 32.3” 1000 6 00 9 66 I.49 26.7 I 26.05 2 69 19 90 9 5” 6.86 9.46 4.00 10 00 13.44 053 5.0” 7.44 0.11 3.8” 4.25 (1 “3 I. 7.10 11.vr 56 35 50 35 8.43 21.I.9? 13 5” 1.70 3.0” 6.50 15.91 0.05 3.5” 14.57 3 “6 15 50 R 49 0.27 12.91 12.50 1997 0 75 4.00 6.00 Il.5” 15.50 6.11 0.50 6.69 2. *2 LX L2 L3 3 SuhmcrgcnL3e *2 L.53 4 78 0 “3 1.20 0.70 0.ll 16.00 10.99 0.00 7 “0 11.36 6 50 5 05 10.73 47 5” 20 74 0.66 4 60 44.oo 8. 29 0.50 II 17 0 7” 3 98 23 5” 11. 40.84 0 “5 2. thr.6” 4 37 39.50 6.52 30.94 0.30 6 50 6 50 5 18 6.50 5 50 0.05 2 90 22.“” 0.50 13 85 0.18 0. Z-30).50 b 50 150 0 85 3 22 13.5” 01 .81 4.74 16.38 19.61 3.10 5.5” .90 33.00 lo96 13 20 0 05 2 9” 31.51) 6.60 6. + hvl 1: h2 h3 “4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d.0” 6.03 I.42 18.08 33.40 IO.5” 8.76 0 05 2 90 23.13 0.“9 415” La.42 40.00 0.05 2.58 0 65 3 04 II 50 6.42 9.5” Y 26 0 5” 3 62 18.06 4.6” 4.00 2?“-30 0.06 15 94 18.35 42 00 II 50 IO 50 14.73 35 60 II “0 9 00 11 82 15.06 4.00 10.1” 0.91 22.50 3.06 18.50 150 0.00 14 17 II 3 4.05 2 07 15 2” 9 “0 5 “0 5 “0 6 70 0 05 2.040 0.10 9 “0 6 0” 5 58 7 46 0.-i’)yx 7.12 0.03 1.I 00 9 00 0.18 35.03 1. 3 54 23.d.7” 14 73 18.64 0.8” 9.94 17..6” 6.06 4.20 10.55 0.87 11.50 150 0.06 071 4 47 I.14 38 4” 110” IO.5” 7.58 0.50 11.73 0.0" Continued.77 48 50 21.32 0.47 3. d2 L. 70 9.68 2.74 15.03 I 34 7 “0 6. r hz “3 “4 I pipe drop with concrete outlet tratnitiorz Lhrrnetcr01p&l’= 15l”ChCI Q = 5 Cf\ h2 “3 “4 L2 L3 L4 s3 24. 2.5” 6 50 8.00 22c’-30‘ 0.0” 22O-30’ 0.9” 9 00 5 00 7 “8 8.26 0.00 10 oo .58 481 36.49 25.73 46.90 24 50 IO.90 30.61 18. 26.75 3.00 10.76 8 23 0.59 4.91 0.7” 4 92 38 50 17 29 o 4 39 17 “42 5.00 6.06 3.50 17 67 0 65 4.03 I61 8.65 3 66 25.60 261 9.32 38.50 5 50 3 96 4.77 17.94 0.02 0.05 2 69 2.17 0.50 0.77 20.03 0.59 12.43 05.00 h.70 10.5” I? 28 14 73 0 “5 3 1.84 21.05 3.82 49.43 “48 2 76 8 50 5 81 0.32 0.06 3 73 43.94 0.0” 9.4” 6.03 II 66 5.31 42.30 10.+hv.?5 18.0” 9 “0 5.64 0 3 19 10 0 47 3.50 15 76 0 4 35 16 0.05 2.17 0.Table S”blllUgL%X d.50 7.5” 6.5” 4.70 34.50 6 20 0.05 0 b4 2.88 .05 2 “7 19.50 2 48 2 87 0 03 I “7 7.60 9 50 5 50 8. +ilv.52 2 55 6 5” 5.44 5.82 5.5” .99 14.6” I6.87 0.41 3 54 17.5” 6 20 8.4” Il.21 7.05 3 II 36.06 3.72 3.50 14.6U 24.74 I”60 6.64 0.00 10.05 3.54 3.03 1.96 0.13 8.1 I 37.85 0.50 12.5” 3 36 4.66 0 = 6 cf.00 6 0” 5 88 7.50 7.5” 9.21 5 IO 5.05 2 07 .00 5 00 8.61 2.82 0.56 46 70 12.80 10 50 8 50 lo.63 3 12 16.79 0 “6 15.5” 5 81 0.47 II 6” 6 5” 5.50 10.5” 17 29 “lametci of p.30’ 059 5 57 5050 21.50 8.00 9 00 5.27 19.08 15.50 16.31 0 03 1.?5 4.02 6 44 7 x4 II 05 2. 35 bU 10. 174.“” 14.50 13 “8 77 98 50 67 Submcrynce 59 7” 511 02 6” 2” 50 20 = 1 Id2 + hv.80 9.50 16.47 48. 50 1844 0.40 10 50 150 13 26 15.5” b 80 8 99 0.64 4 12 25.74 11.05 2.44 0.34 IO.50 1” 22 13.00 22O-3”’ 0.“0 9.07 19.63 12.50 6.50 18. + hi h4 .52 31.82 28.5” 22”..91 0.6C 10.61 0 53 4 58 32.50 6.53 0 5” 4 28 37 50 16.56 3.66 4.32 0.00 7 “0 II b2 13.03 147 12.50 10.35 44 80 1150 10.03 I47 .28 24.20 11.50tcet 2.58 0.78 0 “3 1.05 2.“0 7.49 16.02 0..9” I1 50 1050 0 73 4 39 29.46 3c1.00 9.23 0.40 0 03 1.14 41.50 8.87 9.13 34. 38.5” 4.69 19. VP = 4 “7 tp< 1.49 0 75 3 46 16.1 I 25.35 0.06 3.91 0.28 22.31 39 30 II 00 8 00 13 92 16.56 0.59 10.70 0 03 1.040 0.90 I I .2” 9.52 319” 10 5” 8.9” 6 0” 6.50 7 72 9 38 0 05 2.43 4.05 2.68 3.06 3.46 0.38 0 54 4.1.88 cn zi D 7 r r? A r hv ? .60 9.5” 21 I2 “53 5.5” 4 86 5 93 0 “3 I 74 14.93 0 “5 2 07 14 30 9 “0 5 0” 4 69 6.05 2 49 IX.14 42.nlet It = 2 50 tcrt VP = 4 89 tpi 1.56 451 42 50 18 82 0.01 IO.4x 4.1.5” 12. 0. 3.26 27 50 13.05 2.51 14.13 12.58 0 05 2 9” 32 8” 10.pe = 15 mch 4. *2 L.50 9.5” 0 67 3.1 I 5 55 0.5” 8.340 6 50 5.00 6.05 3 II 27 30 10.UlJ 5 “0 2.50 9.00 9 00 II 18 14 35 0.94 0.50 6 20 0.97 0.12 1.90 31.5” 7 IO 9 38 0.00 8.5” I8 82 0 5 43 19 0.55 0 58 4.49 27.06 O 48 5 .06 3 73 34 70 I I on 9 “0 11.32 0.05 2..70 10.1 I IO.50 IO.00 10. 1.3b 20.08 0.33 28.200 1100 0.5” 9.4” 3 25 0 03 Ib.80 6.49 0.5” 13.66 5.97 0 5 46 20 0 62 5.06 4.5” 16.53 0 65 4 87 37 50 16.05 2.50 21 5” 4 40 5.4” .61 9.47 2.59 2.5” 6.0” 43.97 0.14 39 30 11.76 2.50 8.52 2.88 2 49 0 03 I 34 6 0” 6 00 5.79 3.50 19.36 IO.65 11.00 3.oo 7 72 10.247 15 88 0 “6 4.79 0.50 I2 94 15 50 0 “5 3.8.00 5.06 24.5” 6.oo 9 0” 72”L3” -0.54 13.66 72 75 5” 14 8.60 IS.19 2.7” I I .67 IO. 7.o.69 5.50 7.0” 6.5” 6.50 5.43 4 03 32 5” 15 00 0 49 4.52 31.06 4.06 4.05 ? 07 20.10 0.14 0.“O 8.87 29.oo 6.50 3 65 4 40 0 “3 1.05 2 07 18.79 0.00 2.57 3.06 4.50 1.30 10.31 0.05 0.23 0. (to be ~rscd with /Yg.61 0.47 9 33 I.74 17 IO 6.56 43 5” 19.50 4.91 2.87 13.59 4 64 33 5” 15 38 0.“” 5 29 7 08 0 05 2 49 17.=K+h2+““6 16.50 5.35 43 oo 1” 50 14.05 ?.71 21.31 12.94 14 35 0 “5 3 II 34.50 8.80 .3” 0 8” 2 26 5.35 43.70 12.02 10.50 7 5” 8.66 4.58 3.95 II 67 0.05 3.86 50.51) 0 57 2 45 7 5” 5.“” ?.69 10.52 49 50 21.50 10.2” 0.14 O 65 4 23 36.3” 0.05 3.11 0.I 00 22’.3” 14 50 8.50 I.5” 8.41 11.56 45 70 .82 0.50 9.50 11.50 7.03 9 76 0 “5 2.5” 4.50 13.69 2 95 10.06 3 73 36 50 I1 00 9 00 12.dumetrr 11.50 22’. 11.50 4.70 3 I8 17 50 9 26 5.66 7.53 8.69 20.21 R RU h.“” 1 I .50 15.05 3 52 29 10 10.92 3” 50 14 23 0.56 0.50 14.50 7 50 13.50 7 34 3.79 0.011 6.50 13.0” li.2” 6.88 0.72 4. d.29 0.48 22.05 3.50 12.50 4 26 5.50 5.0” x.50 6 5” U.50 4.03 1 74 1250 6. (I Id2+hvpl dl+hv.0” 2 97 4.18 0.5” 6.11 28.5” 6.20 6.06 15.15 15.7” 4 64 45.28 23.61 0.50 10. “5 “4 L2 L3 2 S”b”rcrge”c3u d.47 lo.56 5.05 2 28 21 70 9.52 0.78 3.06 4 14 4” 2” II 0” 1”“” 13 44 17.73 33 70 11.10 17.21 9.50 21. +tlv.41 47 50 20 74 I =.05 0 05 2 49 29 10 10.52 0 U5 2.40 10.62 3.50 5.

26 0 of' 3.3" 14.06 3 31 43.80 150 75" 7 35 8.50 5 14 631 0.50 750 0.50 7.64 004 I07 880 7 00 4 00 3 30 402 004 107 9.53 4.61 10.800 750 7.50 9.92 8.04 1.64 1932 0.76 3 24 17 50 9 26 "56 3 30 I050 9 64 0.00 1 00 13.20 0.50 16 14 0 43 4.060 8.00 10. WITH Outlet 103-D-1270-3 MITER BENDS Transition 0=7cs.50 7 "4 861 0 "4 2.90 29.42 3.61 0 05 2.50 650 6 "8 7.06 3 I.05 2.5" 8 50 13.53 750 543 8.44 !I 68 5 00 425" 18.61 0.50 5.52 35 60 II 5" 8 50 I202 15.00 70.05 2.90 750 6.5" 6.5" 13. 41 10 11.35 0 06 3.80 12.50 18.79 8.58 34.34 9.?.50 II.11 11.3" 0.63 4 95 11.8" 3 99 24 5" 11.+hv.30 10.06 45 70 12.50 7.93 1205 0.50 753 9.04 2 01 .25 4150 20 74 0.50 14.5n 14 23 "57 4 04 3150 14.3" 11.99 0 04 2 01 2.50 18 "6 0.90 7.50 10 79 6.06 2.50 10.6.00 7 00 9 76 1244 0.65 4.50 5.50 22O-30' 0.05 2.73 25 50 1232 8 3" IO.00 2.12 265" .50 0 58 5 10 44.23 066 4.72 205n 1040 0 66 3 86 2250 II 17 8.74 2.06 3.250 7.38 50.92 1664 006 3.00 15 94 18.10 003 0.n.t v.72 441 32.28 2080 1050 5.2" 12.00 800 15 60 1856 0.04 1450 8 II 062 3.06 067 450 11.50 1844 052 455 425" 18.90 II 50 7.5" 6.48 2.28 26.50 II 94 7.69 950 6.00 7 0" 4.30 0.5" 5.32 37 5U 16.50 055 2.50 6 20 068 2.35 0.65 3.55 0.50 7 50 15 26 18.50 15.47 2.94 0 06 3 31 45 70 !2.0" 5 00 2 71 3.lB 0.00 9 00 0.00 6 "0 II58 13.06 3.050 5.53 5 "5 43.26 1244 006 2.=453sps d.76 0.70 13 98 17.06 2.57 4 9" 40.64 2.25 1358 0.50 5.50 5.06 .80 12.10 11.6" 4.40 105" 5.L5 45 5" 1997 0 69 5 2" 4650 20.50 10.05 5 99 7."" 8 no 069 411 46.66 6 00 5 00 5.88 0 06 290 38.56 006 3.76 3.79 0 06 373 43 "0 12.75 5.01 20.73 006 2.53 0.00 5.10 7 00 5 00 3.50 1653 0.60 3.50 5.-Type I pipe drop with corwete outlet PIPE trmsitiofz DROP Concrete (to be used with fig I-30).0" 9 00 1366 17 03 oO6 3 13 41 10 12.5" 6.05 2 28 28 20 10.04 201 22.30 11.44 16 50 8.28 440 0.6" 23 50 II 55 960 II 67 0.31 46.I 5" 8.Xg~"C~ dl+hv.00 6.35 0.11 31.00 6. F “2 h3 h4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Sulmlergcnce d.+hv.52 33 50 I5 3n 063 4.38 0 05 2.49 3100 II 00 6 00 LO 91 13.40 7.77 6.51) 2 71.00 16.07 600 7 00 4.50 13.46 0 04 I74 18 00 7 50 65" 6 4" 7 84 0 04 1 74 19 00 7.4.04 1.5" 5."7 .et R = 2 50fcet Submei~ence = I Id.50 II.50 13.88 13.5" 20 35 0.70 7.55 0 04 147 1340 7.10 11.63 445" 1959 0.11 006 352 36.40 0 76 3.079 055 3 54 22.52 37 40 II 50 x so 1268 15 88 0.20 27 30 .06 290 3370 II 00 7 00 II 92 14.5" .97 18.12 13.04 20i 19.00 7 00 9.11 31.68 4.5" ?I 88 .11 40.11 4200 II 5" 7 5" 0.66 3 94 29 50 13 85 0 72 3 99 30.59 17.50 12 7" 863 1052 0 "5 2 28 25.88 5050 2188 7.58 0.36 5.86 249 0 04 1.28 22 6" IO.69 23 61) 10.11 33 70 11.49 3" 00 11.1 I 39.00 4 16 555 0.69 26.50 7.50 I2 35 15 5" 0 "6 3.50 5.14 0 05 2.42 31.55 4.00 70.04 I47 15 20 7.50 950 15.64 35 50 16.00 4 00 3 00 3.50 5 50 5 77 7 U8 0 04 I74 17.50 13 47 9 28 II 29 0 05 2.60 7.30' 0.850 964 0.5" 483 5 93 0 04 1.00 11.50 22'.50 11.67 0.61 8. + hvp + h3 p.+hv.56 4.91 "52 4 36 38.anetcr Q=Bds lh2 h3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 S"blll.50 22'.18 2750 1308 15.50 15 76 0 78 423 35.50 4.31 0 04 I88 15.43 0.00 2 14 2.11 15 50 8 49 069 3.60 5 3" 48.00 6 00 10.29 006 290 27.06 249 32 80 11.94 0.49 3 78 26.67 45 50 19 97 I58 2.10 0.97 006 3.69 24 50 I050 6.25 0.n.50 14.85 39.17 16.9" 36 5U II 00 7 on 1291 15 50 0.06 3.06 249 319" II 00 6 "0 11.0" 900 14 64 18.96 25.50 1232 0 53 4.43 12 05 006 2.90 12.05 269 25 4" 105" 6.67 006 2.06 3.50 19 20 D.04 I34 7.50 1040 13.50 5 81 058 2.93 0 04 I88 14.23 0 05 2 28 19 90 IO50 5.50 7 85 1" 14 0.80 38 51) 17.30 10.66 5 10 5 00 5.38 0.31 44.61 0.+hv.88 28.66 I.63 4.6" 7.41 39.64 0 06 3 73 40.82 0 55 4.50 17. 04 13.04 IO7 7 00 7 00 4 00 2.050 5 50 0.69 342 20511 IO.00 4.30' 068 4.49 29.28 36 50 16.06 3."" 3.60 7 00 5 00 4 21 5.63 4 09 32.31 18.50 "72 3 92 23.50 22O-3"' "69 5.06 290 37 40 Il.50 6."" 6.90 34 70 11.10 7 00 4.5" 21 50 16 27 1932 0 06 3.49 1091 0.1-l 0 04 I34 .51) 15.87 0.23 0 04 I 74 19.0" 9.50 9.5" 22"~3" 059 3. I? 0. 325 004 I"7 790 1.6" 8.30 7 00 7 00 4.anietcr<.01 17 IO 75" 750 568 7 46 0.50 10 02 0.10 7.85 0.50 8.06 2.52 0.66 2 I2 249 003 0.14 33 50 15.36 14.23 9.61 6.04 2. d2 LX F h2 h3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d.84 0.90 28.82 4 75 37 50 1691 0.47 16 20 7.60 11.50 750 I5V 0.31 17.20 0.82 0.50 7 50 7 67 9.99 4.26 "68 358 .11 058 3.00 453 5.91 12 50 7 34 0.81 056 2.59 48" 48.29 0 57 4.5" 2.08 6 7" 0 04 2 01 16.7" 12.90 30.00 0.20 0 64 2.00 15O 044 2.97 LO.0" 750 75" Ii0 "83 3.69 4.99 0 05 2 28 21 70 .50 7.25 15. 0 06 3.0" 900 14.66 4 24 28.52 4.50 4.83 27 5" 13 "8 14 93 17 79 0 06 3 11 43 "0 11.13 050 3.61 12. 7" 7.50 I.93 46 70 1250 9.50 3.50 1959 0.46 4.96 1"91 0.00 35x 4 78 0 04 I61 I.01 23.=R+h2+o.76 0.7" 8 00 4 00 36" 440 004 I .18 0. 60 7. 298 13.76 47.87 0.80 21. 9 LX .48 2150 .58 43.pc hv 8 16 10.09 1282 0.51) 65" 6 72 8.350 1.703 0.67 11.47 14 30 7.06 2.50 5 46 6 70 0 04 1.04 1.00 7 00 1258 IS.66 24.46 5.59 12 82 0.97 0.40 I! 0" 1 00 13.30 29.00 7 0" 1225 14.30 0.50 849 0.8" 11.58 16 26 0 "6 3.5" 650 22O-3" 0.47 4.50 5.14 0 76 4 70 36.30 "54 3.00 0.28 24.20 7 no 7 00 5.13 I250 134 068 3 22 .64 0.1 I 0 06 2.00 6 00 10.5" 20 74 (1.02 0.11 34 70 II 50 150 II 69 14 73 0.0" 9.50 5.62 3.50 14. d2 LX 1‘ h2 h3 he L2 L3 L4 % S"blTWg~"C~ d.50 21 12 0 64 5 34 495" 21 50 h4 d.96 053 2.60 7.Table 2-4.07 5.06 373 42 00 12. d2 LX K = 2 5" fCCl oiplpr = 18 mchcr 0.00 8 00 22'.04 1.50 /I 17 0.60 4 36 30.52 39 3U II 5" 85" 13 32 16.50 15.37 L5.x7 5 17 004 1.50 8. -Continued.06 3.5 I 5.04 1.98 9 76 0 04 2.29 0.06 3 52 38 40 11.05 2.73 43 9" 12.38 0 74 4.65 2.84 49.00 8.9" 35.63 446 405" 18.5" 19 20 060 4.41 0.76 3 65 19 50 10 02 6 29 8.88 9.20 II 00 7.00 11 00 7.06 3 IL 3280 11.58 0 72 2 84 11.19 34.50 7.63 3 36 19.87 0 60 351 17 50 9.47 4.20 II 50 7 5" 14 26 .50 7.76 10.45 650 5 05 241 2 81 0 04 1 07 7 00 7.93 44.47 8.00 4 00 150 038 2.20 7 50 7 50 5 38 7 08 0.05 1150 6 96 058 3.94 11.00 39" 478 004 I34 11.34 8 80 7 00 5.ct 182 2.64 5.50 17.00 14.50 658 0.50 7 73 "54 3.69 3.5" 220.

84 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES .

779 "08 4 14 43 00 16 50 IO.50 4.00 15.61 14.38 0.4" l6.00 62.08 3.29 13. 24 1) 43 5.37 0 50 3 76 17."" 103-D-1270-5 MITER BENDS Transitwn 2 64 3.59 2650 13 20 1091 13 97 008 373 33.00 6 00 5 62 7.09 4.0" 19 063 2 85 5 50 5.31 042 3.I 50 7.5" 3 70 14 50 8.00 067 5 "2 385" 17 79 0 12 5 07 3950 18 17 0.50 5.00 1200 6.31 3310 15 50 X.00 0.35 052 4.88 19.16 1.08 3 73 40.00 7 00 936 11.58 0 ox 3 73 3280 15.50 22 uo 3 50 4 40 0 115 I66 IO.5" 7.50 19 32 054 5 60 43.90 15.09 0 66 5 71 45.73 0.83 368 16. L4 s3 d2 LY 1: k23 h4 L2 L3 L4 s3 S"bIll~rge"C~ d.00 1122 14.50 8 00 10.88 " 08 4 14 3840 16"" IO.50 22.05 1.50 4.50 .30 14.00 299 4 "2 OJS 166 970 10.07 2. Inche.46 245" .50 16 64 058 2.50 1. outlet trarfsitiott 5 29 b 70 d.43 593 006 2.07 2.66 14.09 456 44 80 17 00 II "0 15.07 2.06 2 "7 19 00 12.00 4.ou 14.2" II 5" 5.49 19.62 0..90 22.250 6.08 3 73 35 60 15. U73 4.588 0.26 950 6.26 0.68 2.50 15 50 0.50 17.80 412 285" 13 97 870 11.00 7 .10 I8 94 0.00 6.44 4.20 14 00 7.50 .90 28."" 9.000 1477 18.07 3.00 7.29 0.80 12.00 1260 15.94 0.16 Q= F II‘.31 29.00 4 I5 5.49 2260 13.49 18. + hv.50 14. p.00 1.000 14 12 .07 2.14 0.59 4.70 0 06 2 "7 lb.08 3. 31.67 0.00 13.66 I5 20 I.08 LO.09 456 45 70 I7. 064 5 32 3850 17 79 0.78 006 I66 11.49 5.87 4850 2162 048 592 49.53 12.U 14.0" 150 0.50 11.15 .09 22.90 24.49 4.5" 7 00 10.664 0.94 14 73 0.t d2 LA hv.00 9.50 8 00 9 97 12.86 5 17 0.80 34.n.08 331 328" 15 00 800 Il.pc = 2.50 8 99 0 68 3.58 .07 249 21.06 207 17 1" 12.Ol.12 3.I .08 3 73 34.00 6.21 36.57 4.41 10.80 5.50 12.97 0.90 29 .62 13 50 8.52 295" 14.00 14.50 0 08 3.00 4 00 15u 0 75 2.24 0.84 0 83 3.50 13.oo 7 14 9.60 3 79 15. 0.00 22'.46 4.53 8.00 8 00 9.96 13.50 R. d2 L F h2 h3 h4 L2 L3 L4 s3 S"bmeigence dlfhv.50 13.00 7.00 2.60 10.76 362 15.22 1050 7 08 0.30 .50 9.00 5.40 330 Il.90 23.45 5.50 4 00 0.24 8.60 16 00 8 00 I2 26 15 I.70 L7.00 0.08 4 14 411 20 16 00 1000 1347 1703 0 OR 4 14 41.(I7 7.50 7.07 3.35 0 08 3 3.35 0.00 1282 16.50 10.07 2.58 0.65 2150 13.64 0.50 16.00 2 5.6 I 0.00 6.74 4 34 26.09 373 43.30‘ 0.46 0 06 2.75 3350 15.07 3 3.0" 8.05 (I.50 1626 045 5 14 35.50 13.64 0. 36 50 I6 00 8.00 968 12.99 0.31 3000 14.00 4 39 5 55 006 166 13.92 3 64 0 05 I 24 R80 10.73 43 00 16.07 19 90 .80 10.4 13 059 49u 3150 15 .07 1. 00 4.58 11.00 10.90 27.30' 0.m.9.03 008 3.78 5.O" 5.6” 7 08 0.94 049 5 55 42.=R+h2t006 .00 22O-30 0.07 2.2" 16.23 17 41 0 08 3.07 1340 11.66 44.94 048 5 23 4250 19.08 331 35.00 5 91 7.00 14.06 2.60 4. 0 7.10 9.00 4 09 5 17 0 06 1.244 0. 34 7" 15.14 45.+hv.50 7 on 10.00 7.66 4 64 31. Continued.014 0.50 13.-~~~~~ I pipe drop Wiill couwte PIPE Q= 1: “2 L34 LZ L3 Sutmlergrncc d.91 12cfs I: = (d.22 24.00 4.46 13 50 8.09 0.52 0.90 26. ‘3 4 Ilumctrr DROP Concrete WITH Outlet “1 p.+hv.81 5.10 0.24 970 10."" 15._ -I 15 42 19.26 0.50 900 14 89 18.6.45 478 29.50 15.17 4150 18.78 4.05 1.05 1.244 0.72 5 02 33.57 16 64 0.30' 054 5.Table 2-4."" .50 .73 .00 902 11.07 14.50 18 56 042 5.50 20.00 5.00 22'.07 2.00 15 54 18. 7 84 0.600 1000 13.50 21.ei K = 3 0" feet 5 90 746 0 06 2.20 6.07 2.50 9.00 4 00 3 28 440 0 05 1.85 0 75 547 47 5" 21.42 4.88 0.23 0.0" 16 50 .0" 3.67 0.50 "08 3.100 052 5.00 10.30‘ 0.65 13.05 I24 7.84 861 0.01 12.73 36 50 15.50 6.00 6.84 30.40 II.90 17.0" 3 79 4 78 lU..11 008 3.76 0.44 0.00 2.50 7 84 058 3.06 249 20.50 15 I..3.10 0.52 48.39 foot VP = 4.49 24.5" 197" Cl.57 49.55 8.05 1.60 10.73 41 10 16.23 0 06 2.84 006 249 19 00 12.49 I7 IO 12.23 8 39 IO.73 2.61 0.50 7 0" 0.251 15.50 .00 7 00 22"~30 0.49 0.56 4 92 36 50 17 03 061 4 97 37.05 0.60 13.92 15.60 I.00 2.50 1741 Diameter 0.50 16.* 50 5.70 2.03 I8 5" 10.30).38 R = 3 00 feet hv 8.00 4.58 3050 14.82 0.50 5 55 2.66 12 50 11.09 4.0" 3.76 0.90 1000 3.IlI .00 965 12.69 32.27 37.18 0.052 061 4 18 20 5" 1090 0.67 3. 28 20 14.07 2.32 0.33 12.29 007 3.OOf vp=457tp\ 2 07 16.n. (1 ld2 + hvp) .w 8.50 18 56 042 549 4.99 0.66 390 1950 10.32 0.47 9.56 0.50 6.00 .22 18.50 18 17 078 5 44 10.00 13.7 I 5 38 39.05 0 07 2.17 2 87 0.00 10.04 6.86 35.90 .08 34.50 13.07 18 00 12.21 4 02 0."" 14.00 9.07 5.06 1.12 40.pe = 1.67 4 24 21.96 20.31 31.61 50.00 1 uo 7.86 6.90 21. 27 30 .00 8 "" 12.93 244 3.3.33 12.35 0.00 4.00 6.31 37.30 .81 2.30 .rt hvp = 0.05 0.07 15 20 .50 .00 6.1" .70 13.56 17 79 0.50 0.50 22.06 1.6" 13.58 452 25.96 6.52 4 1" 19.52 "73 3.00 Il.3b 2 87 0.73 37 40 16 00 9 "0 .50 20x5 079 5 82 47 50 2.50 4.40 14 00 5.650 9 37 0 3 17 9 78 94 50 76 0.73 631 0.50 593 073 3.650 9.07 6.20 12 00 5.78 5.64 5.3.07 b 00 9.56 4670 17 "0 II 00 22'.+hv.00 5.42 46 50 20. I64 2.08 3.50 5 00 6.70 15 00 9.78 9.20 "07 3.00 IO.00 3.14 39.3.50 6 00 6.53 8 23 0.05 11.64 3 14 95" 6.97 50 50 22.50 746 0.00 150 078 3.00 950 4.30 14. 4.20 0.50 17 03 "59 5.50 9.56 0.07 3 3. 17.32 009 4.05 166 11.00 I2 19 15.24 7.I 5" 5 .00 3.16 0.80 17 00 9.00 1155 14 73 0.06 2.62 3.445 18 18 009 4.86 .30 0.600 1000 13.091 0.08 2 90 31.49 25.30 14.50 5.53 5 27 43 50 19.00 3. 0.50 9.I "0 4 00 4 99 6.00 6.81 440 27. m‘ho hvp = 0 33 .83 8.88 0.08 4.00 22'.54 14.29 0.05 I .90 26.50 7 00 m0.26 0.00 3.75 5 50 5.54 4 16 23.06 7.46 28.31 31 90 14.72 3.60 1000 4.4.50 8.50 II "0 4.00 7 lb 10.83 18.07 249 0. I.14 4390 17.00 4.50 8.38 cn -I z o --I c 33 .00 6.00 22'.70 13 no 7.52 0.73 42 00 .50 2041 0 12 5 76 46.95 7.60 13.06 2. 29 016 4 32 22 50 II 67 cl44 4 39 23. 0.14 0.00 I" 28 13.50 8.00 9.45 .46 0.00 052 4.07 249 20 80 13 "0 7 14 8.73 3 16 8.25 0 05 1. 5" 18.65 496 32.00 9.50 1205 052 4.66 10.67 4 28 25.08 3 73 39 30 16.00 468 593 0.50 8 99 9.60 13.91 0 07 2. "2 "3 h4 L2 L3 L4 s3 S"bTllUp~"C~ d.58 3.55 006 2.I 0.00 10.07 2.400 8.61 5.50 12.250 6.49 3 38 12.70 15.50 8.00 9.00 4.46 9.99 fpps Submc~pencc = 1 Id2 + hvp + hi h4 dmnerer ofplpr 15.09 373 44.05 I66 8. (to he used with fig 17.14 42.00 7.90 2.50 900 II X6 15.67 0.90 25.07 290 30.50 1090 0 80 4 03 21 50 11.7" 059 5 32 4450 20.741 "OX 4.08 3.08 3 73 3840 16 00 9 00 13 24 16.49 23.10 053 3 36 10.00 4.37 45 53 2047 0 7" 5.46 4.38 "07 2.10 14 00 8.25 0 05 1.14 0.82 0.14 46.00 5 32 7 08 U.66 12.08 063 3.70 17.82 0.80 .10 9.07 790 9.282 066 4.00 0.06 1.40 13.44 0.

SMALL ?43ul--??C *vl=N -- CANAL STRUCTURES .

CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 87 .

21 22.55 4.41 14.pe 2.50 19.60 4.59 3.06 30.00 IO.50 10.48 4.62 39.96 49.04 25.89 47.ld2+hvp) = 30mches Vp = 3.50 3.29 31.7cfs F ofp.39 0.50 15.00 10.04 1.06 0.50 6. 4.83 45.88 0 07 1.57 5.06 5.06 47.17 0.29 12.50 6.21 20.14 9.00 4.30 0.54 0.50 15.25 0. Continued.72 10.75 fee.50 17. 0.31 0.58 0.50 3.70 14.64 0.30 13.50 4.5" 7.50 22 25 Dmmeter ofp.80 14.50 13.50 16.50 6.45 17. 39.10 0.52 31.76 43.50 7.82 0.60 5.00 3.77 3.25 0.98 1.34 32.50 13.57 16.26 0..30 0.07 3.38 33.30 12.80 26.16 49.06 2.50 l3.45 0.50 5.17 9.05 0.50 7.27 0 56 3.50 2007 0.28 16.50 13 57 9.63 5.14 0.61 0.50 21.19 047 5 7s 42.50 8. lhp = 0 40 IO.06 249 19.75 0.63 493 48.50 17.50 4.35 46 70 I4 50 10.50 6.50 22'.80 8.48 9.50 4.00 14.20 007 3.50 5.42 34.50 16.00 13 72 17.06 0.06 069 3.53 4 08 26.08 0.95 8.50 3.75 3.59 38.70 14.50 14.28 13.80 12.10 9.16 28.76 3.50 6.50 550 2.07 1.741 0.50 22'.07 4.4" 12.00 29.07 1.30 4.90 13.07 1.5" 7.21 6.29 13.50 19. 3.56 0.00 3.49 0.50 7.35 007 3.44 0.55 38.50 3.06 2.50 18.50 5.35 43.24 33 50 16.07 2.51 36.00 14.50 16.00 13.46 0.62 4.50 13.70 13.31 30.31 14.07 1.48 4.99 0.28 43.50 21 99 0.50 70.01 0.70 11.01 11.30 0.30 1250 7.35 5.06 0.68 5 93 0.07 1.50 5.92 0.50 14.50 9.04 I.70 850 6.45 23.50 22.50 11.21 I9 00 11.07 1.41 1.60 13.48 2.35 0.50 15 88 0.50 12.90 950 3.71 0.65 3.94 I5 20 II 50 3.00 10.07 2.95 12.00 3.14 43.50 450 8.07 2.47 3.00 I? "0 6.07 14.25 feet 1.61 9.10 14.00 5.06 1.12 27.50 17.45 24.32 0.07 2.50 22.50 IO.68 4.00 3.76 0.69 U 76 4.94 0.98 SO.50 0.28 42.90 14.59 4.80 I3 50 8.16 0.47 7.28 0.64 2.50 4 32 19.63 8 23 0.80 410 11.52 33.05 0.00 5.00 11.04 1.95 9.5 1 5.50 1090 13.01 12.06 0.07 3.18 0.76 18.10 0.50 3.50 14.15 2.50 14.00 150 0.20 13.50 I4 33 15.96 13.w 6.80 II.17 15.65 12.66 4 08 16 50 962 0.00 7O-30‘ 0.39 4.67 4050 18.90 14.52 32.30 II.50 22'.38 0.10 II.50 6.50 5.48 0.74 II.50 21.53 I4 73 0 "7 3.04 201 1340 85" 75" 443 593 0 06 2.45 27.98 0.14 39.28 440 0 04 I74 10.40 13.33 12.60 4.56 4.72 0.+hv.62 146 U "6 249 18 00 12. 4.50 3.67 3.50 14.07 1.06 1.00 4.49 0.44 3 27 7.08 4.50 4.35 15.06 2 69 20 8U 12.50 17.00 P.43 5.50 15.07 2.25 30.72 4.60 8.31 29 IO 13.25 0.98 0.50 450 7.50 7.07 2.78 5.50 23.11 0.50 19.50 11. d2 LX = 24 mcho WITH Outlet 103-D-1 270-S MITER BENDS Transition VP = 5 09 fp.00 11.40 14.50 20.50 22'.03 0.00 12.69 4.26 0.06 3.10 17 79 0 "7 4.60 il.68 24 5" 12.53 5.55 3 37 8.07 4.50 220.50 31.50 7.50 3.66 29.50 6 84 8.00 14.30 0.65 0.80 9.82 0.18 0.68 3.4 0.56 3.50 245 3.68 6.91 2.00 IO 00 13.61 10.50 3.50 20.06 3.00 14.00 592 184 0.50 15 36 0.50 13.42 18.07 17.79 2050 11.50 13.77 .60 8.41 35.07 1.54 0.50 7.-Type 1 pipe drop with concrete outlet transition PIPE Q = 16 cfr F h2 “3 “4 LZ L3 L4 S3 Submergence dl+hv.51 0.68 18.40 0.75 18.50 8.30 34.93 28.02 0.50 17.I 58 4..63 17.30 0.04 1.21 21.10 0.89 22 50 12.92 14.64 0.50 10.13 . F=(d.06 3 II 27.84 43.50 8.70 14.50 l5O 0.36 12.93 37.63 0.40 14.69 22.01 4.22 0.00 8.30). 0.72 .84 0.50 15.37 0.94 0.50 5.07 1.38 0.24 I8 50 IO.07 1.68 4.50 5.50 3 50 3.18 0.41 007 4 14 42 "0 14.59 0.52 15.50 6.71 4.00 5 33 7.97 0.50 4 I5 5.90 44.69 0.69 ?I 70 125" 6.66 31.50 6.pe DROP Concrete (to be used with fig 17.54 3.61 5.50 3.96 45.07 4.23 0.50 6.28 41.36 0.12 31.50 19.80 0.30.07 1.99 24.89 0.50 1" 77 .06 0.83 4.67 0.4.97 12.07 3.50 8.50 13.81 16.00 4.0.62 6.50 4.08 0 06 2 07 I7 1" 12.75 4.00 5.21 4.39 20.5" 16.5" 16.91 2.00 14.07 0.19 foot Submergence = I Id2 +hvp 8.60 11.07 1.10 0.50 12.50 150 9.28 40 20 I4 50 5.86 37.71 4.31 0.00 12.13 0.07 3 31 31 00 13.60 14.33 17.00 11.90 14.19 44 50 20.23 10.12 0.06 1.50 22"~30 0.42 U.50 12.50 0.50 5.+hvl)-(I.50 II.30 13.37 35.64 0.50 21.34 0.05 0.05 0.50 2 18 2 81 OW 1.61 5.00 8.46 3.02 0.50 9.86 38.6.07 16.04 0.50 18.86 0.80 11.05 0.86 34.00 3.r&k 2-4.60 12.00 1442 18.7 I 5.75 4.55 37.06 1.50 8.50 0.00 0.56 5.06 2.11 26.70 14.50 12.15 067 4.71 3.80 8.30 0 74 6.32 0.00 8.50 4.50 8.66 32.87 0.07 4.06 1.45 26.46 7.35 44 80 I4 50 1050 15.50 6.46 8.74 0.84 2150 12.50 10.5? 0 06 3.00 8.62 3.21 29.40 II.78 0 04 1.31 28.74 9.28 44.02 16.10 8.46 9 76 0 "6 2.94 17.50 3.07 3.07 2.21 5.45 28.06 0.50 13.30 0.46 7.56 u.".5U 3.81 0.70 5.53 22.50 18.46 9.80 13.49 0.43 3.91 0.33 6.67 007 3.61) .20 12.50 12.14 25 50 :3.51 0.07 15.83 4.50 4.53 4.73 19.29 0.07 3 93 3840 I3 50 9.95 049 3.50 15.42 13.50 II21 14.56 10.50 14.07 4 14 41 10 14.93 35.50 19.50 0.87 27.07 2.17 0.57 4.00 I" 00 I3 13 16.0" 6 22 8.07 18.50 17.28 15.50 13.5 I 2.11 48.50 16.44 0.00 3.7" 0.50 15.pe Q=.50 3 Rh 5.50 150 0.55 0.83 9.06 0.52 34.00 4.48 061 3.50 950 11.27 10.70 14.50 3.40 10.72 3.0" 5.53 3.52 3.24 0.50 14.86 35.00 5. dz LX F h2 “3 “4 L-2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence d2 LX dl +hv.44 36.30 14.45 25.78 0.50 3.80 14.07 1.50 3 5" 6.20 13.50 21.07 1.50 7.28 8.09 0.59 3.05 0.89 U.07 4.22 8.22 50.19 8.70 9.28 11.80 10.86 0.57 6.47 2150 II.50 8.50 1058 13.71 6.00 8.52 4.64 5 18 32.62 3. Inlet R = 3.90 8.5" 850 7.6.90 12.1" 18.50 II.55 4.66 0.00 9.29 0.05 0.50 5.06 0 94 18.00 10.50 3.00 8.50 4.62 12.50 15.50 22.42 "56 5.40 I3 50 9.50 4.57 0.47 7.50 18.250 6.58 401 I5 50 9.07 lO.92 5.76 466 40.45 8.50 6.78 0."" 6.03 5.17 6.21 19.11 25.86 46.10 14.65 15.60 2350 12.45 4.00 46.50 6.39 6.05 0.11 8.33 0.50 18.W 0.93 36.60 3.50 7 30 7 84 0.+hvl d2 LX F "2 h3 h4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence d.28 43.00 11.86 33.98 6.52 0.87 0.60 11.74 I2 50 8.95 10.97 0 07 3.94 16.00 5.50 1062 11.50 450 0.00 9.65 4.99 15 50 0.00 6. 0.04 I47 8.46 19.95 0.50 4.01 1.97 14.69 23.56 0.84 13.50 5.64 4.66 11.50 4.50 3.46 fps dl+hvl=R+h2+006 hvp = 0.11 24 5" 1250 7 59 0.67 4.94 23.M 7.50 5.39 0.58 4.55 2.20 II.70 11.03 6.94 9.55 0.67 3.5" 14.00 6.06 2.00 9.50 21.61 4.99 0.75 h4 dwneicrofp.72 41.00 9.45 0.00 4.49 5.85 I5 I.50 5.20 0.70 13.58 0.50 22'. 4. Dumcter h2 h3 h4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence d.60 13.64 5.63 13.64 0.07 1.94 1430 II50 3.66 30.50 10.6.79 0.50 IOU1 0. + h3 hv 0.78 3.92 0.07 I 86 36.65 7.73 0.50 20.00 14.30 14.50 8.14 40 20 14.63 Inlet R = 3.00 5 0" 471 6 3.16 17.83 2.50 7.04 2.39 19.50 9.70 U "6 0.90 11.66 31.07 3.06 2 49 19.73 42.50 5.39 5.50 16.50 II 00 3.30 12.20 1200 5..83 15.60 0.91 0.37 I7 03 0.69 4.72 3.54 861 0.68 16.50 10.86 39.49 4.70 4.

56 4 64 32.56 II.04 0.00 4 00 4.90 .63 5 07 4250 20 07 067 5 11 4350 2045 3.23 0.52 4.50 17 78 0.06 1.34 40 50 19.07 2.50 7.00 5.07 2.50 5.08 35.61 4.64 0.94 32.86 073 4.28 34 70 14.04 0.50 16.06 2.14 .84 006 I61 19.30' 0.648 19.100 6 00 7.75 4.68 0.051 3 22 3.00 7.99 0 06 1.50 22.500 6 00 14 93 17 "3 008 2.11 41.07 2 07 30.75 49.67 0.10 15.30 071 440 2750 14 33 hv 8.58 0.07 2.61 15 20 II 00 6.150 5.83 30.30 0.90 16.19 0.160 1100 4 00 4.95 . +hv.30 14.72 7.60 I.16 44 50 20.50 70.06 I34 .25 15. 0 80 348 1150 8.06 0.07 5.00 7.00 22'.15 hbp= 0 28 foot V.02 8 23 0.00 5.63 8.07 1.92 13.60 17 79 0 08 249 43.80 lb.61 9.34 48.92 12.80 .85 13 97 0.K 50.07 8..21 16 20 1150 4.06 147 22.21 18 00 11.98 7 84 0.67 27.07 2 69 34 70 14.94 008 2.69 33 70 14.30 0.57 456 25.60 10.50 15 15 17.00 lb.00 8.06 I61 11 10 !I 00 6.50 F=(d.50 8 98 064 3 90 14.50 1100 4.07 I.58 3 28 850 7..62 2.50 lb.59 13.50 15 00 7 00 13 I6 15 50 0 08 2.91 0.5" 1357 15.07 13.55 382 13.92 0.50 6.14 26.47 20.07 14.68 1450 9.52 0 Oh 2.00 058 3.50 5.67 5 44 4250 20.06 I34 14.00 0. 3.48 17 03 008 3.72 6.50 7O-30.00 6 00 Submer&wcr 9.32 0 08 3.67 4 36 2650 13.00 15 50 7 50 15 49 18.07 31.39 054 481 36 50 17 78 0.07 2.165 0.70 15.90 3140 15.80 8.50 650 11.150 4.72 3 36 7.30' 080 3.50 5.62 4.50 5 91 Q= F 19cfx DROP Concrete (to be used with fig.50 17.28 32 80 1450 5.95 6 70 7.52 44 50 20 84 061 5 51 45 50 21.5" 2450 13.07 12.50 1450 5.64 4 90 38.64 0.00 850 5.10 0. 43.850 10 89 4.86 12.00 5.86 1750 10.19 19. F "2 h3 "4 l-2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d2 LX dl +hv.50 3.92 11.10 14 50 5.62 3.16 0.83 055 3.82 007 2.10 14.00 5 00 II.21 0 75 3.50 13.62 4.20 . = 4.30 II 00 8.29 0.84 0 78 5 21 45.57 4 08 17 50 .99 006 1.88 1990 Il.04 0.2b .60 1150 5 50 l5" 0.30' 0.61 0.28 29."6 50 IO2 50 I2 R = 3 75 feet 893 10.50 11.66 24.07 28. 5.00 150 0.50 18.50 1.66 23.50 2199 0 75 5 70 4x.25 0.50 14.50 550 12.79 0.00 7.50 21.90 36.50 7.70 15.59 6.62 5.00 0.50 10.93 18 18 008 2 90 43.50 22 37 0.69 32 80 14.50 5.00 14.34 .00 7 00 14.00 4 00 l5O 0.06 147 19.72 9. 2-30).80 15 50 750 16 15 1894 0.08 2 90 40.82 0.5 l 5.44 0. lnlei lb.20 14.-Type I pipe drop with concrete outlet transition PIPE Q= P h2 S"bllKrge"W h3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 d2 LX d.00 10.50 5 50 0.06 1.08 249 39 30 15 00 600 14 60 16.74 0 6.oo 850 4.10 8.50 550 10.72 10.50 18 92 0 74 4.35 1 08 006 1.50 2.7.091 0.5b 0.68 3 00 3 25 0.I 50 5.50 6.50 9 36 071 3 96 15 50 9 74 0 4 lb 10 0.250 11.00 5.40 14.66 3.62 3.30 14.06 1.11 45.43 5.07 2.50 19.96 8.00 4.1.49 5.+hvl 9 LX lhmetrr MITER BENDS Transition 4.00 5 00 11.100 4.50 21 cfs WITH Outlet of p*pc = 30 Inches 2.60 10 14 006 2.00 14.69 4. 16 26 0 08 2.30 2.00 8.54 05.8.25 46.50 lb.92 15 88 0.00 8.50 15.88 22 60 Il.04 34.85 4.07 1.58 12.50 10 12 068 3.65 5bl 46.07 2. 4200 15.00 15 00 6.21 6.50 6.00 7 00 733 8.52 46.07 2 28 36.26 13.70 14.21 17 10 Il.14 0.22 083 5.00 0 19 4 20 2350 12.00 7 00 7.50 23 13 R = 3 15 rcct 6 38 7 46 0 06 I61 18.50 18.29 0.80 il.00 7 00 7.50 12.80 3.30 47.50 450 667 7 4b 0.06 1.97 0.08 0.50 650 12 50 14 73 0.44 8.548 0.00 5. 00 8 00 l5O 0 69 4.30' 0 60 5.50 5.03 41.50 13.50 14.50 5 50 10.19 8.70 .50 4 77 35.40 .00 22'.40 15.27 0.70 11.00 150 0.50 7.59 15 50 0 01 2.90 15.08 3.90 15 50 7 50 I5 82 18.61 26.49 42.68 3 74 15 50 9.00 4.02 0.00 18.59 5.00 22'.07 2.25 2450 13.06 1.08 5.30 0.18 008 3 II 43.39 4150 19 69 11.00 0.16 0.07 2.00 5.58 5.08 249 40.50 14.00 15 00 6.07 2.07 9.50 22.49 3.26 1626 0.20 0 07 2.06 I.m-Continued.50 7 45 9.84 4.00 8 28 9 76 0 06 2 14 23.12 9.16 O.50 75" 0.00 10.41 19.04 0.00 0 b3 0 69 4.42 63.44 0.25 0.72 7 90 8.7.96 9.50 850 22O 30‘ 045 5.89 440 0.22 0.56 4.47 4.59 0.51 0 74 3.50 550 70.30 15.0" Il.49 41 10 I5 00 6.00 14 14 lb 64 0.50 21b" 0 70 5 65 47.50 073 342 . 008 2.50 17.25 0.50 16.46 4.00 6 "0 14.66 26.87 0.90 39. 50 12.92 10.50 4.00 6 00 6.b5 5 24 38.50 19 31 0.38 0. 0 06 1.60 3.50 Il.X8 0 08 290 38..66 3 67 .55 30.24 10.62 1350 8 98 0.04 0.56 5. 5.ld2+hvp) dl+hv.48 067 4.11 44.60 4.80 II 00 4.08 2.38 19.340 1100 5 00 5 10 593 0.Table 2-4.06 I88 20.60 047 5.25 11.25 12.=R+h2+0.14 25 40 1.29 3Y50 18.88 3150 15.8.14 6.21 7 50 6.30 0.28 3740 14.78 29.72 5 10 7.50 6.28 3100 14.55 006 1.66 27 30 14.l5 2250 1242 10.61 0.08 290 44.80 8 29 9.20 15.30 25.50 15.95 39.90 15 00 7.31 2.60 14 35 0.42 2.40 0.59 7 .17 006 1.(l.50 5.50 650 .28 33.66 25.18 5.01 2.89 0.60 11.) ln.05 007 2.9.07 1.63 3.61 468 33.50 5.60 3150 15 86 3.04 0.78 0. 2.50 .40 5.00 4.06 107 .04 0.19 13.11 0.54 12.30 8.92 14 73 2.70 Il.77 445 28.283 15.07 2.72 9 JO 8.400 5 00 11.41 0.07 11.150 5.50 13.82 450 2950 15 10 0.50 ofpqx = 30 inches O.21 2.00 4.06 1.50 5.50 4.50 21.38 006 1.50 14 33 .59 .052 0.55 4.42 50.67 0.00 .52 3.99 33.07 1.00 7 00 13.07 29.07 2.31 0.39 054 5 14 36.74 670 006 I61 16 20 11.78 0.48 5.50 5.07 1060 11.63 0 65 4.50 055 3.26 17.49 38 4" 15.00 15.60 I4 00 4 00 22'.150 8.80 15.92 .87 fp\ 4.00 15.10 9.2" .04 0.50 6.04 0 74 4.70 15 00 1.04 0.28 28 20 14.07 31.+hvl d2 LX F h2 h3 h4 L2 L3 l-4 s3 Submergence d.ct hvp = 0 23 Iout VP = 3.41 0 08 2. 6.55 12.97 1950 II 27 061 4 04 2050 II 65 0 68 4 10 2150 12.13 2.11 0.48 3.31 .50 7 50 1481 17.56 008 3.49 0.31 22 50 .07 072 5 48 4350 2045 055 5.72 8.03 6 70 0 06 1.50 7.242 0.7" 15.05 0.44 235" 12 80 0 76 4.08 3 I. h2 h3 h4 l-2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d.37 056 5.17 14.72 7 90 8.58 0.13 28.60 L4.50 5 50 13.50 1357 11.06 9.50 22 75 = l Id2 + hvp+ h3 h4 d~"etcr 01 WC 16.06 I . 103-D-1270-9 4 15 4.00 073 5.00 5 00 5.50 2199 0.49 0.00 8 00 8.45 359 4.08 3 I.050 7.69 35.53 3 64 0.88 21.50 70.5" 23 13 .01 0.06 I.54 070 4.75 1250 8.12 3450 17.30 11 00 4.93 0.20 0 07 2 69 31.30 11.28 27.10 0.06 1.50 22'.21 12.00 .06 1.63 0.50 12.48 3.50 12.95 1932 0 08 2.50 1152 13.50 7.01 0.348 15.60 18.50 450 6.50 6 30 0.04 0.50 5.21 15.28 3000 14.50 17.79 5.55 0.30 3.50 859 292 2 81 0.OJ 2.52 9.b9 0.06 1.28 fp< 2. +hv.90 1150 5 50 7.64 8.850 10.00 4.35 9.19 4.00 7.59 4 85 37.99 40.00 7.77 5.89 11.04 0.60 5 19 37 50 18.50 II 27 0 76 4 25 2O50 .04 0.00 Dlametei 3.83 0.36 0.35 0.79 4.50 18.02 0.14 24.47 21.00 5 00 4.28 35 60 14.90 1450 6.

5" 5.58 5.99 0.50 8.47 5.07 0.50 20.56 38.24 18.13 R = 3 75 feet hv 0.66 13.50 15.00 4.08 3.00 4.00 4 00 0.50 0.76 15.07 2.85 22.08 2.50 21.78 0.78 5.64 4.31 34 7" 15 "0 14.10 18.61 5.50 20.60 14.30 9.50 13.62 7.00 07 07 6” 14 00 13 72 1664 5.58 0.09 13.06 145 9.12 26.50 12.503 17 79 0 OX 3 52 43 0” 6.16 I I .66 15.00 13.61 5.40 551 37.08 3.90 15.14 6 31 0.49 19.0" 22'.00 5.15 43.14 4.62 4 54 18.71 15.18 27.56 0.76 0.06 I45 8.50 8.60 "56 6.38 8.00 8 99 0."" 0.99 28.10 16.68 0.07 2 69 0.84 5.98 0.54 071 0.05 0.50 6.50 8 25 10 14 3.52 5.63 38 9 0 2 22 0.46 49.08 4.17 0 "6 I 34 12.50 18.68 6.08 352 35 60 15.10 0.62 383 II 5" 8 :I 0.08 14 35 0 08 12.00 15 00 7.07 6.76 5.05 0.62 641 4850 22 37 0.50 0.45 0.25 14.50 50.50 7 06 7 “I 0.45 Il.00 II.50 9.30‘ 0.56 5.03 19 32 352 43.54 33.69 26.72 7.49 5.50 17.08 12.0" 055 3. 2-30).03 0 08 352 41 10 15.70 4.00 11.49 2.50 0.50 21.73 44 80 16.10 49.71 5.06 37.00 9.48 15.49 3.73 46.60 4 30 17 50 1051 0.05 25.33 15.oo 7 on 11.00 (to De used with fig.00 15.42 4.60 34.52 o.3" 15 50 8.05 I.65 350 7.50 6.08 I86 16.50 0.90 15.89 0.0" 12 97 1626 077 542 31.00 0.94 0.30' 0.50 8.34 0.63 hameter of p.20 15.49 24 50 14.00 9.15 22'.64 4.52 34 70 15.07 2.82 12.50 8.00 352 4" 20 15.Table 2-4.07 19.01 0.57 5.0” 0.18 0.47 4.50 19.50 20.73 40.49 3.48 17.02 0.54 0.46 0.49 22..91 8.50 15.07 2.23 0.62 5.57 5.91 11.60 18.94 6.00 .00 14.07 2.50 13.50 .35 0.08 290 31.00 0.22 0.50 11.j i.50 II 65 4 “0 5 17 0.36 18 5" lo.78 4 74 24 50 13 19 (1.68 5.70 14.00 2.88 16.81 9.90 10.0" 8 00 13 08 15 88 0 08 331 38.08 3.72 3.79 4.00 800 072 468 23.77 4.280 0.30 14.50 15 48 0.58 19 32 0.44 6 70 O "6 I.92 0.49 21.52 39.50 859 3 99 1350 8.00 14 27 17.73 42.76 10.12 36.08 352 3740 15.00 13.14 439" 16.50 "08 3 31 37 40 15.50 8.00 16 00 9.44 0.10 14.50 1892 0.0" 14.50 4.2 11.50 350 0.20 14.84 0.88 6 31 0.50 22.50 14.50 13.10 MITER BENDS Transition 5. d2 LX F b h3 “4 L2 L3 L4 s3 S”hElCIge”CX 9 LY dl+hv.13 0.50 3.5" 0.84 12.14 12.70 16.30 0.50 3.06 1. + hv. 1.25 45.7" 41.00 9.90 29.00 15.57 058 5.73 6 00 47.50 17 39 0.50 12.20 16.80 15 00 8.50 II 21 0 08 3.72 2.30 IL.30 0.08 3.88 0.19 0.22 2.91 0.5" 14.00 15.70 16.32 861 0 07 2 07 2” 8" 14 0” 5 00 h”* = 0..07 + hvp + h3 h4 dnmeter of p.80 6.07 2.08 3.00 9.00 5.50 18.00 12.72 6.50 7.00 II 00 5.49 0.52 36.19 1.06 3.50 3.00 6.77 5.50 6.50 5.00 2.17 31.05 1.00 8.X 0 08 7.92 10.39 103-D-1 270.00 3.50 7.50 14.98 10 79 II 1320 (1.49 20.05 48.16 13.ld2+hvp) 6 37 7 84 0 "6 I88 19 0” 3 70 4.80 1050 450 054 340 6.00 6.50 18.91 39.40 006 1.00 5 00 22'.20 13 50 450 950 12 II5 0.05 1.21 10.43 4.43 3.4" 16 26 4.42 13.-Tvpe I pipe drop with cotwrcte outlet tramitioil PIPE r h2 h3 “4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d2 k d.94 2 IO 0.64 0.90 15 50 8 5" 15 36 18.50 8.73 38.00 150 083 3.50 22.91 40.7" 16.90 30.07 2.23 32.61 3.00 I I 00 5 on 1100 6.69 8 23 150 081 4.08 2 90 31.62 17.50 5.29 33.50 668 6. 5.50 4.34 II 60 4 25 5.59 10.00 16 00 14.7 I 0 80 0.43 3 3" 5.94 5.80 14.50 16 25 0.71 5.50 12.50 8.40 14.55 0 07 1.08 3 73 41.97 008 3 31 33 70 15 00 8.10 0.64 0.25 0 06 1.07 2.08 3.65 0.00 9 00 22".50 8.90 45.64 4.07 1.57 111.5U IO.10 10.00 5.90 14.31 31.30' 0.81 4.14 1282 0.95 1741 0.14 46.50 22'~30' 0.58 3.00 6.22 050 630 46.21 7.50 850 053 3 90 1050 7.35 34 50 17.90 27.86 14.23 1052 0.50 17.00 11.50 21.50 10.86 0.08 4 14 44.50 8.20 0.42 15 II 3.69 27 30 14.60 14.07 2.50 20. 1.68 440 16.49 26.56 5 65 40.99 0.08 3 31 32.10 15 00 7.08 2 9" 33 70 15.28 16.73 0.10 14.60 13.70 3 35 4 02 006 134 9.72 4.44 13.36 3050 15.69 6.38 0.0” 7.27 4 29 5.86 4450 20 84 060 433 15.84 0.80 16.50 6.00 13.07 1.71 6.66 12.90 2R.68 950 7.52 42 00 15.20 5.50 850 15 70 1894 008 373 45.50 19.15 4 93 27.5c 8.70 0 "8 0.50 1931 0.56 008 3.40 f”Of VP= 5 09 fps 4.69 5 18 6.31 Subrncrgencc 0.+hv.06 1.07 0.70 12.62 4.50 23.07 21.69 25.47 12.93 0.00 4.) 8.00 0.84 5 93 0 “6 5.40 14.00 6.68 8.11 30.50 18.07 5.71 4.78 21.70 16.08 0.50 20.23 16.50 13.98 8.07 18.61 007 2.49 7.79 0 "8 4 14 43.5 I 4.75 12.07 8.86 2 30 2 87 0.81 43.49 23.07 1.31 31.08 3.68 6 09 42.5" Y 36 7.35 47.76 13.45 0.60 8.69 055 5.16 0.91 12.50 3.66 11.97 064 5.05 0.pc 6.00 2.00 0.07 13.o7 ?.5 1 5.60 14. F "2 h3 "4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence 9 LX d.55 0 06 161 13 4" 11.50 10.00 11.99 24.99 2.61 6.” 5 75 3.=R+h2+0. 6.07 7 90 11 29 0 “7 0 07 Q = 25 cfs P h2 h3 he L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d.86 3.00 5.08 2.50 12.30 14.30 13.90 44? 1950 11.50 17 78 0.64 5.67 0.62 19.70 14.00 Ii0 I61 14.63 5 66 35.87 0 05 0.87 11.00 1000 10.40 1300 4.00 i.89 10.4" 15.25 0.50 22O-30 0.73 O 08 331 35 60 15 00 331 36 50 15 0” 8 0" 8.50 16.71 20.92 18.80 0 07 14 05 17.18 11.08 290 32 80 15 00 7.08 4.50 269 28.58 0.42 0.00 7.63 4 93 23 50 .31 0.70 DROP Concrete WITH Outlet 4 54 3.40 16 "0 9 00 0.62 4 07 14.08 7.50 14.74 4.06 1.50 16.86 6.03 0.00 10.00 6.49 25 4U 14.00 14 38 1741 0.00 IO.7 I 0.53 4.89 0 13 8.42 35.50 21.02 15.40 0 06 I34 1060 3 95 478 0.00 105" 350 2.50 15.50 9.88 17.00 7 00 11.58 6.42 7 94 Y.50 4.69 29.63 0.00 6.ll 3.50 19.12 11.87 26 50 1395 0.42 5.64 5.82 0. +hv.60 1.50 6.07 2.64 5 30 29.48 3250 16 25 0.50 2.08 2.83 0.06 161 15 2" 2.00 10 00 10.04 0 55 4.50 6.00 8.95 13.08 2.21 8.16 1244 30.50 15.95 4650 21.15 15 50 9.24 28.07 7.5.50 I2 "4 7.57 0.45 1060 12.00 7.00 6.07 2.50 21.00 (l.51 3.84 38.12 8.52 6.OG 4.00 0.50 6.50 23.50 6.50 14.00 0.50 22'.69 5.05 29.78 dl+hv.07 17.50 15.07 2.00 12.00 5.69 24.08 4.53 17.08 -0 51 6.00 7 00 6. -Continued.14 45.33 0.00 16.21 952 1167 10.69 0.61 22.30 0.50 22.63 0.50 150 0.16 42.00 II "0 6 "0 II 0" 7 00 0.75 6.00 11.10 2 03 2.73 39 30 16 00 9 00 = I-Id2 Ink.49 20.50 6.83 9.80 25.67 4.50 13.61 9 76 0.08 3.49 0.10 6 "6 7 46 006 1.29 0.50 1.00 14.80 12.07 2 07 19.00 5.08 4.36 10.50 6.00 6 00 72".50 12.77 3. + hv.45 9.30' 058 4 55 21.pe = 30 Inches 2.50 9.64 0.06 0.20 44.30 15.86 15 20 13.00 7.00 0.00 14 00 5 00 0.00 9.50 3.50 10.50 14.00 14 50 650 10.50 850 0.00 5.50 4.88 18 00 7 08 0 06 3.50 18.51 14.30 P = (d.01 10 0.46 5.07 269 23.00 0.00 050 5 60 39.55 10.74 11.94 7.15 50.91 9.07 1.57 5.03 41.75 2..00 10.77 547 36.65 4.

10 2 48 35.59 5.53 10.80 14.71 3.00 4.98 17.00 5 0” 14 62 16.50 7.38 0 09 1 66 22.00 11.00 70-30 0.10 11.95 7.30 19.18 3.12 45.61 0.44 24 5” 13.09 1.72 0 49 5.52 0.70 20.33 5.00 5.00 L5 30 17.58 6 50 6.60 16. d2 LX 2.36 5 93 0 08 1.00 150 0 54 3.89 081 4 98 36.05 0.50 5.81 3.39 067 4.25 0.14 15.50 13.50 21.50 15.52 0.55 8.95 3 80 4. .50 1062 0.10 2.48 37.72 0.35 5.25 feet 2.5R 11.+bv.44 3.80 9.29 0.72 4.30 17.09 2.09 1.26 10 14 0.54 5.95 7.06 0.10 2.66 23.66 26.18 ?I 50 20 19 0.00 19.00 16 5” 3 00 7 26 8 23 0.07 31.30 17.30 0.00 5.48 $6 70 19.50 4.09 2.50 20 95 0.39 23.20 0.00 4 00 10.08 13.50 6.69 5 56 41.78 3.48 25.60 4 14 18.59 13 97 0.20 19.07 38.00 4 00 .00 .78 0 07 0.52 18.42 4.00 12 25 13.87 0.77 5.50 19 04 0.73 8.091 ii.25 thmeter of prpe = 36 mches 3.36 0.59 15.50 5.93 I5 50 0.16 31.50 7.66 4.U8 1.72 3.00 1200 4 00 2.14 14.83 17 03 0 IO 2.50 20 57 0.06 0.61 3.50 17.5 1 3.00 12.85 19.66 26.d.90 13.50 LO.24 23.09 I 66 29.00 3.90 17 50 4.80 11.94 35.70 17 00 4 .03 30.19 II.80 13.~~ DROP Concrete 103-D-1 270-I 1 VP = 4 1” tpi hvp = 0.87 0 55 5 48 49.45 I” 25 11.50 4.00 6 00 16.ameter ofemc hv 9 21 10.00 7 “0 15 17 17.18 0.50 13.09 1.50 3.61 5.50 16.00 17.50 21.Table 2-4..50 17.oo 5 99 6.24 6.58 12.00 9.50 12.09 1.88 10.48 40.32 0.00 5 00 11.00 4 no 7.64 3.99 0.07 0 80 13.50 1866 0.66 28 20 17.85 33.48 3.66 33.63 28.90 43 90 20 00 7. I 0 18.67 5.65 1741 0 IO 2.09 2.50 3.09 2.50 8.40 7.41 4.07 0.87 11.00 6.44 48 50 22.90 16 00 4 00 15” 0 77 4.50 6.50 9.52 4.20 15 50 IO.98 0 56 5.00 6.33 36.93 14.30 0 54 4 32 17 5” II “1 6 30 7.08 1.02 0.42 6.3 1 0 08 1 07 15.69 0 62 4.00 7 00 15.50 14.31 2.49 ” 58 5 85 48.60 2.81 0.12 11. 7 94 8.26 foot 2.00 14.08 31.60 0.07 30.50 14.53 2 10 0.58 5 15 40 50 19 RI 0 62 5.50 17.28 0.42 0 63 5.28 35 50 17 89 0.00 4.08 17 50 Il.24 16 20 15.22 9.00 4.00 5.00 4.00 II 25 12.60 14 00 3.90 18.50 9.80 20.00 0.75 5 30 44.09 2.00 4.56 9.10 0.83 2.31 0 07 0 80 15.10 11.50 5 0” 15.90 17 “0 3 00 7 59 8.14 0.18 0.74 3.00 5.07 0.10 15 00 3.88 49.57 4.68 4 82 26.80 18.11 0 IO 2 48 36. +h”.56 0.93 50.90 43.07 42 00 19 00 5.02 0.75 0.600 3.95 16 64 0 09 2.-Continued. 38.22 “nmeter b2 b3 h4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence 9 LX d.50 9.30’ 0.92 28.50 12.00 3.30’ 0.90 2 87 0.00 6.30‘ 0.50 3 00 5.00 1750 4.50 17.00 4.07 0 80 10.07 0.09 1.52 50.09 2.50 13.1 I 0.73 5 24 34.78 4.06 040 6.39 18.60 18 00 5 00 13.49 20 50 12 15 0 82 4 56 21.00 4.58 4.58 0.34 0.54 0.09 2.91 0.40 8.30 062 4.42 5.10 2.42 38.40 5.50 11.04 0.68 3.50 5.60 19.50 12.98 0.80 12.~(l.50 21.07 14 30 15.00 3.31 37.24 19.95 inlet R = 4.28 0 48 5.00 22’.45 3.33 45 50 21.00 4.90 44.90 42 00 20.95 11.07 32.53 6.50 9 46 0.50 18.44 19 50 II 77 0 73 4.48 7.99 0 09 1.I 10 2.50 8.08 1.00 18.30 0.50 20.61 3.07 0.49 0.50 9.00 6.80 0.29 0.00 10.50 7.80 17.94 0.80 18 00 4 00 12.30 14 00 3 .49 0.07 35.70 20.00 4.07 37 40 I8 00 5 “0 14 28 15.20 0 09 I 66 31.40 19.91 13.76 25 50 14.67 0.20 3.13 0.00 3.40 13 50 3 00 5 66 5 93 0 07 0.42 4.00 16 50 3.66 20.81 32.“6 Submcrgencc = i.94 0 10 2.10 2.50 22.18 0.09 L.91 0.68 1856 0.50 7.07 31.20 14 00 3 00 6.00 12.19 19.26 0.25 d.88 u.53 5.50 5 00 11.07 34.00 il.29 21.90 46.00 3 0” 22’.00 22O-30‘ 0.20 18.47 39.50 4.08 1 24 17.01 0.62 5. + bv.62 4.00 12.50 16.34 0 79 5.85 13.17 12.00 6 70 0.5” 4 00 0.90 12.00 0.00 8.00 0.09 0.00 5.00 8 57 9.00 0.50 14.90 45.73 5 60 4?.50 15.24 9.50 16.50 14.48 43 90 19 00 6 00 16.36 0.25 ice.00 8 93 9 76 0.41 _..07 19.28 7 84 Il.66 6.76 46.97 0.70 18.00 15.53 7.50 23.69 0.07 0 80 9.48 0.5 1 4.56 0 10 2.97 15.06 0.50 17.6 1 3.82 0.02 37.79 12.75 0.10 2.50 6.50 0 10 2.-Type I pipe drop with concrete outlet trarzsition (to be used with fig.70 18 00 5 00 13.44 4.61 8.06 0.50 1.00 22’.00 10.50 1866 0.44 5.13 072 4 90 34 50 17 51 0 76 4.50 18.08 I .50 23.80 11.13 32.50 19.80 0.61 22.“” 14.44 0.00 4.60 13.09 1.00 7.50 15 60 0.00 17.44 5.80 8.4X 33.50 7.92 0.24 22.09 1.33 4.57 27.66 30.00 2o.10 20.d.50 22 49 0.48 39.50 4.09 I 24 19.03 0 09 2 “7 4 I.66 32.45 Q = 29 css F MITER BENDS Transition 4.16 13.82 0.74 3.17 18.19 0.80 12.50 19.14 2.00 22’.60 12.07 1.07 1340 14.l5 16 26 .43 5 37 46.67 29.70 19.30 18.65 7 50 7.06 0.513 23.40 5 68 44.08 1.10 4 40 0.55 10.10 2.59 10.30 “57 4 72 24.63 inlet R = 4.60 .42 U. 2-30).40 19 5” 6.85 12.00 18.ld.00 4 08 4.=.32 0.84 0 08 1.87 0.00 15.50 5.00 6 00 13.50 16.66 21.40 7 00 1.5.18 33.08 1.09 I .09 2 07 39 30 18.70 3.5” 6.67 5.00 3.92 8.24 21. _ + hv.60 9.00 13.30 0.67 0.80 16 2” 14 5” 3 00 6 63 7 08 0 08 1 “7 17.26 8.07 12.00 3.73 5.64 43 50 20.73 0.70 13 00 3.08 1 07 IX.ld2+hvp) 9.00 11.50 18.5” 6.08 1.09 0.oo 8.83 16.7 I 4 24 20.76 0.=R+h2+ll.64 0.79 4.00 22”.00 0 63 3.07 28.49 5.00 4.70 18.00 7 00 16.00 70.34 18.00 0. PIPE Q = 26 cfs I’ 9 h3 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergence dl+hvl d2 LX F b2 h3 h4 L2 J-3 L4 S3 Submergence Ii.07 19 cl0 15.40 9 70 12.50 17.50 23 63 .00 70.80 4.50 15.7” 16 00 3 00 8.+hv.51 4 34 22.0” 3.50 15.1 I 39 50 19.30 0 74 4.51 12.50 11.20 15.40 0.50 19.91 14 50 9 86 0.00 5 00 10.00 4.50 14 83 .09 2 0.00 11.00 6 63 7.50 8.77 3.53 7.50 11 39 0 66 4.41 0.35 0 09 2.82 13.07 40 20 18 50 5.olJ 7.00 7v-30 0.00 5 00 13.40 18.24 0.89 10.00 6.10 2.64 0.81 15 88 0.00 22’.10 0 46 5 40 47.57 4.34 5.06 0.71 4.1” 2.00 14 49 16.40 5.58 0.00 6.24 2450 16.54 3.00 3.00 12 82 14.79 0.- 9 97 10.00 0.48 45.00 22’.73 4 02 16.54 3.00 4 00 I5O 0 80 4 27 16 50 10 62 0 62 4.50 13.25 0.48 44.82 3.35 19.00 150 0.66 5 22 42 50 2057 “71 5 26 43.00 14.00 4.60 17.50 6.05 5 55 0 07 1.50 12. 1: h2 h3 “4 L2 L3 L4 S3 Submergenc? dl+hvl 9 L. 40.05 0.I hr4 .01 18.06 0.10 2 48 43.09 1.10 17..50 14.4 1 I.10 0 54 5x1 47.54 0 45 4.25 14.66 25 40 17.09 1.10 18.50 4.95 0.97 29.30 17.72 4.15 7.24 20 80 16.50 3.73 0.68 3.78 0 07 0.10 2.07 27.50 4.50 19 00 6.07 0.71 0 77 4 01 12.08 1 24 18.46 0.00 1349 15.50 12.00 15 84 18.50 22.48 38. 8.23 0.64 4.08 0.00 3 00 3.00 12 54 14 35 0.09 2.59 5.50 22.09 I .00 4.51 0.+b-.90 41.70 19. 17. 00 3.09 2.49 13.60 9 38 0.07 29.00 ~~ WITH Outlet of pope = 36 Inches 2.64 0.79 5.61 0 09 I .06 0.08 1.55 0.10 15.53 26.60 13.61 10.31 6 10 0 07 0.87 27.48 34.67 4.86 0.30’ 0.47 4.66 23.80 1900 6.46 0.1” 2.50 15.00 7 9.09 2. VP = 3.72 30.06 0.66 31.66 27.50 8.50 22.67 fpn ihVp = 0 21 to”t 5 03 5 17 0.44 0.60 17.00 16.66 24.17 0.79 0 IO 2.24 25 40 17 00 3.09 2 07 36.50 5.

07 ?0.00 7.30 0.21 5.50 22.47 6.47 6.00 16.50 19 00 7.08 13.61 3.55 6 14 46 50 22.09 2.32 Oil 3.38 7.39 0 58 4 68 19.73 46.60 14 50 4.00 9.66 19.07 1990 17 00 5 00 7 00 8.09 2.00 15u 0.66 17 10 16 00 4.50 4 00 6 09 7 46 0 09 1 66 18.20 20.-Type I pipe drop with concrete outlet transition PIPE Lhmctcr Q = 32 cf< F h2 “3 “4 S”bmergence L2 L3 L4 s3 d2 LX dl + hv. + hv.66 4.06 0.01 0 73 4.47 11.90 8 50 7.54 49.70 17.48 4.pe = 36 mcher VP = 4.93 0.48 27. 2-30).34 0 50 6.50 22 87 0.00 12.50 14.80 0.50 21.93 37.09 2.60 15.38 0.00 9.46 0.98 d.60 20.59 5.78 4.06 0.10 2.00 15.50 15 50 3 00 4 57 5 55 0 08 I 24 13 40 16.53 5.63 r Y A c .50 17.33 30.18 10.07 19.50 3.09 2.80 21 00 9.20 12.04 0. + h3 X.25 2.08 1.20 16.84 12.50 12 15 0.10 18 00 6 00 1045 12.07 22.22 9.89 042 5 65 36 50 18.30 18.50 10 62 0.40 18.10 3 31 41 10 20.50 20.50 9.10 061 6 19 47 50 22.00 7.69 0 42 5.66 19.22 9.00 22’.70 5.50 6.50 7.65 4 71 17.50 18.86 0.73 42 00 21.90 38.50 21.98 9.73 44.60 35.08 1 24 15.80 6.69 4.03 18.00 6.08 I .18 42..15 10.50 17.00 6.53 II 61 0.50 7.10 2.+hvl 9 LX F S”herge”Ce d.60 15.80 7.10 2 90 36.10 2 90 35 60 1900 7 00 12 72 15 II 0.90 41.77 5.40 17.24 12.50 21.31 45 70 20.71 4 42 15 50 10.60 17 00 5.57 6.98 0.30 17.42 0.80 17.00 16.00 14.07 22.53 5 71 33.30 20.00 3.09 2.60 17.50 15.66 4.1 I 3.80 8.70 14.00 15.70 17 41 0 10 3 31 42 00 20.00 12 75 15 50 0 10 3 31 37 40 20.50 0.20 18 00 6.87 0.01 19.00 8.81 21.54 6 09 10.08 0 08 I .50 8.50 7 00 11.00 8.00 7 87 9.50 1.00 9.66 16.30 18.98 21.19 0.59 5.56 0.30’ 0.00 6.30‘ 071 5.42 0 64 5 85 40 50 19.69 5.49 0.67 2.18 0.50 15.14 $1.45 9.00 3.02 0.50 19. d.38 15.31 36.70 19.73 0.10 11.00 2 80 3.54 3.10 2.70 18.46 13.50 9 86 0.07 26.02 0 07 1.10 2.00 8.78 6 30 44.40 0.80 14.80 17 00 5.50 14.29 0. + hv.00 I1 13 13.79 II.11 26.35 14 50 9.09 14.00 5.48 29.70 37 50 18.10 3.20 16.52 6.50 20.05 17.40 46.90 8 00 15.+hv.50 22.07 1.30 7.20 16 00 3.48 28.62 6.35 0 10 2.66 0.6 I 0 09 I .90 13 00 3.56 5.11 3.63 inlet R = 4 25 feet 3.50 10 62 0.59 4.80 7.63 5.00 3.48 24.50 3.81 0.65 5.00 9.75 5 55 0.50 3 72 6.50 4.50 17.7 I 6 28 49 50 23.09 2.37 18.50 16 36 0 60 5 44 32 50 16.00 3.89 071 5..50 6 00 11.09 9.48 5.09 2 48 32 80 18 50 6 00 11.50 11.99 0 09 2 07 21 70 17 50 5.00 3.70 14 00 4 00 3.50 15.00 22’.00 22’.20 18.50 6.07 24.48 27.00 8.79 0.07 25.05 0.69 0.75 0.48 31 90 18.30‘ 0.92 7 50 7.70 0.00 9.17 0.76 1282 0 09 2 48 3100 18 50 6 00 11.41 0 II 3.67 3.00 0.08 1.58 5.80 5 99 43.13 0.52 BENDS fps lhvp = 0 32 Soot lnlct R = 4 25 feet 4.00 5.00 14.60 0.00 4.78 18.72 5 55 34.00 4 86 5.75 of p.07 0.84 0.71 0 66 4.00 150 0.07 7 90 1350 4.48 6.50 18.10 3 31 43.88 0 10 2. = R + h2 + 0.07 1.80 4 87 22.00 4.50 6.99 0.56 8.oo 1.21 11.50 11.58 0 10 2 90 32.50 5.77 3.54 30.08 1.00 5.03 0 II 3.00 5 37 6 31 0.10 12.95 0.63 9.43 28.31 35.00 7 00 I2 39 14.3R 0 09 2.49 0 65 6 23 48 50 22.33 1.30 15.66 20.07 0.00 8.00 7.00 14.00 7 32 8.80 5.40 20.24 0.08 I 66 18.66 14.00 0 67 5 50 33 50 17.77 5.94 0.00 0.09 2.94 0.08 1.66 0 54 5 75 38.09 2.25 0.24 10.00 7.08 1.50 7.51 2.96 4.47 13 58 0.81 fps hvp = 0 36 foot a000 3.00 9.50 15.20 0.80 3.00 20.30 053 5.00 1200 3.30‘ 0.00 14 37 17.09 45 50 21.00 0.49 5 30 26.00 7 00 IO.36 27.07 0.55 4.52 0.10 2.92 0.)-(l.50 I1 77 0.20 0.75 5.00 10.09 0 74 441 13 50 9.00 8.50 20.10 3 31 43.09 2.08 1.10 2.90 39 30 19.00 8.76 34 50 17.00 22’.10 21.07 23.48 25.58 4.51 0.09 2.07 9.50 23.34 0 42 6 35 45.10 2.32 50.00 3.50 23.97 0 10 2 90 33 70 1900 7.43 5 99 38.71 3.50 12.92 0 69 5 I! 23.60 7.00 II 78 14.07 1..70 21.10 3 31 39.30 18.95 9 76 0 09 2 48 23 60 18.83 16.91 0.00 8.31 41.73 45.50 1904 0.00 4 00 5 98 7.91 0.Table 2-4.11 3.18 0.00 150 0.24 25.00 7.62 4 06 10.45 5.50 15.10 0.60 50.50 4 00 5 77 7 08 0 08 1 66 17 IO 16.00 2 95 3.10 0.50 14.48 16.56 4.66 16.50 23.24 1340 15 00 3.00 14 04 1664 0.00 1242 15.8” 4 84 19.50 6.30’ 0.56 15.57 0 70 6.95 3.90 30.45 4 93 23 50 13.50 13.00 5.50 19.00 22’.45 47.54 5 38 31.28 0 48 5.36 0.56 17.18 0. h2 “3 ha L2 L3 L4 s3 % LX VP = 4.90 19.30 0.83 6.00 3.17 0.00 5.82 4.87 0.64 6.5 1 10 14 0 09 2.56 8.49 4.09 2.60 0.50 17.03 11.00 4.84 0 08 1.04 39.00 6.09 2.00 7 00 13.00 8.50 3.28 13. 39 0.43 5.09 2.76 0.06 0.95 0.50 15.10 2 90 37 40 19.10 2.90 31.50 8.11 0 IO 3. F h2 h3 h4 L2 L3 L4 s3 S”bIllEXge”Ce d2 LX d.48 29.80 6.00 3.82 35.40 19 50 7 00 13 72 16 26 0 10 2.94 42 50 20.80 h~rnetcr WITH Outlet = 36 Inches 2.50 11 77 0.49 48.00 3.29 0.34 1250 9.83 16 36 19 32 0 10 3 31 46 70 2050 8 00 22’.07 8.50 9 48 0 63 4.00 4.78 4.50 20.80 19.49 0.30‘ 0 75 6.08 15.74 13.00 4 00 6 93 8 23 0.48 29.83 10.10 3 31 40.50 18.63 5.41 16 26 0.46 5.50 9.00 13 05 15.33 9.50 7.80 13.48 14.00 13.97 0.70 21.75 20.72 0.50 7.13 0.70 18 56 0 IO 3 31 44.08 I .60 31. --Continued.08 I 66 15 20 16 00 4 00 5.00 2.18 0.19 9.50 5 .57 4 64 16.08 I 07 11.90 34.72 4.44 0.00 13.00 0 70 4 13 11.50 8.07 14.00 19.48 28.50 16.10 0.19 0.4 1 F=(d.00 6 00 0.d2 + hv.81 0.81 7.72 5.40 0.00 13.08 1.50 17.07 0.15 0.50 14 07 0.50 12.00 4.44 0 09 2 48 30 00 1800 6 00 0.25 2.00 15.07 9.48 0.50 7.48 26.28 0.00 4.57 0.50 7.25 3 64 0.30‘ 0 78 5 23 28.35 0.93 0.73 43 90 21.90 16.24 14.30 0.50 14.24 0.00 13. h4 dmnetcr ofplpe hv 8 57 1052 0.50 5.45 4.00 13.05 25.52 463 18.00 13.95 0 44 6.ld2+hvD) MITER Transhm 103-D-l 270-l 2 4.71 4.64 0.00 0.65 5.23 2.04 44.90 31.81 13.56 0.50 8.41 Q = 34 cfr F “2 “3 h4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence of ppr DROP Concrete (to be used with fig.31 38.16 27.+hv.06 5.50 8.39 2.80 II 67 0.54 4.09 2.87 36.00 24.08 1 24 11 60 15.50 14.00 22’.01 21.10 3.90 34.89 10.50 19.30 16.50 16.00 70.50 13.00 6.09 2.00 19.10 19.72 Cl.00 4.36 18 18 il.50 8.00 8 00 15.26 11.00 15O 0.69 6.59 6.01 0.15 4.50 10.07 0.50 8.10 3.00 5 16 6 31 0.50 13.07 0 80 7.00 17 00 5 00 6 70 8 23 0 09 2.00 22’.00 15.50 1254 0.73 0.70 19.00 6.70 17.00 10.50 11.00 6.92 20.85 4.07 10.50 6.62 5 05 22 50 12.50 20.24 43.83 5.12 12 05 0 09 2.65 32.18 0.24 I2 50 15.26 10.17 12.45 10.74 5.50 1254 0.90 33 70 19.25 0 07 1.00 3.49 0.51 0 78 5.00 21.73 43.50 6.00 8.06 Submrigence = .82 0.67 6.00 12.14 0.18 24.90 40 20 19 50 7 00 14 38 17 03 0.50 20.96 2.00 17 00 4 00 6.75 3.70 0.6 I 0.24 8.60 17.80 2050 8 00 1602 18.80 39.73 16 64 0.28 29.31 4.00 8.50 4.13 3.79 4.00 1049 12.09 2.88 0.50 19 81 0.11 3.

CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 93 .

50 7.00 5 25 5.65 12.00 2 87 0.71 10.44 0.84 1.49 6.57 5 76 3850 061 5 80 3950 19.05 10.21 10. J-30/.60 15.20 15 00 5.50 15.58 50.00 4 00 Ip.78 0.31 0.09 2. “2 k3 4 Submcrgcnce dl+hv.12 7.09 1.33 93x 008 1.66 17. “mnetcr 2.74 4.50 2107 5.50 009 2.50 21.50 16.50 0.69 35.09 1.75 seeet 432 4.44 6.00 5.29 0.00 f-30.10 2.50 13.09 2. + hv.50 22.28 14.00 4 00 555 6.66 7.07 29.60 14.06 0.99 0.5" 4.34 18.32 0.00 15 00 5.40 18.51 5.30 0.53 5.52 4.55 (to be used with MITER BENDS Transition VP=4 4.45 0.78 of pqe = 42 mchw 3.92 1.80 19.90 41.28 36 50 18.75 5.50 7.57 4.09 1.19 14.36 10.50 8 83 0.50 6.49 II.87 0.99 063 6.59 6.94 10.50 6.59 11 62 13 58 19.00 14.14 0.00 7.856 0.50 13.82 0.49 0.71 5.25 0.62 I? 05 0.08 8.33 0.08 0.13 .25 16.25 0.00 7 “0 2.50 15.39 0.50 16.97 12.18 7.24 495" 23.91 0.00 4.00 0.08 1.80 0.66 19 90 17 00 4.50 840 9.00 5.50 14.37 8. = R + h2 + 0.20 18.50 28.66 5.60 18.92 0.00 4.00 8.78 0.07 34 7" 18.94 13.09 2.50 14.60 16.12 40.50 5.62 5.00 8.58 5.72 16.00 12.36 082 4 71 15 50 10.50 5.88 16 26 0 09 269 39.21 42.50 3.71 37 50 19 16 0.72 5.50 12.09 2.93 14 73 009 2 28 35 60 1850 5.50 5.06 065 4.68 4.59 630 4450 21.50 22'.70 18.07 31.50 3.90 19.50 14.01 1032 11.37 043 6.00 6.30 0.06 0.68 462 16 50 11.5" 065 5.70 19.20 15.00 0.39 46.10 3.79 0.70 12.55 29.33 25.40 15.55 5.80 18.02 14.50 22'.60 17.72 32.20 I5 00 5.84 2. + hv.26 18.28 38 4” 18.61 14.39 0.43 3.65 4.50 4.91 0.40 15.30 3.36 12 50 0 07 fig.00 12.00 5.28 50.61 17.81 7.07 45.34 16.66 6.48 48.09 1.31 0 08 1.09 I.80 15.80 17.10 0.“” Q=43cf.50 22.Table 2-4.03 0.68 5.94 0.ld2+hvp) 3.57 5.37 6.61 13.20 8.58 19 32 u 10 3 31 16.66 21.53 6.41 0."" 8.08 1.09 2.00 22'.48 3.00 4.09 2.66 9.00 7.77 5.43 11.00 6.66 7.86 24.50 22.50 23.10 18.02 38.49 34.09 2.52 33.50 6.00 6 00 II.21 11.41 5 71 33.50 20.23 O.30 0.04 0.07 33.50 4.10 17.50 24 13 Inlet R = 4.70 0.10 9.50 6.00 12.93 42.00 5.73 009 2.63 5 97 37 50 048 6.50 17.50 15.23 27.20 0.42 0.00 0.52 0.68 5.66 8.50 9.07 1 07 17.09 2.30 1850 6.00 6.06 0.00 16.96 13.93 008 1.50 6.50 8.95 12.29 II.86 22.00 0.00 060 4.90 46.10 19.77 6.08 1.00 5.00 18.60 14.31 10.50 15.12 069 4.43 31.50 19.86 28.61 0 08 161 2360 15.08 1.dwnetrr 7.50 4.00 4.98 0.00 18.0" 19.29 11.81 4.35 45.30 0.30 15.08 1.50 3.50 18 01 12.61 0 09 20.50 22'.50 0.50 059 6.99 0.07 16.94 12.86 31.57 13.06 19.50 outlet tratlsition 19.07 14 30 15.50 14.90 43.90 44.10 15.51 5.54 6.90 362 3 64 0 06 0.49 32.66 4. F “2 h3 h4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence d2 LX d.50 F=(d.9" 40.07 27.09 2.97 009 249 33 70 18.57 5.10 0.44 009 2 07 30.08 8.94 8.09 1.55 0.65 5.18 0.11 46.07 39.00 6.50 10.50 0.50 18.10 2.48 0.50 16.00 6.00 0.5 I 0.85 5.50 18.00 4.74 1850 0.50 9.82 0.44 47.65 0.5" 14 19 0.50 3.30 18.61 22.90 15.64 6.00 2.09 1.89 12.75 feet 1.50 11.7 I 2.09 269 38.07 094 9 70 14 50 3.03 0 IO 2.09 1.50 350 15" 044 4.50 17.5” 18.66 7 90 0.09 2.64 5.24 2.29 .69 37.66 7.06 0.59 5.50 22.50 6.69 41.94 11.68 70.50 IO.50 5.55 2.93 6.64 11.70 5.67 4.80 18.00 5.53 6.00 5.60 18.08 6.84 17.4" 15 26 17.67 0.09 I 66 11.08 1.76 0.72 4.50 10.85 20.46 0.80 1200 5 00 12.27 12.83 I1 29 4.00 065 6.00 0.50 13.65 13.00 17.00 5 00 12.5" 4.19 48.49 0.00 6.52 5 87 35.08 1.30 0.46 5.95 5.50 7 68 0.50 24.09 2 07 32.60 17.41 7.45 0.49 5.60 14.58 0.17 0.09 2.46 0.09 1.60 4.72 4.79 19.23 0.16 22.15 9.50 0.86 27 3" 17.50 16.?6 5.07 5 I5 5.50 8.50 17.00 5.50 806 Ii:47 4.35 009 2.50 0.95 17.57 0.00 8.69 36 50 18 50 6.62 0.98 10.50 13 04 0.00 4.68 1129 0.10 1850 650 0.06 0.50 14.30 0.09 1.00 12.22 0.36 10.30 13.00 3.69 42 “0 15.38 0.57 557 34.50 20.00 0.89 12.28 28.10 0.25 0.70 18.08 24.62 5.72 2.50 ".00 70.53 49.39 26.00 5.18 0.14 1.69 0.60 30.80 14. 0.90 18 50 6.00 6.40 17.49 14.00 9.86 29.00 0.69 45.38 3050 16.54 0.00 15" 0.00 0.94 0.28 24.28 16 26 (I 09 2 28 39 30 18.50 1380 0.49 7.3 I 20.00 5 00 4 03 440 007 0.78 0.13 25.10 15.22 10.30 17.00 5.50 17.94 13.75 1250 9.50 6.50 0.48 32.15 47.43 13.10 11.50 9.60 13.45 997 11.06 0.00 7.+hvI)-(I.00 0.00 12.27 1362 15 50 0 09 2 28 37.61 21 70 15 00 6 00 8.67 4.54 6.50 16.99 0.79 4.511 6 50 15.00 4.16 d.04 10.69 6.30 17.09 2.50 hvp = 0.50 7.34 19.5" 13.98 0.96 18.00 18.-Type I pipe drop with comrete PIPE 0 = 40Cf\ "2 “3 “4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submcrpcnce dz L.50 1095 12.86 26.09 1.10 15 0” 18 00 15.79 6.66 31.43 8.50 10.95 19.67 0.34 ?0.-Continued.50 22.33 16.50 12.86 0.70 18 00 5.07 0.50 23.56 0.74 6.01 8.27 fuot 0.09 2.75 7.35 0.50 18.00 7O-30 0.00 1227 13 97 0.74 0.09 1.09 2.50 II.30 9.50 18.68 17.53 3.42 063 5.52 0.00 4.92 16.08 0.22 23.00 10.92 0.07 14.50 14.50 062 562 35.00 769 8.00 0.22 = 1 Id2 + hvp + h3 -.60 15.07 0.69 43 00 18.20 18.09 2 07 31.34 15.00 2.00 12.46 5.69 44.60 1750 4.88 6.02 0.50 13 27 IS.28 1741 18.00 4 00 6.91 9. L2 L3 L4 s3 dz L.20 19 0” 7.96 5.57 16.48 8.26 4350 21.51 0.73 4.02 0.25 0.70 6.40 14 50 3.55 6.90 18.31 45.18 2650 14 95 14.86 25.04 6.94 10.60 0.00 5.50 21.45 3.07 9.91 21.50 8.36 062 456 15 50 IO 74 0.06 0.98 43.49 4. h2 z3 4 L2 L3 L4 s3 Submergence dz L d.00 7. h4 .61 0.61 14.08 1.02 23.56 4.50 4.07 12.08 1.84 0.52 4.67 5.57 5.00 22'~30 0.50 23.44 27 50 15.64 14.50 13.81 5.75 8.22 4.50 2.69 0.13 3.93 15.10 29" 43 00 19 00 7.70 19.64 007 0.07 13.50 4.6 I 25.74 4.76 0.86 23.50 0.09 2.63 241 2.20 17 50 4.31 foot 8.91 2.45 0.31 0.33 29.96 22.86 30.50 5 50 14.50 11.8" 18.50 6.09 15.08 I 34 9.51 11. 103-D-1270-14 Ihfp\ 545 5 93 0.09 2.00 7.69 43. + hv.70 17 “0 01 ppe hu 18.50 13.34 Inlet 7 04 7 84 0 08 R = 4.90 18 00 5 0" 0.00 4.27 15 11 0 09 2.00 5.16 11.30 0.40 0.93 16. + hv.59 0.64 5.50 22.50 18 01 0.74 5.50 il8l 5.60 0.12 IL. d.63 WITH Outlet 4. 6 73 1.07 28.34 19.27 40.82 34.06 0.50 I2 93 15.94 I5 88 0.50 21 84 0.50 6.63 4 78 16.50 15.50 I<0 DROP Concrete = 42 mcho 3.64 10.50 4.20 0.50 5.59 4.00 17.54 VP=447 6 09 6 70 0 08 6.50 hvp = 0.00 6 00 24.09 21.00 5.92 4.63 4.00 3.06 0.09 2.71 5 89 41 50 20.08 IO7 15 2" I5 00 4 00 9.64 Submergence 069 6.00 5.61 36.28 950 8.17 0.10 12.50 9.50 14.08 1.56 4. Dwnetcr 01 pqx 3.50 5.11 0.84 5.49 31.75 4.15 8.79 0.00 5 “0 12.07 II.40 18.84 40.86 26.08 1.01 7.66 9.10 290 42.00 7.

CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 95 .

3 1. freeboard incorporated into their Freeboard for concrete outlet design. or 4 may be used at the inlet if the pipe drop is a adequate . A detailed discussion on pipe collars and percolation may be found in subchapter VIII C. -The principle hydraulic elements of the type 2 pipe drop are the upstream transition. 2-32). Figures 3-38 and 3-39 are standard designs for these structures and have CANAL STRUCTURES and sections. The type 2 pipe drop is similar to the type 1 pipe drop except that a reinforced concrete transition of the type 1. the inlet structure. 2. and the outlet Ttructure. -Type 1 pipe drop structures have either a check and pipe inlet or a control and pipe inlet. Pipe collars may also be necessary to discourage rodents from burrowing along pipe.96 SMALL Figure 2-31. Pipe drops should be examined to see if collars are required. thereby preventing removal of soil particles (piping) at the point of emergence. 103-D-1271. 2 . (d) Freeboard. 3. Type 2 Pipe Drop Structure Components and Design Considerations (fig. Type 1 pipe drop-plan of the pipe or through the surrounding earth. the pipe. transitions should be in accordance with chapter VII.

103-D-1272.Figure 2-32. Type 2 pipe drop-plan and sections. .

Some of the more common types of stilling pool outlets used are: broken-back transitions and straight CANAL STRUCTURES or curved diverging vertical walls extending into the earth canal banks on each side. the minimum pool length should be 3d.-Type 2 pipe drop structures have either a check and pipe inlet. (a) Buff7ed Outlets.. and 2 feet 6 inches deep and 8 inches thick for water depths from 3 to 6 feet. (d) Desigrz Layout. and lay out a tentative bottom grade line. -Baffled outlets are generally used at the outlet end of a type 2 pipe drop to dissipate excess energy. Figures 3-38 and 3-39 are standard designs for check and pipe inlet and control and pipe inlet and have adequate freeboard incorporated into their design. a control such as a weir must be provided in the outlet structure. See subchapter II F for design of stilling pools. Where use of the stilling pool is to be intermittent and for short duration of flow. to cause the hydraulic jump. Critical depth over this weir control section should be used to determine the downstream energy gradient. ( b) Stilliug Pools. or a type 1. such as is most wasteways or structures carrying flood water. a control and pipe inlet. Assume that a control and pipe inlet will be the feasible type of inlet structure to minimize erosion in the earth canal upstream from the drop.-The topography for the canal at this station is assumed to have a road crossing the canal and an abrupt drop in the general terrain. See chapter VI for a discussion on baffled outlets.* ) from minimum energy elevation downstream of the pool. 2-3:). (e) Freeboard. Cutoffs at the ends of the concrete transitions should be a minimum of 24 inches deep and 6 inches thick for water depths 0 to 3 feet over the cutoff. The pool reduces velocity and turbulence of the water at the outlet end and thereby reduces erosion in the channel below. . Where uninterrupted use or long duration of the flow is expected. for any pool depending on downstream tailwater for sufficient d. Riprap or gravel protection is generally used on the earth transition section. These controls are especially suitable for wasteways discharging into natural channels. 3. Where an earth transition is used at the inlet or outlet. A type 1 pipe drop sumped to dissipate energy and to cross under the roadway is assumed to be the feasible structure to use. the elevation of the pool floor may be determined by subtracting (d2 + h. 2.. For rectangular pools with discharges up to 100 cfs. Where broken-back transitions are used. Figure 2-36 of subchapter II F shows such a control. Freeboard for concrete transitions should be in accordance with chapter VII. or 4 concrete transition. Design Example of a Type I Pipe Drop with a Control and Pipe Inlet (see fig. From this same profile a study can be made to determine the tentative location of the inlet of the structure and the proper location of the stilling pool or the baffled outlet. it will usually be helpful to first plot the profile of the natural ground surface on the centerline of the drop to natural scale on cross-section paper. the width of pool may be determined by the empirical formula . The aperture in the weir permits the pool to drain. the minimum pool length should be 4d..SMALL 98 cross-drainage structure and a baffled outlet or a stilling pool is always used at the outlet end. A portion of a transition may be made in earth provided the velocity at the downstream cutoff of the concrete transition is not too great for erosion. the top of the walls should be the same elevation as the pool walls. it should be a minimum of 10 feet long. In general. 2-32. = 3h%/v Q + 350 where b = width of pool in feet and Q = discharge in cubic feet per second. Stilling pools are sometimes used at the outlet end of a type 2 pipe drop to dissipate excess energy. (c) Outlet Trmsition-The outlet from a stilling pool connects the pool with the earth or concrete-lined canal downstream and prevents or lessens canal erosion. -While exact methods of design of pipe drop cannot be laid down. See subchapter VII B for protection. When the stilling pool discnarges mto an uncontrolled channel.

19 ft. (8) Energy El./m = b+3.12 2.5d2 wp= b+ 2. ft. AR2’3 = 7. 15. of 5 feet per second is numbered 42-l.35 7.09 feet per second and does not exceed the maximum velocity appreciably.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 99 Assume that for this drop structure it will be more economical to have a concrete downstream transition which will permit the use of a smaller pipe because the pipe velocity can be as much as 5 feet per second.415 1.81.0 5. sq. 2. h. A structure inlet with a 42-inch-diameter pipe and a maximum allowable V. v = V2 - 2g 0. 1. sq.06 = 5394.81 ft. y. H = 5392. could also have been determined by using table 2-5.00 (from a canal profile sheet).07 8.920 7.21 ft. 1. A=db+ (b) Determine. at Sta. Read R = 4 ft.90 ft. h.38. A = El.ft.35 which is close to the desired value of 7.00+ 2. a 42-inch diameter is considered satisfactory since V = 5.2 wp v = 1. (1) Type of waterway = earth canal. sq. 3.15 ft. 9 in. db. A = db+l .38 (see tabulation below). E=d+h. A = El.0 8. A + d.6O6d. l-1/2: 1 A = 25.81 + 0. wp = b+3.2 x 49 8. R x L% wp’ ~2.025 = = = = (3) Determine control and pipe inlet standard dimensions R and L by entering the structure table figure 3-39 for structure no. SECTION 1. (4) Determine the normal depth in the canal and its velocity head for a Q of 0.910 0.19 1.06 ft.95 6.5d2. (7) NWS at Sta.89 f. Assumed d.51 . -Figure 3-39 provides standard dimensions for control and pipe inlets. (5) Energy El.02235 = 7.0 (from a canal profile sheet).71 s’ ‘2 2.19 ft. = 1.44 I .0 + 2.02 ft.07 = 1.2 d2.33 R213 AR213 ft 0. Control and Pipe Inlets. Therefore for a normal depth of d = 1.21 feet per second. d.16 4.606d. 49cfs d. (3) El.29 4. (5) Determine the control notch dimensions using the procedure in subchapter II1 G. ft. ft. (a) Given.81 = 5408.8cfs The normal depth.2.0ft.p.87. at Sta. 0.5d2.875 0. ft.07 ft. and L = 4 ft..s.81 = CANAL 5394. 6 in. (2) Hydraulic properties of the canal at upstream and downstream ends of structure: Q= S:S = R= E= n= b = 5.andQT9.606d when d = 1. However. at Sta.. 0.2 the design Q. = 5406.38 Assume different water depths. d. = 5408. (2) Inlet Structure Number. 42-l.868 0. in the canal and solve for AR2 ‘3 until AR2 ‘3 = 7. (4) NWS El.06 = 5408.4 = 0. (1) Pipe size (see table on fig.87. ft.16 5.212 = __ 64. b.29 9. 1. A = 8. H = 5394.0 5. s = 0.ft.81.81 + 0. H = 5392. A = 5406.87 ft.0005 0. 2-31). (6) El. ft. -For a discharge of 49 cfs and a maximum allowable velocity of 5 feet per second the would permit the use of a table 45-inch-diameter pipe.33 9. NWS + h.= 1.

For full pipe: AZ = 9. = 0.70 ft.52 = 1. (8) Determine El. F = d.81 feet makeT= 2 ft..9 .28 ft. = 0. h “1 =k37 64.65 ..’ v. Try D = 0.83 ft. (6) Determine inlet box inside width.75 = 6.Refer to figure 2-28. Assume D = 0. also = h. 0 in. H = 5408.082 x 3.55 ft. = 0. (9) Determine vertical distance F shown on figure 2-28 = Energy El.08 P.2 d.0.04 + 1.20. = & = 5. T = d.09) + g 0.p. loin. or Minimum width = N+6 inches = (4 ft.20 x D = 0.5* 1.I 100 SMALL P= s= N= = 20 inches 0. = C x D2 = 0.52 ft.* 0.195.83.082 Y1 = C x D = 0. (10) Determine El. at Sta. V. = 5408. A Energy El.87 = 14 ft.) + 6 inches = 4 ft. CANAL STRUCTURES tables [6] for $ = 0. +3.1079 x 3.422 = 21.37 ft. = 2.2 f.68 ft. P the procedure outlined with d 2 = 49 (35. + 6 inches = (3 ft.s.5 = 0.20 x 3.75 = 5404. =CxD P. From hydraulic tables [ 61 for $ compute Y. h “2 = 0.40 ft. . top of sidewalls .8 5. Now. = From hydraulic 0. C of figure 2-31 = El. c = 0.50 P+2ST 4 ft. 6 in. at Sta.1 118 CxD2 =0.08.p.87 .5 2 = 4.5394.195 x 3. = s = 37.h.40 = lT. compute U.1079 A. for a pipe flowing partially full. (7) Determine El.2 .7 + 19. for pipe partially full: C = 0.62 x 32. ) and Y. Then from hydraulic tables [6] or [ 71 for area of pipe flowing partially full: C= A.287 ft.00 + 2. Then from hydraulic tables [6] or [ 71 for area of pipe flowing partially full. -Use the procedure associated with the above figure and hydraulic tables that may be found in different handbooks toLompute the cross-sectional area (A. = 0.65 ft.4. 6 in. d. following figure 2-28.50 = 0.86 + 0.R = 5408. D figure 3-39 (invert of box) = El. = = d.d2 . This is not compatible with the actual drop of 14. d. Minimum width = pipe dia.) + 6 inches = 5 ft. D .62 ft.83 . Use width = 5 ft.5 = 0.s.00 feet.195. top of notch and sidewalls = El. for pipe flowing partially full: C = 0. 6 in.1118x3. A + T = 5406.6.08 x 3.09 f.287 9.5 = 0. 0 in. + hvl . 0 in.20.32 ft.

62 ft. The inlet portion of the structure transitions the flow from the channel upstream of the structure to the chute section.1 d2 ) where 0. in the canal at the upstream end of the drop minus R and minus h2 = 5408. Figure 2-33 shows the relationship of the different parts of the structure.5 foot higher.94ft. The other portions of the pipe drop may be designed as explained in the narrative. and an F value of 14. F=di +h.68+21. and an outlet transition.’ v.0. El. Figures 2-35 and 2-36 show stilling pools and outlets at the lower ends of chute structures. as required. = 5.6.04 + 1.17.86 ft.0.6.CONVEYANCE 101 STRUCTURES For full pipe: A. D. L.00. WINSETT’ 2-33.81 4.87 . The $ ratio of 0. therefore use the next greater value which is 14.65 The first solution was El. If the . It should have cutoffs.40 = 14p.15 Use El. A chute structure may consist of an inlet. El. a chute section. Chutes are similar to drops except that they carry the water over longer distances. also = hv P +3. D = Energy El. or a control notch with the inlet. H .67 = 5387. Difference in elevations and distances that correspond to a discharge of 49 cfs. ‘1”2 = 0.65 .75 . to get El. Either solution is considered satisfactory.15 which is 0. D = NWS El.52 . The inlet used should be symmetrical about the centerline of the chute.75 = 6. it should allow the passage of the full capacity of the upstream channel into the chute with normal water surface upstream and where desirable. There is no tabulation for F = 14 feet.24 feet are taken from this table. Head losses through the inlet may be neglected provided they are small enough that they do not significantly affect the end result. The designer may use figures 3-38 and 3-39 for design of the inlet structures. a pipe diameter of 42 inches. over flatter slopes. Hydraulic Structures Branch..07 + 0. F.24 feet.0. CHUTES D.1 dz is a factor of safety.09 f. a weir. -hv =0.40 ft.) so use this ratio and dz = 6.40 . and through greater changes in grade.86 . it may be assumed that critical flow occurs where the flat grade of the inlet portion meets the steeper grade of the chute section. an energy dissipator. D = 5394. it should allow the channel upstream to be drained when operations are suspended. to provide a sufficient length of percolation path as computed by Lane’s weighted-creep method.r -d. The entire pipe profile may be extracted from table 2-4 which is for use with figure 2-30. By using these tables El. at Sta.. Otherwise the losses through the inlet should be computed and used in the determination of the energy level at the beginning of the chute section.p. If the bottom grade of the inlet is flat. Figure 2-34 shows an open channel chute on a steep slope. Reclamation. The chute section may be pipe as in a pipe chute or an open section as in an open channel chute. D = 5387. The inlet should provide a control to prevent racing and 4Civil Engineer.s. D = 5387.41 = 5386. -Chutes are used to convey water from a higher elevation to a lower elevation. Purpose and Description.20 produces a computed F value closer to actual (14 ft. Control is achieved by combining a check.5 2 = 5.65 ft. Bureau of scouring in the channel. = 9.(d2 + hv + P 0.

102 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES .

The use of a computer and programs similar to the one presented in appendix C makes these solutions less tedious. this velocity and its water depth should be computed and used to determine the energy gradient at the beginning of the chute section. The chute section. Rectangular slope. . If a concrete outlet transition is provided and there is no downstream control of flow in the channel.70 outlet must be controlled. Head loss in the outlet transition is neglected.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 103 Figure 2-35. the water surface at the Figure 2-36. Some of the solutions are obtained through trial and error. Stilling pools or baffled outlets are used as energy dissipators on chute structures. 2-36). If it is necessary to provide tailwater for the energy dissipator. inclined drop Figure 2-34. concrete chute Terminal wasteway into a stilling pool. P-833-128. generally follows the original ground surface and connects to an energy dissipator at the lower end. Most fluid mechanics textbooks discuss the behavior of water on steep slopes and in hydraulic jumps and derive the equations used to determine the characteristics of flow under these conditions. the transition may be used to provide backwater by raising the floor of the transition at the cutoff as 5hown on figure 2-33. with a rectangular p 343-529-112 NA on a steep p 482-417-908 slope of the inlet portion is made steep enough to support a velocity greater than the critical velocity. Control built into the stilling pool maintains tailwater for the hydraulic jump. Stilling pool and outlet portions of a spillway structure. An outlet transition is used when it is necessary to transition the flow between the energy dissipator and the downstream channel. either pipe or open channel. Tailwater may also be provided by building a control into the outlet transition (fig. Baffled outlets are discussed in chapter VI [ 8] .

375 times the Froude number(F). d = water depth normal to the floor of the chute. the chute section. Design Considerations. 0” = slope angle of the floor at the beginning of the trajectory. STRUCTURES g = acceleration of gravity. The maximum angle computed as follows: CANAL K = an acceleration factor as determined below: With the floor of the transition plane : in a K=O With the floor of the transition circular curve: K= ‘* gR cos 0 (3) With the floor of the transition parabolic curve: K= (tan 8 L - on a tan0. Limiting the angle of flare in an inlet transition minimizes the possibility of separation and pulsating flow being initiated in that part of the structure.010.375 x F is (1) where : (2) The mean of the values of F at the beginning and end of the transition may be used.0 14 is assumed. Open Channel Chute (b) Transitions. An abrupt change in section. Using Area of the section d= Top width of the section allows for various shapes of section. 0 = slope angle of the flocr at the point being considered. and 8.)2h. Unsymmetrical . A chord which approximates the theoretical curve can be drawn to determine the flare to be used. -Transitions in an open channel chute should be designed to prevent the formation of waves.2 ft. In computing energy values in a concrete chute. To avoid the formation of waves. The angle of the water surface with the centerline in the outlet transition may be about 25’ maximum. of deflection Cotangent = = 3. conservative values of n are used. either a convergence or a divergence may set up waves that can be troublesome as they travel through the chute section and the energy dissipator [9]. In (3) and (4): h. = velocity head at the origin of the trajectory. If this restriction does not control the angle of deflection. This restriction on deflection angles should apply to any change in section made in the inlet.’ 2-34. LT = length of trajectory. When computing wall heights in a concrete chute. V = velocity at the point being considered.SMALL 104 I. -In computing characteristics of flow in a chute structure. on a cos* B0 LT (4) The Bureau of Reclamation limits the value of K to 0. = slope angle of the floor at the end of the trajectory. or in the stilling pool. n is assumed to be 0. the cotangent of the deflection angle of the water surface in developed plan of each side of a chute transition should not be less than 3. R = radius of curvature of the floor. The flare angle and the widths for several points along the transition may be computed and plotted./set. g = 32. an n of 0.5 maximum to insure positive pressure on the floor. -(a) Manning’s Coefjicient of’ Roughness (n). the maximum deflection angle in the water surface in the inlet transition may be about 30’.

The slope of this steep section should be between 1. friction in the chute may be neglected. in the reach times the length of the reach L. (c) Chute Section. For chutes longer than 30 feet. +hV1 +Z=d. and h “2 = Velocity head at the downstream end of the reach. is the friction loss in the reach and is equal to the average friction slope s. For chutes less than about 30 feet long. The distance Z is the change in elevation in the chute floor. whichever is greater. .CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 105 inlet transitions and changes in alinement immediately upstream of the structure are to be avoided because they may set up cross waves or transverse flow that will continue in the chute section. The friction slope. the greater the accuracy will be. At velocities greater than about 30 feet per second. cutoffs are used to key the structure into the foundation. h “1 = Velocity head at the upstream end of the reach. dz is assumed and the energy levels are computed and compared.4 times the critical depth in the chute section plus freeboard. (d) Trujectory.s (7) where: s.. A vertical curve is required between the chute section and the steep slope section. + hvl > . When it is necessary to increase the resistance of the chute section to sliding. In equations (5) and (6): d. at a point in the chute section is computed as: s = n2 V2 f 2. water may take on additional bulk due to air being entrained by the water. The recommended freeboard allowance for chute walls will result in a wall of sufficient height to contain this additional bulk. -The usual section for an open channel chute is rectangular but the flow characteristics of other shapes should be considered where wave suppression is an important part of the design. The equation: d.(6 + hV2 ) s. Bernoulli’s equation is used to compute the flow variables at the bottom of the chute. sf. In using equation (7) a stepwise procedure is used in which small changes in energy are assumed and the corresponding change in length is computed.2R4’3 R = hydraulic radius of the section. = Depth at the upstream end of the reach. The height of the walls in the open channel chute section should be equal to the maximum depth computed in the section plus a freeboard allowance or to 0. + Z = d2 + hvz + h. Another form of the equation in which friction is considered is: L= Cd. Economics and ease of construction are always considered in choosing a section. a short steep section should connect the trajectory with the stilling pool.010. (6) The quantity h. +hVz (5) is solved by trial. -When the energy dissipator is a stilling pool. friction losses are included and the equation becomes: d. Additional trials are made until the two energy levels balance. + h. Flatter slopes may be used in special cases but slopes flatter than 6 to 1 should not be used. = average friction slope s = slope in channel floor. This procedure is repeated until the total of the increments of length is equal to the length of the reach of chute being considered. The recommended minimum freeboard for open channel chute sections (capacity 100 cfs or less) is 12 inches. The smaller the increment of length is. d2 = Depth at the downstream end of the reach. Depth and freeboard are measured normal to the floor of the chute set tion.5 to 1 and 3 to 1 with a slope of 2 to 1 preferred. Using either equation (5) or (6). Manning’s n is assumed to be 0. A parabolic curve will result in a .

parallel walls. when substituted into equation (4). = The angle of inclination of the chute channel at the origin of the trajectory. and g = Acceleration of gravity For structures where the vertical drop is less than 15 feet the water depth after the jump may be obtained from figure 2-37. A long-radius curve slightly flatter than the computed trajectory may be used. may be used to determine the width of a pool for the initial calculations. The elevation of the energy gradient after the . d2 = Depth after the jump. A length of trajectory (LT) can be selected which. The stilling pool is proportioned to contain the jump. The water depth after the hydraulic jump may be computed from the formula: where d.5 a stable hydraulic jump may not occur. and Ed = The angle of inclination of the chute channel at the end of the trajectory. For a stilling pool to operate properly VI where the the Froude number F = ~ c di& > water enters the stilling pool should be between 4. The variables of flow on the trajectory and the steep section are computed in the same way as those in the chute section. The flow variables at this point are used as the variables ahead of the hydraulic jump in the design of the stilling pool. 0. If the Froude number is less than about 4.) X2 2LT (6) where: X = Horizontal distance from the origin to a point on the trajectory. = Depth before the jump. the equation: 34a b=Q+350 where: b = width of pool in feet. -In a stilling pool the water flows down the steep slope section at a velocity greater than the critical velocity. (e) Stilling Pool. Stilling pools require tailwater to force the jump to occur where the turbulence can be contained. Stilling pools usually have a rectangular cross section. If the Froude number is greater than about 10 a stilling pool may not be the best choice of energy dissipator. The trajectory should end at or upstream from the intersection of the chute section walls with the stilling pool walls. The length L.SMALL 106 constant value of K over the length of the curve and is generally used.5 and 15. V. If practicable the trajectory should coincide with any transition required. is then used in the computation of Y using equation (8). The following equations to determine pool width and water depth after the jump apply to this type of pool. Special studies or model testing are required for structures with Froude numbers outside this range.5 or less. LT = Horizontal length from the origin to the end of the trajectory. will result in a value of K of 0. + (tan BL ~ tan 0. An elevation for the floor of the stilling pool is assumed and the energy gradient at the junction of the chute section and the pool floor is computed. = Velocity before the jump. For discharges up to 100 cfs. A parabolic trajectory may be determined from the following equation: Y=Xtan0. and a level floor. The abrupt change in slope where the flat grade of the stilling pool floor meets the steep slope section forces the water into a hydraulic jump and CANAL STRUCTURES energy is dissipated in the resulting turbulence. Flared pools are sometimes used and require special consideration. and Q = discharge in cfs. Y = Vertical distance from the origin to point X on the trajectory.

119 33.I37 127. .I09 37.139 [ 2675’ .67 ’ .56’ II: .66 ( .84 .308 7I5TzY 8 0.142 25.I09 critical .240 13. _ ot upstream ~~- + h.143 25.187 b.111 36.49 .122 .75 .92 . d l/d.91 37.I08 39.118 34. .16 1 .122 34.n0 38.70 . ..71 .29.171 .I40 126..106 40.83) .I09 38.108 .123 136 .2 .CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES I 0 j2/d.139 12683.50.112 .136 127.108 39.136 12T.141 26.= ---- II8 -~- 38.109 .151 .o I .107 40061 .149 -i-T 26 30 .106 40. .110 Icss.li4 .109 39.113 .--*---.42 .41~.66) r‘1. +g+ ( .9919 .381 37 channels + 34061.18 .=Deptb before .205 15.L.23 27 32.45’ 16.227 226 9. 28 33.14 24 29 . 20 24.73 127.461 1 .I85 .113 3262 36.167 .257 12.14 39 39.-d.84 35.-36.I23 28.I24 32.23 33.62. 32.I15 3+. .G 36.c T&G -6.148 24.I48 24.25 25. K=d.40 .421 .92’.08 .115 +--.08 .33 1 .146 .144 25.119 3885 level .145 25.59 .187 [ 17.25 ( 259 11.146 24.05 .123 32.185 ~L7~4_117.114 36.33 38.128 33.35 .11 37.8 .E .45’. 35.35nll6 35.5 yq 107 103-D-1274 ---f-/Energy level ot A .86u5 .105 40. .I09 39.122 .21 I.21.121 33.182 [ 16.106 after of jump Woter of El C. .189 ‘7.W] .4 I.99i .138 127.23 Relation of ’ .110 .92.251 38.46.481 .33 .122 32.170 149 19 24.4<.08.99.123 .13 ~ .109 38’81 .116 35.115 36.119 33.-(d.116 35.001 .I10 38.271 .112i .l86~17.04’.56.140 23 27.143 25.34’ 14. p-‘ms Figure Z-37.781 .49 .107 39.58’ .69 36.851 . El C. 3i&$_117_ 35.74.I’6 - --- -. . .72 .65’ .183 1 .71 .107 40 40.23i - 24.I.I16 34 35.111 ----A---37.I29 3.105 40. level end of Jump jump El C.25 .941 19.119 33.I30 .16 117.125 32 20.141 26. wdth d.37.57 .50’ .57 . .42! 144 25. 32.I06 40.142 26.67.311 lo .I// 12 37. ~~ --33.I36 ~ .78 1.14 .41 .98 .64 .61 .126 32.=Crttlcol depth 39. +%% ---t--m 278 L 10.I06 40.91 .57 24.176 24.129 .68 .83 .91(.06.133 J3J 32.06 .121 33CC .03 2 .54’ . Energy loss in hydraulic jump.107 39.117 3474 .I47 .91 e 21 25.70 ..107 39. I .89 .92 depth .44’. .I78 18..106 40.66.77 .351 .84 .2.I10 38.521 39. 36.44 1574: 16.ll~7 & 33 35.111 ~7~.63’.31.I39 [ 26.I47 24.108 39.144 25.99 .173 183 117.251 141 26.148 1 127 .107 39.Q ._~ -~A 3giJ!7 c 35.49’ .118 34.34 .118 34.5Z’ 24.53 c-----c.49 .I08 39.I10 ord .56( 2+H.lZC 33.425 .143 22 26.145 25.241 -i9 -C- L 351 .137 .128 L 127 .93 .14 38 erergy .107 40.34.31! .77 .121 33.125 .I40 26.64’ .lQ.116 36s.I21 ~.145 25.124 .66’ .I 12~ 38.)= 115 36.66 1 I47 24.I33 29 58 1 .118 38.I6 35. dc=w erd surf=- 35.59.114 Energy in energy d.116 35.281 .58 .=Depth at upst:eom at downstream and .13 wth . for hydraulic ~urrps in rectargular El c.40’ .106 40.108 37.15 37.145 --c L .120 33.76 .61 34.781 .k .ll8 3436 348TLz .63 H=Difference and levels downstreom depth based on ends for pool flow d.I09 end of lump + h.62 / .356 7.96 37.26i .I06 40.17: .126 31.115 --+-36.~. .269 13.122 33. .28.31 1 .93j -32691 34.441.lll 37.I13 .-[d.105 lump. .215 .107 40.111 i at upstream consldered.04.112 .I20 38.42 .134 32.I88 ( 16.331 24.141 26. .680 .117 --- c-.561 . .ll-? 37.121 34.108 39.74 .51 .91 .123 114 --- .120 .81 .139 26.06! .12’ .142 26.63.851 33.391 .110 38.19.120 38X ilocr 32.42 .130 .

Chute and floor blocks are provided to break up jet flow and to stabilize the hydraulic jump. 2-40). a control should be built into the outlet of the stilling pool to provide the necessary tailwater. Trials are repeated until a balance is obtained. These waves generally form in chute channels that are longer than about 200 feet and have bottom grade slopes flatter than about 20’ [91. The critical depth at the control section should be used to determine the downstream energy gradient. (f) Wuve Formutiw-Waves in a chute structure are objectionable because they may overtop the chute walls and they cause surging in the energy dissipator. narrow sections resist both transverse and slug flow. 2-41). 2-33) for structures used on canals is normally 4 times d. When the stilling pool discharges intermittently or discharges into a natural or other uncontrolled channel. An unstable pulsating type of flow known as slug flow or roll waves may develop in long.108 hydraulic jump should be balanced by the energy gradient in the channel downstream of the structure. the pool floor should be lowered or a different pool width assumed and the design procedure repeated. 2-42 and 2-43). If the gradients do not balance. steep chute structures (figs. For structures on wasteways or drains where the flow will be intermittent and of short duration the minimum length may be about 3 times dz . Chute sections that theoretically should prevent the formation of waves have been developed A theoretically waveless chute [91[111. The upstream side of the sill should have a 2 to 1 slope and the downstream side should be vertical. Shallow dished sections appear to be particularly susceptible to transverse flow while deep. a new elevation for the pool floor or a new pool width should be assumed and the energy levels recomputed. The location. The probability of these waves being generated in the structure may be reduced by following the recommendations concerning deflection angles and symmetry made in the discussions pertaining to transitions and by avoiding changes in direction in the structure. The minimum pool length (LP on fig. The elevation of the top of the sill SMALL CANAL should be set to provide hydraulic jump. STRUCTURES tailwater for the A stilling pool and outlet transition built to the d imensions recommended may not completely contain the spray caused by the turbulent water but the structure should contain enough of the turbulence to prevent erosion damage downstream of the structure. and (3) Curves or angles in the alinemcnt of the chute. Weep holes with gravel pockets (fig. (2) Unsymmetrical structures. the deflection angle of the sidewalls should not exceed the angle permitted in the chute walls.. When the stilling pool discharges into a controlled channel. The maximum wave height that can be expected is twice the normal depth for the slope and the maximum momentary slug flow capacity is twice the normal capacity. If a flared pool is used. A stilling pool would not be an effective energy dissipator with this type of flow because a stable hydraulic jump could not form (fig. spacing. The elevations selected should be reviewed to insure that the stilling pool will operate effectively at partial flow. If the review indicates it to be necessary. section is shown on figure 2-44. The recommended freeboard for stilling pools may be determined from figure 2-33. 2-39) may be used to relieve hydrostatic pressure on the floor and walls of the stilling pool and outlet transition. . Designs are normally checked at one-third the design flow or curves may be drawn as on figure 2-38. Freeboard is measured above the maximum downstream energy gradient. These waves are caused by: (1) Abrupt transitions from one channel section to another. Transverse flow or cross waves may also develop in a chute. If a concrete outlet transition is not provided. a solid end sill is required (fig. Some chute sections are more likely to sustain waves than others. and details of the blocks are shown on figure 2-33. the depth in the channel should be computed with the n value of the channel reduced by 20 percent and this depth used to determine the downstream energy gradient.

CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES L -w-v-- I I Kub!saa - / cI W (3 oz a I 0 v) 0 .

B Outstde face of well. Locate to clear reinforcement OutsIde I face of wall \ /’ =-. Weep hole with gravel pocket.d. provided thot o minimum rodiol thxkness of 6’1s mointolned for each zone Figure 2-39. or p/upped ends.110 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Provide sultoble onchoroqe to secwe pipe to concrete. Pipe coupled here ot DETAIL rod/o/ 12 zone surfaces OF WEEP PIPE iALTERNATIVES) I (PLAN oorse oqqreqote L7. 103-D-1276 to .434SECTION SECTION B A-A GRADATION PERCENT B- DF tGY FILTER “EIGNTI NOTE MATERIALS RETAINED ON STANDARD SEIVE The confiqurotlon of the falter envelope moy be chonqed wt constructfon.hmh plostlc pipe unpoct \ --- Conical. copped. 1 2’fJm rm.

(3) Determine sL for the point to be checked (fig.0 times design Q. 2-47). and 1. The use of the figures requires the following operations: ( I) Divide the chu te in to a null ber of reaches as shown on figure 2-47. Compute the Vedernikov number (y) 10] b 2 v=-x -3 v -x wp ygd cas f} b. Stilling pool Figures 2-45 and 2-46 have been developed to predict the possibility of slug flow occurring in a chu te. Use Manning's n = 0. lO3-D-1277 equal to 0. with Q with end sill.5. Compute the square of the Montuori number CM) [ 11] .2.~ CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES Figure 2-40. 0. (4) At the points to be considered: a. Surging in a stilling pool caused by unstable flow in a chute structure.010. (2) Using equation (6) or (7). compute the water depth and energy levels at the points along the chute section that are 'to be checked for slugging. M2 - y2 --gsLcos In equations () ( 10) and ( 11 ) b = bottom width of the chute section d = average water depth in the chute section: Figure 2-41. P222-117-36223 (11) . Point I should be at the beginning of the chute section.

d wP CANAL CANAL STRUCTURES STRUCTURES Figure Z-43. Pulsating flow in steep chute. Flow is 57 cfs. If the plotted points fall within the slug flow zone. If the charts indicate that slug flow will occur. s = tan 0. P222-117-36208D g = acceleration of gravity. V = velocity. (5) Plot the computed values on figure 3-45. H-686-55D (7) Plot the computed value of Gp against the slope of the energy gradient. 103-D-1 278 . wp = wetted perimeter of the section. and 0 = angle of inclination of the energy gradient. s. Waves are not likely to be generated in the structure. unless the plotted data falls within the slugging zone on both figures 2-45 and 2-46.SMALL SMALL 112 Figure 2-42. intermediate points may be checked to determine the point at which the waves begin to form. on figure 2-46. Theoretical waveless chute section. (6) Compute the shape factor for the chute section. Unstable flow at shallow depth. the design may be modified to reduce the probability of waves being generated or the structure may be adapted to accommodate the Normal water surface Figure 2-44. Triangular shape prevents both cross waves and slug flow. L = length of reach under consideration. s = average slope of the energy gradient.

103-D-1279 0. (3) Reduce the length of the chute.6 0.2 0. number’ (M2) Criteria for slug flow.8 I. the section chute might be adapted to accommodate surging flow by: (1) Increasing the freeboard of the chute walls.O . (5) Replace the open channel chute section with pipe.4 Montuori Figure 245. If these design changes are impractical.CONVEYANCE 113 STRUCTURES surging flow that does occur. The theoretical waveless shapes could be considered. . Adaptations to the stilling pool could include : (1) Designing the pool to provide for the momentary surge discharge. (2) Change the shape of the section. (4) Steepen the chute. This would Zone of slug flow 6 >I Zone of no slug flow 2 J--J-JO I I 0. Possible design changes include: (1) Divide the flow in the chute section with a wall down the center of the chute. A series of shorter chutes or drops could be considered. or (3) Protecting the backfill around the chute section with riprap or paving. (2) Providing a cover for the chute section to contain the waves.

c 1 i ----------a I I Concrete chutes I I I -7 I I I I Zone of slug flow 0.1 SLOPE 0. further studies should be undertaken to verify the extent of the problem and the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.3 0 Figure 2-46. (2) Provide additional riprap to protect the channel downstream and the backfill around the pool._ I - Zone of no slug flow - I Corrugated metal chutes w- Q 5 -0 0.4 . Rafts or other floating wave dampeners could be used. A baffle or weir wall in the pool could prevent flow from sweeping through the pool and outlet transition (fig. 103-D-1280 I I I 0. (3) Provide a surge suppressing device in the stilling pool.2 . Weir walls could also provide tailwater 0. The study of wave action in chute structures is based largely on empirical data. Shape and slope criteria for slug flow. provide a longer pool and higher pool walls to contain the surge. 2-48). If a serious wave problem in a structure is indicated. (4) An energy dissipator less sensitive to surging could be used.1 I i I I I -I I I -t I I -I I I 1 OS (:.114 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES to submerge the surges.2 s=TAN -I 0.

P222-117-36227 ( 10) Design the chu te and floor blocks and the end sill or outlet transition as required. (9) Determine the length of the pool and the height of the pool walls. Invert. ( I) Select and design the type of inlet to be used. Design Procedure.CONVEYANCE s = Slope of STRUCTURES energy gradient = tan -9- Figure 2-47. ( 11) Check the possibility of waves developing on the structure. (2) Determine the energy gradient beginning of the chute section. at the IO3-D-1281 (3) Compute the variables of flow down the chute section. Determine d2 and the energy gradient after the hydraulic jump. water surface. (7) It may be necessary to assume a new pool invert elevation and to recompute the above values several times before a check in energy gradients is obtained. ( 4) Design the trajectory and the steep portion of the chu te section. (8) Review for proper operation at partial capacity. 2-35. Flow is 140 cfs. (6) Determine the energy gradient in the channel downstream and compare to the energy gradient after the jump. (5) Assume an elevation for the floor of the stilling pool and compute the characteristics of flow upstream of the hydraulic jump. Wave sweeping through the outlet transition of a stilling pool. and energy profiles of a chute structure. . Figure 2-48.

= 0. = 4. cos 0 = 0. cotangent a = 3. dg= 1. The elevation of the invert at 0 will be: d.62.375 x F.025 0.15 .0 ft. = $= A.p.62 ~ 2. = 1.80 . Assume that critical depth will occur at @ With a discharge of 35 cfs.99984 2. The structure is to be used on a canal with a section as shown on the drawing.00 .99984 ~‘32.44 ft. . 1.. 0.62 + 0. Design Example.18 + 2.847 > = o’oo33’ E.04) = 0.44 = 3705.02 foot To balance the energy in the canal upstream. =dl +h. = 7.2 x (0.78 ft.40+ or 0.80 = 2. E.2 V.jnnel upstream. Inlet losses: Convergence loss = 0. Use a stilling pool to dissipate excess energy at the downstream end of the chute. = d./ft.010 1.04 ft.2 7. “c Losses in the inlet transition are (1) a convergence loss which is assumed to be 0.0.0. The elevation of the energy gradient in the channel upstream (point 0 ) equals the invert elevation + E.2 times the change in velocity head between the beginning of the transition and the end of the transition and (2) a friction loss equal to the average friction slope in the inlet times the length of the inlet.-Design an open channel chute that will convey 35 cfs over the profile shown on figure 2-49.486 x 0.00 at 0 will provide a control for flow into the chute channel.42 .’ V.E.00035 If channel properties are not given. = d32.04 ft. h. Determine the maximum angle of deflection of the inlet side walls: From equation (l).15 ft. a chute section width of 3 feet is a reasonable choice. tables 2-5 and 2-6 may be used to compute flow properties.40 ft.02 = 3703. Q = 35 cfs b = 6.2 x 2. = 7.20 x 0.52 f.0 feet long the friction loss will be: and 0. 3705. 11”1 = 0. Inlet Design: The inlet is designed to provide a control for the ch.s. the invert of the inlet at 0 must equal: 3705.40 x 0. 2-36.276 = 1.00035 ft.43 F.Transition losses A.2 x 1.62 .03 An elevation of 3703. = = 0.99984 I?: = 0. F= V [(I-K)gl K = 3.42 ft.116 SMALL (12) Provide protection in the chamlel downstream as required.04 = 2.0. = 23.20 ft.80 ft. = 2.. or 3703. Channel properties at point @ taken from figure 2-49 are: 2.86 ft.62ft. d= n= s= s:s= CANAL With a transition 10.0033 2 x I()= 0. For n = 0. .62 x 0. + h = 1.5 to 1 STRUCTURES 2 s.0 10: d case F. The elevation of the energy gradient at 0 is computed as follows: + 0.

OI\IVEYANCE -- STRUCTURES z 0 .4 117 C.

s.60 foot. = 0. The flow between 0 and @ is uniform flow with the loss in elevation Z equal to the friction loss. x L.80 ft.08163. = 1. As Vg h ii S. = 0. Flow characteristics at the beginning of the transition (point @ ) are: ds As v.23 ft E. This depth is reached 8 and the energy levels and 0 balance.5O which indicates that waves will not be initiated in the inlet. The minimum length of trajectory that will provide a satisfactory value for K is obtained using equation (4): .33 f. The energy at @ will be: E.s. = dz + hV2 + h. h.50 feet on a slope of 0. This denth will be reached at @ ./ft.08163 s.0425 h.62 + 0.50 ft. Between points @ and @ the flow is uniform at a depth of 0.0 feet from 0.105 10 0.86 ft.. l&3 = 8. = friction loss in the reach. =dr +h. 0.o8163x 170 = 13.45 ft.23 = 16. = 6. s3 = 0.05241 ft. E2 = 1. Determine the flow in the chute section: The flow at 0 is critical flow. CANAL STRUCTURES The normal depth on a slope of 0.p.. S.375 x 0.80 + 13.60 ft. = s. is .66 f.08163 .64 = 2.SMALL 118 The mean value of F = 0. h . Computed water depths are shown on figure 2-49. Uniform flow is at a depth of 0. Use a transition 25.48 foot.“. @ ) = 0. h.p. 170.30 ft.16 a = about 25’.45 + 7. in the reach. For the water depths that will occur on this chute section a minimum wall height of 24 inches will provide the required 12 inches of freeboard. = 0. With a transition 10 feet long the deflection angle will be about 8.60 foot is reached at point 0 and the flow between 0 and @ is uniform flow at a depth of 0. for practical purposes.64 Cotangent a = 3.48 foot. h. = average friction slope in the reach times L. and = 0.0683 ft.50 ft.43 ft.18 feet E3 balances E.88 ft. Flow characteristics in the chute section are computed using Bernoulli’s equation (6) to balance the energy at various points on the chute section.44 f. and = 0.* = 19. Design the trajectory: The energy at 0 will be: E.. d3 = 0. The value of K used to compute the trajectory is limited to 0. h./ft. = 5.0 feet long to flare the bottom width from 3 to 5 feet.44 ft. = 0. For flow between @ and @ : Flow characteristics on the trajectory and the steep slope section are computed in the same way as those on the chute section.88 = 16.50 + 8.2 = 19. = 0..78 ft.0033 = o.r +Z z=sxL=o. A3 = 1.36 ft. At the beginning of the trajectory (point flow properties are: d.: For flow between @ and @ : A normal depth of 0.p. = 0.5. = 1.s.0425 x 170 = 7.00 ft.2 V3 = 23.

92 f.0.2 x 0.9992 12 = 0. . and 11.26 I 0. 0.30 ft... =d=+~ 2 = 3.44 = 4.50-0.99863 Fro at @ (4): with K determined from equation = (0.45) = 10. h i: F = 4.70 23.30 x 0.5 .99 1.92 = 9. The water depth after the jump dz is computed from equation (9): d.30 fL2 ) 26.56 = 25.375 x 7.60 x 0.45 ft. = 10. This energy must be balanced by the energy in the channel downstream computed with the n for the channel reduced by 20 percent.p.33 0.36 = 3645.21 x 0.2 x 0.5 tangent a = & = 0.. * Y.99863 0.CONVEYANCE L T STRUCTURES 119 = (0.06 + 3.p.s. 1. 19.2 23.89441 Cotangent a = 3.0 x 0.50 ft.98 3.0 feet long.s.43 + 10. VI0 = RIO = s.70 = 7 56 a 2 0 The Froude number at this point = F= F.45 F.52 a = 2015’ k The deflection angle with 25.26 ft... 1.07 ft. = 0.36 ft. 1 = v.25 ft. Design the Stilling Pool: An elevation for the invert of the stilling pool must be assumed before the flow properties at the bottom of the steep slope section can be computed.33 x 32. The elevation of the energy gradient after the jump = 3642. 0. Coordinates of points on the trajectory are computed using equation (8).. = = 2O1j' + = = = = 16.2 The flow characteristics after the jump are: AZ V.06.26” 4 32.27 ft..* 2.00 x 0.29 feet 2 x 26. Assume this elevation to be 3642.92’ x 0. Balancing the energies between the end of the trajectory 10 and the bottom of the steep slope section 11 gives the following flow properties at the bottom of the steep slope section or immediately ahead of the hydraulic jump: 0 d 11 = A.07 = 3.0524) x 2 x 6. 3 6 9 12 0. 26. and 0. = hv~ I = The maximum angle of deflection in the sidewalls of the transition is determined from equation (1): Fs at @ with K = 0.0.p.052) K 10 x 2 x 6.42.29 + 0.31 At the lower end of the transition and the trajectory (point @ ) the characteristics of flow will be: d 10 = = A. 3.14107 The deflection angle in the transition sidewall is satisfactory.30 432.0 feet long will be: a transition 0.43 J32.04 a L.o = d [(l-0.s.26 The Froude number is within the range in which a stilling pool may be expected to operate effectively as an energy dissipator.33 f.13 f.72 feet Make the trajectory 12.

Ez.00 to of the energy gradient + 1. height of sill required Velocity.p. = 3.05 ft. The following check at 0. Critical energy at the end of the stilling pool is: The minimum STRUCTURES provide a control for the downstream flow equals the energy after the jump. 1835+78 with an invert elevation of 3703. Generally several trials with different assumed elevations for the pool floor or with different pool widths must be made before a check in energy levels is obtained. or 3.2. = A. From figure 2-33 the freeboard allowance for the stilling pool should be about 2. An end sill is provided at the end of the stilling pool and the elevation at the top of the sill is set to provide tailwater for the hydraulic jump.67 feet is used in the design example. a concrete outlet transition is used to transition the flow from the stilling pool to the downstream channel. The minimum elevation of the canal invert required to balance the energy after the jump is: 3645.05 = 2.23 ft. h“c = 0. = 5.5 times design discharge demonstrates the steps required to check for slug flow.75 f.80 = 0.73.50 ft. hvc = 0.16 ft.73 ft.s.21 ft.42 . At @ (Sta.36 . In this design example an outlet transition is not used. 1842+00) the invert elevation is 3651.51 = 3704.29 or 13.05. 2. Use a length of 14 feet.5 1. @ . and @ . therefore the elevation assumed for the floor of the stilling pool is satisfactory. The length of the stilling pool should be about four times d2 or 4 x 3. E. 0. 2.2 1. = 1.96 ft.16 feet. A sill height of 1. where they are required.2 V.51 ft. For Q = 17. Using equation (6) the flow characteristics .s.53.21 = 3643. inches 10 20 30 0 0.0 feet.06 ft. Increase in the minimum concrete cover.63 feet.020 b = 6. complete the structure.72 f. Check for slug flow: The possibility of waves forming on the structure should be checked at points @ . This freeboard should be above the maximum downstream energy level.s.5 cfs: (1) At point 0 (Sta.025 x 0. 19.02 + 0. A check at design discharge will indicate that waves will not form on the structure.. In parts of the structure where the velocity of the water is high the minimum concrete cover on the top layer of reinforcement steel may be increased according to the velocity as follows: Energy downstream of the structure: d= A = v = 11. minus the critical energy at the end of the pool.p.1.21 The invert elevation shown on figure 2-49 is 3643.16 + 0. The energies balance. Chute and pool blocks are sized and positioned as shown on figure 2-33. Design the Outlet Transition: d.SMALL 120 Q = 35 cfs n = 0. = 1. (2) At point @ with Q = 17. The elevation at 0 is: 3703. E.p.00) When required.o A transition in the downstream channel and protection for the channel.0 ft. = E= CANAL d.5 cfs.73 = 1. Make the chute walls 6 feet 0 inch high. f.

352 32.38 x 0.p. (8) Check shape and slope parameters: The elevation of the energy gradient at @ = 3651. i pipe-’ Protection-’ Figure 2.50. 103-D-1283 .0 = 0. ( 10) Both charts indicate that waves may form on this structure at 0. Pipe Chute (5) Using equation ( 10).’ v = 15. Pipe chutes. Pipe Chute.CONVEYANCE 121 STRUCTURES (6) between @ and @ are computed.09 d .99685 v_= 2.’ ProtectIon/ Baffled Precast concrete pipe outlet--. Using equation (1 I) compute M2 : M2 = -~ 3655. = 49.44ft.2 15.0. 2-47): SL = 3704. = 3.35 f. Pipe chutes may be used to provide a crossing x 0.44 x 0. compute JJ: 2 ’ 3 = gxmx\/32.3.38 + 3.66 = 3655. s = tan 0 = 4*= 622. A = 1.09.66 ft.-Orlgrnal ground surface Stllllng pool-.101 Fp .14 ft.38 = 0.99685 1835+78 0.s. (3) Determine SL (fig.07949 6’ = about 4’ 33’ Cost’ = 0.35 2-37. the remedies listed in the text should be considered.148 (7) Plotted on figure 2-45.99685 2.5 times Q.o7949 (9) Plotted on figure 2-46. “Control Inlet Precast concrete pipe. h. the point falls near the slugging zone. (4) Determine L and s: L= 1842+00= 622 ft.2 x 49.53 15. At @ : d = 0. the point falls near the zone of slug flow. If slug flow is indicated where the waves would be troublesome. wp = 3. -In a pipe chute the open chute section is replaced by pipe (fig.38 ft. slug flow may not be a problem if it does occur. 2-50). In this example problem with the shallow depths involved.05 + 0.34 .76 ft.76 s=o.

For concrete pipe use Manning’s n = 0. If a change to a flatter slope must be made. the pipe should be transitioned to an open chute channel for a short reach and the change in grade made in a section open to the atmosphere. The Bureau of Reclamation requires that for pipe slopes steeper than critical the minimum slope should be two times the critical slope. Baffled outlets or stilling pools are used as energy dissipators. The pipe slope should not be changed from a steeper slope to a flatter slope. Figure 2-5 1 shows a stilling pool at the bottom of a pipe chute. The inlet transition should be designed to prevent the flow at the entrance to the pipe from controlling the flow through the structure. The pipe slopes selected should prevent a hydraulic jump from occurring in the pipe. The procedure for designing a pipe chute is similar to that used in designing an open channel chute.010. Air in a closed conduit can cause SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES serious problems and care must be exercised in choosing the slopes for the pipe section. Concrete transitions between open channels and pipe sections are discussed in chapter VII. Flow variables for circular sections flowing partly full may be computed using table 2-7. The pipe is sized to allow a maximum full pipe velocity of 12 feet per second. A pipe structure is largely underground and may be desirable from an esthetic point of view. .122 or to allow farming or grazing over the structure.

CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 123 .

0311 .297 .0662 .354 .373 .00696 .0132 .349 .244 .412 .334 .241 .146 .169 .0476 .218 .0883 .292 .00215 .0466 .0932 .496 .115 .0450 .00429 .135 .189 .16 .287 .0748 .lll .193 .00219 .427 .125 .0342 .196 .230 .125 .0176 .13 .157 .0464 .0692 .0936 .130 .124 SMALL Table 2-5.41 .0283 .182 .23 .0900 .263 .219 .342 .00220 .146 .205 .0282 .116 .574 .181 .094 7 . z= l/2 use of the assumption z = 314 R = d IS more z= I 7.0542 .155 .00437 .127 .190 .217 .37 .474 .182 .162 .139 .105 .478 .06 .0527 .209 .256 .OlOl .0961 .151 .155 .0786 .453 .0262 .389 .0845 .0400 .0145 .0524 .302 .467 .0140 .129 .-Uniform flow in trapezoidal channels by Manning’s formula.412 .354 .0408 .0857 .0823 .0800 .188 .272 .518 .249 .0141 .103 .0200 .113 .274 .00964 .501 .372 .433 .109 .0425 .175 .232 .232 .0446 .432 .204 .0219 .201 .142 .134 .147 .373 .0190 .15 .392 .217 .0420 . = l-1/4 z= l-1/2 accurate r'= than l-3/4 interpolation x=3 x=2 in the table .00423 .0305 .0329 .02 .0585 .336 .0854 .227 .215 .lO .30 .179 .123 .33 .182 .152 .0720 .0334 .405 .215 .604 .05 .366 .0497 .38 .160 .110 .0106 .133 .00217 .217 .00220 .0775 .0215 .180 .0944 .248 .193 .303 .14 .0695 .318 .275 .223 .03 .357 .195 .l JO .0813 .176 .199 .333 .199 .22 .0480 .146 .0240 .545 .157 .214 .0740 .35 .00431 .00947 .0441 .251 .32 .327 .204 .311 .36 .225 .0676 .281 .OlOO .00221 .383 .0136 .0575 .2J .ll .184 .25 .0329 .116 .117 .0380 .256 .20 .172 .0294 .203 .289 .0103 .0867 .39 .0759 .00433 .0680 .21 .315 .0645 .42 .263 .238 .07lJ .234 .09 .I7 .0936 .141 .167 .0638 .I 39 .0776 .0166 .251 .392 .0103 .416 .106 .34 .0324 .230 .297 .334 .113 .0130 .139 .0228 .163 .126 .171 .0699 .106 .0559 .321 .04 .0137 .0650 .243 .271 .0677 .0275 .0501 .301 .241 .43 .408 .0177 .28 .0822 .180 .225 .210 .120 .124 .0182 .287 .115 .198 .369 .310 .0573 .00661 .0376 .142 .0528 .319 .00980 .0424 .153 .0102 .356 .0493 .0225 .0612 .0134 .130 .0339 .106 .0935 .634 convenient and more d/blessthan 0.0559 .0170 .0211 .26 .286 .298 .455 .285 .0608 .203 .31 .0183 .465 .279 .168 .524 .00414 . d/b' 'For Values CANAL STRUCTURES 103-D-1 255-l b8/3 of ~ On s 112 z=o L= l/4 .328 .301 .447 .00443 .192 .0127 .418 .282 .00690 .106 .170 .163 .117 .238 .491 .0516 .437 .264 .00?04 .314 .401 .00426 .249 .0997 .04.0296 .09 JO .120 .038 7 .336 .0599 .160 .00670 .0619 .131 .0537 .389 .40 .326 .00700 .371 .270 .0875 .150 .216 .0206 .0256 .0364 .0505 .0240 .0358 .0845 .100 .189 .07 .253 .341 .00722 .00223 .139 .102 .0222 .0271 .160 .00707 .0394 .0910 .0749 .00213 .0873 .257 .00216 .0279 .0809 .0354 .269 .151 .00434 .0173 .152 .0753 .29 .142 .00679 .267 .348 .0744 .0162 .317 .392 .0587 .242 .227 .00218 .207 .254 .286 .0628 .440 .283 .19 .18 .263 .371 .0431 .24 .109 .00991 .00685 .209 .0393 .0267 .233 .306 .12 .101 .133 .163 .189 .08 .101 .0582 .133 .353 .0318 .243 .174 .0458 .0249 .0373 .00419 .230 .0659 .44 .09 79 .119 .124 .172 .0180 .0231 .0138 .

76 .960 . 103-D-1 285-2 ‘ lib 7.722 .512 .98 .27 3.53 1.922 .72 4.Jl8 .58 1.52 6.04 3.19 1.62 .CONVEYANCE 125 STRUCTURES Table 25.78 .610 .13 1.313 .576 .21 1.37 2.63 1.50 .80 2.64 1.534 .36 2.679 .79 1.802 .19 1.928 .24 1.63 1.64 1.670 .15 1.398 .32 1.439 .45 2.6Jl .10 1.56 2.27 2.85 4.20 .508 .45 .61 1.98 2.01 1.617 .99 2.55 1.13 2.17 2.03 2.49 .58 1.424 .457 .65 2.51 1.16 2.516 .371 .599 .04 1.90 5.36 1.03 4.391 .35 1.87 1.12 1.OJ 1.73 2.04 3.39 8.-Uniform flow in trapezoidal channels by Manning’s formula.631 .444 .50 2.475 .795 .600 .989 1.548 .35 1 .13 1.375 .33 1.56 .05 1 .696 .793 .468 .988 1.514 .77 1.99 3.43 3.739 .11 1.54 3.69 2.94 .626 .70 1.565 .52 4.29 4.07 1.680 .398 .33 1.858 .60 4.552 .66 .43 .18 1.46 1.45 .951 1.748 .924 .652 .593 .696 .78 1.07 1.359 .88 1.83 9.763 .457 .40 1. = 0 z= l/4 z= 112 z = 314 z= I 7.24 1.287 .75 3.61 3.981 1.24 2. -Continued. = I-114 I = I-l/Z 7.599 .83 1.717 .03 .58 .333 .556 .64 .29 1.34 1.73 7.496 .463 .687 .492 .801 .455 .04 3.18 4.530 .88 .530 .45 4.908 .46 1.468 .491 .422 .256 .39 3.76 5.23 1.842 .93 2.327 .OJ 1.448 .863 .894 .73 2.757 .43 1.887 .627 .496 .72 .24 1.856 .47 .574 .05 .06 1.73 1.14 2.679 .25 2.42 5.590 .735 .541 . = l-314 z=3 .95 5.80 1.782 .88 4.oo 1 .40 1.11 2.46 .98 6.24 .87 1.95 .52 .556 .690 .858 .662 .62 .33 3.80 6.15 .384 .96 .13 1.797 .18 1.43 1.763 .417 .75 1.20 1.13 1.86 1.839 .29 2.830 .43 6.945 .90 6.01 1 .644 .759 .I5 1 .323 .JO .44 2.98 2.OJ 1.60 2.936 .36 1.15 3.86 .345 .54 1.47 1.92 .646 .645 .54 .27 1.50 3.303 .14 2.789 .692 .980 1.28 2.46 1.34 5.25 1 .48 2.640 .85 3.11 1I.846 .37 1.958 1.85 4.82 .697 .79 1 .917 .377 .898 .02 1 .52 2.60 .94 3.359 .69 1.21 2.I0 1 .61 2.30 1 .841 .759 .85 1.73 3.54 1.45 1.96 3.487 .343 .78 1.37 3.802 .809 .492 .356 .64 .810 .90 .401 .976 .271 .97 4.74 .665 .432 .37 2.84 1.474 .34 3.60 1.590 .438 .575 .698 .408 .34 2.64 1.96 5.94 2.51 2.39 1.07 2.279 .932 .541 .753 .725 .891 1.08 1.310 .985 1.38 2.54 1.906 .411 .71 1.30 3.803 .09 2.11 1.31 1.868 .906 .984 1.559 .30 1.421 .03 1 .29 1.57 3.29 1.589 .27 1.519 .74 1.614 .85 1.16 3.10 8.263 .48 .49 1.475 .746 .346 .47 2.620 .68 2.653 .02 1.525 .991 1.385 .25 1.509 .11 1.17 1.07 1.566 .18 5.526 .80 .26 1.591 .70 4.11 3.10 1.49 4.84 .97 2.494 .33 1.93 2.56 1.833 .71 1.548 .03 2.39 4.09 4.644 .97 2.639 .61 2.68 .40 1I.714 .20 1.542 .79 2.567 .295 .44 1 .45 1.69 1.871 .601 .729 .52 1.14 2.

26 2.6 11.15 4.9 16.1 18.0 12.10 2.8 13.46 3.71 1.41 7.4 11.2 17.72 2. = I-314 1=2 2=3 6.96 4.78 5.9 13.40 1.2 12.47 5.20 2.6 14.13 9.2 92.02 5.55 8.1 20.9 126 82.94 6.36 4.58 4.89 8.1 12.12 5.24 6.90 3.65 6.8 36.1 54.4 16.6 12.4 11 .0 33.5 40.5 70.0 27.6 68.5 14.5 48.4 12. STRUCTURES 103-D-1285-3 $13 Valuesof ~ Qn ~112 d/b r=O z= l/4 z= l/2 z = 314 z= 1 1.9 28.39 10.2 14.89 8.9 23.3 10.6 25.6 12.49 6.3 11.8 25.63 3.1 34.3 21.1 96.43 1.9 11.8 107 41.27 10.9 37.32 9.1 14.33 7.44 4.09 3.9 45.36 6.70 2.8 54.0 16.91 6.7 24.8 49.2 111 145 122 164 216 .67 3.7 L = l-1/4 z = l-1/2 4.48 1.4 58.8 30.24 5.5 16.06 8.27 2.2 31.04 6.6 16.3 12.80 9.30 2.26 4.6 28.9 11.0 24.21 6.07 2.3 11.06 6.40 8.5 13.91 9.50 6.5 47.79 1.47 9.7 18.26 5.8 15.2 26.6 20.60 3.86 2.70 1.14 3.8 18.7 15.87 7.2 13.59 4.1 21.9 108 72.20 1.4 11.78 2.2 22.35 2.80 2.83 5.20 3.4 13.98 3.3 12.95 1.3 17.2 61.-Continued.0 15.60 7.39 3.00 2.62 2.5 30.2 9.2 33.93 2.98 2.92 4.30 8.6 35.14 4.05 2.95 7.9 18.16 2.73 3.2 16.39 1.6 14.1 54.12 7.53 2.8 18.9 26.1 51.69 1.-Uniform CANAL flow in trapezoidal channels by Manning’s formula.50 5.59 5.2 16.86 9.2 27.6 13.5 7.46 8.1 53.96 3.90 1.46 4.8 21.49 10.88 4.55 1.5 10.75 10.2 3.8 19.42 10.0 11.4 29.80 2.8 30.72 10.126 SMALL Table 2-S.7 19.7 25.7 13.15 2.52 3.7 13.8 89.0 27.94 2.00 3.50 8.72 8.31 5.3 25.60 2.90 5.34 1.9 32.1 30.3 15.2 14.80 1.5 63.8 41.30 1.6 63.33 3.8 19.9 80.43 7.97 8.2 55.75 1.33 7.3 17.0 16.1 10.1 23.41 4.52 1.40 3.52 8.9 32.57 2.00 4.o 6.65 1.83 5.85 1 .0 33.9 20.5 40.5 10.01 7.8 39.79 9.89 1.86 9.4 20.14 8.57 9.50 2.99 3.8 44.1 15.1 21.50 1.1 47.74 2.81 7.99 7.9 82.28 5.50 2.00 3.61 1.12 3.28 6.0 72.08 7.16 1.4 18.7 23.7 20.81 4.6 35.60 1.58 7.82 6.0 40.4 68.3 51.38 2.59 5.14 8.93 4.90 2.0 36.9 23.25 1.4 41.

0 36.32 4.6 73.82 6.67 4.32 6.85 10.82 14.38 11.2 148.64 3.47 5.8 20.9 23.00 5.38 5.42 6.60 5.85 3.77 6.01 7.61 3.18 13.80 5.51 8.65 10.11 4.5 49.21 4.09 5.6 18.51 14.42 .82 6.29 3.75 5.88 5.11 12.22 6.80 4.94 12.27 5.00 3.43 2.82 5.05 3.34 6.40 1.73 15.88 2.7 72.73 5.54 6.2 26.68 2.58 4.6 36.4 17.78 2.07 8.5 25.35 6.13 16. use of the assumption R =d is more convenient and more.43 5.9 23.21 8.56 3.88 11.86 5.37 10.0 19.90 5.10 6.35 5.04 - 103-D-l 286-I Values of ___ d 813 z=o z= l/4 z= l/2 z = 314 146.75 7.09 8.30 5.40 .91 30.9 50.48 6.54 5.56 8.12 5.21 .44 4.29 9.94 4.35 15.08 12.64 5.66 30.16 5.36 2.08 6.25 .31 .37 4.6 149.30 8.2 35.77 3.46 3.02 13.44 2.54 4.05 8.96 8.09 4.15 6.05 .3 147.26 12.95 6.74 4.60 4.90 3.22 2.33 .47 3.31 5.62 3.6 50.72 29.41 13.24 6.08 4.16 4.71 4.54 3.lO .9 38.79 8.73 5.1 18.72 7.14 6.3 22.Ol .01 3.00 13.76 4.40 4.42 12.50 4 43 4.36 31.18 . .74 14.06 10.45 6.95 4.12 4.1 21.29 28.13 3.8 50.13 4.6 74.8 18.96 6.48 3.14 11.9 20.83 5.27 8.95 3.62 5.08 .9 74.80 11.5 19.36 4.92 7.21 5.21 4.10 15.08 7.16 7.61 5.4 148.57 8.23 6.56 .45 16.16 6.57 15.29 4.48 .40 6.87 5.51 5.5 24.00 11.5 31.63 4.83 4.3 36.90 5.8 21.2 18.23 5.31 3.58 7.38 .89 4.3 21.5 22. Qn d/b1 .38 5.08 6.59 11.69 3.98 4.78 28.22 5.57 5.43 4.6 21.19 6.19 13.32 7.04 5.23 10.92 2.36 7.43 .29 2.94 5.16 9.20 3.25 6.26 7.31 8.39 29.58 6.22 5.31 11.08 6.67 4.81 6.20 10.67 3.16 .06 5.91 14.2 24.67 7.84 6.8 24.78 4.16 2.65 10.32 9.07 .4 47.16 3.05 3.27 7.96 4.13 10.49 4.42 9.4 48.41 7.86 7.39 10.03 .22 .8 74.51 4.05 .69 6.24 4 17 4.61 8.80 9.60 7.83 10.43 7.58 16.28 14.33 7.80 .81 3.76 11.81 8.09 4.6 ~112 z=l 148.31 8.02 4.54 9.68 2.38 3.7 49.30 4.87 4.15 .33 11.18 9.97 3.14 13.7.49 5.05 2.02 8.60 15.50 8.53 6.0 49.81 7.75 13.47 7.68 5.9 2 = l-1/4 = l-1/2 = I-314 2=2 z=3 148.26 14.99 4.18 17.21 3.24 5.78 9.19 3.0 73.31 12.75 5.2 25.I2 .29 3.13 3.81 9.3 49.55 8.17 .4 23.98 3.20 6.27 7.73 5.50 6.35 .02 4.28 13.26 .98 5.I9 8.44 13.13 .3 148.48 5.OP 27.3 20.06 .41 .48 4.59 3.87 6.96 7.70 16.32 4.84 11.32 4.34 3.96 5.71 5.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES Table 2-6.09 3.92 4.82 6.62 6.96 1.29 9.34 3.85 15.90 3.16 11.67 10.3 18.02 4.0 37.98 4.1c 6.38 4.36 .13 6.17 5.2 37.47 6.34 15.40 3.61 7.49 5.49 4.81 6.28 8.20 7.15 4.90 11.8 37.3 74.78 4.2 72.73 9.83 5.2 74.37 6.23 .49 14.j7ow in trapezoidal channels by Mannirzg’sfbrrnula.16 5.26 .77 4.08 29.68 10.37 .51 2.82 8.60 5.97 17.27 .8 149.80 8.76 4.20 .91 4.66 4.14 12.81 6.06 9.71 9.23 5.95 16.55 9.69 12.02 3.88 9.28 .32 .71 4.67 6.8 147.93 3.29 4.62 4.84 2.64 10.ll .62 3.57 4.9 48.6 35.66 P L A For d/b less than 0.39 2.26 .30 .10 5.73 6.40 4.14 30.43 16.03 7.89 10.74 8.0 19.43 7.12 4.66 12.77 9.6 .90 4.62 7.21 9.43 9.04.9 75.06 7.78 3.62 7.0 25.53 9. accurate than interpolation in the table.8 19.77 4.23 5.67 7.98 2.21 .61 7.-Uniform 127 .38 5.02 .

360 1.827 1.84 2.56 2.320 1.4 1 2.393 1.487 .460 .325 .08 4.86 3.34 .35 3.60 3.393 .25 1.568 1.18 2.80 .78 2.226 1.178 1.90 .876 .056 1.416 1.470 1.56 2.41 3.43 2.41 .464 1.950 1.35 1.20 3.81 2.30 3.15 .29 2.831 .139 1.10 3.579 1.38 4.516 .19 5.70 3.40 3.725 I .686 2.08 2.oo 1.72 3.43 4.72 2.06 3.07 3.028 .18 4.43 4.65 3.676 1.73 2.23 2.04 1.26 2.10 3.43 3.54 .76 2.92 .77 3.731 1.02 1.916 1.843 1.82 3.15 3.596 .25 3.53 3.82 .30 2.900 2.84 2.897 .45 .05 4.99 2.548 1.43 2.60 2.64 4.432 1.512 1.09 2.872 1.88 2.24 3.180 1.61 3.259 I .53 4.70 .88 2.02 3.977 1.53 2.139 I .70 3.14 2.486 1.48 2.06 3.29 3.57 3. 103-D-1 286-2 tu Lzl-b-iZJ IAd Valuesof ~~ Qn d/b d 813 S1/2 z=o L= 114 z= 112 STRUCTURES 7 = 3/4 z=l ! = l-l/4 = l-112 = l-314 2=2 L=3 .23 3.353 1.998 .26 4.810 2.00 3.80 2.04 1.736 .534 1.14 2.157 1.461 1.234 1.51 3.62 2.43 4.77 4.16 2.31 2.59 3.96 3.12 4.06 1.85 2.05 2.335 1.70 .096 1.03 1.64 3.16 4.96 2.231 1.00 1.046 1.30 1.30 4.16 2.80 3.91 3.12 4.69 4.603 1.41 3.10 1.160 1.51 2.65 1.17 4.55 4.96 .278 1.07 2.14 2.09 2.10 2.65 2.38 2.48 .84 . -Continued.604 1.954 1.858 1.098 1.608 1.52 3.49 3.718 1.666 .770 1.981 1.25 2.94 2.21 3.278 1.400 1.03 2.982 .85 3.84 3.437 1.91 2.05 1.771 1.09 5.638 1.59 5.97 3.11 2.062 1.35 4.61 3.5 1 2.245 1.71 3.540 1.998 2.62 .52 .13 2.47 3.45 2.622 .06 3.60 3.76 .1 I 4.36 3.15 3.73 2.533 2.525 1.08 3.805 .01 2.34 2.36 2.36 4.24 3.02 2.683 2.76 1.54 3.69 2.77 3.64 3.954 2.638 1.29 5.912 1.05 2.436 .856 1.184 1.30 2.636 .55 2.67 3.17 2.3 1 3.40 2.285 1.288 1.88 .92 2.58 4.55 1.25 2.50 1.977 1.414 .18 2.122 1.136 1.80 3.80 2.I2 .690 1.60 4.438 1.374 .49 2.94 2.42 2.14 3.20 .54 3.48 3.87 2.482 1.62 2.93 2.736 1.27 3.871 1.357 .68 2.37 2.758 .19 3.477 1.60 1.60 .04 1.868 1.61 4.972 1.18 3.49 3.31 2.86 3.49 4.45 3.36 2.66 2.48 4.78 1.-Uniform CANAL flow in trapezoidal channels by Marzningk formzrla.72 2.82 2.42 3.78 2.00 4.87 2.46 .615 .28 3.57 1.747 1.28 2.813 1.94 .58 2.920 .876 ..11 2.26 2.91 3.211 1.35 2.781 .708 .663 2.36 2.949 2.21 2.57 3.98 .784 1.46 3.969 .128 SMALL Table 2-6.58 1.09 3.182 1.949 .682 1.14 2.658 .13 3.85 4.812 2._‘7s .22 2.66 3.354 1.689 1.44 .32 2.7 14 .315 1.50 2.66 .923 2.21 4.71 4.920 .23 2.886 1.995 1.40 5.993 2.717 2.13 2.56 .708 1.441 1.24 2.760 1.843 1.413 1.583 .86 .38 2.68 1.49 2.42 2.018 1.64 .41 2.800 .917 .33 2.24 3.392 1.10 4.94 2.03 4.818 1.45 .92 .47 2.08 2.40 1.61 2.98 2.37 5.55 3.970 1.531 1.697 1.97 3.77 3.83 3.206 1.21 2.6 I 2.16 3.43 2.638 1.21 2.11 2.340 1.76 3.944 .01 4.777 1.52 5.12 3.33 2.35 3.153 1.87 3.48 2.29 4.928 1.46 5.836 1.23 4.79 3.15 2.55 2.91 3.341 .887 .583 2.94 5.763 1.67 2.48 2.570 1.022 .767 .876 1.04 3.66 2.85 4.61 2.15 1.095 1.29 2.979 1.22 4.50 .54 3.26 2.33 3.25 2.47 2.98 2.922 2.642 1.34 .53 2.5 1 2.501 1.53 2.66 2.01 1.59 .55 3.04 3.50 2.070 1.7 I 2.396 1.I4 .3 1 4.04 2.

21 2.422 1.60 2.30 2.637 .17 3.406 1.954 1.823 1.972 1.246 1.44 2.10 3.757 .04 2.784 1.717 1.291 .820 .19 3.536 1.I693 .737 2.790 1.40 .268 .036 1.00 2.348 .671 1.848 .16 3.310 1.1919 .905 1.499 1.02 1.665 1.00 .734 .474 .98 2.50 5.294 1.069 1.12 3.979 3.549 1.275 .10 2.282 1.804 .I508 .35 2.174 1.12 2.890 1.729 2.17 2.787 .OJll . Xantinued.504 .477 1.80 1 .811 1.06 3.90 .27 2.245 .205 .24 3 33 3.874 .37 3.453 .07 2.01 1.760 1.1427 .17 2.30 3.546 .861 1.856 2.07 2.331 1.20 2.825 .326 1.219 .60 3.962 1.353 1.704 1.563 . = 314 z= I 1= l-l/4 %= l-1/2 %= l-314 2=2 z=3 1.928 1.771 1.119 1.264 .840 1.690 .312 .96 .623 .578 1.19 2.727 .413 .646 1.033 1.371 . 103-D-1 286-3 73 L J IW Qn Value\ otd8/3 ~-___ s1/2 zh--b-iz L=0 7 = l/4 z= 112 7.279 1.666 1.I015 .42 2.067 1.320 .865 1.083 1.529 .25 3.32 2.192 1.15 3.42 3.I354 .514 .CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES Table 2-6.-Uniform 129 .596 .383 .19 2.987 .09 2.0932 .00 4.07 3.755 1.38 2.650 1.20 3.256 1.523 1.80 .04 4.75 1.312 1.35 2.14 3.430 .15 2.788 .984 .40 3.609 .13 2.517 .773 1.681 1.922 .711 .11 2.40 3.228 .009 .236 .377 1.342 1.254 .85 1.29 2.23 2.941 1.27 3.090 1.359 .050 1.128 1.889 .843 1.476 1.212 1.491 .70 2.0859 .610 1.019 .962 .545 .396 1.14 2.50 2.36 3.561 .872 1.585 .101 1.805 .594 1.838 .21 3.993 2.233 1.502 1.38 3.359 1.905 2.391 1 .04 2.920 1.1597 .051 1.552 1.531 .628 1.90 1 .589 1.05 3.469 .40 2.80 2.448 .377 1.305 .220 1.398 .338 .760 .457 1.698 1.95 .22 2.438 1.891 1.611 1.I111 .157 1.805 2.00 3.10 2.114 1.1223 .569 1.501 .279 .905 .937 1.flow in trapezoidal channels by Manning’s formula.286 .142 1.653 .636 1.0601 .I800 .02 2.298 .

655 0.388 1.044 1.1466 0.380 1.2182 0.1978 0.55 5.004 0.37 0.3527 0.53 0.6143 0.2735 0.2753 0.5212 0.1312 0.488 0.83 0.5964 0.4127 0.2020 0.2900 0.69 0.7817 0.77 0.2836 0.7854 0.5404 0.30 0.3328 0.55 0.6573 0.“2 cl” D8/3s1 0.590 1.517 0.5499 0.11 0.263 1.720 0.81 0.1662 0.224 1.3927 0.7186 0.0695 0.787 0.1516 0.2998 0.0327 0.13 0.07 0.2703 0.496 0.6815 0.95 5.1929 0.4327 0.192 1.2862 0.1042 0.5115 0.35 0.00031 0.838 0.6893 0.064 1.637 0.873 0.416 1.2258 0.2260 0.7504 0.429 0.2450 0.05 0.0885 0.2739 0.703 0.85 0.2934 0.1259 0.87 0.3026 0.3031 0.5018 0.232 1.46 0.442 1.804 0.689 1.0907 0.0192 0.2921 0.1364 0.0929 0.22 0.3032 0.215 1.1709 0.343 1.96 0.736 0.57 0.358 0.1365 0.5594 0.2962 0.0350 0.5308 0.491 0.09 2.1027 0.27 0.36 2.875 1.6655 0.2401 0.0793 0.4724 0.3627 0.76 0.25 0.2435 0.17 0.3229 0.71 0.4526 0.74 0.1711 0.6736 0.1566 0.0105 0.20 2.30 0.1206 0.498 0.481 0.25 2.588 0.770 0.00 1.4920 0.3042 0.0966 0.2676 0.7254 0.2649 0.287 0.255 0.604 0.09 0.0537 0.1705 0.00138 15.670 0.0739 0.571 0.19 0.2821 0.6231 0.00328 0.90 0.0686 0.0600 0.47 0.1935 0.78 0.1089 0.79 0.2220 0.084 1.498 0.0262 0.468 0.0294 0.40 0.2882 0.1982 0.20 0.1449 0.0575 0.7384 0.3008 0.01181 0.54 3.2592 0.2102 0.530 1.498 0.2933 0.1281 0.oo 0.72 0.0811 0.0132 0.56 7.422 0.79 2.44 0.00604 0.350 0.7560 0.88 0.2799 0.68 0.216 0.49 0.04 3.2366 0.3043 0.463 I2 .2142 0.5780 0.4426 0.3727 0.61 0.6405 0.15 0.559 1.2642 0.1623 0.985 0.01 0.23 0.271 0.1284 0.208 0.553 0.0406 0.1490 2.34 0.00775 6.00967 0.29 0.1614 0.148 1.2963 0.2917 0.239 Q” I2 d8/3s1 0.60 0.7662 0.65 0.622 1.0668 0.16 0.76 0.915 1.3018 0.97 0.494 0.70 0.2074 0.2331 0.0197 0.58 0.2776 0.7115 0.7445 0.1800 0.50 0.80 0.89 0.86 3.87 2.0225 0.654 0.00074 0.2980 0.38 0.0257 0.48 0.2865 0.3041 0.458 0.1847 0.3007 0.00455 0.75 0.0739 0.0871 0.1097 0.0755 0.06 0.958 1.3033 0.3428 0.7749 0.05 0.33 0.2562 0.12 0.496 0.93 0.0634 0.86 0.201 0.28 3.49 2.26 0.49 4.4625 0.7043 0.395 0.1218 0.409 0.54 0.1890 0.373 0.856 0.25 4.1416 0.303 1.5872 0.57 8.441 0.2944 0.00222 0.388 0.71 2.95 0.0451 0.295 0.01417 0.760 1.947 0.6489 0.63 0.247 0.4027 0.0066 0.1152 0.2975 0.10 0.38 0.1199 0.463 0.0470 0.0242 0.59 0.2787 0.496 0.3017 0.1633 0.1351 0.63 0.41 0.2728 0.2829 0.52 0.92 0.311 1.08 0.1756 0.2948 0.687 0.0389 0.5687 0.03 0.67 0.485 0.36 0.7785 0.835 0.0365 3.402 0.362 0.1561 0.910 0.14 0.3827 0.2062 0.1891 0.7320 0.04 0.2295 0.32 0.01674 0.2842 0.2546 0.56 2.471 1 .311 0.62 0.415 1.17 3.18 0.3130 0.0961 0.45 0.500 0.928 0.2621 0.024 0.3024 0.7841 0.2531 0.04 10.1802 0.2895 0.24 0.4227 0.SMALL 130 Table 2.336 1.262 1.3039 0.1779 0.2355 0.01952 4.0635 0.94 0.00007 0.1039 0.494 0.319 0.753 0.821 0.82 0.3036 0.0985 0.39 0.84 0.170 1.366 0.7612 0.1420 0.621 0.0534 0.51 0.238 0.6319 0.497 0.2666 0.489 0.0409 0.0291 0.64 0.4822 0.2500 0.0849 2.02 0.0448 0.0037 0.0147 0.0492 0.42 0.797 1.41 3.435 0.2500 0.0813 0.0325 0.463 0.98 0.2468 0.06 0.483 0.105 1.6969 0.477 0.3043 0.965 0.66 0.14 2.96 2.47 5.2987 0.0069 0.28 0.2995 0.7707 0.335 0.2167 0.0013 0. CANAL STRUCTURES 103-D-1281 discharge in cubx feet per second by Manning’s formula Manning’s coefficient slope of the channel bottom and of the water surface d 0 -.73 0.535 0.42 2.1153 2.1854 1.327 0.0585 2.473 0.3038 0.279 0.69 0.891 0.453 0.0513 0.724 1.09 4.1535 0.6054 0.21 0.126 0.1118 0.I-Uniform d D A R = = = = flow in circular sectionsflowing depthofflow diameter of pipe area of flow hvdraulic radius 0 ” S d -R Q” D D D8/3s1 I2 Q” d8/+1/2 = = = partly fidl.99 0.286 1.91 0.31 0.43 0.447 0.56 0.

C. I.M. Eleventh Edition. J. [6] King. Bureau of Reclamation. ASCE. Vol. G. [8] Pete&a. July 1969. No. and Brater. Proc. N.. Vol. “Effect of Wave Formation on Hydro-Engineering Structures. 1965. U.S. Paper 7189. G. 89..” Engineering Monograph No.CONVEYANCE STRUCTURES 131 G. 96. Discussion of “Development of Roll-Wave Trains in Open Channels” Journal of the Hydraulics Division. No. Discussion of “Stability Aspects of Flow in Open Channels. HY4. Bureau of Reclamation. Department of the Interior. 95... F.. Proc. [3] ASTM Designation C 443. C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 2-38. H. U. E. R. Bureau of Reclamation. Allenspark. New York. W. P. 1957... “Development of Roll-Wave Trains in Open Channels. Mortuori. “Slug Flow in Steep Chutes. and Haggman.” Report No. A. . R. United States Department of the Interior. ASCE. United States Department of the Interior. Tilp. Bibliography. P.S. Minnesota. ASCE... Reprint. Thorsky. Elk River. Bureau of Reclamation. 25.” Fifth Edition. Vol.. (41 Standard Specifications for Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe. 1969. “Fundamentals of Open Channel Hydraulics. 1963. No. McGraw-Hill Book Co. C. Brock. Paper 3580.” Journal of the Hydraulics Division.. P. J. July 1963. Denver. C. and Haggman.S. 1974. [S] Standard Specifications for AsbestosCement Pressure Pipe. [7] Hydraulic and Excavation Tables. K.” Rocky Mountain Hydraulic Laboratory.. April 1970. Proc. CB-2. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Arsenishvili. Denver. HY4. Bureau of Reclamation. N. Posey. [P] [lo] (111 [12] [13] [14] Thorsky. [ 1 ] Armco Handbook of Drainage and Construction Product. J. February 1967.” Journal of the Hydraulics Division. Paper 6704. Colorado. HY4. 1964. 1969. February I. U..” NSF Translation No. [2] Cretex Pipe Products Publication-The Cretex Companies Inc.P. TT65-50094. C. “Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basins and Energy Dissipators.

.

«Chapter A. Structures which perform these functions include: ( I) checks. Control inlets (fig. or to do both. (2) check-drops. Floating trash that can pass over stoplogs and adjustable weirs can be a problem in a 133 . to the frames structure. and (6) control inlets. Regulation is achieved with weirs. Stoplogs are less expensive than gates and are more quickly adjusted but do not control the flow as closely. (3) turnouts. are the usual means of flow regulation. flow through the structure can be determined from the formula for flow over a rectangular weir: Q = CLH3/2 When gates are used the flow through the structure can be detennined from the fonnula for flow through a submerged orifice: Q=CA~ Figure 3. and slide gates. Similarly where adjustable weirs are used for control. III GENERAL 3-1 .Regulating Structures. Where measurement at the structure is required. Stoplogs and slide gates are adjusted as required. Either stoplogs or slide gates.1. stoplogs. or a combination of both. Control notch maintains water surface above a drop inlet to a pipe structure. ( 4) division structures. they require less frequent adjustment than gates. weirs may be used. control inlets. adjustable. therefore the required adjustment of stoplogs is less frequent. PX-D-72615D The equations will show that the flow over stoplogs is more responsive to changes in water depths in the canal than flow through a gate. to control the elevation of the upstream canal water surface. Discharge is 10 cfs. -A regula ting structure in an open irrigation system is used to regulate the flow passing through the structure. 3-1) are designed to regulate the canal water surface within particular limits. Weirs Slide check that Weirs may and weirs or they may walls are mayor gates inserted are discussed in not may be moun grooves later be be bolted in ted in in the chapter V. (5) check inlets. When stoplogs are used.

In the event of a break in the canal bank. 3-29. -Checks may be separate structures or they may be combined with the inlets of other structures. Adjustable weir installed in the stoplog groove. CHECKS 2 D. Excess water in the canal can flow over these walls.1 I Numbers in brackets refer to items in the bibliography. -Checks are used to regulate the canal water surface upstream of the structure and to control the downstream flow. Figure 3-2 shows a typical check structure with rip rap downstream to protect the channel. The amount of overflow provided for will depend on the amount of excess water expected in the canal and the degree of safety required for the structure and the canal. Gates using motor-driven hoists can be equipped with. The use of checks also allows reaches of the canal to be isolated and dewatered for repair or inspection. Check inlet to pipe structure. Metal turnout structures and outlet for railroad crossing in background. Check inlets (figs. L. p 372-701-765 . Jetting of flow under gates can pull debris below the water surface and cause the gate opening to become obstructed. Concrete check structure. WINSETT 3-2. Overflow walls or check walls are provided on both sides of the gates or stoplogs. It is generally the same as the normal water surface at the check. p 796-701-2630 Figure 3-3. checks are operated to maintain the canal water surface elevation required for upstream water deliveries. B. the water surface rise in the canal is limited. control devices that will automatically maintain constant water surface elevations regardless of the discharge [ 1] [2].134 SMALL CANAL gated structure. Combination Structures. 3-3 and 3-4) are often used 2Civil Engineer. Checks have a deck spanning the structure to provide access to the gates or stoplogs. checks can be used to limit the volume of escaping water to that confined between check structures and prevent the entire canal from being emptied. Bureau of Figure 3-2. and the canal banks are less likely to be overtopped. 3-3. Purpose and Description. Gates are often manually operated but automation requires STRUCTURES motorized operation. When a canal is flowing at partial capacity. sec. Reclamation. The water surface that the check must maintain is the control water surface. If the canal must be closely regulated or if automatic or remote control of the canal is anticipated. The tops of these walls are set at or slightly above the control water surface. Hydraulic Structures Branch. gates must be used.

Check inlet to pipe structure. Displacement of the concrete lining by unequal hydrostatic pressures is consequently prevented or minimized. operation of the system must be suddenly suspended the drop in water surface is controlled as the water surface profile changes from the normal water surface to a level checked water surface. . Then. pipe drops. Checks. Stoplogs and slide gate installed in grooves. inverted siphons. a level line at the control water surface elevation projected upstream will determine the last upstream turnout that can be served. can prevent water surface drawdown and scour upstream of the structure. if for any reason. From an initially selected check location. Check spacing in a concrete-lined canal is often controlled by limiting the drop in normal water surface between check structures. -Checks are spaced along a canal primarily to maintain the water surface eleva tions required by upstream water deliveries. 3-4. and chu tes. Spacing. Check spacing may also be influenced by the following considerations: ( I) Canal storage-Locating checks closer together increases the amount of storage in the canal.REGULATING STRUCTURES 135 Figure 3-4. Combination structures are generally more economical than separate structures. p 328-701-9494 with such structures as road crossings. Steeper canal grades usually require closer spacing between the checks. rectangular inclined drops. when combined with other structures.

Where stoplogs are used the live load is increased to 150 pounds per square foot.93 . The selection of a check from these standard structures and the determination of the required elevations are shown by the following design example. (0. These checks are shown on figures 3-5 and 3-6. sloping the stoplog guides on a 1 to 4 slope may make the installation or removal of stoplogs less difficult. 3-5. or (3) the water depth is greater than 6 feet. Concrete deck surfaces should be floated or broomed to acquire a skid-resistant SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES surface. uncl Deck. The length in conjunction with the cutoff walls also provides a percolation path with sufficient length to prevent the removal of foundation material by water moving adjacent to the structure. -Checks are designed to withstand the hydraulic forces imposed by water ponded to the top of the check wall on the upstream side and no water on the downstream side.136 (2) Travel time between checks-Spacing may be influenced by the time required for operating personnel to travel between structures. (2) the width of the stoplog opening is greater than 5 feet. A) + Upstream normal water depth Upstream normal water surface elevation 1207.18 + 1. decks should be a minimum of 3 feet wide. checks normally do not provide for a drop in grade across the structure.5 Ah. Design Example. Determine elevation B: Upstream bottom grade (El. The structure must be stable against sliding and overturning.5 feet.1 foot should be allowed for isolated checks in small canals. There is no structure listed for a maximum capacity of 25 cfs. At partial canal capacities. Gates. (3) Canal properties-Checks are usually located where changes in canal cross section or capacity occur. If more than one structure is listed for the required capacity. a drop in water surface elevation will occur across the structure. If gates are to be used. Assume that the canal profile shows elevation A (the bottom grade elevation upstream of the structure) to be 1207.5 times the difference between the velocity head at the check opening and the velocity head in the canal section upstream of the structure). select structure number 4 with the next largest Q which is 26 cfs. Adequate check length is provided to dampen water turbulence caused by: (1) the sheet of water flowing over stoplogs. The Bureau of Reclamation has developed standard dimensions for checks with capacities of 100 cfs and less. or (2) the jet of water flowing through a partially opened gate. Where stoplogs are not used operating decks are designed for a live load of 100 pounds per square foot.-Select a check to be used in a canal with a capacity of 25 cfs and a normal water depth of 1. Where the height above the floor is 3. For safety. Figure 3-5 shows a number of check structures with standard dimensions. From the table on figure 3-5.5 feet per second for efficient stoplog operation.-Velocity through check structures using stoplogs should be limited to about 3. The use of stoplogs is not recommended if: (1) the flow is greater than 50 cfs.18.5 feet or more above the floor and both an upstream and a downstream handrail are required if the height is 5 feet or more. with the water upstream checked to the control water surface. For a discussion of percolation see subchapter VIII C. A downstream handrail on the deck is required when the deck is 3.5 feet or greater.75 1208. choose the most economical structure that best fits the canal section. A minimum loss of 0. (c) Heacl Loss. Design Cotzsideratiom-(a) Stubilitv und Percolution. For greater heights. operating decks should be a minimum of 2 feet wide where the height of the deck above the check floor is less than 3. the availability of gate sizes may influence the choice of structure. 3-6. Stoplog guides may be vertical if the distance from the floor of the check to the bottom of the operating deck is less than 6 feet. Except for this head loss.75 feet. (b) Stoplogs. The velocity through checks using gates may be increased to about 5 feet per second.-The head loss through a check structure is computed as 0.

Standard check structures.REGULATING STRUCTURES TYPICAL SLIDE ASSEMBLY STOPLOG PLAN OR GATE FRAME iTWO REQ”lRED. 103-D-1208 GUIDE CONCRETE DETAILS DECK GATE . Q less than 70 cfs. OF PRECAST NOTES SECTION A-A Figure 3-5.

Standard check structures. STOPLOG Figure 3-6. OR GATE FRAME GUIDE t TWO REOUIRED. 103-D-1209 FOR CHECK WALL ..138 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES t SECTION SECTION SECTION ia L TYPICAL SLIDE ASSEMBLY D-D GATE PLAN PLAN SECTION i-i c-c SiMILAR A-A .~~~~“~~~. Q greater than 70 and less than 105 cfs.Prccos+ Concrete ec* STOPLOG OF OR GATE PRECAST CONCRETE FRAME GUIDE IONE REWIRED) FOR DECK PIER .~~~~ .

economic and stability considerations may indicate the use of another type of structure. 3-8.93 2. In unlined canals the channel should be protected above and below the structure to prevent erosion.08 Transitions are provided as required to fit the structure to the canal section. dimension C for structure number 4 = 2. Gates. For the larger drops. In lined sections these structures have been used for vertical drops up to about 8 feet. For this example.--2o~ Elevation B should be equal to or less than elevation A to avoid a hump in the bottom of the canal. Design Considerations.. -Check-drops are structures that provide a means of making small changes in canal invert elevations.67 feet.1 foot.83 Elevation C ( downstream bottom grade ) 75 207.5 feet for larger capacities. The design and operation of the check feature of the check-drop is similar to that of checks and the preceding discussion of checks applies generally to check-drops. Check-drops are designed to meet the same requirements for percolation. P-606-600-66A .93 0. Purpose and Description. -The vertical drop through this type of structure in an unlined canal is generally limited to 3 feet for canal capacities of 70 cfs and less and to 1. From figure 3-5..10 1208.-.67 r. Checks for capacities between 70 and 100 cfs are shown on figure 3-6. and weirs are used for regulation. Figures 3. Elevation of the top of the check wall -Dimension C Elevation B downstream equals: Determine elevation C: The head loss through the structure must be determined in accordance with subsection 3-5(c) of this chapter.7 through 3-11 show typical che~k-drop structures. stability..7. bottom Downstream water surface elevation -Downstream normal water depth 1208. CHECK-DROPS D.REGULATING STRUCTURES The top of the check wall is set at or slightly above the elevation of the upstream normal water surface. The drop portion of the structure dissipates excess head in the canal while the check portion maintains the required water surface upstream and controls the flow downstream. Constant-head orifice turnouts in background. and safety as checks. the 20po cit. The grade elevation Upstream water surface elevation -Head loss 1208. c. If elevation B is higher than elevation A. Lo WINSETT 3-7. stoplogs. po 134 Figure 3. The structure com bines the function of a vertical drop with those of a check. a structure with a larger dimension C should be selected. velocity. assume a minimum head loss of 0. In addition. Operator removing stop logs from a check-drop structure.

Discharge is 10 cfs. p 222-116-53583 structure must be long enough to contain the falling water and to provide a stilling pool to control turbulence downstream. Design discharge is 24 cfs.18 and .140 SMALL CANAL Figure 3-8. 3-10. Drop structure using a weir regulation. The best use of the dual features of this structure is made when it is placed where a check would normally be located. Design Example. Concrete check with slide gate. These standard Figure 3-11. p 17-100-285. Concrete check-drop. -Check-drops are located in a channel where a small change in grade is required. the bottom grade at the upstream end of the structure. and 3-14. Application. structures are shown on figures 3-12.75 feet. The Bureau has developed standard dimensions for check-drop structures with vertical drops of up to 3 feet. Overflow walls on each side of the check opening allow excess water in the canal to pass through the check-drop in the same manner as through a check. Water upstream checked to top of check wall. -Select a check-drop structure to be used in a channel with a capacity of 50 cfs and a water depth of 2. Assume that the channel profile shows elevation A. to be 1207.3-13. Check-drop maintaining an upstream water surface. The design example demonstrates how a check-drop structure is selected from these standard structures and how the required elevations are determined. 3-9.10.P222-116-53587 Figure 3-9. p 257-500-2967NA for STRUCTURES Figure 3.

Q less than 70 cfs.TWO ‘1EO”IRED) +*c- PLAN .REGULATING STRUCTURES 141 STOPLOG OR GATE FRAME GUIDE . Standard checkdrop structures.l”rtr*nm h”“A?“.i SECTION x--- OF x- PRECAST A-A Figwe J-12. 103-D-1210 -r DETAILS --x--Id CONCRETE DECK .

FOR FOR structures. Q greater than 60 and less than 100 cfs..o”dra~~ notshown 7’ TYPICAL SLIDE ASSEMBLY D-D GATE _ -L c Pm nO”drO.TWO REOUIRED.142 SMALL CANAL ‘+-~ SECTION 22’H STRUCTURES _ /--t. PreCOIf concrete OPCi OF PRECAST STOPLOG OR GATE STOPLOG OR GATE CONCRETE FRAME DECK GUIDE FRAME GUIDE .onl PLAN -f-yJ---I SECTION Figure 3. 103-D-121 1 PIER CHECK WALL .13. A-A Standard checkdrop ~~~~ 1 f .l pm+ tonneCt.

Elevation C + Downstream normal water depth Downstream normal water surface elevation 1205.5 feet.67 Transitions are provided as required to fit the structure to the canal cross section and in unlined canals the channel should be protected above and below the structure to prevent erosion. . dimension C for structure number 11 is 3. Therefore. or 52 cfs. choose the most economical structure that best fits the channel section. a structure with a larger dimension C should be selected. Determine elevation B : From figure 3-l 2. Check-drops for capacities between 60 and 100 cubic feet per second are shown on figure 3-13.Elevation C 1207.75 1209. The change in grade then is: Elevation A .18 +2. There is not a structure listed for a canal capacity of 50 cfs.93 3.92 Change in grade 1.75 1208.92.1205. the availability of gate sizes may influence the choice of structure.25 1206. the downstream normal water depth equals the upstream normal water depth.5 feet. from the table on figure 3-l 2 select structure number 1 1 which has the next largest capacity.68 - Drop in floor Elevation B 1. to be 1205. If elevation B is higher than elevation C. Elevation of the top of the check wall Dimension C 1209. For structures with a drop in the floor of 3 feet.25 feet and the drop in the floor is 1.18 Elevation B should be equal to or lower than elevation C. Elevation A + Upstream normal water depth Upstream normal water surface elevation 1207. If gates are to be used.50 1205. the bottom grade at the downstream end of the structure. Determine elevation: the downstream water surface Since there is no change in channel properties at the structure. If more than one structure is listed for the required capacity.92 + 2.93 The top of the check wall is set at or slightly above the elevation of the upstream normal water surface.26 feet Refer to figure 3-12 which shows a number of check-drop structures with standard dimensions for a drop in grade of up to 1.18 . see figure 3-14.REGULATING 143 STRUCTURES elevation C.

Standard dimensions for a 3-foot checkdrop structure. (Sheet 1 of 2.) 103-D-1212 .SMALL 144 SE CTION CANAL STRUCTURES A-A Figure 3-14.

) 103-D-1212 CHECK WALL . (Sheet 2 of 2. D-D TYPICAL OR GATE FRAME GUIDE t 7wo REQUIREDi FOR n. Standard dimensions for a 3-foot check-drop structure.REGULATING STRUCTURES 145 SECTION B-6 STOPLOG SECTION c-c 0 SEC. SLIDE ASSEMBLY GATE Figure 3-14.

1 I . Design Considerations. The proper submergence promotes smoothness of flow and the accuracy of water measurement devices where they are incorporated into the turnout structure. -Design a straight. The use of larger pipe will reduce the losses a small amount. throughthe-bank turnout with neither an outlet transition nor a provision for measurement. The conduit and outlet sections of the structure may be designed as part of another type of structure such as a siphon or a drop or they may connect to a water measurement structure. 3-29. Neither an outlet transition nor water . Reclamation requires rubber gasketed joints in pipe used as a conduit. If an outlet transition is provided. Pipes are generally used to carry the water through the bank of the supply channel. Cast iron slide gates with machined seats are used as turnout gates to insure watertightness when gates are closed. The slope of the sidewalls should be such that they will not interfere with cleaning and maintaining the canal.-For structures not having a concrete outlet transition and discharging into an unlined channel. Purpose and Description. p. -The structure must provide a percolation path of sufficient length to prevent the removal of foundation materials by seepage water. (d) Miscellmeous.vt/r(lLrlics. through-the-bank turnout to divert a Q of 25 cfs from a supply channel to an earth ditch. closer to the turnout. The control water surface may be raised by moving the check that maintains the water surface. (c) H. cit. If the required head cannot be obtained by the above methods. the maximum velocity in the pipe should bc about 3. 3 . an outlet transition.-The amount of submergence on the conduit depends on the type of turnout inlet and outlet used. 3-l 4. the turnout structure will require only proper sizing and setting to deliver the required flow from the supply channel. The structure will usually consist of an inlet. a conduit or a means of conveying water through the bank of the supply channel and. (b) Percolution und Stability. The air vent shown on figures 3-15. TURNOUTS D. The following example shows how this type of structure is set into a canal bank to fulfill a given set of conditions. For watertightness. Steel slide gates are used as orifice gates in constant-head orifice structures. It may be necessary to attach collars to the conduit to increase the length of the percolation path. The submergence should be in accordance with the paragraphs dealing with the particular type of structure used. WINSETT’ 3. Figure 3-l 5 shows a straight. -Turnout inlets should be set so that they do not protrude into the canal prism. -(a) Vclocif). Turnouts 3-13.. it may be necessary to relocate the turnout or to pump to the required delivery water surface elevation. Gates are generally used in the inlet to control the flow. the maximum velocity in the pipe may be increased to about 5 feet per second. L. some means must be found of either reducing the losses through the structure or raising the control water surface elevation in the supply channel.1 2. When there is excessive head across the structure. 134. design delivery water surface elevation is higher than the maximum elevation to which the turnout can deliver the required flow. Turnout inlets must be stable against flotation and sliding. where required.146 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES D. A minimum pipe diameter of 18 inches is generally used. -If water measurement at the turnout is not required.5 feet per second. Without Water Measurement. If the 20p. -Turnouts are used to divert water from a supply channel to a smaller channel. and 3-30 is to prevent the formation of a vacuum downstream of the turnout gate and may be omitted when the turnout gate is submerged by the design delivery water surface. the conduit and outlet portions of the turnout must be designed as a drop structure. Design Example.. The design examples demonstrate the computation of losses through a turnout structure. For a discussion of percolation and the design of collars see subchapter VI C.

103-D-1213 . Turnout.REGULATING STRUCTURES 147 I 4 SECTION ’ I SECTION A-A 1 I B-B Figure 3-15.

This loss is assumed to be 0. = . WP 2 Friction slope of pipe.h Maximum elevation A 1217.Submergence on top of pipe 1217. The pipe loss equals the length of pipe times the friction slope of the pipe (s). (3) A loss at the exit from the pipe.17 Set elevation D (fig.SMALL 148 measurement is required.60 1215.07 ft.78 x 0./ft.07 + 0.5 feet per second.78 times h. 4 feet.78 times h.58 1.66 Determine elevation A: The elevation at the cutoff (El.4 1 ft.25 = 0.78 x 0.33 Elevation of turnout floor 1213. The width of the structure at the cutoff is equal to the pipe diameter plus 12 inches or in this example.-In this example friction is the only pipe loss incurred. Control water surface elevation -.15) 1213. The head (h) required on a 4foot weir for a discharge of 25 cfs is obtained from weir tables. Consider a 36-inch-diameter pipe which has an area of 7.15 ft.19 ft. Determine the size of pipe to be used and the maximum elevation to which 25 cfs can be delivered.59 ft.19 = 0. To determine elevation D: Control water surface elevation . Pipe properties may be obtained from tables or computed as below: Q Pipe velocity. the loss will be: 50 x 0. n = 0.15 + 0. If 50 feet of pipe are required to convey the water through the canal bank. Hydraulic radius of pipe. Without an outlet transition the velocity in the pipe should be limited to about 3.00 Elevation D ~ 4 inches (fig. or h = 1.41 = 1217. Manning’s coefficient of roughness for precast concrete pipe. The total loss through the structure equals the sum of the above losses: -0. 3. wp = 71x diameter = 9. s = s = 0.19 = 0.58 0.19 + 0. CANAL STRUCTURES The highest elevation to which this turnout can deliver 25 cfs is: 1217.0014 ft.19 ft.58 .4 ft. (chapter VII) or: 1 x 0.99 0.0. (2) Pipe losses. .6 feet. Assume that the cutoff acts as a suppressed rectangular weir.59 Elevation of the top of pipe .76 ft. the sidewalls may be flared 8 to 1. 3-15) so that the control water surface in the supply channel submerges the top of the pipe at the turnout headwall a distance equal to 1. R = G= 0.0014 = 0.0 13 The head loss through this structure is comprised of: (1) A loss at the entrance to the pipe.99 3.= 0. The control water surface in the supply channel is at elevation 1217.78 is the entrance loss coefficient. h.Pipe diameter 1216.98 If additional width at the cutoff is required. where 0. V = A = 3. 33 Wetted perimeter of pipe.19 = 0.07 square feet. or 0. A) should be set to prevent this point from controlling the flow through the structure.58. plus 3 inches minimum: 1.5 fps V2 Velocity head in pipe. This loss equals 1 times h.

The outlet must be designed to force the conduit to flow full. Delivery water surface elevation -Submergence at pipe outlet Elevation top of pipe at outlet -Pipe diameter Elevation J - 1217.16. Figure 3-18.72616 D Figure 3-17. Line meters are similar to open-flow meters but are installed in pipelines. They may be attached to the outlet of a structure as shown on figure 3-22.(a) Flow Meters. See chapter IV for a discussion of flow meters. PX 303-602 inlets. Set elevation J to provide the submergence at the pipe outlet (0.92 3. Completed turnout inlets in casting yard.25 ft.00 1213. racks or screens are sometimes installed on the turnou t inlet to protect them. and provide an earth transition and protection at the outlet as required. 3-15. PX-D-72619 D .17 0.-Open-flow meters can be used to measure the amount of water diverted. Figures 3-18 through 3-21 show typical turnout installations using both precast and cast-in-place concrete transitions. The flow meter may be detachable allowing it to be used on more than Figure 3. Figures 3-16 and 3-17 show completed precast concrete turnout inlets in the casting yard. Turnouts With Measurement.D. Precast concrete turnout PX. 1216.25 one structure.REGULATING 149 STRUCTURES Choose an elevation A that satisfies both the above criteria and the conditions found in the field.92 Select a class of pipe that will withstand the internal and external loads to which it will be subjected. They are propeller devices that are especially useful where the head available for measurement is limited. Figure 3-23 shows the brackets on the outlet headwall that hold the flow meter and the slots into which stoplogs are placed to force the conduit to flow full. Lateral turnout gates.) as shown on figure 3-15. Because trash in the water can foul or damage these meters.

. A second gate. the upstream gate. (c) Cons/an/-head Orifice S/ruc/ures. CANAL STRUCTURES P214-D-73783 the flow of water. They should be designed in accordance with the criteria set forth in chapter IV. Turnout structure (b) Parshall Flumes and Weirs. It may be used as an inline structure or as a turnout inlet. At least two gates are required for the structure to operate. controls the size of the rectangular orifice.150 SMALL Figure 3-19.-Parshall flumes and weir structures are sometimes incorporated into turnout designs to measure flows where the required head is available. The first gate.The constant-head orifice structure was developed by Reclamation to both regulate and measure in earth channel. Figures 3-24 through 3-26 show various details of the construction and operation of constant-head orifice turnouts. the .

701-6580 downstream gate.REGULATING STRUCTURES 151 Figure 3-20. Area of orifice required: A= Q c.2 ft. .7. p 328. Completed turnout structure ready for backfilling. p 499-700-615. Note concrete lining blocked out around structure.2 foot are shown in tables 3-1 and 3-2.The following criteria are for constant-head orifice structures with capacities of up to 30 cfs (fig.. Precast turnout inlet in place in canal bank. 3-27).7.['Igh The coefficient of discharge (C) is generally considered to be 0. and = 0./2gh where' c h = orifice coefficient = differential head = 0. more or larger openings are used.. controls the water depth below the orifice and is operated to maintain the head across the orifice at a constant value. Approximate discharge tables for two orifice gate sizes. Design Considerations.. The tables show discharges with both one and two gates in operati'on. Figure 3-21. Constant-head orifice structures are normally operated with a head differential (h) of 0. Staff gages are used to measure the head across the orifice. The flow through the structure is varied by changing the area of the orifice. Discharge is 1. PX 303-429 NA Figure 3-22. Flow through turnout being measured with an open-now meter. For larger flows.2 foot but where the head is available a greater differential may be used. The approximate flow through the structure can be computed from the equation: Q=CA. 3-16. 24 by 18 inches and 30 by 24 inches operating under a head of 0.7 cfs.

Angles in foreground hold stop logs to force conduit to flow fun. Brackets on headwan hold open-flow meter. Constant-head orifice turnout with stilling wells. Discharge is 7 cfs. For structures wi th capacities greater than 10 cfs. The width of the structure .78 times the velocity head of the full pipe plus 3 inches minimum. The submergence on the turnout gate opening should be 1. Farm turnout outlet. For structures with capacities up to 10 cfs the minimum distance between the orifice gate and the turnout gate (L) should be 2-1/4 times the orifice gate opening for maximum flow (y m ) or 1-3/4 times the wall opening (y t) whichever is greater (3-foot 6-inch minimum).152 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Figure 3-23. Figure Figure 3-24. The upstream submergence on the orifice gate (s) should be equal to or greater than the orifice gate opening (y m ) at maximum capacity. A level floor length equal to the height of the orifice gate opening (y m ) should be provided in front of the orifice gates. PX-D-72604 D 3-25. p 499-700-383. This area should be provided in 75 to 80 percent of the gate rise. L should be 2-3/4 times the height of the orifice gate opening (y m ). Constant-head PX-D-72618 orifice D turnout inlet.

REGULATING STRUCTURES 153 Figure 3-26. An air vent behind the turnout gate should be provided when the pipe profile will pennit a vacuum to form downstream of the turnout gate. The sidewalls may be flared 8 to 1 if additional width at the cutoff is needed. P222-116-52046 A must accommodate the gates used and the width at the cutoff must be great enough to prevent it from becoming a control. The above criteria are for structures with capacities up to 30 cfs. The conduit and outlet section of the structure should be designed as a siphon or drop if conditions dictate. The accuracy of a constant-head orifice . For larger flows special structures with multiple gates and conduits are designed to suit conditions. Operator adjusting orifice gate on a constant-head orifice turnout.

With the accuracy of the structure dependent upon so many variables.62 ft. therefore. This meets the requirement that the orifice area must be furnished in 75 to 80 percent of the gate rise. The head differential is measured by either piezometers or staff gages. The orifice gate opening should be submerged a distance equal to the orifice gate opening (2. The diversion is to be measured with a constant-head orifice inlet. 4. the full pipe velocity may be about 5 feet per second. These structures also use the principle of a submerged orifice under a known head and are operated in the same manner as smaller constant-head orifice structures.3 or 6.9 = 4. A 30-inch-diameter cast iron turnout gate will fit both the pipe and the size of box selected. CANAL a 30-inch-diameter pipe is STRUCTURES = 0. Wetted perimeter of the pipe (wp) = 71 x diameter or 71x 2.0 = 10.0024 ft.33 feet minimum. the length of the measuring well should be 2-3/4 times 2.5 = 7. A broken-back outlet transition is to be provided. and (4) Obstruction of the orifice by trash in the water. A = 8 square feet Consider an orifice gate 42 inches wide by 36 inches high. With an outlet transition.3 feet minimum) should be provided in front of the orifice gate. The elevations pertaining to the orifice will be: . Design Example. Because the design capacity is greater than 10 cfs.26 ft. (2) Flow conditions downstream from the gate. Determine the gate opening to provide an area of 8 square feet: 8 Gate rise = 3. area Hydraulic radius of the pipe R =-orwp = 0. The area equals 3.5 x 3.5 = 2. the gate must be 77 percent open to provide the required area. One or more orifices with gates are built into a wall that extends across the channel.77 or 77 percent 3 From above.9 ft. Determine the size of pipe to be used. (3) Errors in reading the head differential. satisfactory. = g (1) Flow conditions upstream from the orifice gate. A second wall with gated openings is built at the downstream end of the structure.2 ft. 2 Friction slope of the pipe s = = 0.I 154 SMALL structure is affected by: Pipe velocity head h. 3-28). Design a straight. Determine the maximum elevation to which 20 cfs can be delivered. A constant-head orifice structure built inline can perform checking and measuring functions in the canal (fig. The control water surface in the supply channel is at elevation 1217. Pipe properties may be obtained from tables or computed as below: Pipe velocity Q 20 V = A = 4.-Refer to figure 3-29. Determine the area of the orifice gate: Q Area = Cd23 Assume C = 0./ft. The following example demonstrates the procedure in designing a constant-head orifice turnout. Generally discharge curves for these larger structures are prepared from field rating data.7. 23 2 = 0.0 13.58.5 square feet. To accommodate a gate 42 inches wide the width of the box must be approximately 5 feet. field rating of the structure should be made when accuracies of better than about 10 percent are required. through the bank turnout to divert 20 cfs from a supply channel to an earth ditch.1 feet per second. h = 0. Consider a 30-inch-diameter pipe with an area (A) of 4.9 7.3 ft. 3-17.9 The coefficient of roughness n for precast concrete pipe is assumed to be 0. A level floor length equal to the orifice gate opening (2.3 feet minimum).9 square feet.

28 .75 9.50 .24 1.25 .75 7.28 1.00 .00 1.24 I I I .20 .12 14.08 .54 .75 15.56 10.75 8.43 192s 19.25 3.72 1.00 2.52 .12 .ZOfoot.75 13.25 15 sn 15.REGULATING 155 STRUCTURES Table 3-l.36 .15 3.32 .56 1.14 1.175 .93 .91 0.14 1.34 7.68 .25 13.16 0.00 .50 5.00 .49 I I .01 1.44 .34 1.50 4. II II II II _.91 .25 10.525 1.41 9.00 . in cubic feet per second.00 12.00 1 gate II 0.48 .00 Discharge !> cfs 1 gate I I-- cfs.40 .25 18.50 .I9 I .06 ..56 .25 9.16 1.22 1.00 II II .I5 1.95 .I4 .32 1.25 2. Capacity 20 103-D-1214 Gate opening in feet Gate opening in feet Discharge.32 .37 1.00 1.10 17.50 19.72 .18 15.91 .75 1.12 .26 6.24 .50 12.25 1.50 11.40 358 5.LJ 14.00 I I .00 ~ 1.50 6.20 .25 6.00 13.15 2.50 1.25 7.18 .95 16.26 .22 .75 19.50 7.89 .03 I 1.-l 1.05 1.00 1.75 .38 .755 .58 .08 .36 .99 1.83 -81 .45 1._ 1775 18.50 18. cfs II -11 2 gates 0.56 .25 16..75 4.25 8.47 1.50 2.00 1.30 .50 13.52 .83 .25 11.375 1.76 .60 .28 .04 .39 1.34 .66 .53 1.18 11.25 i7.50 16.64 1.20 .355 1.-122 1.-Discharge oj’constant-head orifice turnout gatesize30~24inches.87 10.99 1.75 14.50 I I _. 2 gates .15 6.70 .04 .10 14 _ .75 12.64 4.25 4.42 -44 146 .00 I .75 __.75 20.&=O.25 12.48 3.07 1.545 1.085 1.60 A2 .._ .065 16.50 3.16 .50 8.14 .26 8.15 5.79 1.49 1.02 .45 1.00 1.85 .G 11.00 II II II 11.50 I0.30 1.41 18.25 5.I0 1.03 1.30 1.51 1.00 .--2s 1.50 9.8 1 .

Elevations pertaining to the turnout gate are : Elevation of the turnout floor 1212.00 .30 = 0. gate size 24 x 18 inches.225 .28 2.45 .81 With a 0.175 .25 8.84 .50 7. Capacity 10 cfs.05 .75 5.33 Elevation D + Pipe diameter Elevation top of pipe at headwall + 1213.20 .475 .67 ft.20 Water surface elevation in the measuring box 1217.15 3.50 9.70 . cfs Discharge. cfs 2 gates 1 gate 0.65 .75 2.25 .15 4.-Discharge CANAL STRUCTURES of constant-head orifice turnout in cubic feet per second.50 3.70 ft.125 .a9 .98 From figure 3-27.30 + 12 12.75 7.50 1215.38 .275 . &I = 0. must be greater than or equal to the thickness of the orifice wall (t).0 Control water surface in the canal .00 .50 4.50 8.375 . ) Elevation of the turnout floor + Gate height (Y.075 .00 4.25 5.Submergence on the orifice gate (S) 1217.25 2.00 .00 1215. Then the maximum thickness of the orifice wall is limited to about 8 inches (0.79 8.I5 1.425 .30 .25 9.05 .35 .00 2.) Elevation top of orifice gate opening 1215.30 Elevation top of orifice gate .25 1.).Gate opening (Y.025 .156 SMALL Table 3-2.50 .98 3.20 5.00 .25 .lO 0.50 2.00 1.99 9.145 .40 .30 .00 3.50 5.2.75 9.00 0.40 6.58 0.25 .15 .60 7.35 . X.25 6. 3-29) 0. 103-D-1215 Gate opening in feet Gate opening in feet Discharge.2-foot head differential across the orifice the submergence on the top of the pipe at the headwall equals: Control water surface in the canal Head differential 1217. The distance X.31 2.50 6.20 foot.75 8.lO .50 .25 4.325 .50 1.00 .94 .75 10.75 6.25 7.45 2 .15 .25 3. = 3.98 + + 4 inches (fig.58 2.

57 ft..78 x 0.20 Maximum elevation A 1216. minimum. For Q up to to cfs. Control water surface elevation -h 1217. L = 2f y.Elevation top of pipe at headwall .1215. A) should Choose an elevation A that satisfies both the above criteria and the conditions found in the .’must be equal to or greater than “I-” for max... The head (h) required on a 5-foot weir for a discharge of 20 cfs is 1. orifice. The width of the structure at the cutoff in this example is 5 feet. Q.78 times h.81 Submergence on turnout pipe 1. whichever is greater. h = 0. The elevations selected meet this requirement.. The required minimum submergence on the turnout pipe equals 1.26 + 0. Assume that the cutoff acts as a suppressed rectangular weir. L must be at least 2$ ym or I+ yt.71 ft. Dimensions for a constant-head Water surface elevation in 1217.25 = 0.?=o. (3'-6" minimum) For Q above Ia cfs.2' (Normally) Figure 3-27. Turnout gate not shown- ” Xr.38 the measuring box . Q.” for good accuracy. (table 5-6).38 Determine elevation A: The elevation at the cutoff (El. Submergence Orif max. 103-D-1216 be set to prevent this point from controlling the flow through the structure.2 ft.B Full gate leaf travel.58 1.REGULATING 157 STRUCTURES Gate opening for max. ” s ” is equal to or greater than ” y. plus 3 inches minimum = 1.

20 ft.88 0. the sidewalls may be flared 8 to I.26 = 0.20 + 0.12 ft.50 foot at the outlet transition headwall as shown on figure 3-29. and the channel should be protected to prevent erosion.20 ft.SMALL 158 CANAL STRUCTURES The total loss across the structure is the sum of the above losses: 0. The losses through the structure will consist of: ( 1) Measurement loss (h) = 0. The concrete pipe transition provided should fit the structure to the channel. Assuming that the only pipe loss incurred in a So-foot length of pipe is the friction. (4) A loss at the exit from the pipe equal to 0. Elevation pipe invert at outlet headwall 1213.7 x 0.7 times 6hy (chapter VII) or: 0.58 0. PX-O-7260S field. (3) Pipe loss. (2) A loss at the entrance to the turnout pipe equal to 0.70 1216.0024 = 0.38 2. Figure 3-30 shows a number of constant-head orifice turnout structures with capacities greater than 30 cfs.12 + 0.50 1216. Structure maintains upstream water surface and measures flow in the canal.78 x 0.20 + 0.70 ft The maximum elevation structure can deliver 20 cfs is: to Control water surface elevation -Head loss in the structure Maximum delivery water surface Figure 3-28. If additional width at the cutoff is required.78 times hy or: which this 1217.26 = 0. Constant-head orifice structure used as a check.50 0. Maximum delivery water surface -Submergence on the top of pipe Elevation top of pipe at outlet headwall -Pipe diameter 1216.88 A class of pipe should be selected that will withstand the external and internal loads to which it will be subjected.18 ft.18 = 0.88 Submerge the top of the pipe 0. the pipe loss equals the length of pipe times the friction slope of the pipe (s): 50 x 0. .

REGULATING STRUCTURES 159 : 1 .

160 SMALL I -1 L CANAL STRUCTURES .

REGULATING STRUCTURES 161 .

DIVISION D. Design Q 3 cfs over each weir. weirs may be used to proportion the flow. Weirs that are both movable and adjustable are often used in division structures.. a drop. WINSETT 3-18. the structure should be designed to provide suitable conditions for the weir as set forth in the discussion of weirs in chapter V. Figure 3-31. The division structure may be a separate structure or it may be the outlet of a siphon. p. cit. 20p. Purpose and Description. Adjustable weirs can be adjusted vertically and 2 provide a means of controlling the flow as well as a means of measurement. CANAL STRUCTURES STRUCTURES L. Movable weirs are mounted in frames that are inserted into grooves in the division structure and may be moved from one structure to another.162 SMALL E. -Division structures are used to divide the flow from a supply pipe or channel among two or more channels or pipes. Weir discharges may be obtained from discharge tables or from flow formulas. If measurement is not required at the point of division. 134. the flow through the structure may be directed through the various outlets with gates or stoplogs. PX-D-72614 D . To avoid reducing the accuracy of the weir measurement. If the flow must be measured and the required head is available. or a turnout from which further diversion is required. Division structure usin~ 2-foot adjustable weirs. The head on the weir is generally obtained from staff gagesmounted in the structure.

REGULATING 163 STRUCTURES Figure 3-32. Various combinations of supply and delivery are shown on figures 3-35 and 3-36. Pipe division box. Note 3-foot adjustable weirs center and left. Figure 3-33. structure used as outlet p 328-701-7166 to . When delivery to the division structure is through a pipe. Figure 3-34 shows the slots which could accept stoplogs.-Water must be delivered to the division structure at an elevation that will provide enough head on the weirs to furnish the required flow at the required delivery water surface elevation. P222-116-53582 Figures 3-31 and 3-32 show division structures using adjustable weirs to proportion the flow. In practice any of the possible combinations may be encountered. Division turnout. gates in frames. p 33-D-33913 Figure 3-34. Figure 3-33 shows a structure with a fixed weir in operation. Division structure with now over IS-inch weir in foreground. the velocity in the pipe is held to about 1. Design considerations. or movable weirs.5 feet per second to reduce turbulence ahead of the weirs. The pool shown ahead of the structures is an attempt to approach standard conditions to increase the accuracy of any weir measurement made in the division structures.

SMALL 164 SECTION CANAL STRUCTURES A-A . 103-D-1219 .I 1 PLAN TYPICAL CONNECTION TO CONCRETE LINING .G -Y SECTION S-E 2’“DJ IVEIR J’AOJWEIH DETAILS OF FOR ADJUSTASLE Figure 3-S. OPENING WEIR Division structure.

REGULATING STRUCTURES 165 CONCRETE PLANK .

Referring to the structure in figure 3-38. (b) Pro tection. The depth of flow over the walls and closure is dependent on the coefficient of discharge. Hydraulic Structures Branch.5 feet per second.The sidewalls should have a top elevation equal to the elevation of the normal canal water surface.166 SMALL F. If there is a need to operate the check automatically. -The check and pipe inlet is combined with and used on the upstream end of such structures as road Figure 3-37.5 foot of canal bank freeboard provided the freeboard design was based on figure 1-9. irrespective of the control water surface elevation. the canal water surface can be controlled to the desired elevation. -Protection is often used adjacent to structures in earth-Iined canals where erosion may occur. The inlet to the box is an opening that provides for installation of either a gate or stop logs. 3-19. The purpose of a check and pipe inlet is to maintain a water surface at a required elevation for turnout deliveries upstream with partial flows in the canal. -The check and pipe inlet is a box-type structure on the upstream end of a pipe (see fig. 3-21. or if the inlet is closed. -The transition from the canal section produces a smooth change of velocity from canal to structure and provides for a gradual change in invert elevation from the canal to the opening in the structure. pipe drops. Reclamation. p 222-116-48458 pipe PIPE YOUNG CANAL STRUCTURES INLETS 3 crossings. assuming the extreme condition of flow at canal design capacity and complete closure of the inlet opening. B. -(a) Upstream Transitions. the 3Civil Engineer. Walk planks covering the top of the box provide a platform for operation of the gate or stop logs. This structure can also serve as a shutoff point in the canal. Bureau of . the flow in the canal will spill over the sidewalls and inlet closure. The opening has gate frame guides for installation of a gate or for use as stoplog guides. By partially closing the inlet with the gate or stoplogs. CHECK AND R. F or design of protection see the discussion on Protection in subchapter VII B. and pipe chutes where the capability of providing a checked water surface in the canal is required. or if a canal break should occur . there will still remain about 0. This velocity is considered as the maximum desirable for ease of stoplog handling. a gate should be used. The elevation of the inlet opening should be the same or lower than the invert of the canal. (d) Sidewalls. 3-37). if the inlet becomes obstructed. Application. The sidewalls provide for emergency overflow into the box if the gate or stoplogs are not appropriately set for a particular flow in the canal. The width of the opening is set to reasonably approximate a canal base width for the design flow.. Check spacing has been previously discussed in subchapter III B. -The area of the inlet opening should be proportioned to limit the design flow velocity to about 3. inverted siphons. 3-20. (c) Inlet Opening. complete closure of the inlet with diversion to a wasteway could isolate the appropriate canal reach. Check inlet to 42-inch-diarneter siphon. Description and Purpose. If the inlet of the structure is inadvertently closed or improperly regulated. Design Considerations. The invert slope should not be steeper than 4 to I. When water delivery downstream from the inlet is not required.

103-D-1221 CONCRETE WALK PLANK .& ---.REGULATING STRUCTURES 167 : . Check and pipe inlet. f -- PRECAST Figure 3-38.. .

2-4. . In addition assume that a check will be required at the inlet of the drop to raise the canal water surface to a required elevation for delivery to a lateral. or 2-3 1. When a slide gate is selected from the table of dimensions (fig. (e) Headwall. The criteria for determining a pipe size for a structure having a check and pipe inlet is based on providing a pipe with an adequate diameter so that the velocity in the pipe will not exceed the following: (1) 5 feet per second for a road crossing or a similar structure such as a short inverted siphon having a concrete outlet transition. -The invert elevation of the box floor is set at the same elevation as the invert of the pipe. (3) 5 feet per second for a pipe drop having a concrete outlet transition.15 and 8-2 1 for air vent details. The table in figure 3-38 provides standard dimensions for structures corresponding to structure numbers. Design Example (see fig. thereby preventing backwater in the canal for its design flow. If the exact selected gate size is not available from the manufacturer and the next greater available height is used. the width of structure. A vent at the headwall or immediately upstream from the jump may be required to prevent this blowback. -A combination of the pipe diameter and maximum allowable velocity in the pipe is used to identify a check-and-pipe inlet structure. The check and pipe inlet structures selected for 3.-If a hydraulic jump occurs in the pipe and the inlet is sealed there is a possibility of blowback. pipe drops. This structure should also be used with a 12-inch-diameter pipe having a maximum allowable pipe velocity of 3. 3-38). 3-22. Structure number 12-2 represents a structure with a 12-inch-diameter pipe having a maximum allowable pipe velocity of 12 feet per second.168 length of walls. and the flow in the canal. structure number 12-l represents a structure with a 12-inch-diameter pipe having a maximum allowable pipe velocity of 5 feet per second. If the resultant freeboard is much less than 0. when closed.5 of the velocity head in the pipe is provided. (f) Floor of Inlet Box and Pipe Invert. 3-38). 3-38).5 foot when the gate is closed and normal canal flow is spilling into the structure. or (5) 12 feet per second for a pipe drop or pipe chute having a baffled outlet or a stilling pool outlet. the top elevation of the gate. After the maximum allowable pipe velocity has been determined. provides for pipe embedment.5 foot. (i) Pipe Vc/ztS. and by its horizontal extension into the canal banks and vertical extension below the pipe. serves as a percolation cutoff. This structure should also be used with a 12-inch-diameter pipe having a maximum allowable pipe velocity of 10 feet per second. and pipe chutes.-Walk planks are supported by the headwall and the walk plank support angle.-The pipe is sized by design steps discussed in respective paragraphs of road crossings. will be at approximately the same elevation as the top of the sidewalls. (g) W&k Plalrks. See figures 3. (h) Pipe Diumeter. The planks provide a platform for operating a gate or handling stoplogs. Thus.-The headwall at the pipe end of the box retains earthwork. the taller gate when closed with design flow in the canal may cause the canal freeboard to be less than 0.5 feet per second for a pipe drop having only an earth transition at the outlet. (4) 10 feet per second for a relatively long inverted siphon having a concrete outlet transition.-Assume that a pipe drop is required to convey the canal water to a lower elevation. The 18-inch clearance between the top of sidewalls and bottom of walk planks provides clearance for the passage of floating debris that might otherwise obstruct the flow of water over sidewalls. the sidewalls should be lengthened until the canal freeboard is about 0. inverted siphons. but the difference in cost is not considered excessive.5 feet per second (also see notes on fig.5 foot as the resultant water elevation will have been increased. SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES (2)‘ 3.5 and 10 feet per second will have conservative dimensions. the pipe diameter may be selected by using the tables on figures 2-2. Structure Numbering. 3-23. A minimum loss of 0. The table of dimensions shown on figure 3-38 was established to set the pipe invert low enough to allow for hydraulic losses through the inlet opening and the pipe entrance.

A).5 feet per second use a 54-inch-diameter pipe. D =(NWS El. (10) Check structure to be automated.75 = 5403. then the top of gate when closed would have been at the same elevation as the sidewalls.25 = 4. (5) El.14 f. (5) Pipe velocity head.1.Drop = = = = Slope = and slope in earth El. A .6 to 1 (as this is flatter than 4 to 1 it is satisfactory). top of bank = 5410. although proportioned for a maximum allowable pipe velocity of 5 feet per second. 9 in.-Use gate because of need to automate the check.z 50 Q v.25 + 1. (10) Canal freeboard with check gate closed and normal flow in the canal.El.00 ft. (6) d.00 (from a profile sheet). Y.-Structure number 54-1.6.00 + 2. (9) Check and pipe inlet is required.by 51-inch gate had been available. (2) Pipe size (see table on fig.s. = 5407. 6 in. (8) El. A = El. A.-For 54-inch-diameter pipe and Q = 50 cfs.(El.75 2.R = 5409.785 x diaZ = 15. (6) Determine elevation D: El.60 5409. (b) Determine: (1) Need for either gate or stoplog control.25 (7) Drop transition.00 .86 foot. H=( &) 2’3= (&) 2’3 = (0. the hydraulic properties may also be determined by using table 8.5404. and k.60 ft. = 0.S)2’3 = 0.by 51-inch gate for structure number 54-l. (7) NWS El. The above equation is derived from the weir equation: I Q=CWH”‘“.142 == 0.(5403. For a Q of 50 cfs and a maximum allowable velocity of 3. at Sta.REGULATING STRUCTURES (a > Assume the informa fion is given : fi~llowing 169 design (1) Type of waterway = earth canal. The head required for discharging the design flow over the sidewalls and gate closure would have been. A + d.15 foot 64. A). can also be used for a maximum allowable pipe velocity of 3. 3.5. 2 =$ In lieu of performing the above calculation.00 = 1. (normal depth at Sta.p. Assume for this example problem that this gate is not available and that the next available greater gate height is 60 inches for a 72-inch-wide gate. (8) Gate size.-If the 72. D + Y) 5407. NWS in canal = 5410.00 = 5409. at Sta. L. 18 in. These dimensions are read from the standard dimension table for structure number 54-l: R Y L k = = = = 5 ft.00 . 10 to 2. = 2.-The standard dimension table shows a 72. 6 ft.50) 5407. . 2-3 1). (9) Normal canal freeboard = El. 6 ft. (4) Q = 50 cfs.4 P where g = gravitational acceleration h.5 feet per second. (4) Determine standard check and pipe inlet dimensions R. (2) Type of conveyance structure = pipe drop sumped for energy dissipation with an earth outlet transition. = q zm= 3.5 feet per second.00.90 ft. (3) The conveyance structure would have a maximum allowable pipe velocity of 3. canal bank .00 . A = 5407. (3) Structure number.25 ft.

74 foot. the inlet provides a controlled water surface for turnouts.15) + (3.74 foot.5+6= 19ft. D + Y + 3-l/2 inches + height of gate + 1.01) = 49. In addition. of freeboard) . B.5 ft.0. of discharge C CANAL STRUCTURES where H = (El. Application.04 = 0.5 foot is considered satisfactory for the extreme condition of normal Q overflowing the sidewalls and gate closure.60 ~ 0.-The transition is used to effect a gradual change from canal base width 30p.6 cfs is slightly less than the design flow of 50 cfs. when closed. -The control and pipe inlet is sometimes used on the upstream ends of such structures as pipe drops and pipe chutes where the hydraulic control of the upstream canal water surface is at the inlet for all flows.5 ft.06 foot However. The purpose of the control inlet is to prevent drawdown of the canal water surface for a range of flows between design flow and about 0. and an inlet to a pipe at the box headwall (see fig. being at a higher elevation than the sidewalls.El.-(a) Upstream Earth Transition.29 + 5. canal bank . The calculated overflow of 49. -A control and pipe inlet is a concrete box structure with a trapezoidal-shaped notch for upstream water surface control.3 x 6 x 0. G.50) .3. and H.2 of design flow.5 x 1. overflow sidewalls.(El.60 .60 .5-foot canal freeboard and solve for the Q that will overflow into the box using the basic weir equation.. Design Considerations. canal bank . then H.15 feet W = length of sidewalls plus the width of the structure =2(L)+k=2x6. CONTROL AND PIPE INLETS R.4 + 0. = 5403.5409. Occasionally it is also used at inlets to inverted siphons to prevent water surface drawdown which may occur for flows less than design flow.170 SMALL The acceptable coefficient is assumed to be 3.1 feet H3’2 = 1. 3-26. use of the 60-inch-high gate results in the top of gate.2 = 49. 166. = (El.04 The 3.El.50) ~ 5410. p. Canal bank freeboard will therefore be just slightly less than 0.l/2 inches in the above equation is the assumed size of the vertical leg of the gate-frame bottom angle-iron. cit. 3’2 = 0. The resulting canal freeboard would then be the El.0. of freeboard) -. YOUNG3 3-24. 3-l). top of closed gate = (5410. For the flow over the sidewalls Q = C2LH3 ‘2 and for flow over the top of the gate Q = CkH. . which reduces the canal freeboard to less than 0. top of closed gate Assume a 0.5 foot.86 = 0. Description and Purpose.00 = 5410. 3‘2 therefore.25 Q = (3. of sidewalls + H) = normal canal freeboard H = 1. combining these flows we have: = El. A canal freeboard of about 0.00 = 1. top of sidewalls = (5410.6 cfs. canal bank .0.0.01 foot and El.3 x 2 x 6. 3-25.50 + 0.

5 feet per second for a pipe drop having only an earth transition at the outlet. for commonly used full pipe velocities of 3. The sidewalls should be of sufficient length to permit design flow to overtop the sidewalls with complete blockage of the notch. (e) Headwall. 5. -The pipe diameter and maximum allowable full-pipe velocity are used to number the control and pipe inlet structures. After the maximum allowable pipe velocity has been determined. or 2-3 1. 10.5 foot of channel bank freeboard based on figure l-9. (4) 10 feet per second for a relatively long inverted siphon having a concrete outlet transition. A minimum loss of 0. The transition invert is level since the notch invert is set at the canal invert elevation.REGULATING STRUCTURES to that of the structure and in so doing produce a more uniform velocity change from the canal to the structure. (f) Width of l/z/et BOY. The bottom width. (2) 3. (d) Overflow Sidewulls. (b) Erosiorl Protectiotl. 2-4. 3-39) are designed to provide about 0. . -Protection is used adjacent to control and pipe inlets in earth canals to prevent erosion resulting from high velocities. 3-27. and by its extension into the earth below and 171 on each side of the pipe. A control notch which requires slightly more energy than that available from normal flow conditions in the canal will cause a very small rise in water surface elevation in the upstream canal. The depth of the notch should be equal to or slightly more than the depth in the canal for normal flow. but this is an acceptable condition. The elevation of the notch invert should be equal to the upstream canal invert elevation. -These walls. Channel banks must have sufficient freeboard for the higher water surface required to overflow these walls. serves as a cutoff to reduce seepage from the channel. top width. (g) Inlet Invert Elevation. (c) Corltrol Notch. For the critical case of canal flow at or near full design Q. were established to prevent the pipe entrance from controlling the channel water surface. Generally. drops. (3) 5 feet per second for a pipe drop having a concrete outlet transition. The length of sidewalls (fig.5 pipe velocity head is provided. (h) Yipe Diameter. -The headwall retains channel earthwork. and side slopes of the notch may be determined by the procedure shown in the design example (see sec. with tops at the same elevation as the top of the notch. For design of protection see the discussion on Protection. Structure number 12-l represents a structure with a 12-inch-diameter pipe and a maximum allowable full-pipe . embeds the inlet end of the pipe.-This elevation is the same as the pipe opening invert elevation and should be low enough so the water surface at the pipe opening required to convey the flow into the pipe will not cause the upstream channel water surface elevation to exceed normal. provide for emergency overflow into the box in the event there is an obstruction in the notch or the flow in the channel is greater than normal. the water surface rise is minimized by a portion of the flow being able to overflow the sidewalls.2 of design flow. The R values. For any flow in this range the notch causes the upstream canal water depth to be at or very near normal depth thereby preventing increased velocities which otherwise could cause canal erosion. and chutes.5.-The minimum width should be the larger of either 6 inches plus notch width or 6 inches plus inside pipe diameter. the pipe diameter may be selected by using the tables on figures 2-2.5 pipe velocity head. The dimension R is slightly more than the pipe diameter plus 1. 3-28).-The pipe is sized by procedures discussed in paragraphs of road crossings. -The trapezoidal-shaped opening or control notch is designed to control upstream canal water depths and velocities for all flows between design flow and about 0. Structure Numbering. the criterion for determining a pipe size for a structure having a control and pipe inlet is to provide a large enough diameter pipe so that the pipe velocity will not exceed the following : (1) 5 feet per second if a concrete outlet transition is provided on a road crossing or a similar structure such as a short inverted siphon. in the table of dimensions on figure 3-39. subchapter VII B. inverted siphons. and 12 feet per second. or (5) 12 feet per second for a pipe drop or a pipe chute having a baffled outlet or a stilling pool.

SOMETR. Control and pipe inlet.C PROJECTION Figure 3-39.172 SMALL CANAL L 3-45”inamfe~5 SECTION STRUCTURES *4(a12 C-C NOTES . 103-D-1222 .

(4) Determine A. 0.5 feet per second the table permits the use of a 54-inch-diameter pipe.p.. at Sta. (5) Determine the canal hydraulic properties for a flow of 0.14 f.83 = 5408. A = El. Q = 15. 3-28. 3-40).83.90 50 = 3.3.REGULATING velocity of 5 feet per second.00 + 2. 2. Read R = 5 ft. (7) El.83 ft.06 ft.785 x dia’ = 15. so that E (energy) may be calculated for use on the control notch graphs (fig.2 design flow to full design flow.-A structure with a 54-inch-diameter pipe and a maximum allowable pipe velocity of 3. (6) NWS El.s. (3) Determine control and pipe inlet standard dimensions R and L by entering the structure table for structure number 54-l. (b) Determine: ( 1) Pipe size (see table on figure 2-3 1).1. The table on figure 3-39 presents standard dimensions for each structure number. 2. (4) This drop structure would have a maximum allowable velocity of 3.2 the normal Q.p. 3-39). = 0.0 ft. Design Example (see fig.4 . For a Q of 50 cfs and a maximum allowable velocity of 3. Similarly.’ v. top of bank = 5410. 6 in.90 ft. A + d. but the difference in cost is not considered excessive. wetted perimeter.00 (from a profile sheet).5 feet per second is numbered 54-l. The control and pipe inlet structures selected for 3. (5) El. A = 5406.5 feet per second. and hydraulic radius equations and associated sketch are as follows: CANAL SECTION .0005 l-1/2: 1 0. (3) Type of conveyance structure = pipe drop sumped for energy dissipation with an earth outlet transition.025 1.s. = s= s:s = n= v = h.5 and 10 cfs will have conservative dimensions. (2) Hydraulic properties of the canal Q= b= d.L42 64. = E (energy) = 173 STRUCTURES 50 cfs 5. The area. and hvp for a pipe with a Q = 50 cfs: A. This structure should also be used with a 12-inch-diameter pipe and a maximum allowable full-pipe velocity of 10 feet per second.-Assume that a pipe drop is required to convey the canal water to a lower elevation. = A.89 ft. 9 in. (a) Given : (1) Type of waterway = earth canal. In lieu of performing the above calculations. the hydraulic properties may also be determined by using table 8. 54-inch-diameter V. = 5406. (8) Control structure at inlet is required to minimize erosion in the canal for flows in the range of about 0. hv P =2g--%J’ .0 ’ 15 ft ’ where g = gravitational acceleration. This structure should also be used with a 12-inch-diameter pipe and a maximum allowable full-pipe velocity of 3. and that a control and pipe inlet will be required to control the water surface in the canal upstream from the drop. and L = 5 ft.91 f.5 feet per second. structure number 12-2 represents a structure with a 12-inch-diameter pipe and a maximum allowable full-pipe velocity of 12 feet per second.4. (2) Structure number. 0.

ft = 0.36 7.97 9.0 5. ft. = 1.025 = 7. ft.02 = 1. db.51 notch 10 x 0. = S b8 13 3.816 0.p. 64. The area A. Handbook of Hydraulics [ 31 as shown below. ft.21 1.53.02235 Assume d. 1.16 An alternative method may be used to compute normal depth of water as follows: use table 7-l 1.00051 ‘2 = 0. in the canal and solve for AR2’3 until it equals7. to find D: K.-1.2 Qn = 1. d2.82 2.123~ = 0.4 and E (energy) depth of water + velocity head = d+h.22 ft.2 feet is 8.02235 A = area = db+ d(1.5 to 1 and read a: ratio of 0.32 8.24 x 5 = 1.92 (6) Determine control dimensions using sketch below: AR2j3 6.o. AR 2/3 -.5 6. CONTROL NOTCH N = P + 2 (ST) P = bottom width of control notch Horizontal S = side slopes = Vertical T = Height of notch > d d = Normal water depth in canal .5d)’ =b+2x/m = b + 2( 1.. b. l.606d. .2Q = 0.33 wp= b+3. w.97 4.s.5d) = db+ 1. -y 0.174 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES wp = wetted perimeter = b + 2dd2 + (1.2 x 50 = 10 cfs 2g 1.1 = 0.87 0.2Q V= y=&= h.803d) = b + 3.20 + 0. ft. we can now compute the remaining hydraulic properties: also R = hydraulic radius = $ Then to calculate hydraulic properties for flow of 0.33 R= A/WP R2/3 0. h.606d From Manning’s equation [ 31 and Assume various depths. ft.51 which is close to the desired 7.ft. Values of A. sq.16 sq.20 ft.606d. ft.2 feet results in AR2’3 = 7. sq. 1.53.2 1.1 1.Sd*.0 A= db+lSd’.025 o’2 Qn l/2 3. ft.02 ft.44 1.16 5.24 = depth of water canal base width So D = depth of water = 0.5d2 From the tabulation below. corresponding to a depth of 1. V. d.0 5. Knowing d and A.02235 x 73.486 x . sq.23 f.486s’ ‘* 10 x 0. a d value of 1.153 and side slopes of 1.875 0. and E are then determined as before. 8.53 = 1. s’ ‘* = 0.153 Enter table with K1 = 0.

00 + 2. d. T = d.2 Q = 10 cfs b. select the graph from figure 3-40 having the smallest P value which furnishes the full range of discharge from 10 through 50 cfs.5)(2 ft. + 2 (0.20 control between the limits of 10 and 50 cfs. Enter the graph at E (energy) = 1. Therefore.50 for Q = 50 cfs and s = 0. top of notch and = El..83 feet = 2 ft. 6 in.75 for Q = 10 cfs. Check in the same manner to see if the same curve will also control for 10 cfs (0. 10 in. 6 in. or min.89 ft. (7) Determine figure 3-39.5.0005 0. This curve is for slope of S = 0.) = 4 ft. 10 in.50 for Q = 50 cfs and S = 0. In this example.83 = 5408.22 ft. It is necessary then to try the graph with the next greater P value = 16 inches.2Q are: S 0. try the graph with the next greater value of P = 20 inches. = 2. however. Read the value of S for the slope curve which lies immediately to the RIGHT of the point.83 (9) Determine El. N = P + 2 ST = 20 in. Repeating the previous procedure the notch slope is determined to be S = 0. go vertically to the intersection with the horizontal line for Q = 50 cfs. = (4 ft. min. 6 in. go vertically to the intersection with the horizontal line for Q = 10 cfs. The slope curve should have been the same for both discharges so that the notch will act as a control for both Q = 50 cfs and 10 cfs. width = N + 6 in.0 2. there is usually more than one notch that can provide approximately the same control for the range of flows to be controlled.00.75. this did not occur.) + 6 in. A + T = 5406. From given values and previous computations the hydraulic properties for the canal with full Q and 0.R (from structure table) = 5408. top of sidewalls .. + 6 in. = 5 ft.83 .50 for Q = 10 cfs. P = 20 inches.2Q). By using the same procedure a control notch with P = 16 or 12 inches could have been used if a lesser range of control (50 cfs to something greater than 10 cfs) had been determined adequate.0005 To begin the process of selecting a control notch. use width = 5 feet.REGULATING STRUCTURES 175 For a given condition. ft. S = 1. ft.08 .50. D = El.0 5. Enter the graph at E (energy) = 2. = (4 ft. This control notch is satisfactory as it will act as a control for all discharges between 10 and 50 cfs. The curve immediately to the RIGHT of this point shows a slope. width= pipe dia. 5. Repeat the previous procedure from which the notch slope is determined to be S = 0. = 5 ft. In this example the control notch graph with P = 12 inches is first selected.83 1.75 = 5403. inlet box inside width. (8) Determine sidewalls El. the control notch is to act as a FlOW Full Q = 50 cfs 0.) + 6 in. S = 0.

176 SMALL Figure 3-40. Control notch graphs (Sheet 1 of 2). 103-D-1223 CANAL STRUCTURES .

Control notch graphs (Sheet 2 of 2). 103-D-1223 177 .REGULATING STRUCTURES Figure 3-40.

April. Release No. H. New York. W. April. 32. [2] [3] Operation and Maintenance. [ 11 Operation and Maintenance. 20. Release No. May. Bureau of Reclamation. . “Handbook of Hydraulics. and June 1957. BIBLIOGRAPHY 3-29. 1963.178 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES H. May. McGraw Hill Book Co. King. Equipment and Procedures. Equipment and Procedures. and Brater.” Fifth Edition. and June 1960. Bureau of Reclamation. F. E.. Bibliography..

or an uncontrolled excess of flow within the canal. The overflow and gate structures are frequently combined as shown on figure 4-1. seasonal shutdown. Description. or (4) the canal must be routed under the cross-drainage channel in a siphon. provides controlled discharge of unused water to a channel or reservoir. or an emergency such as a canal bank failure. B. 4-2). (2) operational mismatch of water supply and demand due to upstream gate operation. (3) controlled conveyance under the canal through a culvert. However. and accompanying silting of the canal prism. a wasteway is comprised of an overflow or gate structure. Wasteways are also used to empty the canal for inspection. It is used primarily as an inline terminal wasteway structure at the end of the canal to dispose of the unused canal flow. maintenance. such as a side channel spillway or a siphon spillway. Hydraulic Structures Branch. it is also used at other locations along the canal. by providing a short channel from the canal to the check 179 . Storm or drainage water must have either: (1) controlled entrance into the canal inlet. HAYES’ A. B.~ Inlets. -An overflow structure. Bureau of Excess flows within a canal must be controlled to prevent damage from overtopping of the bank. -Protective structures protect the canal system and adjacent property from damage which would result from uncontrolled storm runoff or drainage water. located at the end of a canal. WASTEWAYS 4-2. or (3) shutdown of a pumping plant or powerplant downstream from a wasteway. Purpose. (a) Wastewa. A check and pipe inlet structure provides both an overflow for automatic control of excess water and a gated or stoplogged section for emptying the canal (see fig. to provide for the various conditions of canal operation. Wasteways are provided to remove excess water which may result from: (1) entrance of crossdrainage flows at drain inlets. The alinement of most wasteway inlets is normal to the canal. but an inline structure is more effective in removing trash or floating ice. or deterioration of the bank resulting from operation at an excessive depth.((Chapter Protective IV Structures R. (2) controlled through a drain conveyance over the canal in an overchute. in combination with a drop or chute structure and a wasteway channel. Reclamation. GENERAL 4-1. A terminal wasteway. -Basically. A wasteway turnout gate provides the capability of emptying the canal. provides automatic release of excess canal water. ‘Civil Engineer. Storm and drainage water must be controlled to prevent erosion of the uphill canal bank.

either a baffled outlet. 3-10). P-271-701-3736 Figure 4. but have been used downstream from closed conduit by providing a long transition to the pool. to transport the wasteway discharge to a disposal point. Baffled apron drops do not require a downstream water surface for satisfactory operation. They are not adversely affected by normal weed loads. a concrete sill.Where floating debris such as brush is probable. baffled apron drops should not be used. it is usually necessary to construct a channel to connect the wasteway structure to the natural drainage . Baffled outlets are effective energy dissipators for pipe discharges. -The wasteway outlet usually performs the function of dissipating excess energy. a transition will suffice. as described in subchapter II F . such as a river or reservoir . 4-3). baffled apron. but should not be used where a heavy weed load exists.>peration. They can operate with a wide variation of downstream water surface elevations. Baffled apron drops are best suited for use with open-flow discharges.However. with or without power hoists. to protect the wasteway structure and channel from erosion. stoplog sill. and are therefore often used as terminal structures discharging into reservoirs. Where the natural channel does not provide a downstream control. (b) Wasteway Outlets. -A natural channel is utilized where practicable (see sec. A check drop is equally suitable as a wasteway structure in providing both the overflow and the gated or stoplogged section (see fig.2. required. or stilling pool. For greater drops in elevation. but do require a controlled downstream water surface to insure a hydraulic jump. P-222-116-535790 and pipe inlet. The presence of a heavy weed load requires cleaning of the baffle blocks to insure optimum <. Wasteway turnout with side channel spillway and slide gate. Where the vertical drop from the canal to the wasteway channel is minimal. (c) Wasteway Channel and Channel Structures. Downstream control can also be provided by sloping the transition invert. or by automatic or remote control. but have been used downstream from closed conduits by providing a long transition to the baffled apron drop. as shown in figure 4-32. Check and pipe inlet in operation. Stilling pools are ideally suited for use below rectangular inclined drops or chutes. or a control notch can be incorporated in the stilling pool.SMALL 180 CANAL STRUCTURES Wasteway turnout gates may be operated manually. in conjunction with a drop or chute structure is Figure 4-1.

The required spillway capacity is sometimes controlled by the capacity of the largest upstream turnout. control and pipe inlets. Sizing the wasteway turnout gate for the canal design capacity provides more than adequate capacity for unwatering the canal for inspection. The number of turnouts downstream from the last wasteway should be limited to avoid overloading that reach of canal in the event that it is necessary to close all the turnouts. -The variety of situations and needs for which wasteways are provided requires that each wasteway be given individual consideration in determining its design capacity. so that the entire canal flow can be diverted to the wasteway. -The required automatic overflow capacity is dependent upon inflows from drain inlets. (d) Appurtenant Canal Structures. as follows: ( 1 ) I~z~lows from drain inlets. See subsection 4-41 (c) for other limitations on inflows from drain inlets. To protect the endangered reach of canal. but with a lesser emphasis on protective features. Longer laterals should have a terminal wasteway at or near the end. Since plant shutdowns are likely to occur during a storm. baffled apron drops. (11) Wasteway Turnout Gate. Wasteways may not be required for short laterals having fewer than four or five farm turnouts. maintenance. 4-4.-The spillway design capacity should be adequate to permit wasting of the cumulative design inflows from drain inlets upstream from the wasteway. pipe drops or chutes and road crossings. Generally. Such connections may be only a few feet in length. (3) Pumpirlg plants and powerplants. (c) Wasteway Outlet. or other downstream emergency. or may extend thousands of feet. or end of irrigation season shutdown. The cross section of such connecting channels is similar to that for the canal. or when a powerplant must shut down suddenly. -Check structures while not a part of the wasteway itself. while the drain inlets are flowing at full capacity. without a corresponding adjustment of the canal hcadgate will result in additional flow in the canal. (d) The volume available for safe storage in the canal or in regulating reservoirs. -Many factors must be considered in determining the optimum number and location of wasteways. Wasteway channel structures are sometimes required to control flow and prevent excessive erosion of the channel. This requirement arises when a pumping plant experiences a power failure. this inflow should be limited to about 20 percent of the canal design capacity. 181 (a) Spillway. Wasteway Capacity Considerations. located near a natural channel if possible. are usually provided in the canal a short distance downstream from the wasteway. Location and Number. (c) The volume and rate of storm or drainage water that can enter the canal through drainage inlets. This could be about 120 percent of the canal design capacity. (e) The extent of automatic or remote control of the canal system. -The wasteway outlet should be capable of discharging the .) drops or chutes. additional flows resulting from upstream gate operation. An evaluation of the following factors serves as a guide: (a) The cost of the canal system and wasteways. 4-3. at locations suitable for wasteways. and (f) The magnitude of the economic loss that could result from a canal bank failure.I. and deliveries to pumping plants or powerplants. (b) The presence of natural drainage channels of adequate capacity. -A canal that delivers water to a pumping plant or powerplant usually requires provision for automatic spillway capacity equal to the design capacity of the plant. it may be desirable to provide a spillway capacity equal to the plant capacity plus the design capacity of the drain inlets. -The wasteway turnout gate capacity should equal or exceed the canal design capacity to divert the entire canal flow to the wasteway in the event of a canal break. the wasteway turnout gate should be opened and the adjacent check gate closed. or the estimated time required to operate manually.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES channel. -Closure of upstream turnout gates. These structures include rectangular inclined (R. (2) Upstream gate operation.

the maximum water surface encroachment on freeboard is normally limited to: 50 percent of the canal lining freeboard.2 foot above the normal water surface to prevent unnecessary waste of water from normal wave action.-The capacity of the wasteway turnout or spillway features should not exceed the safe capacity of the natural channel into which it discharges. PX-D-72608D CANAL = 3. However.annel. 4. during emergency operation of the spillway flowing at full design capacity. From the side cr. Constant head orifice turnout at left side of side channel spillway. until weeds or ice overflow the spillway crest. or ice to the wasteway. a maximum encroachment of 50 percent of the canal bank freeboard may be permitted in the vicinity of the wasteway. -The following design considerations and recommendations are considered appropriate for side channel spillways on small canals. Generally. the canal water surface should not be lowered more than 6 inches in 1 hour. or 25 percent of the canal bank freeboard in an unlined canal section. -Side channel spillways are located along the canal bank with the spillway crest parallel to the canal alinement (see figure 4-1 ). trash. A floating boom is sometimes placed diagonally across the canal to divert weeds. the excess water is automatically STRUCTURES discharged into a side channel.3. Side channel spillway in operation in foreground. (a) Overflow Crest. To provide a reasonable safety factor. The design capacity should be based upon the requirements of section 4-4. --Operation of the wasteway turnout gate should be such that the canal water surface drawdown rate is within the limits imposed by the structural stability of the canal bank. and not more than 1 foot in 24 hours. against overtopping. unless the channel is improved. lining. the capacity of the natural channel may control the design capacity of the wasteway. TlIUS. to permit diversion of the entire canal flow into the wasteway. or ice load is anticipated. The crest length should be computed using the formula [ I] : 2 Q Figure 4. -The spillway crest should be level and set about 0.SMALL 182 simultaneous flows of the wasteway turnout gate and overflow feature (see fig.33 Lc H3/2 2Numbers in brackets refer to items in the bibliography. Design Considerations. A check structure is usually provided in the canal a short distance downstream from the wasteway. Baffled outlets should not be used where such a weed. Such a combination is shown in figure 4-3. 1. The water surface can be raised by partial closure of the downstream check. General. sec . Limitations. As the canal water surface rises above the crest.7. the water drops into a pool from which the flow is directed through a pipe or open section. trash. 4-5. trash. 4-46. 4-4). and wasteway gate at far end of spillway crest. to avoid excessive hydrostatic pressures in the bank or behind the lining. Side Channel Spillways 4-6. (d) Natural Drainage Channels. into the wasteway channel. Overflow spillways have been used effectively for removal of weeds. The structure is generally used in conjunction with a slide gate which provides for complete drainage of the canal. or ice from the canal. and appurtenant structures.

PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES 183 SECTION PLAN OF WASTEWAY SECTION SECTION Figwe C-C A-A E-8 4-4. Side channel spillway used as a wasteway turnout. 103-D-1294 .

to provide for an P ( entrance loss of 0. as shown by the orifice equation[ 21 : Q=CAa CANAL STRUCTURES which may be expressed: ]I = Q’ . The minimum downstream wall height is thus equal to 1. based upon total design flow. Assuming critical flow. trash. without inducing supercritical flow. and should provide adequate dimensions to facilitate construction. 4-6C).001 to facilitate complete drainage. However. which for a rectangular cross section. The centerline of the gate should therefore be set 4. + h. and the head requirement recomputed. to avoid an unnecessarily deep structure.c). or ice load. trash.5 h head. at the downstream end. The invert slope should be sufficient to provide supercritical flow to the pool. As the need to pass the canal design discharge through the wasteway gate will be infrequent. However. the invert should be set considerably steeper than the critical slope.6 for the coefficient C. To empty the downstream reach. to about 4 feet at the downstream end. minus 0. except that a downstream width of 3 feet is sufficient for discharges of 50 cubic feet per second (cfs) or less. The invert slope should be about 0. Where this limitation is applied. This is accomplished by setting the side channel invert. If a gate of the size required is not available. the wasteway includes a pipe from the pool. and slope should be adequate to provide free flow while carrying a weed. plus 1 foot. the top of the pipe requires a minimum submergence of 1. the required head must be equal to 4. extending under the operating road to the outlet structure. see fig.05 times the crest length. the pipe diameter may be based upon a maximum velocity of 10 feet per second flowing full.5 11.5d. is equal to 1Sd. To insure free spillway discharge into the side channel. the pipe diameter should be based upon a . Therefore. The upstream wall height. below the crest a distance equal to the specific energy plus 1 foot.V2 2gA2 C2 2gc2 Using a value of 0. the pool invert should be set low enough that the pool water surface is no higher than the centerline of the gate [9]. and not appreciably higher than the side channel invert.32 feet. If the outlet structure consists of a concrete transition. A reasonable width should vary uniformly from about 2 feet at the upstream end. 11. -Typically. or ice may be required. the design discharge of the canal must flow through the wasteway gate without overflowing the downstream check gate or the side channel spillway. A constant channel width may be more practical under some conditions. With this gate area. a velocity of 10 cfs is used in determining the gate area. the next larger standard size should be selected. is then equal to the downstream wall height. depth.-The side channel usually has a rectangular cross section. -The wasteway turnout gate is ordinarily used when the canal must be emptied. A diameter of 24 inches is considered to be a minimum where the passageof weeds. vP and a pipe velocity P’ (e) Pipe. causing bulking (increased volume due to entrained air). and to minimize the problem of silt removal. 4-6B). the side channel water surface must be below the spillway crest. .. the transverse flow of incoming water over the crest impedes the flow in the side channel.[3] and a velocity of 10 feet per second. h. the specific energy is equal to the critical depth plus velocity head (d. If the pipe terminates in a baffled outlet. -To approach free-flow conditions through the gate or from the side channel.. it is necessary to provide sufficient head. the gate centerline should not be set below the canal invert. The head is thus limited to a maximum equal to the normal depth of the canal. An arbitrary slope of about 0. (c) Wasteway Turnout Gate. If the pool discharges into a pipe. h. The width.05 is a conservative value.32 feet below the normal water surface of the canal. (d) Pool.orh =--. the required gate area should be recomputed for the reduced head (see fig.184 SMALL (b) Side Channel.

the percolation path should be increased by providing collars on the pipe (see sec.0 ft. for a discharge equal to the design inflow from upstream drain inlets.83’2 = 8. For design of these energy dissipators.2 = 0. Q= A= v = ss= General plan of typical canal with side channel spillway. baffled outlet.0008 3.5 sq. (11) Protection. Find maximum head. l-1/2:1 b= d. (2) The head from the pool to the wasteway channel is sufficient to discharge the design flow. or along the structure. figure 4-6). ft. -Figure 7-8 may be used as a guide for determining protection requirements for unlined or earth-lined canals or wasteway channels. 2. (a) Assumptions.025 0.0 ft.PROTECTIVE 185 STRUCTURES maximum velocity of 12 feet per second. the excess energy should be dissipated by use of a pipe drop. (b) Solution: (see fig. 4-27).-As the canal water surface is usually considerably higher than the channel invert at the wasteway outlet (see dimension F. or stilling pool. toward the outlet.0 . Design Example.33 x 0. If the percolation path is too short.= Q 3. H. 4-4). limitation on drawdown 4-8. To prevent piping. 2. = R= n= s= h. = fb = h. Where a considerable drop is required. -For rate. flowing full. 103-D-1295 100 cfs 37. 2. -The type of is dependent upon the outlet structure topography.2 foot above NWS. It indicates that type 2 or type 3 protection should be used at the outlet. Where excess energy is minimal. design a wasteway turnout for the canal features shown in figure 4-5. (1) Assume an earth-lined canal with the following properties: Figure 45. 5.8 ft. (4) The natural channel has sufficient capacity to safely discharge the wasteway design flow without damage to the wasteway or adjacent property. Assume inflow Q= 20 cfs. on spillway crest.0 ft. 3. 4-7(a)): H = 0.33H3” Use L.5 ft. -Utilizing a side channel spillway and a slide gate. (8) Percolation. but not great enough to require a structure to dissipate excess energy.4 .p.0 0. there will be a tendency for the water to percolate through the soil. The pipe slope may be as steep as l-1/2 to 1. provided other design considerations are satisfied. (3) A wasteway channel having dimensions approximately equal to those of the canal is required to connect the wasteway structure to the natural channel. (2) Find the required crest length from the standard suppressed rectangular weir formula. (f) Wasteway Outlet Structure. (i) Operation. baffled apron drop. an outlet transition as shown on figure 7-4 should be used to protect the wasteway channel from erosion (see chapter VII). Type 1 protection should be used on the canal invert adjacent to the wasteway turnout gate inlet. 4-6): (1) Set spillway crest 0.67 f. see chapter VI. extending to the canal centerline and along the canal for a length equal to twice the gate width (see fig.5 x 2.s. allowing 50 percent encroachment on normal canal bank freeboard (see subset. see section 4-5.0. L. = 9 feet =-- 20 3.0 ft. the percolation rate will be sufficient to remove soil particles by piping which may cause failure of the bank or structure. = 8.

67 .92 ft. and inches.by SPILLWAY 36-in. ft. and a coefficient of discharge.0 = 2.22 ft.05 x 9 = 2. WASTEWAY TURNOUT AND Therefore.0 feet: POOL 100 Cm 0. Use 2 ft. set the centerline of gate at canal invert elevation.02 m = 12.6x8. maximum gate velocity of 10 feet per second. = 2.1 ft. ft. ft. ft. A = . = 0.05 L. since Q < 50 cfs.” gate centerline places pool WS at canal d invert.6)2 6.314c~~‘~ = 1. Wall height. . (see table 17. use 42. assume pool WS at gate centerline. 2 in. min. and with a pipe velocity of 10 feet per second. CANAL AND 100 Gate area.5 sq. or at the side channel invert dc plus --2’. (6) Determine pipe diameter and crown submergence for the normal canal capacity of 100 cfs plus the drain inlet capacity of 20 cfs. Refer to gate determine adequate structural for mounting gate frame. [4] ) h2 = 1.5 x 1.2 sq.by 42-inch 12. + 1. =r--Q .65 ft. = 3 ft. h. Upstream end: Use bI = 2 ft.0 = 1.0. (100)” h=-!?!? = = 3. min. gate. 8 in. C = 0.08 feet above canal invert.5 d. A = 10 = 10 sq.5)2 (0.2o = 6 . (5) For optimum flow. Pool WS at side channel invert plus -? 2 places pool WS 1. whichever WS is lower. ft.67 cfs 3 2 d. Try a 42.6. Downstream end: Use b. = s *< > = Less than = Greater than = 12 sq. A. Use 2 ft.SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES (4) Determine wasteway turnout gate size and head for normal canal Q = 100 cfs. Pool WS at Bottom width. SIDE CHANNEL AND As this would require setting the gate centerline below the canal invert.1 + 1.. required A=Q= C. 2gA2 C2 64. gate with an area of 10.0.). Therefore.4( 10. . pool WS at gate centerline will be used. Required head. OUTLET Figure 4-6. q. Side channel spillway-typical sections. 103-D-1296 (3) Design side channel. = 11.0 sq. (A = catalog to dimensions find e = 7 The pipe area. and recompute gate size for resultant head of 3.

5 (1. ft. (4) According to the Bernoulli theorem. with Q = 120 cfs and n = 0. -Check pool WS (assumed in design) by the Bernoulli Theorem [2]. shown in figure 4-6C. E = 6.0041 if n = O..00 ft. min. A = 12. is adequate. 22. using the appropriate soil type and head.17 ft.001 is flatter than that required for critical flow. (3) As the pipe slope of 0.05 ft. = 5. s.5 hv below the pool P WS.32. 4-6): Lt. (8) Select outlet transition from figure 7-4: D = 4.56 sq. = W+ 1.95 ft..13 + 4..0069. to verify that a submergence of 1.0.5(11. L = 9. Side channel spillway-outlet hydraulics. ES4 = d. + h. P Set pipe invert on a slope of 0. (11) Check the percolation path according to the design parameters included in chapter VIII.. and A G = 0.0 = 11. + Sm + D = 5.70 Use 21 ft. the energy in the downstream channel controls the flow in the pipe if a balance of . 3.75. extending to the canal centerline. ForD=4feet. F&ure 4-7. (2) Compute pipe flow at critical flow (minimum energy).0 + 2.693. giving A = 11 . using tables 21. Q Then..825.13 ft. Assume P Lp is total length of conduit. 103-D-1297 (1) Assume wasteway channel as follows: Q= A = V = hVq = 120 cfs 36. = 3. ft. and h “c = = 1. in accordance with figure 7-8.12 feet c Qn From D8 /3 sl 12 = 0.13 ft.5 11.00125 l-l/2: 1 Specific energy in wasteway channel.p. for a length equal to twice the gate width..13-6.013.0 ft.5 (H.I sq.82 feet. and 60 [lo].42)= 2. = 8 ft.91 ft.PROTECTIVE 187 STRUCTURES Then the diameter.OlO). ft. 58. and by the criteria given in section 4-27. 2.466. I a em - - - -----L p--p--J A Set pipe crown 1..30 feet. and Ds’3 = 40. = 0. and i D5 12 = 0. 0.65 sq.0)+1 = 20. -E)+ 1 =12+1. As the maximum velocity from the pipe is less than 15 feet second. Submergence. subcritical flow in the pipe is assured. = $ = 10.0069 (0. D5’ 2 = 32. the standard protection per provision is adequate. (7) Find structure height: H ST = 11.025 0. = h. d-7).083 and s.42 ft. + hVq = 3. 32 Minimum specific energy.55 f. (9) Determine pipe length.p.28 f. V. 0. R= n= s= ss = 1.82 feet per vc2 second.’ ” = 0. = f. from which d.s. Esc = d.96 0.00 1. hvp = 1. Sm= 1.12 ft. b= d. F.s. D2 = 16. Lp (see fig. = 3. ~~~~~~ Use D = 4 ft. (c) Check of Hydraulics (see fig. D= $= f 3.0 ft.0 ft. 5. (I 0) Use type 1 protection at the inlet.5 hv = 1.. Use type 3 protection at the outlet. 2. V = 9.

From the Bernoulli equation.13 feet provided.84. either greater than or less than d.20 sq. would require more energy.0060.8 (1.0 ft. if the energy required in the pipe.. or increasing the pipe diameter. and Qn D8/3Sl/2 = 0. an energy dissipator is not considered necessary.73 ft.24 feet. = 0. V2 = 9.51 ft. the outlet channel controls if ES3 = 3. As the excess energy of 0. critical flow exists at the pipe outlet. where Required submergence. and s = 0. in the upstream end of the pipe.f.8nh. especially since the maximum discharge of 120 cfs occurs very infrequently. as indicated by the equation: CANAL STRUCTURES With Q = 120 c.76 ft. Assume a zero velocity in the pool. Sm = d. (9) If the required submergence had been greater than the 2. ft.02 5.13 feet provided in part (6) of the solution is ample to sustain a discharge of 120 cfs. = 0.s.188 SMALL energy exists. the outlet design would have to be modified by lowering the pipe.001 2 x21 5.24 = 5.. Since this is less than the minimum energy of 5. As 11. ES2 + s. ES*. d. = 3.24 + 0.82 . E Sl = ES2 + h.. which results in E = 0. the channel does not control the pipe flow. (8 ) Conclusion.0.12 feet required to sustain a flow of 120 cfs in the pipe. > .12 + 1.12 + 0.s.32 = 4.12 + L. That is.51 = 5.76 = 6.14 ~ 0. (5) It should be noted that a depth of flow in the pipe. .-The submergence of 2. and ES2 = 5. h. d.013.933. L.498. from which A = 12.24 Therefore. 0.7627.68 foot is small. % = 0. Thus.12 + 21 -0.4.17) = 3..44 ft. ( ) s2 + -___- s3 2 Try d. = 5. in pool. 11.: Es3= ES‘$+ho Assume the outlet loss. using the Bernoulli theorem relationship: d2 + 11.. Assume pipe entrance loss.24 = 5. the outlet channel controls the flow. = 0.1 = 0. L.5 (1. resulting in an even greater imbalance of energy.51 ft.0777. where Ah. = 3.5 1 ~ 0) = 0.0069 3. and n = 0. and possibly improving downstream channel hydraulics. is the difference in velocity heads in the pipe and in the channel. Then h.0 = 2.12 + 0.. with respect to the direction of flow in the pipe. ES1.0 ft. the pool water depth. s’ ‘2 = 0. (7) Determine specific energy.73 + 1.~ = 5. ES2 =ESY +h.. . = 6. (6) Determine specific energy.D hf = friction loss = L.73 ft.0 ft. ES3 is equal to the energy required in the outlet channel plus outlet losses. hv2 = 1. Therefore. and hV2 = 1. = ES3 + h.0060 + 0.0 .5 ah. = 6.

the maximum head available for this wasteway turnout gate without overflowing the check walls is equal to the normal depth plus 0.-While wasteway gates are usually combined with side channel spillways or siphon spillways to provide both the automatic control feature and the capability of emptying the canal. To perform this function.2 foot. or in canals that can. However. 4-8). This. As design considerations for slide gates are discussed in subsections 4-7(c) and 4-10(b). PX-D-72606D 189 gate without draining the canal. Therefore. remotely. A11 air vent is sometimes required behind the gate ir the gate is attached to a closed conduit (see chapter VIII). -(a) Usage. 4-9). or are equipped with automatic or remote control operation. or at the end of the irrigation season. or automatically.2 foot maximum above the normal water surface. the gate can accommodate some overflow before it is opened. the following discussion places an emphasis on radial gate wasteway turnouts. Backfill not completed. when ice might otherwise . to prevent waste of water from minor wave action. including inflows from drain inlets. With a gate freeboard of about 0.PROTECTIVE 2. General. allowing floating debris and ice to be flushed into the wasteway channel. The floor and wall plates may be equipped with heating cables or tapes. Stoplogs and stoplog slots are usually provided just upstream from the gate. to insure free movement of the gate during the winter. combined with excellent flow characteristics give the radial gate wasteway turnout a definite advantage in some locations. The gates may be operated manually. are best used in canals that do not have drain inlets. immediately downstream from the wasteway turnout (see fig. it should be of cast iron construction. Such wasteways. which depend upon timely gate operation. Gated STRUCTURES Wasteway Turnouts 4-9. to permit maintenance of the Figure 4-8. Radial gates used for wasteway turnouts are equipped with rubber seals which bear against metal wall and floor plates for better watertightness. to prevent gate leakage. store or a c commodate excess flows without endangering the system .-Radial gates are not often used for small discharges. A low-head slide gate with no back-pressure requirement is usually satisfactory for a wasteway turnout from a canal. The check overflow wall usually has a freeboard of 0. and radial gate check structure at right side of photograph. (b) Wasteway Capacity.2 foot. Wasteway turnout at left. Slide gate wasteway turnouts do not differ essentially from the standard turnouts discussed in chapter III. they have an advantage over slide gates in that they can be lifted clear of the water surface. -Most wasteway turnouts should be capable of discharging the entire canal capacity. (c) Types of Gates. for a short time. The wasteway turnout is also used to empty the canal for inspection or maintenance. This type of wasteway turnout provides the means of removing all or part of the canal water to safeguard the canal and adjacent property in the event of a canal bank failure or threatened failure.(1) Slide gates are readily available in many types to meet the varying head and operational requirements. However. some wasteway turnouts do not have provision for overflow. The threatened reach of canal may be isolated by closing the check gate and opening the wasteway turnout gate to divert the canal flow to the wasteway. it is usually necessary to provide a check structure on the canal. (2) Radial gates (see fig.

/:"hy. where Q is the discharge in cubic feet per second. the head. and is usually assumed to be O.-When the radial gate is . +hVl -0.f2gh render the gate inoperable. -0. will have a differential velocity head equal to hy2 ' as the canal velocity is equal to zero in the direction of the turnout flow. is measured from the upstream water surface elevation to the centerline of the gate opening. P24S-700-140SD with hV2 ft. U n d er this condition. Thus. V 2 = 10 feet per second. S hy 2 ' the specific energy available in the gate bay. as shown in figure 4-11.9.5 hV2 Having assumed a zero velocity in the canal in the direction of the wasteway flow. C is the discharge coefficient. if sufficient head is not available to attain this velocity. A is the area of the gate opening in square feet. and 9 is the acceleration of gravity in feet per second per second If free flow exists downstream from the gate. If the velocity in the gate bay. The differential velocity head at an in line transition is equal to hy 2 -hy 1 . the discharge is determined by the orifice equation [2] . upstream and downstream from the gate. is a measure of the difference in water surface elevations. assuming a transi tion loss of 0. A conservative value of the coefficient of discharge. C.1 .5 =dl +0. Hydraulics.. However. (b) Slide Gates. h is head available at the gate in feet. The invert at the gate is usually slightly lower than the canal invert to facilitate complete drainage of the canal.-(a) Inlet. The entrance loss is a function of the differential velocity heads. Q = CA . (c) Radial Gates. the gate size is determined on the basis of a maximum velocity of 10 feet per second through the fully opened gate. the bottom of the gate is submerged on the downstream side also. Es d2 +hV2 2 = Es = dl 1 + ~El. 4-10. If. -The slide gate installation is usually designed for an upstream water surface above the top of the gate opening. the velocity head.190 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES foot d2 +hV2 d2 = dl + 0 +0. the head. the velocity head.34 d2 = dl -2.EI hy 1 0. however. -2.60. Radial gate used in combination overflow spillway. a transition oriented in a position normal to the canal alinement. as shown in figure 4-12.24 Figure 4.5 +f:. for the slide gate [3] is equal to about 0.S/:"hy (see chapter VII). a larger gate may be required to obtain the desired discharge.-The wasteway turnout structure usually includes an inlet transition which converges the flow to the gate bay.5 hV2 d2 = dl + 0. h. h.However. hy 1 = 0. As the wasteway is not often operated at the maximum design discharge.

Q = CLH3 ‘2 where H is the upstream water depth. 103-D-1298 Figure is the horizontal distance from the beginning of the curve to a point on the curve. the high velocity flow may spring free from the invert at the beginning of the steeper slope. C. upstream and downstream from the gate. An excessively wide $. and may also present binding problems in opening and closing. X2 = 4HY where B. resulting in and unstable flow negative pressure.09. Without such a transition. a correction factor. 4-12). the head is a measure of the difference in water surface elevations. the head.. Where the weir flow is partially submerged by the downstream depth. is measured from the upstream water surface elevation to the centerline of the gate opening. plus e plus a freeboard of 0. is Q = CA&@ Where free flow exists downstream from the gate. the size of the radial gate is determined on the basis of a maximum velocity of 10 feet per second through the gate bay (with the gate fully opened). a jet of water will flow under the gate at a high velocity. is fully open. is used: Q= CL (nH)3’z Values of n may be taken from table 37 [4J . as shown in figure 4-IOB. a trajectory could be used to transition the flow to the steeper slope. and is the head measured from the maximum upstream water surface to the gate bay invert. 11. when operated for maximum discharge. The minimum gate width. Radial gate wasteway turnout-submerged flow (for free flow at outlet see fig. If the downstream water depth submerges the bottom of the gate. Where a drop or chute is situated downstream from the gate. is the gate height (equal to d. with the bottom of the gate above the upstream water surface. is often A. C. n. -When the gate is open slightly. for the radial gate [3] is equal to about 0. A discharge coefficient [ 21 .72. The radial gate. as shown in figure 4-l 2). The gate width should not be greater than 3h. The required length and profile of the .2 foot minimum. The length of the trajectory should be determined from the equation [5 J . the flow should be transitioned to the steeper slope. assuming no inlet head loss. is the vertical distance from the beginning of the curve to a point on the curve. where 11. To avert such a condition.PROTECTIVE 191 STRUCTURES operated partially open. Submerged orifice flow 0: CAV%$ used for the broad crested weir with free flow. equal to 10d . is then equal to LL 2 2 radial gate would be uneconomical. conditions. As the wasteway is not often operated at the maximum design discharge. the discharge determined by the orifice equation [ 21 . The coefficient of discharge. as shown in figure 4-lOA. of 3. Under this condition. the discharge is determined from the weir equation [ 21 . as shown in figure 4-12. (d) Trajectory. Submerged flow over broad crested weir O=CL(nH13" 4-10.

-For a discussion of considerations for wasteway outlets. An unnecessarily high gear ratio should be avoided. fb = 2. (e) Outlet. for the distance. One such device for providing automatic control of the water surface level is the “Little Man” [ 61 . Where both the upstream and downstream inverts are on a slope. -Slide gates and radial gates may be controlled automatically.- (a) Protection. 4-l 1. which actuate the hoist controls. as shown in figure 4-l 1.p. and should be used only where some leakage is acceptable.0 ft.61 f. (c) Operation. -For limitations on drawdown rate. the gate leaf includes a horizontal projection. 103-D-1299 (a) Assumptions. where electrical power is available or where a motor-generator is used. = 6. remotely.) C Wastesay E Wastewoy Channel Turnout Goted Check Inlet Figure 4-1 I. Operated Lifts and Lifts. 4-l 3. It is also susceptible to erratic behavior if weeds or trash lodge under the gate. as it would retard the rate of opening. or by the rubber seals of the radial gate.0002 (2) Assume that the entire canal flow must be diverted to the wasteway to prevent failure of the canal bank downstream. (b) Percolation.0 ft. (A design example using a slide gate is included in section 4-8. ~ (1) Assume an earth-lined canal with the following properties: Q= 1OOcfs b = 8. a better solution is described in chapter II. -Lifts. ending where the slope of the curve is equal to the slope of the chute or drop. and that an overflow wall is provided with a freeboard of 0. upon which the uplift pressure imparts a force to open the gate. -Excessive percolation of water from the canal to the outlet channel should be avoided. (3) Assume that a check structure is located immediately downstream from the wasteway. which may be critical. ss = l-1/2: 1 s = 0. and for the outlet channel should be in accordance with the requirements of figure 7-8. has a tendency to leak.-(a) Manually consisting of a hand crank or wheel and gears are required to open and close the gates. CANAL Miscellaneous STRUCTURES Considerations. Design Example. See section 4-27 and subchapter VIII C for design considerations for alleviation of percolation. = 4. Hoists. see section 4-5. or by a local on-off switch. (b) Power-operated Lifts or Hoists. d. 1lL = 5. V = 1.3 ft. 4-l 2. This type of automatic gate.-Erosion protection for the canal at the inlet. . preventing complete closure.I SMALL 192 trajectory may be determined by plotting points on the curve.0 ft. by utilizing the increased hydrostatic head which accompanies increased depth. --Automatic radial gates have been used without an external power source. design a wasteway for the canal features shown in figure 4-l 1. n = 0. see subsection 4-7(f). any rise in the upstream water level causes an equivalent rise in gate position. the maximum wasteway discharge will be equal to the normal canal capacity of 100 cfs. X. General plan of typical canal with wasteway turnout. if the installation provides enough clearance to move freely. (c) Hydraulically Controlled. The water level is monitored by floats or probes. at which point the slope of the curve is equal to the slope of the downstream drop. The length may also be determined by solving the above equation by differential calculus. The gear ratio should be consistent with the gate weight and the frictional force imparted by the hydrostatic load on the slide gate. To provide upstream water level control. designed and used by the Bureau of Reclamation. As there are no drain inlets upstream.2 foot above the normal water surface. --Utilizing a radial gate. With an adjustable counterweight to provide sensitivity.s.025 h.3 ft.

+ 0. (2) Determine required gate height for normal depth. = ES1 + e .0. Radial gate wasteway turnout-typical sections. witllout overflowing the check overflow wall. +hvI + e . = 10 feet per second in the gate bay.z = d. L1 = 1. Use 5 ft. The specific energy. 103-D-1 300 dz = 5.66 ft. is desired in the inlet transition.: 11.5 foot. Assume gate freeboard.5 = 6.00 feet L. 4-12) to require energy dissipation. (1 ) Inlet dimensions: Length. 10 in. = !I! +e ss 9 50 =--+0. (b) SolutioPl (set fig 4-12).20 foot Gate height.5 (1.5 + 0. = 9 ft. PROFILE d2 + h.hvl) d2 + 1. d. (6) Assume that a natural channel is available.5 1.5 = 6. E? = 4.* .56) = 2. d. = l? 0.56) and TRAJECTORY Figure 4.3 + 0.2 = 4. +e+f.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES (4) Assume that the drop in the wasteway profile provides free flow downstream from the wasteway gate. (5) Assume an invert drop.3 = 9.5 feet PLAN (4) Determine depth. d. and enough fall (see dimension F. V. = d. 6 in. .5 Oh. = 0 in the canal (in the direction of the turnout flow). 0 in.2 = 4. V.12.5 (1..5 + 0 + 0.56 = 4. Es. 11. fig. in gate bay.50 . h.5 (h.3 + 0.33 + 0. assuming a velocity.5 x 6.0. f.. L. : Assuming the top of the structure at about the elevation of the top of the bank.45 feet Use 193 Wall heigh t. e = 0.1.20 = 5. (3) Determine maximum canal depth.0.83 feet Use h2 = 6 ft. (5) Determine the required gate bay . = 1.5 11.00 . =d. and a velocity. having sufficient capacity to take the maximum canal flow without damage to adjacent property.

Assume that the gate is fully open. STRUCTURES Setting this slope equal to the downstream slope of 0. and disregard the minimal effect of friction. 0 in.76 feet minimum B = ci. 4-l 2). ft.5 feet 213 Then and X2’ = 0. =g where = 0.22)” = 3.314 The slope of the tangent to the curve at any point is represented by the first derivative.76 feet Use B = 4 ft.5.22 feet) in the weir equation [ 21 (assuming the radial gate is fully opened).66 CANAL X = 0.314 (8. The minimum length of the trajectory is determined from the equation. (d.55) = 2.5 feet Solving for the vertical distance.3 14 q2/3 H = d.. d x2 ----z-zdX 18 0 .5 0 0. as the downstream slope is obviously steeper than critical (see fig. In the rectangular section.-To insure the capability of discharging the design flow without exceeding the maximum canal water surface.89 1.73 feet < 3.5) which precedes the stilling pool. using the relationship. = 2.22 0.06 0.5 x 9 = 4. (7) Design a trajectory to transition the flow from the level invert at the gate to the 2 to 1 invert slope (tan $ = 0. *++= 1 velocity of 10 (6) Determine the required gate bay width. using the available head. critical depth X2 = 4HY d. Q = CB H3” 100 B=--Q = CH3’2 3. the hydraulics should be checked by the Bernoulli equation [ 21.5 nh. minimum A ~ 10 = 3. B. Use an entrance loss of 0. and that critical depth occurs at the beginning of the trajectory.314 18Y Y = X2/18 2x 18 (> 100 = o.SMALL 194 width. Y. at l-foot intervals of X. using a maximum feet per second.68 feet and h “C d 2.56 = 4.50 0. $= 0. + hV2 = 2.09(4.12 (8) Check of turnout capacity.68 =C == 1. = 4.34 feet 2 2 . y=f$ The following made: tabulation in feet can be -X Y - 0 1 2 3 4 4. x 9 2’3 4 = 0.5 0 sq .66 + 1. B.

5 f:johy-e = 2. the siphon spillway.50 feet. having an upper leg extending into the upstream pool. is sometimes called a true siphon. The automatic operation of the siphon Figure 4-13. and should extend to the canal centerline for a canal length equal to twice the gate width. consisting of an air vent pipe. ( 10) Protection.5 (1. A siphon breaker. Siphon spillway eliminates the need for frequent manual manipulation of control structures along the canal. Once primed. but may be more expensive to construct than other wasteway turnouts." As distinguished from the inverted siphon (discussed in chapter II). because of the formwork required to construct the structure. which operates under positive pressure. as designed.5 4. which operates under negative pressure. (b) Description. they are sometimes referred to as "low-head siphon spillways. Ge neral. 4-17). or 8 feet minimum. -The siphon spillway consists of a closed conduit. (9) Design the stilling pool and outlet protection in conformance with the design requirements discussed in chapters II and VII. extends upward from the siphon crown. (II) Percolation. dl =dc +hvc + 0.PROTECTIVE 195 STRUCTURES From the Bernoulli equation. -(a) Usage. initially causing the siphon to act as a weir.34) -0. the structure. Siphon spillway with siphon breaker pan. has sufficient capacity. the narrow crest width required for the siphon spillway favors its use where space is inadequate for structures utilizing free-t1ow crests. 3. the discharge through the siphon will attain a velocity sufficient to prime the siphon. However. as discussed in subchapter VIII C.-Small excesses of flow from the inflow of storm water at drain inlets will result in a slowly rising water surface in the canal.68 + 1. and a lower leg extending down from the crest into the lower pool (see fig.34 + 0. (c) Function. 4-13). For this reason.Inlet protection should consist of 6 inches of coarse gravel. -Siphon spillways. The downstream pool provides dissipation of excess energy. 4-17). If the canal water surface continues to rise. the siphon spillway has the capability of lifting the water over the crest.19 feet As the maximum canal water depth is 4. Spillways 4 -14.-Percolation should be checked by the Lane weighted-creep method. and discharging it at a lower elevation (see fig. P17-D-6210S . and down into the upstream pool (see fig. Siphon spillways are very effective in rapidly removing a large volume of water from a canal.. are limited to hydrostatic heads no greater than the atmospheric pressure equivalent at the site. A distinct advantage is its ability to discharge a large volume of water with a small rise in water surface. as discussed in this text. Gate hoist in foreground.

7 provides a conservative limitation on the subatmospheric pressure allowed [ 8] . positioned to cause the trajectory of water to leave the invert and intercept the top side of the barrel. That is. Priming is initiated as the water flowing over the crest and into the downstream leg attains a velocity sufficient to carry an air-water mixture out of the barrel. siphonic action continues until the canal water surface drops below the inlet elevation of the siphon breaker pipe. -The atmospheric pressure head. (3) Attaining a prime with a smaller crest head. and may also cause erosion in the downstream channel. to discharge its full design capacity. This may disturb briefly the fine adjustment of turnout gates. in the vortex flow equation is the atmospheric pressure at the site. section 4-15 (11). (c) Head. Design Considerations. ending the flow abruptly. 0. Rc. D. and ( 4) Simplicity of construction resulting in greater economy. Once fully primed. 4-15. (a) General. this discussion will be limited to the configuration shown in figure 4-17. H. as computed from the following orifice and vortex flow equations [8] : q = c Dy1"2gH ~ Rcv'O. It is necessary that the siphon be fully primed. The . A full prime occurs when evacuation of air from the barrel is complete. allowing an inflow of air to restore atmospheric pressure at the crest.14. in feet of water. h. and hoist for radial gate check at right side of photograph. (d) Appurtenances. to permit diversion of the entire canal flow into the wasteway. h. To facilitate the air-water mixing process.72609 (2) Reduction in priming time. is based upon the elevation at the site.7h (2g) loge Rs Rc where q is the discharge per foot of width. -The siphon spillway utilizes a large differential head to discharge large flows through a siphon barrel of small cross-sectional area. See Design Considerations. which features a straight leg on the downstream side of the crest. all the air must have been removed from the rectangular siphon barrel. The advantages [7] of this type over the S-curve type structure are as follows: ( 1) Greater consistency of discharge capacity. PX-D. a deflector is included on the sloping invert. One disadvantage to the use of a siphon spillway in a small canal is the abrupt drawdown and the attendant surges or bore waves which may accompany the sudden action of priming and breaking. (b) Capacity. and the constant.196 The resulting siphonic flow will quickly lower the canal water surface and break the siphonic action. Siphon spillway hood at left. A check structure is usually provided in the canal. a short distance downstream from the wasteway. Only then is the full area of the barrel effective for flow. radial gate for wasteway turnout in center. -Slide gates or radial gates are generally used in conjunction with siphon spillways to provide complete drainage of the canal. -While many types of siphon spillways have been used in the past. and Rs are dimensions shown in figure 4-17 . Such a combination is shown in figure 4-14. SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Figure 4.6 for the design illustrated). C is the coefficient of discharge in the orifice equation (a conservative value being 0. and pressure over the crest becomes subatmospheric.

Impact with the top side. plus any other loads imposed upon the structure. 4-17. To provide a satisfactory discharge coefficient. should extend to the canal centerline for a canal length equal to twice the siphon throat . H. It should be airtight to insure negative pressure in the siphon barrel. as shown in figure 4-15. Assuming that the outlet channel does not materially submerge the flow over the sill. should (d) Entrance. (g) Downstream Leg. The concrete structure should be capable of withstanding a negative internal pressure equal to the head. should not exceed the atmospheric pressure head. -The straight leg design has several advantages over the S-curve design as itemized above (see subsection (a) above). A deflector is positioned on the sloping invert. and the crest width. a shallow pan is mounted a short distance below the siphon breaker pipe to break the prime (see fig. D. It is often desirable to use two or more adjacent siphons in lieu of one having a wide throat. as shown in figure 4-l 7. With the pan in place. -The outlet transition. and turbulence in the pool serve to mix air and water. should be at least 2 feet. b. -The inlet orifice provide an area equal to at least twice the throat area. a wall height above the sill should be equal to the critical depth plus velocity head. The turbulence thus created and the forward component of velocity combine to produce immediate air evacuation to initiate the prime. H. The width of the pool should be equal to the throat width. A minimum width of 3 feet is recommended for capacities of 100 cfs and less. should be at least 3 feet. The cross-sectional area of the siphon breaker pipe should be about one twenty-fourth of the throat area. detail A).5 hVO plus 6 inches. -To facilitate construction. the magnitude of water surface fluctuations in the canal should be very slight. The roof of the pool section should be of sufficient distance above the pool water surface to permit free escape of air from the pool. (k) Protection. -The downstream pool submerges the siphon tube outlet to prevent re-entry of air. whichever is greater (where hVo is the velocity head through the orifice). The top side of the downstream leg terminates in the pool. the throat opening. some siphon breaker pipes act as siphons themselves. -Erosion protection should conform to the requirements of figure 7-8 for cross drainage. at a location designed to deflect the flow to a trajectory extending across the tube to the top side. Without the pan. lifting a free column of water. ratio. 4-l 7).2 foot above the normal water surface. and to allow passage of some debris. (11) Siphon Breaker. Cj) Outlet Transition. to facilitate an exodus of air bubbles from the siphon tube. An adjustable sleeve permits a fine adjustment to compensate for operational changes. It opens into the crown area at a point 15O downstream from the vertical axis through the crest. An adjustable crest is sometimes used. as shown on figure 4-17. to avoid long spans subjected to heavy loads.-The location of the siphon breaker should be determined precisely. allowing the siphon spillway to continue to operate while the canal water surface is drawn down well below the siphon crest. (i) Pool.-The siphon crest should be set about 0. D (f) Throat. a RQ = 2. before siphonic action is broken [9] . as shown in figure 4-17. plus 1 foot of freeboard. To prevent the siphon from lowering the canal water surface below the normal water surface elevation. An angle of divergence of 25’ on each side may be used. It has been 197 found that maximum negative pressures occur at or near this point. The top of the sloping sill should be at the same elevation as the crown of the siphon tube outlet. Inlet protection in an unlined canal. or at least 1 foot. usually in a well defined channel. The upstream end of the siphon breaker pipe should be set at the normal water surface elevation in the canal.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES operating head. The terminal end should be pointed as shown in figure 4-l 7. should be designed on the same basis as broken-back transitions for stilling pools (see subchapter II F). as shown in figure 4-l 7. but an adverse effect upon priming may result.0 is recommended (see fig. (e) Crest. The normal canal water surface should submerge the top of the inlet orifice at least 1.

in (4) A wasteway channel. A cutoff wall is often located in line with the bottom of the pool sill as shown in figure 4-17. (I) Percolation. A power failure occurs at the plant while the canal is flowing at design capacity plus drain inlet capacity. as shown in figure 4-16. resulting in a total discharge of 120 cfs.\. Design Example. (2) Use: c= 0. (6) The wasteway structure is located at an elevation of 6. or 27. and cutoff walls provided where necessary. = 5 ft . (1) ( see fig.2. with an atmospheric pressure.7 fb = 2.8 pounds per square inch. is required to connect the wasteway structure to the natural channel.. P-17-D-62107 width. Natural Cha"/ Wasteway chan". A slide gate. a percolation study should be made in accordance with chapter VIII. S.-2=4-1 0 R s =Rr:+-=4+1 'L 2= = 3 ft.6 R~ D =2. IOJ-D-IJOl canal with 0 Rc=R'i.3 feet of water..: (1) Canal properties Qn = 100 dn = 3. provides for emptying the canal. eOCh)~General siphon plan of typical spillway. h=27ft. as shown figure 4-17.phon ~ SpliIwoy::--c- ~~~~I plant ( 4) Crest dimensions : R~ = 20 = 2 x 2 = 4 ft ~IQ. 4-16.SMALL 198 CANAL (a) Assumption. -To control percolation of water from the canal to the outlet channel.. 4-17). having dimensions approximately equal to those of the canal. Given Q = 120 cfs H = 6 ft.0 feet feet ss= 1-1/2:1 (2) The canal flows to a pumping plant downstream from the wasteway. designed separately. (3) The available head. is equal to 6 feet. equal to 11.0CfSJ ¥ ~~ -(0== Figure 4.7 b = cfs hB feet STRUCTURES are as follows: 8 feet = 5. H.1 / ~ IQ"OO onol heodgote cfsi ~ Cono~ .16. Siphon spillway with siphon breaker pan in place. (b) Solution Figure 4-15. -Design a siphon spillway to be used for discharging excess canal flows into a wasteway channel.0 (3) Try: D = 2 ft . h.000 feet. (5) The natural channel has sufficient capacity to safely discharge the wasteway design flow without damage to the wasteway or adjacent property. or 8 feet minimum.

PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES 199 .

5D = 1.=_a120 .73 ft. 1.5D+d.0feet Thus. -Assuming a well defined outlet channel with a bottom width of 8 feet and a water depth. ft. D. D.0 feet. qmax. should be decreased. (9) Determine siphon breaker pipe diameter. 4-l 7). The water surface divergence is equal to T.4Log. (8) Determine the throat width.9 x 0.6 x 2 q’= 0.5 1 1 = 53. =~4 = % = 0. RC = 3 do. been greater than the minimum permitted.5 cfs per foot of width (7) As q does not exceed qmax.. b. = 5. = 0.31 + 1 = 7. with 6 feet of divergence on each side.200 SMALL (5) Determine equation: discharge by the orifice STRUCTURES Use D. .41.6 x 2 x 8. . If q had been greater than q max. D.62. H. 5 -- = 3016Log.5 d =5. = 5.0 cfs d. The water surface width at the cutoff. the pipe diameter.= 1. should be used to reduce the span. q = y= 24. and h "C = Li’ = 1.08 9 ft. 0 in. they could be reduced to provide a discharge q < q max. mLQgcR\ 11. = 1.6 = 5. 11.0 + 2 x 1.. = 1.. equal to or greater than one twenty-fourth the throat area. resulted in an excessively wide span. or. the design of the siphon for q = 23. a greater dimension.93 feet Use h2 = 8 ft. = 9 inches q=CDm = 0.6 cfs per foot of width is valid. . the head.02 x/% = 23. A. W..0 feet. T. = 2. = 5. discharge by the vortex (1 1) Pool box height (see fig.7 x 27 x 64.7 sq. d = 4 feet (for Q = 120 cfs).5 x 2 + 2.5 x 2 = 3 ft. (12) Outlet Transition. had the dimensions D or R. to provide a pipe area.-W.62 + 1. A. use a broken-back transition with a uniform invert width equal to the pool width.31 (in rectangular section) Then. +hVc + 1 where the pool width. 11.6 cfs per foot of width (6) Determine equation: CANAL (10) Pool sill height.0 Then.0+3x4= 17.b. W.23. Use b = 5 feet Had the width.=17-5=12.667 = 3 x 34. At A.=R.

to insure a submergence. Figure 4. General.34 feet minimum ( 15) Protection. P222-116-53588 . Check and pipe inlet spilling over crest.7 -4 x 0. using an orifice slope length of 2D (see fig. Slide gates should be used where remote control or frequent adjustment is desired. for a canal length equal to twice the throat width. n1inin1un1 Sn1 = dn -y 4. and the rectangular inclined (R. Then. However .5 n1in. Check Inlet Wasteway Turnouts 4-17. -Percolation should be checked in accordance with the requirements of subsection 4-15(1). inlet protection should consist of 6 inches of coarse gravel. Complete drainage of the canal can be accomplished by removal of stoplogs or opening of the gate.34 ft. extending 16 feet downstream from the structure. They include an overflow (see fig. v=Q=@ A 2Db ( 1 4) Check (minimum of entrance foot) for submergence NWS.The check and pipe inlet.18.5546 = 3.I..56 + 0.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES The transition 201 length.22 = 1. or excess water from storm or drainage inflows. and should extend to the canal centerline . ( 16) Percolation. Outlet protection should consist of 12 inches of riprap on 6 inches of sand and gravel bedding. To minimize where y = 2D sin ~ and <1> is the angle of the canal side slope. stoplogs are usually satisfactory for use with the check and pipe inlet.5 x 0.72. = 1. Use LT = 13 feet The remaining divergence to the channel having a bottom width of 8 feet.5 = 1. Sm = dn -2 D sin 33041' = 3. 4-17). should be accomplished in an earth transition.) drop with a check inlet are ideally suited as turnouts to small terminal wasteways. -As indicated in figure 7-8 for cross-drainage flows. 4-18) to spill (automatically) the unused water resulting from operational mismatch of water supply and demand. they should be sealed with a waterproofing material if leakage is objectionable. As the need to empty the canal is infrequent. Assume the bottom of the orifice at the canal invert.48 feet > 1. ( 13) Determine entrance hydraulics.5 hy + 0. Sn1 = 1.

While the alinement of a canal usually follows the natural ground contours. it is usually more economical to carry the canal water under the channel in an inverted siphon than to carry the drainage water under the canal through a culvert. or debris are present. In crossing natural drainage channels. the gate should be of cast iron. To protect the canal from such flows. Other factors affecting the best choice of cross-drainage structures are as follows: (1) Culverts. -A check and pipe inlet. or over a siphon crossing. Where natural channels are not available. encroaching no more than 50 percent on the normal canal bank freeboard. as shown in figure 2-31. the maintenance cost should be included in the cost comparison.) Where a small canal crosses a large drainage channel. making an excellent combination for a terminal wasteway to a reservoir having a variable tailwater elevation. or to a collection point where the water can be carried over the canal in an overchute. CANAL STRUCTURES 4-l 8. A check inlet with R. -(See subchapter II C. -Where the canal section is primarily in fill as it crosses a drainage channel. In addition to the original cost of a structure. General. see subchapters II E and III F. the cross-drainage flows may be carried over the canal in an overchute. (a) Siphon Crossings. the overflow crest should be the design sufficient to accommodate discharge. Design Considerations. drop is shown in figure 2-26. -The need for cross-drainage structures results from the flow of drainage or storm runoff water from the high side of the canal to the low side. it should be sealed in the guides. Where the gate frame is mounted in stoplog guides. the use of a siphon is contingent upon availability of head for siphon losses. However. or into the canal. or into the canal through a drain inlet. where it is conducted under the canal in a culvert. Other factors which will affect the results of a cost comparison are the width and depth of the drainage channel. as the accuracy of the cross-drainage flow prediction is less critical where siphons are used. or to a pipe chute. or the channel flows may go under the canal in a culvert. The check and pipe inlet provides a connection to a pipe drop. -Where the capacity of the canal is large in comparison to the channel capacity. C. (2) Overchutes. but sometimes increase the susceptibility to plugging. or where economy dictates. Cross-drainage flows are sometimes collected in open drain channels which parallel the canal on the uphill side. These drain channels may carry the water to a natural channel. gravel. Weed screens have been used. -Where the drainage . Neither culverts nor impose an additional head overchutes requirement on the canal. or a check inlet for an R. When used as a wasteway turnout. it is usually more economical to carry the drainage water under or over the canal prism. sometimes difficult to evaluate. is the degree of reliability offered by the various types of cross-drainage structures. drop should be designed for an overflow capacity (with stoplogs or gates closed) equal to the design capacity of the canal. For other design considerations and a design example. Overchutes are better able than culverts to handle flows where sand. in the interest of economy it is often necessary to take shortcuts across natural drainages or through ridges. See section 4-l 1 for lift requirements. particularly if the drainage area has a cover of brush. The check inlet can also be used with a baffled apron drop. or small flows may be taken into the canal through a drain inlet.SMALL 202 leakage. the canal flows may go under the channel in a siphon.I. Another factor. cross-drainage structures are provided at locations best suited for handling them.I. CROSS-DRAINAGE STRUCTURES 4-19. a culvert is the logical structure to carry the drainage water under the canal. Siphons provide excellent reliability. Small culverts may become plugged with trash. (b) Cross-drainage Alternatives.

Hydraulic requirements are discussed in section 4-26. -The profile of the culvert is usually determined by the invert profile of the natural channel and the cross section of the canal. if a canal crosses a natural channel on a skew. should flow. whereas the pipe overchute. an overchute may be the logical choice of structure. rather than to realine the inlet or outlet channel. it has been found satisfactory to use a minimum slope of 0. The inlet invert should be located near the existing ground surface. where natural channels are not available. 4-22. carrying the drainage water over the canal. as discussed in this text. conduit. 1. like the culvert. In practice. Culverts 4-20. Where the conduit is on a uniform grade. -If the design flow for a drainage area is so small that the canal can accommodate the additional flow. Where a uniform slope would greatly exceed the critical slope. cross-drainage structures are sized on the basis of storm runoff for a 25-year flood frequency. profile. it should be steep enough to prevent sedimentation in the conduit but not steep enough to require an energy dissipator. Figure 4-19. -Culverts. -A primary rule in locating a culvert is to utilize the natural channel with as little disturbance as possible to the natural runoff pattern. on the uphill side of the canal. Culvert. Profile. (3) Drain inlets. where conditions are best for locating a culvert. (c) Cross-drainage Capacity. as shown in figure 4-28. if required. with special attention given to the hydraulic design. based upon expected storm runoff. a horizontal bend may be required in the culvert conduit. . see subsection 4-26(e ). and the added cost for greater wasteway capacity. it may be desirable to take the drainage water into the canal through a drain inlet. for small irrigation systems. PS14-417-366 However. If an economic study is made.005. if provided. and a maximum slope slightly steeper than the critical slope. 4-19). it should include the cost of additional sediment removal from the canal. carry storm runoff or drainage water under the canal (see fig. or at the bottom grade of the inlet channel. SI and S2. For determination of critical slope.-For the determination of the required design capacity for cross-drainage structures. Thorough consideration should be given to the culvert alinement. General. requiring an energy dissipator. Open drains paralleling the canal on the uphill side to intercept runoff water. see Design of Small Dams [8] . is higher than the normal water surface of the canal. The rectangular concrete overchute is able to pass a considerable amount of debris. Thus. if possible. should be much steeper than critical. Generally. it is usually better to locate the culvert on a skew with the canal. such flows should be diverted across the canal at locations based upon economic culvert size and spacing. it is usually preferable to include a vertical bend and two invert slopes. to a natural channel. inlet.PROTECTIVE 203 STRUCTURES channel invert. If the natural channel changes direction between the inlet and outlet of the culvert. SI. to prevent upstream degradation. is subject to plugging. Sc. 4-21. and outlet. Alinement. The upstream slope. constructed prior to construction of canal.

-Culverts may be single or multibarreled as shown in figure 4-20. SI. etc.SMALL CANAL 204 resulting in free flow at the inlet. To obtain a downstream leg of sufficient length to insure a hydraulic jump in the pipe. and inlet control. P-328. the concrete box section. SI and S2.701-2021 Figure 4-21. watertightness. (d) Reinforced plastic mortar pressure pipe (RPM). are not intended to exclude the concrete box section. pipe velocity. are also required where the culvert inlet is relatively high with respect to the canal invert elevation. the relative cost of each type..50 foot below the lining of a concrete-lined canal. or ( e ) Rectangular concrete box section. or to reduce the velocity in the pipe. Considering the above factors. S2. providing excellent strength. and its availability at the site.of 0. Rubber gasket joints are used to Figure 4-20. and flow characteristics. the culvert outlet should be no lower than necessary to extend beyond the canal bank and provide adequate protection to the canal. Determination of the required diameter of pipe. Concrete box culvert with concrete percolation collars. (b) Precast reinforced concrete STRUCTURES prevent leakage and to provide flexibility. as shown in figure 4-21. the loading conditions to be imposed upon the pipe. Generally. Subsequent references to pipe. (c) Asbestos-cement pressure pipe (AC). P328-701-3743 .005 to facilitate dissipation of excess energy by a hydraulic jump in the pipe. Double-barreled pipe culvert with concrete percolation collars. without being flat enough to permit sedimentation in the pipe. Two slopes. durability. is usually set on the flat slope . precast concrete pipe is the usual choice for culverts under canals. For a detailed discussion of the various types of pipe. The pipe should cross under the canal prism with at least 2 feet of clearance below the invert of an earth section canal. the life expectancy of the pipe. based upon hydraulic considerations. and may consist of any of the following types of conduit: (a) Precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe (PCP). The downstream slope. To avoid culvert pipe (RCCP). Conduit. see subchapter VIII B. it may be necessary to steepen the upstream slope. The type of conduit selected for a particular site is dependent upon the project life. is used for flows larger than those considered applicable to this text. To minimize the "daylighting" length of the outlet channel. is included in subsection 4-26(c). and at least 0. 4-23.

Inlet. However. --The broken-back transition. By extending the pool beyond the end of the sloping sidewalls. the headwall opening is lowered. and may be more economical in some areas. like type 2. Concrete transitions provide the following benefits: ( I) A greater capacity is provided by good transitioning. An earth transition is permitted if the design flow can be carried with a maximum full pipe velocity of 5 feet per second with no encroachment on the freeboard requirement. For a more detailed discussion of these transitions. as shown in figure 7-6. as shown in figure 4-23 are usually quite satisfactory. as the nature and quantity of debris in the drainage area. particuarly if a large number of transitions of the same size are required. (2) The required length of pipe may be shortened by the length of the concrete transitions. poorly defined channel. The best choice for any particular situation is dependent upon the hydraulics. is suitable to use in a poorly defined channel. the topographic character of the site. -Precast concrete transitions.6507 . (e) Precast Concrete Transitions. (d) Type 4.-Except for its sloping floor. 4-24. -The type 2 transition is well suited to use in a wide. permitting a lower water surface elevation for the inlet pool Figure 4-22. 4-19 and 7-4). and the relative elevations of the canal and drainage channel. a longer crest results. In such a case. By lowering the invert. together with the extent of damage that could result from plugging. this should not be considered inflexible. (c) Type 3. is best suited to a well defined inlet channel. P-328-701. and the omission of the headwall cutoff. -The designer may find that a particular culvert does not require a concrete transition due to the character of the earth or rock material in which it is constructed. Suitability of each of the basic types of transitions to use under various conditions is given as follows: (a) Type 1. the minimum diameter usually considered for culverts is 24 inches. 4-22 and 7-5). -The type 3 transition (see figs. see subchapter VII A. or the pipe may be extended completely through the canal bank. and combines the economy of simple lines with good flow characteristics (see figs. the type 4 transition. Precast concrete pipe culvert with precast concrete inlet transition. Figure 4-23.~ PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES plugging with debris. should be evaluated in establishing a minimum diameter . -Several types of transitions are used as culvert inlets. Precast concrete pipe culvert with type 3 inlet transition. (b) Type 2. where the channel banks can be shaped to conform to the sides of the transition. (0 Earth Transitions. is similar to the type 3. a concrete headwall may be used to shorten the length of pipe required. The sloping floor permits a lower pipe invert at the inlet headwall with the type 4 transition. P482-417-824 205 (provided the control is upstream). as shown in figures 4-21 and 7-2.

In addition to a higher construction cost for energy dissipators. 4-25). (2) Type 2 concrete transition. Excess energy at culvert outlets may be dissipated by the following structures: ( I) Baffled outlets. provided clogging by weeds or other debris can be avoided. The pipe velocity may be reduced by diminishing the slope. Thus. and sediment.24. -Concrete transitions may be used at culvert outlets provided: the conduit is sized on the basis of a maximum full pipe velocity of 10 feet per second. For this reason. this function may be performed by a concrete transition. or less than 15 feet per second. Freeboard to the top of the concrete headwall varies with the type of transition.005. baffled outlet (as shown in fig. ( a) Concrete Transitions.-The type I transition as shown in figure 4-26A. concrete inlet transitions should be set with the inlet sill or lip at or near the elevation of the channel invert. standard outlet protection is used if the pipe velocity at the outlet is equal to. P328. it is generally used where it is necessary to Figure 4. ( 4) The cutoff walls used with concrete transitions augment the function of the pipe collars. by dissipating excess energy in the pipe. -The need for energy dissipation structures at culvert outlets should be avoided if possible. (b) Outlet Energy Dissipators. To prevent erosion. is best suited to a well defined outlet channel. their maintenance cost is also greater. baffled apron drop (as shown in fig. . and the next higher class of protection is required if the pipe velocity at the outlet is greater than 15 feet per second. trash. and reduce the threat of piping by percolation. The concrete transition should be used where possible in preference to most other types of outlets which are more susceptible to problems with weeds. as shown in figure 4-24 perform well in dissipating excess energy. or some other form of energy dissipator (see chapter VI). Two basic types of concrete outlet transitions are used as follows: (1) Type 1 concrete transition. it is the best choice where the outlet elevation is not appreciably lower than the original ground surface.701-8219 construct a channel with its invert considerably below the original ground surface. S2 but to not less than a slope of 0. 4-25. where the banks can be shaped to conform to the sides of the transition. -The culvert outlet performs the basic function of releasing water to the outlet channel without excessive erosion. Depending upon the amount of excess energy to be dissipated. Outlet. Baffled outlet at end of a culvert. Freeboard from the inlet water surface to the top of the bank should be at least 2 feet. -Baffled outlets. Where the normal bank height does not provide the required inlet freeboard. The sill may be lowered slightly to permit complete drainage of the inlet area. -The type 2 transition as shown in figure 4-19 is well suited to use in a poorly defined channel.SMALL CANAL 206 STRUCTURES (3) The potential reduction in erosion reduces the threat to the canal bank. the bank should be raised for such a distance that the top will intersect the natural ground surface at the required elevation. 4-24).

See chapter VI for design requirements of these structures. To insure the validity of other hydraulic computations. as have baffled apron drops (see fig. This reduces to: D = 1.-(a) Design Capacity.-The diameter of the pipe is determined from the basic equation. . Hydraulics.13 4 The minimum diameter usually permitted for culvert pipe is 24 inches. -The upstream water surface will be controlled by the head that is required to satisfy: inlet conditions or outlet conditions (such as a high tailwater. P-707-729-1947 When using a baffled outlet. If the exit velocity in the pipe exceeds 20 feet per second. ( I) Inlet control.. the pipe will not necessarily flow full. as failure of the canal banks and the culvert could occur . (c) Pipe Diameter. Inlet control results from the following conditions: A downstream water surface that is low enough with respect to the inlet. it must be determined whether the hydraulic control is located at the inlet or outlet. The stilling pool requires sufficient tailwater to produce a hydraulic jump whereas the effectiveness of the baffled apron drop is independent of tailwater. an energy dissipator should be provided. ( 2) Other types of energy dissipators. The theoretical velocity. However.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES 207 4-26. should not exceed 50 feet per second. Figure 4-25. combined with an upstream pipe slope that is steeper than the critical slope. Precast concrete pipe is widely supplied in increments of 3 inches of diameter . the pipe should be designed for a maximum full pipe velocity of 5 feet per second. or pipe losses). For a detailed discussion of baffled outlet design. V t = V2gh. and the actual velocity may be considerably faster than the full pipe velocity.-For determination of the required design capacity. it is said to have inlet control. In the rare cases that concrete inlets and outlets are not considered necessary. see subchapter VI C. 4-25). and for a maximum full pipe velocity of 12 feet per second if an energy dissipator is used. -Drops and chutes with stilling pools have been used at culvert outlets.The culvert should be designed for a maximum full pipe velocity of 10 feet per second if a concrete transition is used at the outlet. The potential damage from plugging of the culvert cannot be overemphasized. The actual full pipe velocity will usually be less than the maximum design velocity. (d) Hydraulic Control. see comments in subsection 4-19(c). that it does not influence the upstream water surface. (b) Pipe Velocity. only. Q = A V when related to a pipe flowing full. -If the upstream water surface is not influenced by flow conditions downstream from the inlet. Concrete box culvert with baffled apron drop at outlet. due to the availability of pipe in 3-inch increments of diameter. the culvert pipe should be sized on the basis of a full pipe velocity of 12 feet per second.

TYPICAL PLAN WITH TYPE I OUTLEl PROFILE 8. Plan and profile of typical culverts. TYPICAL PLAN WITH BAFFLED OUTLET PROFILE Figure 4. 103-D-1303 CANAL STRUCTURES .SMALL 208 r-- I A.26.

. That is. or plus intermediate Es2 + AH. -The type of control can sometimes be determined by examination of the culvert profile. outlet control is assured. and roughness coefficient can be determined from tables 21. ~-Where inlet control exists. and 60 of bibliography reference 141. is measured from the upstream water surface to the centerline of the pipe at the headwall. this indicates that a hydraulic jump occurs between the two points. This inability to achieve a balance of cncrgy confirms iiilet cotitrol of the upstream water surface. Such conclusions sllould be supported by performing minimal hydraulic computations. and considerably lower than the inlet.. 11. Among other requirements. illlet corltrol is suggested if the downstream channel is wide. If a balance cannot be achieved between any two points. By the Bernoulli process. Es* at one point. except that such an imbalance occurring between the outlet channel and a point just inside the pipe indicates outlet control if pipe friction and bend losses produce subcritical flow in the pipe. the head required at the culvert inlet is computed from the orifice equation 121.i-(7I. -Where (g ) 011 t le t outlet control exists. and substituting V2 for 2 11 = 0. the Theorem.PROTECTIVE 209 STRUCTURES upstream (2) Outlet control. the orifice equation may be written h= ___ Q” 2g C2 A2 Q’ With C = 0. pipe diameter. poorly defined. The critical slope for the design discharge. the Bernoulli theorem [2] should be used.6. Control l[~~tIraulics. (e) Detcrmimtiou co I1tro 1. Q= CAJ2.f’ Idet or Outlet c?f‘ po~ile. (f) I~ilct Colitrol II)~dml~lics. it should bc determined if an energy balance exists throughout the length of the culvert as shown in figure 4-29. 58. it is said to have outlet control. To determine the required head. plus the drop in %vert elevation to a downstream point is t:lual to the specific energy. a balance of energy. hydraulic losses.. using the equation: . but a low tailwater in the channel allows the flow to pass through critical depth as it emerges from the pipe. n is the coefficient of roughness of the pipe. -Where (2) Bcmodli location of the hydraulic control cannot be definitely established by examination of the profile. D is the pipe diameter in feet. and h is the head of water. Under inlet control. For example. Ozrtlct corltvol is suggested if a high tailwatcr (relative to the inlet invert) is assured by a well defined channel with a flat slope.. the head. and Q is the design discharge in cubic feet per second. resulting in additional head loss. inlet control cannot bc assured unless the upstream pipe slope is greater than the critical slope. = I.~ ( 1) Lkarnirzutiolz o. if obtainable. --lf the water surface is influenced by downstream conditions. A is the area of the pipe.8 13 sl 12 01 where k is the tabulated value in table 21. that it influences the upstream water surface.? + losses Beginning with the water surface and energy established for the outlet.(at the downstream point). 22. where C is the coefficient of discharge. the specific energy. should be verified between pairs of points proceeding upstream. the head required to produce the design discharge is a function of . If a balance of energy results between each pair of points. Outlet control results from the following conditions: A downstream water surface that is high enough with respect to the inlet.0433 v2 where V is the velocity with the pipe flowing full (see subchapter VII A). or pipe losses that cause pipe flow at a depth greater than the critical depth. E.

=I I- K2 = 0. See subchapter VII for explanation of inlet and outlet losses. and n is the roughness coefficient. Weighted-creep method. X. or the gradual removal of material along the percolation path. such as that of the culvert pipe (primarily along the under side). Failure of the canal bank could result unless proper precautions are taken in the design and construction of the culvert.-The pipe losses consist of friction and bend losses. Design Example. If the outlet velocity in the pipe exceeds 15 feet per second. X+2(1 xY> Solving for X in terms of Y. and one located 2 feet downstream from the outside edge (see fig.0.) = 1. 4-29.nh. are effective in reducing the percolation along culverts. as shown in figure 4-23. 4-27).I 210 SMALL the losses in the system as follows: (1) Inlet losses. -Protection for the culvert should meet the requirements of figure 7-8.-The inlet hi = Kinh. = K. = 1. h.013 for precast concrete pipe.33 X4 Figure 4-27. weighted-creep method as discussed in subchapter VIII C.33 Y.67 X = 2Y X (min. where X is the distance between collars. Q = 1. By this method. To assure the stability of the culvert and adjacent earth material. Pipe collars.0 - Kz = 0. 4-27. loss. Protection. To evaluate these resistances. 4-28. is less than the following: K3X=KzX+2K1 or 2X=0. 103-D-l 304 To determine the adequacy of the customary three collars. For flow along a horizontal K3 = 2. (2) Pipe losses. with one under the inside edge. The friction loss should be computed from the Manning equation [ 21 . a high quality of construction must be achieved. in providing sufficient use Lane’s path to prevent piping. such as that of the collar. Pipe Collars. -Percolation of water from the canal to the drainage channel could result in piping. two collars under the downhill bank.-Assume that a precast concrete pipe culvert is needed to .33x or and = 2Y 1. A “short path” between collars will occur if the resistance to percolation through the soil is less than the resistance to percolation along the concrete surface of the pipe and collars.486 AR* ‘3 s’ ‘* n where s is the friction slope of the pipe. Unless the percolation study indicates otherwise. Pipe bend losses may be determined as shown in subchapter VIII A. it is customary to locate collars on the pipe as follows: One collar below the centerline of the uphill canal bank. and Y is the vertical projection of the collar from the pipe (see fig. equal to 0.33 - For flow along a vertical concrete surface. For flow through the soil. 4-28). chapter VII. Lane’s weighted-creep method [8] uses the following weighted resistance values: K.2Y n K..0 - CANAL STRUCTURES or nearly horizontal concrete surface. allowing a gradually increasing flow. it can be shown that a short path occurs if the distance. (3) Outlet losses-The outlet loss. 2x . the outlet protection should be based upon the next higher discharge class.

(min. tentatively. (2) The outside bank heights. see subchapter VlII B. Further. ~ ( 1) Properties of the canal section are as follows: b = 8 ft... using. shallow. This will be verified. Culvert-typical profile. -To use a standard outlet transition. With the upper canal bank only 4 feet higher than the channel invert. (5) Pipe friction slope (for pipe flowing f’u 111. ‘lb 1 2 = 9 ft. and poorly defined. a type 3 inlet transition and a type 2 outlet transition in the poorly defined channel (see section 4-24). For pipe class. a type 3 or 4 inlet transition would probably be better than a type 2. d.-Where inlet control is certain. and h. = 4 ft. However. are: = 4 ft. The type 3 inlet will be used. resulting in a full pipe velocity of 9.. (a) Assumptiotzs. provided the head is adequate to discharge the design flow without encroaching on the required bank freeboard. (2) Pipe diameter and c&s. to provide 2 feet of clearance beneath the canal invert. -From a preliminary profile. resulting in free flow at the pipe inlet. the pipe diameter is determined on the basis of a maximum full pipe velocity of 10 feet per second.17 feet per second.-The required pipe diameter (see section 4-26(c)). (13) Solution. 103-D-1 305 . the pipe must descend on a slope which is presumed to be steeper than the critical slope. both at the inlet and outlet.91 square feet. As the depth of cut in the poorly defined outlet channel is minimal. -As the drainage channel is not well defined. and emerge beyond the lower canal bank with an outlet channel of minimal depth. determination of the friction slope is not necessary.... It is estimated that the outlet channel will support a depth of 1 foot and a velocity of 1 foot per second for the design flow. ( 3) Hydraulic control. which provides an area of 4. requiring only minor excavation to daylight. ~ (1) Pipe velocity. measured at the toe of the outside bank slopes.38 ft. (4) It has been determined that the 25-year flood could yield a discharge of 45 cfs. h.13G = 1.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES 211 convey storm runoff water under a canal at its intersection with a natural channel. as shown in (3) The cross-drainage channel is wide. and W. to accommodate an operating road. = 6 ft. = 12 ft.) / Use a 30-inch diameter. a better understanding of the culvert hydraulics is gained by an Ortglnal ground surface (Channel Invert) Figure 4-28. assuring inlet control. D= 1. = 6 ft. W. (4) Inlet type.136 = 2. and will probably not influence the upstream water surface. the tailwater will spread as permitted by the natural topography. as they require less water depth at the inlet. it is seen that the culvert can clear the canal invert by the required 2 feet. ss = l-112: 1. figure 4-28. a type 1 transition is not suitable.

(10) Outlet type.l/2 inches.3 = 3. sl . (9) Length.5 + 0. L.6) + 0. the type 2 transition is selected. R 2’3 = 0. s2. which should be consistent with an invert elevation providing an outlet of minimal daylighting length and depth (see fig.731 Sl 2 1.491 x 11. 58.5 = 9 + 6 + 1. Let s2 = 0. Therefore. with a wall thickness.+w. -As the outlet channel is poorly defined. the type 1 transition would not be suitable.212 SMALL awareness of the relative slopes.55 4 . with inlet control. without regard to the culvert pipe and outlet conditions. From the Manning equation [ 21 .0107 SCl/2 and 4. chapter VII. providing the downstream water surface does not control (see subsection 4-29(c)).013.2 = 0. The type 3 inlet transition dimensions provide hydraulic control at the headwall opening. as indicated in section 4-22. s2 are required. PB = 2.491 from table 21 = 0.5h. sheet 2 of 9.3 + 2 + 6 . a bend and a second slope. and a hydraulic radius. t = 3.486 x 0. chapter VIII: s f = H --=u&z ()0]2() 1000 (6) Critical slope. n = 0. the friction slope. Find and D”’ = 9. = 0. = (o.“’ Qn S 1. sl) for Q = 45 cfs and D = 2. and 60 [4].731 1 This friction slope can also be determined from table S-1. .51 from table 60 Then &$ Then D8 I3 s.8 ft.5(h.5 (4 + 3 .5 . (11) Inlet hydraulics.8/16. using tables 21.-From figure 4-28. the ability to discharge the design flow is a function of the inlet hydraulics..625 L.lo34)2 = 0. L.5 feet.5 = 16. determine the required pipe invert slope to = yl /L. -Determine the critical slope (for comparison with the invert slope.882 from table 58 D8’j = 11. Determine L. -Proceeding with the assumption that inlet control exists. Therefore the head . yl =D+t+2+h.. Assume class B-25 pipe (see subchapter 11 C) will be used. with D = 30 inches. = 3.5 x 6 + 6 + 1. 22. without an outlet channel of excessive depth and length..005. permitting free flow at the pipe inlet.5 ft.l = (7) Invert slope. respectively. -The length.0120 +l.0. must be sufficient to locate the outlet headwall beyond the canal bank at its intersection with the top elevation of the headwall. =1. = 41 feet.5 = 1.1034 s.51 sc 1’2 =0.89 from table 22 and Also = F4&= +BBH)+t. R = f = y= 0. (8) Invert slope. dimensions L and E are found to be 6 feet 9 inches and 4 feet 6 inches. -h. From figure 7-4. L. 4-28). -Since sl is too steep to be extended to the outlet.23 (= tan (Yein figure 4-28) Therefore sl > s.486 n R2l3 sl/2 Using a coefficient of roughness. by scaling the preliminary profile (see step 3).013 0.5 = 0. 3 = 0. -0.49%/3 45 x 0. CANAL STRUCTURES provide a minimum of 2 feet of clearance between the canal invert and the concrete pipe. the pipe velocity is: v= 1.

. where D’ = & =& (see fig. From step (b)(6). c = 2. -From figure 7-8.62 sq. = 9.281 = 1. ft. di = 3. d c = 0. 02 ft. -For pipe bend requirements. The specific energy in the outlet end of the pipe can not be less than ESc. with the coefficient. Q=CAm which. -Referring to figure 7-5. From table 2 1 [ 41.62 v.64 ft.70 ft. -Unless percolation studies show that more concrete collars are required. + h. Finally.48 = 3. and V2 hvc =2g = 1. it is determined that erosion protection is not required at the culvert inlet.64 .p. see subchapter VIII C. = A. the type 3 transition would require ponding the channel water surface to a depth. -The specific energy in the outlet channel is determined as follows: h = 0. 4-29).48 ft. giving 45 Q = 4.s.56 ft. fb.0433 V2 h = 0.1 ft. (12) Inlet Jreeboarcl. ft. ESc= d. Then. as determined by the following Bernoulli solution of hydraulics.9 ft.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES required to discharge 45 cfs can be determined from the orifice equation [ 21 .[3 ~ 1. (14) Pipe belzd.5) = 2.1. chapter VII. . or fb I -dl =41. can be written (see subchapter VI1 A): or 213 next greater discharge. 1 =h. C = 0. (c) Verification of lyd~aulics hy the Bernoulli Method (see fig. = 0. above. resulting in type 3 in lieu of type 2 protection.74 f. as shown in figure 4-28. = 0. 4-28) The bank freeboard.89 D = 2. Type 2 protection is indicated for the outlet. if the pipe velocity at the outlet should exceed 15 feet per second. one collar should be located under the upper bank of the canal. is equal to the bank height above the channel invert minus the required ponding depth.6.o+2x32. AC -g = 0. However. For a detailed treatment of percolation.5)* = 4.0433 (9.17)* = 3.89 (2. (13) Collars.7384 and A. which exceeds the required freeboard of 2 feet minimum. as minimum energy accompanies critical flow.22 + 1. (1 5) Protection.9 = 2.2(l)’ Then d.7384 (2. and two under the lower bank. the outlet protection should be increased to that required for the .22 ft. (1) Energy balance at outlet.l = 1. see chapter VIII.

005 x 41 = 0.r2 = 1. 13 103-D-l 306 Es represents c minimum energy.0 (check) Es3 Then.216 -0.0 = 7. ES2 such that Finally. - A2 2. . ( = 0. L1 .0 = 3.p.235>2 sf2 = 0. From step 1 above.3 f.48 =Esc A2 - D* Therefore. Es2 = 4 + h. _ 0.8 ft. ( and sf2 > . EsC = 3. As EsC > ESq.2 _ 45(0. Es2 = 7.2 ft.216 1 12 Qn/D’ _ - ) ‘3 0. Culvert hydraulics.3727 -hfl 7.5 7.. C +yl - hfl where hf .235 = (o. 45 2= = 19.s. ES3 such that = Es2 + ~2 - hf2 where Yz = 0.33 sq. = 0.0 ft. supercritical flow will occur from point 1 to point 2. is steeper than Sc. -Find d.0554 Friction loss in the length.2 + 5.8 .51 0.54 ft. is the pipe friction loss from point 1 to point 2.0508 - = 0.5 7. the specific energy for critical flow.216 Sf.70 ft.0. ft.5 .0.33 h “2 = 5. = 1. +yl = s2 L2 y2 = 0.0 = 7.5)* = 2.3727 (2. the assumption that d.0 ft.7 + 3.2Oft. from table 21 [43. the tailwater cannot provide outlet control.* Sf.20 feet is correct if Es2 Es2 = E. Try dz = 1. 1 16. (3) Specific energy at point 2.-Find d2 and hV2 yielding a specific energy.214 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES AZ = 0.8 = 7.-As s. and hV3 yielding a specific energy. (4) Specific energy and velocity at point 3 (just inside the pipe).. . and critical flow (flow at minimum energy) will occur at point 1. Qn DE Figure 4-29. and the tailwater does not control. a balance of energy is unobtainable at the outlet.216 ( >1. (2) Specific energy at point I (just inside the pipe at the inlet).013)/11. is [ SC hfl = + + 1 Sf L. v. Therefore.5 = 0.

= 15. E A3 V3 = !}. or a closed conduit such as the steel pipe shown in figure 4-31. close enough ES3 = 5.033 loss.9= !2 1. (5) Outlet protection. hf? = ~JL2 = Figure 4-30.8 Therefore.4526: D2 A3 = 0.40 feet Then from table 21 [ 4] . -Overchutes are structures used to carry storm runoff or drainage water over a canal.94 ES3 =d3 f2 = 0.d3/D=O.2(2.s.013/11. exceeding the velocity of 15 feet per second pennitted with normal protection.9 feet per second. ft. type 3 protection should be used in lieu of type 2.182 2.83 = ~ 5. or in areas where a = 0.40ft.3 = 7..3 ft.9 f. above. as indicated in step (b)15. 0.5)2 = 2.= 0. SO-2217-R2. +hV3 os OnSi !3 = for design and V3 = 15.9 f.0 + 0. ft.PROTECTIVE Try STRUCTURES 215 d3 = 1.s.279 8[3 = (0.4. General. They may consist of a rectangular concrete flume section.51 . 5. = 1. Overchutes 0. Rectangular concrete overchute. Finally. =E $2 + Y2 -h 5.p.3 * sq..4+3. hV3 = 3..4526 $3 5. -Since the velocity in the outlet end of the pipe is 15.182f Friction 4-30.3 ft. the assumption that d3 is correct if = 1. The concrete flume section is used primarily for large cross-drainage flows.56.p.279 Qn/D8/3 = 45 x 0. . supported on piers as shown in figure 4-30.

but it is often jointed over the piers to accommodate differential settlement of the . P-245-713-300 pipe would be susceptible to plugging with trash. a skewed alinement is sometimes used. -For determination of the required design capacity. a baffled apron drop. or where the ground surface on the uphill side is well above the canal water surface. having an energy dissipator such as a stilling pool. or vertically to a pool as shown in figure 4-35. may be set on a supercritical slope to minimize the required cross section. If the uphill ground surface is not sufficiently above the canal water surface to provide the required clearance. the overchute often drops on a 2 to 1 slope to the pool. Conduit. as shown in figure 4-32. 4-31. to accommodate traffic on the operating road. A steep slope of the cross-drainage channel profile may be accompanied by a steep slope and fast velocity in the overchute. A similar provision may be made for the uphill bank if required. to provide a crossing over the canal. -To permit complete drainage of the inlet channel and the structure. 4-32. Steel pipe overchute on the Colorado-Big Thompson Project. The inlet can be any of the standard types of concrete transitions described in chapter VII. which should also clear the top of the concrete lining in a lined canal section. and should preferably be located just outside the canal water prism to allow unobstructed flow in the canal. but sometimes consists of an energy dissipator . An overchute may also be located at the end of a drain which parallels the canal. refer to subsection 4-l9(c). overchutes should slope enough to compensate for a slight amount of unequal settlement of the piers. (a) Rectangular Conduit. It may span from one bank of the canal to the other.216 Figure 4-31. or a baffled outlet. If a natural channel is not available at such a location. The outlet may also include a rectangular concrete box section through the downhill canal bank. the slope should be less than critical (see chapter VI). a culvert should 'be used under the canal in lieu of the overchute. a downstream channel should be constructed. the rectangular concrete section is used for larger capacities. an energy dissipator is required at the outlet to dissipate the excess head. A flat slope of the cross-drainage channel profile is usually accompanied by a flat slope and slow velocity in the overchute. Generally. 4-33. Overchutes are best suited to use where the canal is in thorough cut. or upon inlet conditions. After crossing the canal water prism. While an alinement normal to the canal is shorter and more economical. Concrete piers are usually required. -The conduit for the rectangular concrete overchute will be referred to. If the overchute has an exit velocity exceeding 20 feet per second. Capacity. Profile. such as a stilling pool. Where a baffled apron drop is used with a concrete overchute. as the natural channel should be disturbed as little as possible. or a circular pipe section. -An overchute should have a rectangular concrete section. A minimum clearance of 1 foot should be maintained SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES between the canal water surface and the overchute section. as a flume or chute. Where weeds or trash are not prevalent. based upon a cost comparison for the particular span and drainage capacity required. A concrete overchute. and the pipe section for smaller capacities. hereinafter. The outlet may be a standard transition. Alinement.-The alinement of overchutes usually follows natural drainage channels. permitting the use of a standard outlet transition. a baffled outlet may be used in conjunction with a pipe overchute. 4-34.

I .PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES 217 T .N 7 / 1 .

218 piers without resulting in undue stress in the overchute. such as a baffled outlet. trash. a concrete outlet transition can be used with pipe overchutes if the pipe is sized on the basis of a full-pipe velocity of 10 feet per second or less and the slope of the downstream leg of the pipe is not greater than the critical slope. see section 4-24. ponding is sometimes permitted. The size of the flume section can sometimes be minimized by setting the flume invert on a supercritical slope (see sec. The required gage of the steel pipe for beam strength depends on the span and pipe diameter. 42-5(a)) apply equally to their use as overchute outlets. This arrangement is particularly useful if an operating road must cross over the stilling pool structure. (b) Outlet Energy Dissipators. 4-37. SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Overchute outlets should preferably be free draining. the standard types of concrete transitions. -With slight modification. They are dependent upon a sufficient tailwater depth in the outlet channel to insure a hydraulic jump. The concrete transition invert should be set at or slightly below the elevation of the channel invert. (a) Concrete Transitions. (3) Baffled outlets. Stilling pools usually follow a chute or drop on a 2 to 1 slope. As pipe overchutes are usually designed for a smaller capacity. as shown in figure 4-35. The various types of energy dissipators are used as follows: (1) Stilling pool. The concrete transition should be used where possible in preference to other types of outlets which are susceptible to problems with weeds. Met Types. 4-36. but may follow a vertical drop. (2) BaffZed apron drops. They have been adapted to use at the end of an open chute section. As shown in table 61 [ 101. -The overchute outlet. provided outlet protection conforms to the requirements discussed in section 4-25. a concrete outlet transition is often satisfactory. The standard outlet transitions may be used for exit velocities of 20 feet per second or less. However. -Baffled apron drops may be used for concrete overchute outlets without dependence upon tailwater. Generally. Outlet Types. 4-38). an energy dissipator such as a baffled outlet may be required if the drop in elevation is considerable. See chapter VI for design of the standard baffled outlet. The canal bank height should be sufficient to provide a freeboard of 2 feet above the inlet water surface. baffled outlets may be considered for pipe overchutes. -(a) Inlet Transition. The steel pipe is usually terminated within the canal prism. See chapter Vl for design of the standard stilling pool. as shown in figure 4-33. and where excess energy cannot be satisfactorily dissipated in the pipe. only if the exit velocity from the pipe exceeds 20 feet per second. as well as with pipe. to permit complete drainage of the upstream pool without excessive upstream erosion. For proper use of the type 1 and type 2 transitions. to eliminate ponding of water. The energy to be dissipated in a rectangular concrete overchute is often sufficient to require an energy dissipator such as a stilling pool or a baffled apron drop. -Rectangular concrete overchutes often require an energy dissipator such as a stilling pool or baffled apron drop. For recommended usage of the various types. However. Pipe overchutes require an energy dissipator. s.-Where weeds and trash are not prevalent. like the culvert outlet. should release water to the outlet channel without excessive erosion. Pipe Overchute Hydraulics. -The comments concerning concrete transitions as culvert outlets (see subset. and extension of the pipe through the canal banks is made with precast concrete pipe. An inlet dike may be required where the normal bank height is insufficient. as discussed in chapter VII. (b) Pipe Conduit. may be used for transitioning to a rectangular section. coupled to the steel pipe.. if this is impracticable. -The elevation of the overchute . 4-35. and sediment. see section 4-24. See chapter VI for design of baffled aprons. a pipe of a given gage and diameter can span a much greater distance if reinforced with stiffeners at the supports. -Stilling pools are often used to dissipate the excess energy at the outlet of concrete overchutes. -Pipe overchutes usually consist of steel pipe supported on two piers.

r. PIPE AND CORRUGATED Overchutes-typical . ~*/a SECTION 8-B METAL plan and sections.:. u -.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES P WELDED STEEL PIPE R 0 AND F I L E PRECAST CONCRETE PIPE Ye? we 13 e p.. PIPE 103-D-1 308 .s2 SECTlcJN n-n WELDED STEEL Figure 4-33.

the head required to produce the design discharge is a function of the losses in the system as follows: CANAL STRUCTURES ( 1) Inlet losses. equal to 0. (d) Pipe Outlet. and for a maximum full pipe velocity of 12 feet per second if a baffled outlet is used. -To fully utilize the capacity of the pipe. h. in the pipe. (3) Outlet losses.-Hydraulics in the outlet end of the pipe should be determined by the Bernoulli process. with little or no submergence of the inlet end.5 h. To minimize this area.5 h. the water surface will rise to a height above the inlet centerline. a type 1 inlet transition is ordinarily used. a large area may be inundated. -Pipe overchutes should be sized for a maximum full pipe velocity of 10 feet per second if a concrete transition is used at the outlet.6. provided that it does not infringe on the required pipe clearance above the canal This capability can be water surface. the flow to and from the overchute should coincide.-The diameter of the pipe is determined from the basic equation. = K. and the above limitations can usually be met without inundation of an excessively large area. or to provide a greater area for passage of weeds. . A minimum diameter of 12 inches may be permitted if the overchute carries canal irrigation flows that are relatively clean. (c) Pipe Diameter. Where outlet control exists.O h. by using an oversized pipe. where there is no channel. -The inlet must be high enough to provide flow across the canal above the canal water surface.-The outlet loss. the water surface in the inlet channel should submerge the top of the pipe opening by at least 1. In a well-defined cross-drainage channel. (b) Pipe Velocity. as much as possible. as discussed in section 4-32. The pipe diameter may be increased from the value determined by the above equation to reduce the area of inundation in the upstream channel. (2) Pipe losses. the upstream water surface is controlled by the head required for entrance into the pipe.-The pipe losses consist of friction and bend losses. Pipe bend losses may be determined as shown in subchapter VIII A. and n is the roughness coefficient. and the elevation of the inlet water surface.486 AR213 s’ I2 n where s is the friction slope of the pipe. Q = 1. or where the channel is poorly defined. when related to a pipe flowing full.nh V’ See subchapter VII for explanation of inlet and outlet losses. -The water surface for the design flow in the inlet channel should be at least 2 feet lower than the top of the uphill canal bank.13 J-$ The minimum diameter usually permitted for pipe overchutes is 24 inches for cross-drainage water which could carry weeds or trash. the pipe inlet may be lowered by using a type 3 or type 4 inlet transition (in lieu of the type 2 transition). This equation reduces to: II= 1. or inlet dike as shown in figure 4-44. facilitated. with the natural channel flow.SMALL 220 Inlet is limited by three factors as follows: (1) Canal ~vater surjtice. Thus. hi = Ki nh. as illustrated in the design . A complete hydraulic analysis should be made to determine the location of the hydraulic control (see subset. Q = AV.013 for precast concrete pipe. In this case the overchute is sometimes called an irrigation crossing.-The inlet loss. Where the channel is well defined. (2) Pipe submergence. C = 0. With inlet control. However. and for a P velocity head of 1. P maximum ( 3 ) Ban k freeboard. 4-26(f)) 2gC2 A2 where the coefficient of discharge. if necessary. 4-26(d)). Q” 11= ~ (see subset. The friction loss should be computed from the Manning equation [ 21 . This P provides for an inlet loss of 0.

the critical slope.3 h. That is. The wall height in the chute section should provide a freeboard of at least 1 foot at the inlet. A small change in energy will cause a relatively large change in water depth. with computations based upon a “rough” n (e. c Finally. resulting in less inundation of the channel.v “C 2g Specific energy. hi = 0. a supercritical slope should be used. 1 + s.3 14q2/3 Then.3 Oh..013 in the concrete section). (c) Inlet Transition. the width and depth of the flume section may be minimized by setting the chute on a supercritical slope. or the equation: v. =$ c and the velocity head. the area. which is equal to the area divided by the wetted perimeter. plus d. To avoid excessive water surface undulations from unstable flow. and the velocity at the beginning of the chute is V. the most economical section is not necessarily the most desirable. it should be equal to the invert elevation at the beginning of the chute. and for the full length of the chute section. The wide. shallow overchute section is particularly applicable to a shallow or poorly defined natural channel. The velocity. ES2 + h. plus inlet losses. the freeboard requirement can more easily be satisfied without excessively raising the uphill bank of the canal. wp. exceeding the critical slope by about 20 percent. A. s. Critical flow may then be assumed to occur at the beginning of the chute section. critical depth at the beginning of the chute should be determined from table 17 [4] . Concrete Overchute Hydraulics. based upon a “rough” n in the chute. ESc = d. -Where the chute is set on a supercritical slope. as critical flow is rather unstable. subsection 4-8(c). As the velocity in the inlet pool is near zero. -AfFer determining critical flow conditions at the upstream end of the chute section.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES 221 example for side channel spillway. 0. L%-- g 1 I3 = 0. (b) Critical Flow. L (see fig. -An inlet transition is required to provide entrance from this channel to the chute. . the inlet loss. If a baffled apron drop is used as an outlet energy dissipator.. A wider and shallower section will permit a shallower inlet pool depth. + hvc + 0. = bd. 4-36) where E.g.. -(a) Rectangular Section.015 in lieu of 0. provided such a slope can be used within the limits imposed by the ground surface and the required clearance above the canal water surface. . = E. h =.. is the known specific energy.486 AR213 s”~ n or ‘C = [./&‘i] 2 where n is the roughness coefficient and R is the hydraulic radius. + h.. Thus. Where a stilling pool is used as an outlet energy dissipator. should be determined from the Manning equation [ 21 : Q= 1. The upstream water surface elevation must be equal to the energy gradient in the chute. the chute velocity should be less than critical. as required for entrance to a baffled apron drop (see chapter VI). 4-38. the hydraulics can be determined at the downstream end by using the Bernoulli process [ 2 ] : 2 13 d. Caution should be used to avoid a slope at or near the critical slope. where b is the width of the chute section. (d) Chute Hydraulics. -As overchutes are fairly short.

or a concrete curb have been used in the downstream end of the pool to assure the jump (see fig. except that a greater height is often used through the upper bank of the canal (see fig. The remaining portion of the chute should have a wall height. -The magnitude of the D. After assuming a drop. -Two types of stilling pools are used to dissipate the excess energy of cross-drainage flows in an overchute. is the friction loss between points 1 and 2. D. or a culvert should be considered. can be obtained from the equation [ 111 d1 =l. D. Thus. a trial-and-error solution is necessary to determine the optimum dimension. and s. d. h.I 222 ES* is the specific energy to be determined.06~& Even though the rectangular chute is set on a supercritical slope. The chute walls usually have a uniform height. that does not extend much below the canal invert. 103-D-1 309. D. Where the natural channel does not provide adequate tailwater. the invert of the pool must be set far enough below the downstream channel water surface to insure a pool depth. D. giving it an advantage where right-of-way is a consideration. Where greater drops are required. The wall height through the bank. capable of insuring a hydraulic jump in the SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES pool. are determined as shown in the following paragraphs.. Overchute-vertical drop hydraulics. dr .-The depth. The downstream water surface should not submerge the crest of the drop by more than 0. the depths d. will not be . other types of energy dissipators.. and d. a well-defined outlet channel is required to provide a reliable tailwater which is an essential factor in forming a hydraulic jump in the pool. should permit a vertical drop. Various values of d2 are assumed until the associated velocity head and friction loss (from the Manning equation) provide an energy balance in the foregoing equation. L is the drop in invert elevation between points 1 and 2. 4-35). (2) Depth. free-draining pool to discharge into an outlet channel that can provide a reliable tailwater. dI . stoplogs. in the interest of economy. Rectangular Overchute -i- Figure 4-34. (e) Stilling Pool. as shown in figure 4-34. which includes a minimum freeboard of 1 foot above the maximum water depth in the chute. its use should be limited to a vertical drop.. h. hz. should include a minimum freeboard of 1 foot above the upstream water surface. is dependent upon the depth. that is sufficient to cause a hydraulic jump as shown in figure 4-35. occurring at the inlet end. 2-36). With either type. With the chute set on a supercritical slope. The tailwater elevation is established using a conservative (smoother than expected) roughness coefficient for the downstream channel. The standard stilling pool should be designed in accordance with the requirements shown in chapter II. . As the required depth. as greater submergence would prevent a hydraulic jump and excessive waves would continue into the downstream channel. to insure a hydraulic jump under extreme conditions. dI . The vertical drop and pool requires less length than does the standard drop and pool. dz. The design procedure for the vertical drop and pool is as follows: (1) Vertical drop.6d..d. which is dependent upon the vertical drop. at the crest of the drop. and it is dependent upon the available tailwater surface. the maximum depth in the chute would be d. However. A reduction of approximately 20 percent in the normal value of n is generally used to give a conservative value for the earth section. the water depth.

-Length L. : The length. L. The profile of the upper nappe can be determined as shown for Lq. Therefore.2 feet per second per second. v is the velocity of flow at the beginning of the trajectory. minimum The total length. the freeboard can be read along the abscissa. The flow trajectory can be determined from the equations [ 21: Y = (1/2k tZ and x=vt where y is the vertical drop in water surface in t seconds. as the relatively short length required to span the canal is not sufficient to attain normal depth for a steep slope.. e. cl. the stilling pool is sometimes permitted to encroach slightly upon the edge of the water prism in an unlined canal. Length L6: L. (3) Deptl1.‘d. can be obtained from the standard equation for depth in stilling pools (see chapter II). d.PROTECTIVE 223 STRUCTURES appreciably less than d. dL -. Length L. If the pool has a concrete top (for a road crossing. along the ordinate with 2V. x is the horizontal distance traveled in t seconds. = 3 d. if required (see fig. is designed to locate the first row of pool blocks immediately downstream from the L. the substitution of critical depth for the actual depth can be made without a significant error. or of the bank height above the water surface of an unlined canal. QV. g -The required pool determined from the chapter II. =x=vt where t is the time required to drop a distance y. d. Thus.. the block height should be equal to +. (6) Pool blocks. freeboard is normally curve in figure 2-33. 4-35). Further. : From the standard dimensions for stilling pools (see chapter vu. must also be sufficient to accommodate a crossing for the operating road. 2 d. A or V.) a freeboard of 1 foot is sufficient.L. 2 d2 =-dl+ J -+2 4 (4) Pool freeboard. (5) Pool leugtli (see fig 4-35). L = (3/4) d. is often permitted to encroach slightly upon the alinement of the normal canal bank. . The maximum length should preferably not exceed the horizontal component of: the bank height above the canal lining height. may be rounded as desired.g. + L6 .-The depth. with Y=d. This is essential where the bank is raised to permit the operating road to cross the pool.25 $ The block width (8 inches minimum) should conform to the requirement for equal block and space widths. and the block length should be equal to 1. . the length. L. the headwall at the downstream end of L. +D Length L. However. . L3. Between the minimum and maximum values. : The mirCmztm length for L3 should be great enough to provide clearance between the headwall and the upper nappe of the flow trajectory. equal to 32. following. Two rows of blocks should be located as shown in figure 4-35. and g is the acceleration of gravity. -From the standard dimensions for pool blocks (see chapter II). Entering the value of intersection of the upper nappe surface with the pool floor.

However. -The outlet transition should be of the broken-back type. Where other considerations require a length. (b) Protection. with n = 0. 4-39.0002. permitting a normal crossing for . W = pool width b 2N where N is the number of whole blocks plus one-half for each half block. 2-33). = 6 feet. Where such a crossing is required. - Considerations. but will include a half block at each end. In the standard stilling pool. and are smaller than the floor blocks (see fig.SMALL 224 with blocks in each row staggered with those in the other. it is sometimes necessary to slope the invert up to the outlet channel. to provide an adequate tailwater depth..030. See subchapter VIII C for design consideration for percolation. crossing a natural drainage channel.6 feet hL = 4. to provide adequate pool freeboard and concrete thickness. (a) Assumptions. An inlet dike. (c) Percolation. dz. the blocks may be omitted. having properties approximately as follows: b = 8 feet. or from the inlet pool to the canal. (2) Lower canal bank. These half blocks are sometimes omitted. -Excessive percolation of water from the canal to the outlet channel. deep outlet channel. = 5. in the pool with a vertical drop. Design Example. and any change in alinement should be gradual to avoid introducing a roadway hazard. the blocks in each row should have the same dimensions. A level invert is desirable to provide a free-draining pool. and a downstream slope s = 0. = 3. the road should be ramped up as necessary. -The upper bank of the canal should provide at least 2 feet of freeboard above the inlet pool water surface. in contact with the sidewall. 4-35). equal to or greater than 5d. L6. the block width.3 feet h. The grade of the ramp should not exceed 10 percent. 11. One row will then consist of one block less than the other row. as it can carry the drainage flows over the canal with little channelization required. thereby insuring a hydraulic jump in the pool. (7) Outlet transition.6 feet b= ss = W1 = W. However. has insufficient head to accommodate a siphon under the channel. as shown in figure 4-44. Where an earth cover over the box structure is not desired. -The outlet channel should be protected from erosion by providing riprap or gravel protection in accordance with figure 7-8.-(a) Bank (1) Upper canal bank. plus 2 feet CANAL STRUCTURES of earth cover to reduce vehicular impact loads (see fig. -The normal height of the lower bank may not be great enough to permit the operating road (if required) to cross the stilling pool on its normal grade. Note that an overchute may have been selected on the basis of economics even if the canal had sufficient head for a siphon. the first row of blocks are referred to as chute blocks. may be preferable to raising a long reach of the canal bank. Therefore a cross-drainage structure is required to carry drainage water across the canal. ss = l-l /2: 1. The alinement of the natural channel is normal to the canal approximately alinement. as a well-defined outlet channel is required below stilling pools. An overchute is selected.-Assume a canal. (1) Properties of the canal section are as follows: d. should be avoided. a culvert would require the construction of a long. As the profile of the channel invert is above the canal water surface. 4-40. Other Heiglz ts. Where this would increase the normal bank height. See chapter VII for general requirements for transitions. In either row. the box should be designed to withstand the impact load. = 6 feet l-1/2: 1 6 feet 12 feet (2) The drainage channel has a well-defined section at the inlet. the bank should be raised for such a distance that the top will intersect the natural ground surface at the required elevation.

p. = 1. 103-D-1310 of natural . to cross over the overchute pool. (3) Critic& flow hydraulics. ---. ft. -To insure supercritical flow in the flume. is equal to the specific energy at the beginning of the chute. Then ESC= 1.s. The discharge per foot of width.61 Hydraulic radius. (b) Solution. v.9.38 ft. (5) A 12-foot-wide operating road is located along the lower bank of the canal. As it is better able to carry the trash load. a wider. (1) Type of overchute.45 feet /Top Figure 4-35. and should be ramped up. = 8 + 5. 8 feet wide. .69 + 1.5d. d.5d. The invert elevation of the natural channel drops about 4 feet as it crosses the canal.25 cfs = d. = 8 x 2. the rectangular concrete overchute should be used. (4) Imert slope.38 = 13. shallower section. = ESC+ 0. = b d. (2) Overcliute width. as shown in figure 4-35.04 feet A.69 feet from table 17 [ 41 hVC = 0..0041 by about 20 percent. wp. is selected to minimize the required depth of the inlet pool. if necessary.35 feet = 2.35-O) b 8 d. R = wpC = 13. d. (5) Inlet depth.014.5 sq.21.5 = 1. with a roughness coefficient. (4) It has been determined that the 25-year flood yields a discharge of 200 cfs in the channel. as shown in figure 4-35.35 + 0. plus transition losses.PROTECTIVE 225 STRUCTURES the overchute. A.38 From the Manning formula [ 21. Overchute-typical profile. -An economic study indicates that a 6-foot width gives the most economical cross section. = a_ 200 . = 2.3 (1. = 4.-The required inlet depth.69 = 21. Thus. will occur at the upstream end of the chute.3 f. + hVC + 0. critical depth.005. the invert is set on a slope of 0. and to increase the trash-carrying capability of the structure. which is steeper than the critical slope of 0. (see fig. n = 0. ~-Assume that a cost comparison has indicated that a rectangular concrete overchute is competitive with a pipe overchute.5 Wetted perimeter. (3) Weeds and other debris can be expected to accompany the storm runoff.=A= --zoo. d. = b + 2d. -By setting the chute invert on a supercritical slope.41 = 4. and then becomes rather level beyond the canal. AC 21. However.3nh. 4-35).

. and a level. = d. The concrete transition must accomplish the remaining required convergence to the g-foot-wide flume (T. 1 in. should include a minimum freeboard of 1 foot above the upstream water surface.69 + 1. lengths L. to clear the canal prism. which occurs at the inlet end. the wall height. with the invert elevation at the cutoff set at Figure 4-36. (at inlet). -The wall height.) of 4 feet will be used at the cutoff to reduce the width of the concrete transition..45 feet (7) fnler transition. This will result in a water surface width at the cutoff. = 3 ft.45 + 1 minimum = 5. = 28 ft.=E SC +s. + 1. at distance L from the inlet transition dL ) (see fig. a broken-back transition..0 = 3. 6 in. A + d. hb = 4. minimum Use h.5’ = 17.O = 2. the minimum wall height in the chute 11. using the Bernoulli method and a “slick” n. = b. Use L. 9 in. h.5O on each side). to the length of the inlet protection. Conforming to the maximum angle of convergence (27. Es1 +h. -To provide 2 feet of freeboard above the inlet pool water surface..) = 4 + 3 x 4. ( 10) Chute length. The profile indicates that it is unnecessary to slope the invert of the concrete transition. the maximum depth in the chute is d. As the invert slope is steeper than critical. T.45 ft. Lz = 11 ft.45 = 17. as required. similar to the type 1 transition described in chapter VII.8 2 x 0.45 + 2 Tc CANAL (9) Chute wall height.L = 9 ft. h2 . 103-D-1 311 .69 Use h.35 .. free-draining inlet will be used. An invert width (b. If the trash problem is sufficiently severe. the upper bank of the canal should be raised to an elevation equal to El. and L = 39 ft. d. the concrete transition must have a length. As the length of the transition is dependent upon the convergence required. a part of the convergence will be accomplished in a lo-foot (minimum) earth transition. Lt1 = - Tf 2 tan 27. reducing the convergence and length required for the concrete transition. (8) Chute wull height.5 d. -Determine and L. . The length of the earth transition should be extended. 4-36). + 2(1. + 1. h. -To transition the flow from the well-defined natural channel to the g-foot-wide rectangular flume section. = 5 ft. As the invert of the inlet transition is level.35 ft.0 minimum = 4. Overchute-chute hydraulics.52 STRUCTURES the elevation of the channel thalweg. (11) Depth. + 2 Then = 6. 7 in. 8 in.SMALL 226 (6) Idet bank height. h. = d. is best suited. = 8 feet). Then. the bottom width should not be reduced. -Determine the depth.-The height of the chute wall should be equal to the maximum water depth in the chute plus a freeboard of 1 foot minimum.

*.. in the trial-and-error solution for the optimum drop.V= 10.41 f.31 feet and. d. an additional safety factor is used by rounding to the next lower standard value.12 = -0.= 0.0 + t. -From the profile of the natural channel.030 = 0.80 x 0.059 200 and V. +s.31 Sf = 0. A2 = 8 x 5.-From the equation in bibliography reference [ 111 = (O.= 1.011 x 10. R= 1.p.12 = 4.. -The depth.2 = 0.48 sq.p.+1. = 2. = lE+J+-. the v y* (12) Vertical Drop.0 . d.0035 = 0. D (see fig.4 and ES2 =d2 +hvz = 5.414 (2.35 = 5.s. h Therefore.4) 3..09 ft. say 5.-= Try (See fig.0025)x +.=E.171 I computations by using D = 5. 11. 35 ’ 2g 64.31 = 42.27 ft.57 + do. R2 ” = 1.2 1 # 4..OSO)* = 0.024 D = d.66 feet (14) Tailwater depth.01 1. _ -“II h( = * 2 L.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES 227 Using a “slick” n = 0./ y 39.67 (1..486.2sq.71)* .25 ft.8 ft.Ytilling pool depths.48 ’ ’ _ v2 .3 1 1. in the downstream channel.92 = 1.s.14)2 + 2 (22)* x 1.25 feet to determine d. + 1. 4-35) j. ( 13) .5 L d.0025 d.69ft. = AQ = bdQ = = 22 f. it is seen that a downstream channel requiring a minimum of excavation.67 = 5. g trial-and-error As the dimensions of the channel are only approximate. wp= 12.L c 4.393 = 1.0 + 0. A= 19. 4-35) try a value with Then.06 +dm = 1. can probably support the required tailwater to insure a hydraulic jump in the pool if the invert is set about the same elevation as the canal invert. ft.09 + 0. ft.14 feet Then St I/2 Vn = 0. 1 1 8 x 1.20 4.5 EsL = 4. equal to about 80 percent of the estimated roughness coefficient in the earth section: 11. 1’ d. dl and u’* . should be determined on the basis of a “slick” n. j * =[l:j?8: 2 :33..06 + 1. .loo35 ~0.4 ft. A ___200 -471 42.324 + 34. = 3. from ESL +h.486R2’3 = 1.486x 1.04 + 0.41 1.24 (close enough for design) * .3 = 5.6 + 1. D. and d2 in the pool..(4.. d.a.14 From the design of the standard stilling pool (chapter II) it is seen that d.3 1 + 0. = 2. . Thus. Proceed + 2(v.4ft.14 4 32.. SC= [l .

s.8 + 0. (17) Crest .69 Try Then. minus the outlet transiti loss. to attain optimum economy at the expense of the safety factor provided by the excess STRUCTURES downstream energy. ES2. Q = AV = 97.69 + (0..35 ~ 0.8 feet Then A = bd + 1. . ( 16) Backwutcldepth in r)ool.-The backwater depth in the pool should not be permitted to submerge the chute crest more than O.0002)’ ‘2 = 2.228 SMALL 1’s = 0. ft. d3. the pool design will be continued using a drop of 5. d3.355 v = 1. + 0. must be sufficient to provide a downstream specific energy. subsection (a)(2) above: Try d3 = 5.5d2 = (8 x 5.511b2= 5. D. 3.5 h.66 ~ 0.606d = 8 + 20. is valid only if an exact energy balance exists from d.5 (5. d. as computed from d.84 = 5.p. that is equal to or greater than the specific energy in the pool.511b2= 5.5hb2 -. the tailwater depth.-The stilling pool depth.07 + 0.7 cfs >200 cfs Therefore. ft. a Bernoulli balance is checked as follows: E ZE: s3 s2 .8 feet.84. A. to d. T!lercfore.8)* = 97. = 5.0 sq. ES3.87 > 5. Neglecting the friction loss. tile resulting backwater depth in the pool. 5. -To support the pool deptl1.69 feet as assumed. E. is determined by the trial-and-error method as follows.24 ~2’3 Finally.14 5.84 5. The resulting energy balance should again be checked to insure adequate tailwater energy to insure a hydraulic jump in the pool. the vertical drop. The tailwater depti1.9 ft.5 x 0. d.0225 and CANAL The depth. is approximately 5.. =- 64.24 (0. However.486 x 2. cl. and + Ilk2 ~ 0. for the channel with dimensions as shown in assumption.p.0.412 = o 3.0. D.4 ’ Check: d.. As the Bernoulli equation indicated an excess of energy. .87 ~ 0.03 d..s.69 = 45.486 R* ‘3 s’ ‘* slick 11 = 1.5 (hv2 ~ 11”$ > 5. d.8) + 1. 200 = 4. should be increased. 0.5n11. the submergence.87 2 5.4 Q = 45.84 (from above) 5.50 sq. d. Es2 = ES3 + 0.52 The tailwater is more than adequate to support the jump in the pool. > d. ft.84 Therefore.50 v.90 = 28.5 (0.5hk2 = 5. 4-34). sl1ould be determined by a Bernoulli balance as follows: Ncglccting friction losses. wp = b + 2d csc @(see table 16 [4] ) = b + 3.07) 2 5. = 5.09 f.5Ul” = d3 + hV3 + 0. + 0. d. cc and hb2 = - 2g I2 f.Gd.0 x 2.3 Thend. d. . = b di = 8 x 5.30) = 5.5nh. (4. could tllerefore be reduced slightly. to lower the energy gradient in the pool.66 -~ 0.25 feet as assumed above. If the net energy in tl1e tailwater channel had not been equal to or greater than the energy in tlie stilling pool.09 = 202. = A.66 ~ 0. = 5.0225.suDruzevgerzce. which is required to produce a hydraulic jump in the pool. (1 5) Outlet e~zevg~bulurrce. (see fig. as the permissible reduction in D is small. and R =$=g= = 2. The vertical drop.

(20) Pool length (see fig.5).75 +0. L3 (18) height.. freeboard (or clearance below the top the box) of 1 foot. t=e=JT = 0. is the minimum clearance.6.25 = 7. is then equal to 9. L3 max.4 + 5. minimum. = 7.65 . should provide clearance between the headwall and the upper nappe of the flow trajectory.5 feet. L. Use L5 = 4 ft.75 = 0. : L5 = (3/4) d2 = (3/4) x 5. L6 = 3d2 (min.44 ft.25-0.6 feet.9 feet. the time.67-0. 0 in. As the pool invert was set at the same elevation as the canal invert. = 6 ft. The ramp height may be reduced by eliminating the earth cover. -Length L3 : The minimum permissible length. hB*= h. plus a slab of Pool wall height.5(hBz -hL)-tw -+-cl.255 Sm = 0. where (19) Bank height.69 sec. (min. = 9 inches.18 ft.Dz 0.4 5. Y = (1 /2M2 withy=dL +D = 2.. . should be equal to the depth. h B*. is only 5.31 = 15.5 ft. min.75 = 9.69 + 1 = 6. assuming the slab thickness.PROTECTIVE 229 STRUCTURES Smz 0.17 ft. Length L.5 +0.-The pool wall h.0 feet. C = 2.2. hp = 5. + 2 h.6 x 2.69 = 7. 2 is the raised bank height. and 1 cl. + t. 9 in.44 1.24 sec.h. Length Lq : From the relationship. Let L3 = 5.6 d.93 ft.25 = 7. = vt + t.88 feet.17 = 6.) = 3 x 5. = 0.41 x 0. 4-3. Length L.98 ft.69 ft.67 = 3.31 = 3.8 . the ramp should provide the additional height. is the wall thickness.5(9. and from L3 min. t. and minimum earth cover. Use L4 = 7 ft.0. and L. provided that the concrete box is designed to withstand the full vehicular impact load. locally. = 2.) Use L6 = 16 ft.5..6 = 3.44< 1. with y = (dL + D) . the height of the lower bank. As the normal bank height. 9. resulting in a clearance of 1.63 Et Use h. L =1. d. =1. The minimum bank height.0 feet.90 ft.65 ft.1. fL is half the lining flange width. di .5. -The lower bank must be raised. . Thus. the time.69 . + C = 6.: u=(1/2)gt2.5--4. =vt = 10. or 7. 11. h. to a height suitable for crossing over the pool.5 .5 . t.3)-0. hB. is the canal lining height. The maximum length. From the relationship. 2 in.

10 ft.26 ft.17 ~ 5 -. The concrete transition will then have a length.5d3) = 4 +3 x 5. it is sometimes possible to bring relatively clean water into the canal more economically than diverting it to the other side of the canal.25 . Try N = 4 blocks in second row. Use three 12-inch blocks in first row.0. or debris.4 8 L t2 = T.. (Required roadway width. This is particularly true for flows that are expected to carry an appreciable amount of silt.-A broken-back transition is the best type to use between the 8-foot-wide rectangular stilling pool and the well-defined trapezoidal channel (see chapter VII). Drain Inlets 4-41. The length of the earth transition should be extended.4 ft. = 12 ft. = b. = L. This will result in a water surface width at the cutoff. = L. l. @= 25’ (on each side) will be used in lieu of the usual 22. T.75 = 17. General. Type 3 outlet protection is indicated.-Drain inlets are structures used to carry relatively small amounts of storm runoff or drainage water into the canal. + 16 ft. it is usually preferable to take the cross-drainage water over or under the canal in an overchute or culvert to be discharged beyond the canal. As the length of the transition is dependent upon the divergence required. = 12. a maximum w. Use 20 L. W. a water surface divergence. 0 in. sand. (23) Protection. upstream from the cutoff.47 = 14. minimum. -The drain inlet may be . 001 width =&= Then wb = ’ 2N = 11. = 2. Use L.230 SMALL Length L. For larger flows.2 x 0.5 x 4.Oft.4 = 1. + 2(1. However. as required. + Lb = 7 ft.8 = 21. W. (a) Location. -. (22) Outlet transition.@ _.42 ft. An invert width b.5 d. = 23 ft. 2 tan T. = 8 feet). = 2.From figure 7-8. (24) Percolation.) - 21.t w = 23. : The pool length. 2 in. extending 16 feet downstream from the cutoff. a part of the divergence will be accomplished in a l(rfoot (minimum) earth transition.45 inches. extending 1 foot above the design water surface and 2. Use 16 inches Block length = 1. staggered with the second row blocks.5 d. As conservation of head is not a consideration. of 4 feet will be used at the cutoff to reduce the width of the concrete transition. as discussed in subchapter VIII C. Use Lt2 = 15 ft.33 ft. 2 in. the length of the upstream protection. to the length of the outlet protection. The protection should extend to an elevation 1 foot above the design water surface in the channel.67 ft.Lj . . the L. = 1. Thus.31 = . Block width. -Percolation should be checked by the Lane method. 3.5’. CANAL STRUCTURES The concrete transition must accomplish remaining divergence from the 8-foot-wide pool (T. This would accommodate roadway width. (2 1) Pool blocks d2 Block height = 4 5.0 feet. = 8 in. inlet protection should be type 1. reducing the divergence and length required for the concrete transition.

Again. P. the drain inlet is best suited where the canal prism is below the original ground surface. as it usually provides a moderately long life at a relatively low cost. ponding of undrained water may result unless the inlet channel is filled with earth material to the invert elevation of the conduit. The outlet of the pipe discharges above the canal water surface. and it is therefore used infrequently with small canals. Use of the pipe section is desirable if an operating road crosses the drain inlet. In an earth section. shallow. -Where the inflow is very small. As the inlet end must be above the canal water surface. (3) Gravel blanket. -The rectangular concrete section is used primarily where the flow is relatively large. Rectangular inclined drain inlet to earth section. the concrete chute terminates in a rectangular concrete pool extending below the canal invert. The gravel blanket drain inlet should be used only at locations which provide a suitable subgrade. -Drain inlets are of three basic types as follows: ( 1) Pipe section. and the excess energy is dissipated in the pool. 4-37) is generally used where the design flow is small. Replacement of the pipe does not require shutdown of the canal. as shown in figure 4-39.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES located in a natural drainage channel.38. (c) Design Capacity. or where a pipe inlet would be subject to clogging with weeds. P-222-116-50929 Figure 4. where roadway traffic is required over the drain inlet. it is particularly well suited where the drainage channel is wide. as erosion or excessive percolation through the bank could cause bank failure. Drain inlet on far bank of earth section canal. a coarse gravel blanket may be used to cover the top and sides of the upper canal bank. -Drain inlets should be designed to accommodate the storm runoff Figure 4-37. excess 231 energy is dissipated as the inflow mixes with the canal flow. and motor-operated gate hoist for turnout gate in foreground. as shown in figure 4-38. In a fill section (requiring embankment of earth material). -A pipe section (see fig. The entrance is shaped to confine the flow to a relatively narrow section. as shown in figure 4-42. Corrugated-metal pipe is often used.707-729-1550 . Erosion protection incomplete. (2) Rectangular concrete section. (b) Types. In a concrete-lined canal. However. and it is therefore the type most commonly used for the range of discharges covered by this text. with dissipation of energy being accomplished as this inflow mixes with the canal flow. or at the terminal end of an interceptor drain which parallels the canal. A box section should be provided. the concrete chute may extend only to the concrete lining.

-The upper canal bank adjacent to the drain inlet should be raised if necessary. (d) Canal Bank. its type should be determined on the basis of the conditions discussed in section 4-24. as shown in figure 4-40. Where drain inlets cannot accommodate the design discharge of the drainage area within the foregoing limitations. Pipe Drain Inlets (see fig. such as a side channel spillway. P-430-500-383 the inlet. The pipe inlet should be high enough above the canal water surface to prevent reverse flow. However. to provide adequate freeboard above the inlet water surface. or by more than one-fourth the normal bank freeboard. this increase in bank height should extend for a minimum distance of 3 pipe diameters. the resulting canal bank freeboard should never be less than 1 foot. The inlet water surface should provide pipe submergence as follows: ( 1) Subcritical pipe slope. could result in hydrostatic pressure in the canal bank. is sometimes included to prevent reverse flow. causing bank failure. the pipe invert (assuming an earth transition) should be set at or slightly below the original ground surface of the channel invert. inflows from drain inlets should not cause the canal water surface to rise above its normal depth by more than one-half the normal lining freeboard. Exceptions may be made to the foregoing limitations for the short duration of the maximum design flow provided an automatic wasteway feature. -Earth inlet transitions are usually satisfactory for drain inlets. 4. causing lining failure. Where an overflow wasteway facility is provided. 4-26). is located within a short distance of the drain inlet. Rectangular concrete drain inlet to a concrete-Iined canal section. or failure to effect complete drainage of the inlet channel. To prevent degradation of the inlet channel and to provide complete drainage of the channel. Where an operating road crosses the drain inlet. overchutes. the drain inlet dike should be extended to intersect the natural ground surface at the top elevation of the dike (see fig. Where overflow wasteway facilities are not provided for a reach of canal. A flap gate. If inlet freeboard is the controlling criterion. or to provide adequate cover over a pipe drain inlet. If a particular situation requires a concrete transition. the roadway should be ramped up as required on a slope not exceeding 10 percent. -(a) Inlet. the raised bank should be extended as required. 4-44). -Where the slope of the pipe is less than the critical slope (see sec. When the requirement for pipe cover is the controlling criterion. the design capacity of an individual drain inlet should not exceed 10 percent of the normal design capacity of the canal. based upon the design storm frequency (usually 25 years). p where hv is the velocity head in the pipe at p Figure 4-39. Further. See chapter VII discussion of inlet losses. CANAL STRUCTURES or canal siphons should be used. the total design capacity of all drain inlets within that reach should be limited to 10 percent of the normal design capacity of the canal. culverts. 4-42.41 ).5 hv . for a detailed . and the cumulative inflows from all drain inlets within that reach should not exceed 20 percent of the normal design capacity of the canal.232 SMALL from the drainage area. or behind the canal lining. the top of the pipe inlet should be submerged at least 1. Where the upper bank of the canal is in cut (excavation). Reverse flow.

but probably not as economically. The relative advantages of each type are as follows: ( 1) Uncut projection. Q = A V. which reduces to (2) Slope. or 1 inch above the maximum water surface. The end of the pipe usually extends about 1 pipe diameter (24 inches minimum) into the canal prism. the inlet freeboard requirement of 2 feet will often control the bank height.128 . The pipe should be designed as follows : ( I) Diameter. PX-D-73101 (2) Supercritical pipe slope. -Pipe drain inlets usually consist of corrugated-metal pipe (CMP). and 12 inches where relatively clean water is assured. -The drain inlet pipe discharges directly into the canal prism. However. (3) Gage or shell thickness. -For the required gage of corrugated-metal pipe. the pipe should have a cover of at least 1 foot. the invert of the pipe inlet should be submerged at least 1. Where the canal section has concrete lining. and may present a better appearance. c where dc is the critical depth in the pipe. as shown in figure 4-28. or drain inlet dike. This is particularly appropriate where a considerable drop in grade occurs. -The pipe diameter should be determined on the basis of a maximum full pipe velocity of 10 feet per second if a concrete inlet is used.5 hy + dc. However. to reduce the slope of th e outlet pipe. Drain inlet with flap gate to prevent reverse flow. (b) Conduit. it may be offset by additional labor cost and poorer energy dissipation. -The slope of the pipe should be at least 0. (4) Pipe cover. but at least 4 inches. a minimum diameter of 18 inches should be used where weeds or debris can be expected. as shown in figure 4-41. (d) Percolation.f!lj Figure 4-40. -To reduce percolation . Where a collar is not provided.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES 233 D = 1. having its invert preferably 6 inches. or where an intermediate berm is used. Freeboard from the inlet water surface to the top of the canal bank. they are sometimes cut flush with the canal bank. The pipe diameter is determined from the basic equation. SI and S2. While a saving in pipe length results. it is sometimes desirable to include a pipe bend and two slopes. the pipe invert should be above the top of the lining.-The drain inlet pipe should have a minimum cover that provides 6 inches of earth over the percolation collar . However. (c) Outlet. see the pipe manufacturer's recommendations (see bibliography references [ 4] and [ 5] in chapter VIII). above the normal water surface in an earth canal. -Where the slope of the pipe is equal to or greater than the critical slope. (2) Flush cut. or the shell thickness of other types of pipe for various loading conditions. -The pipe discharge enters the canal water prism far enough from the bank to minimize erosion at the bank. -A flush end facilitates weed cutting along the bank. however.005 to permit complete drainage. Other types of pipe could be used. as shown in figure 4-41. should be at least 2 feet. and 5 feet per second if an earth transition is used. whichever results in the higher elevation. resulting in a pipe cover of at least 2 feet. No maximum slope is established.

LONGITUDINAL A OS drected SECTION r Urwnforced CONCRETE LINED CANAL iI N SECTION Figure 4-41. The requirement for collars should be determined by an analysis of percolation as discussed in section 4-27 and in chapter VIII. The standard collar for corrugated-metal-pipe drain inlets extends radially two-thirds D (18 inches minimum) from the periphery of the pipe. or if the inlet channel is poorly defined. -The rectangular concrete flume usually requires no transitioning other than connecting the earth channel to the rectangular opening. 4-43. -Inlet protection should consist of 6 inches of coarse gravel.5 pipe diameters (5 feet minimum) if a concrete SECTION concrete A-A and sections. Some drain inlet pipes may require two or more collars. should consist of a minimum of 12 inches of coarse gravel. P L of embankment. The length of protection should be at least 3 pipe diameters (5 feet minimum) if an earth transition is used. except in a concrete-lined canal section. 103-D-1312 transition is used. Wingwalls are provided to . and at least 2. (e) Protection. extending 12 inches above the normal water surface of the canal. the protection should extend at least 2-l/2 pipe diameters each side of the pipe centerline. a collar should be placed around the pipe as shown in figure 4-4 1. extending at least 12 inches above the normal or ponded water surface. Rectangular Concrete Drain Inlet to Earth Section (see figure 4-42).. Drain inlet-plan from the inlet channel to the canal. and at least 2-l /2 diameters upstream and downstream from the pipe centerline.234 SMALL ‘Corruqated metal CANAL STRUCTURES PIP? l. -(a) Inlet. Outlet protection. Where the inlet channel alinement is perpendicular to that of the pipe.

PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES =?. 235 PLAN TOP of ChO”rm bO”k SECTION SECTION 6-B SECTION A-A A. GRAVEL BLANKET Figure 4-42. Drain inlets-plan SECTION DRAIN and sections. 103-D-131 3 INLET C-C . RECTANGULAR INCLINED DRAIN INLET PLAN “12” SECTION coarse grovel A-A LONGITUDINAL B.

b. in the inlet channel is not attainable without excessive ponding. + h. and at least 6 inches above the canal water surface to prevent reverse flow. For the more common inlet conditions. The height of the flume walls should provide a freeboard of at least 1 foot above the inlet channel water surface. d. + 0. or from the equation: d. 103-D-l 314 retain the bank or dike slope.~The pool dimensions are determined for the condition of full flow in the drain inlet when the canal is empty.5 Ah. can be determined from table 17 [4]. + 0. is equal to d.3143 q2/3 =< g where q is the discharge per foot of width and g is the acceleration of gravity. c + 0. measured normal to the chute slope. Then. friction losses may be disregarded. head in the inlet do = d. = 0. should be increased. FT 5 IO 2’-0” b. c c In a rectangular section. and it can be assumed that d. The flume width. do = d. + 0. (b) Flume. 4-43). If the required depth. at which point critical depth occurs (see fig. c or do + h” 0 = d. is selected so that the specific energy (d + 11. should be : h.2 feet per second per second.005) assuring a velocity less than critical. to permit complete drainage of the channel.5 11. with the top of the chute walls coinciding with the canal bank.236 SMALL 2 CANAL STRUCTURES As the flume section is short.6’s 20 4’-0” Assuming a zero velocity channel. -The chute descends to the pool on an invert slope equal to the side slope of the canal.. and using the Bernoulli theorem /Flume [21: E so = Es + 0. equal to 32. or without use of excessively high banks or dikes. until the flow reaches the steep slope of the chute section.5 nh. hVc = $ Then Figure 4-43. The canal bank should have 2 feet of freeboard above the water surface in the channel. b. Critical depth. and a cutoff to reduce percolation.5 d. assuming an inlet loss of 0. = d.. -The rectangular concrete flume extends through the canal bank on a subcritical slope (usually 0.) in the flume does not exceed the specific energy in the inlet channel. + 1 foot minimum (d) Outlet PooZ. these . do. j: F. The wall height.) or do = 1. + h. FT: 3’-0’ IS 3’.75 d. Concrete drain inlet dimensions.5 Ah. The concrete invert should be set at or slightly below the channel invert. The invert at the downstream end of the flume should be at least 6 inches above the normal water surface in the canal.5 d. the drain inlet width. (c) Chute.5 (0.

occurs at the beginning of the chute. where the pool depth. The vertical wall at the end of the pool provides a positive tailwater to insure the hydraulic jump. and not less than the normal canal bank width. d.PROTECTIVE 237 STRUCTURES dimensions are tabulated in figure 4-43. Design Example. K. Pool dimensions for other inlet conditions should be determined from the basic equations for pools as discussed in chapter 11. . but at least twice the throat width. associated with the hydraulic jump. -The gravel blanket drain inlet. The angle of convergence should not exceed 30’ on each side. chapter II. Thus. the drain inlet should be set back into the canal bank as required. The transition length should be sufficient to divert the flow. -The gravel blanket should consist of 12 inches of coarse gravel. L. and d.. extending 5 feet upstream and downstream from the structure. d. Drain 4-44. -(a) Rectangular Concrete Drain Inlets to a Concrete-lined Canal. and that F/d. is tabulated in terms of critical depth. pool and chute blocks. and 0. -Inlet protection should consist of 6 inches of coarse gravel. and to an elevation 1 foot above the water surface in the inlet channel (see fig. and up the sloping canal banks to an elevation 1 foot above the normal water surface.7 ft. which would interfere with sediment removal. The canal. to an elevation 1 foot above the inlet water surface for the design flow from the inlet channel. except that the chute section is terminated at the top of the concrete lining (see fig. Canal protection should extend down the upper canal bank and across the invert. If the pool length. (2) Gravel blanket. 4-45. having a normal flow of 75 cfs and a wasteway overflow not far downstream. (f) Protection.5 d. If this proves to be true. -The inlet transition should converge to a throat width equal to at least 1 foot for each cubic foot per second of design flow. (e) Percolation. s = 0. Friction loss in the chute is neglected. assuming critical depth at the beginning of the canal bank slope. a drain inlet shall be designed to handle this flow. Other Types of Inlets. is equal to H/d. It should extend longitudinally along the canal for a length equal to at least twice the inlet throat width. The dimensions tabulated in figure 4-43 are based upon the assumption that critical depth. The flow from the drainage area is expected to be about 6 cfs of clean water (relatively free of weeds or debris). (1) Properties of the earth section canal are as follows: Q = 75 cfs b=8ft d. exceeds the bottom width of the canal. Additional cutoff walls should be used if necessary.9 ft n = 0. = 2. --Percolation of water from the inlet to an empty canal should be checked by Lane’s weighted-creep analysis discussed in chapter VIII. = 4. 4-39). and the pool length should be equal to 3K. as shown in figure 4-42. (b) Gruvel Blanket Drain Inlet. The berms should provide a freeboard of 1 foot above the drain inlet water surface. therefore. Dimensions are as follows: (I) Inlet transition. in terms of d. h. -The rectangular concrete drain inlet to a concrete-lined canal section should be similar to the concrete drain inlet to an earth section. The pool wall height.10 maximum. Outlet protection in the canal should consist of a minimum of 12 inches of coarse gravel. (a) Assumptions.025 Wl = 6 ft. channels the flow from the drainage channel into an earth section canal. utilizing a wide earth transition with a layer of gravel protection. in figure 2-37. (5 feet minimum).0005 ss= l-1/2:1 . -A canal intercepts a drainage channel that has an invert above the normal canal water surface.01 minimum. The inlet protection should extend the full length and width of the inlet transition. should be equal to or greater than d2. a design flow of 3 cfs would require a throat width of 3 feet. The invert of the transition should slope toward the canal on a slope of 0. are not considered necessary. as shown in figure 4-44. extending upstream a distance equal to 2. 4-43). A thicker lining with reinforcement should be considered for the section adjacent to the drain inlet. can probably accommodate the addition of the 6 cfs from the drainage channel without excessive infringement upon canal freeboard.

7 .486 AR2 I3 s’ ‘2 Q= n = 1. (3) Properties of the natural channel are approximately as follows: Q= 6 cfs b = 6 ft. ft. profile. WP = b + 3. CANAL .l r.5 d2 = 8 x 3.486 x 38.02236 0.9 = 1.598 (see table 63 [4] ) Then 1. 4-44).4 > 8 1 cfs (close enough) .8 ft.5(3. -Determine the reduced freeboard in the canal resulting from the inflow of 6 cfs.34 x 1. R = A .025 = 8 1. d. .94 = 38. STRUCTURES . Freeboard for 75 cfs = 11.40 + 13.“p of conol bank .34 _ 19*0 2*02 wP R 2 ‘3 = 1. PLAN Top of dralnage channel bank Top of drain Inlet dike Top of normal Invert of drainage conol bank channel PROFILE Figure 4-44.38.0ft. = 1.238 SMALL ~ Top of drown Inlet dike --_ .5 ft. and nomenclature.05 ft.2. and determine the resultant hydraulic properties.606 d (see bibliography ref.606 x 3. (2) The drainage channel is well defined and has an invert elevation 1. 141) = 8 + 3. A=bd+ 1.05)2 = 24. (b) Solutiotz (see fig. which increases the canal flow from 75 to 81 cfs. ~ (1) Cam1 freeboard. ~ d. = 4. h.598 x 0..05 =8+ 11 = 19. 103-D-1315 Find normal depth in canal for 81 cfs: Try d = 3. = 3 ft. Pipe drain inlet-plan.5 feet above the normal water surface of the canal.34 sq.05 + 1.

.0 = 18 0. > 0. the canal can accommodate the additional flow of 6 cfs without excessive infringement upon canal freeboard. (2) Drain inlet type.25 feet. Permissible infringement. just inside the pipe.6 ft.1 = 1.056 (6) Locatiorz of Ii~dradic control. Critical ‘flow conditions at the inlet end of the pipe are then: d. (5) Critical slope.3.128 J. leaving a drop of 1. which is greater than the minimum required slope of 0.24 ft.813 = 0. = 1. SC l/2 Qn --0~~8/3 - (where D8’3 = 1. . D = 1.0 foot in the pipe.-The invert of the pipe inlet will be set at the invert of the drainage channel.435.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES 239 Therefore.d(.05 ft.25 = 0. Q-C v.024. (4) Invert slope. The outlet end of the pipe will be set 6 inches above the NWS. the hydraulic control is located at the inlet. and 60 141.25)2 = 1.) Then.04 = 5. and h = vz= 0.p. . = 0.178 D= 1.032 < 0.. -The well-defined inlet channel and the relatively small discharge indicate that a pipe drain inlet would be suitable.$ = 1.. = 0.? ‘b = y= and 0..747 from table 58.024 = 0.2 ft.128 4 = 1.= 0. s. A = 1.. By scaling. 6 Then. A.666 x ( 1.04 sq.s. Use D = 15 inches.6 = 0.095) = 1. The pipe slope is then -1. and s. -As the actual invert slope. using tables 21. = 0. = 4.447 from table 21.45 ft.447 x 1. cfsI Find D5” = 1.37 (from table 8-1.52 ft “I. -Determine the critical slope for Q = 6 cfs. and for a full pipe. Therefore.79 from table 22. b=Q = 1. Infringement on normal freeboard = 1.666 DZ (from table 21) = 0.5 feet above the normal water surface (NWS) of the canal. s. D8/3 Then.7 . the pipe length is found to be about 18 feet.89.747 = 3. d = 3. ft. is steeper than the critical slope.79 D = 0. Qn s11’2= 0.2 ft. and the pipe diameter should be based upon a pipe velocity of 5 feet per second flowing full.813 from table 60) 6 x 0.-It is determined that an earth inlet transition will be satisfactory.? 2g . (3) Pipe diameter. = A. V = 4. 1. 58.056. D Also.005. = (0.128 (1.99 ft.1. and 11.79 x 1. s.8 ~.77 f. 22. s. Remaining freeboard = h.178)2 = 0.227. (Note that the minimum diameter permitted for pipe relatively clean water is 12 inches. for Q = 81 cfs and n = 0. chapter VIII).

‘+ h. to produce a discharge of 6 cfs in the 15-inch pipe. = d.5 h “C d.77 ft.25 is only 3. or 3.77 ft.” for flow in the inlet channel. over the 15-inch-diameter pipe: C = 3 D (18 in. -The inlet dike must provide the required freeboard above the inlet water surface. the height of the dike is controlled by the freeboard requirement.: h = 0. balancing energies from the outlet end to the inlet end. (10) Protection. = f. + ‘lv. Then d. CANAL STRUCTURES Check to see if this dike height will provide the required minimum cover. Esg = E.0 + Y. -Inlet protection should consist of 6 inches of coarse gravel.-The water surface in the inlet channel must rise to a depth sufficient to provide a specific energy equal to the specific energy in the pipe.77 feet above the invert of the pipe inlet. hvc for critical flow in the pipe and 11. and C=l8+6 = 24 in. extending 12 inches above the normal water surface of the canal. Use 5-foot length (since 3 x 1. + h. is the difference in velocity heads.25 = 2. (8) Irdet dike height and pipe cover. the 18-inch minimum controls.0 ft. -Percolation from the inlet pool to the canal should be checked by the Lane method as discussed in subsection VIII C.) + 6 in. Therefore. minimum) Pipe cover. + 0.5 Ah. The normal depth of 1. as shown in figure 4-44. for a length of 3D (5 feet minimum). extending at least 12 inches above the maximum inlet water surface.5 feet will be increased by 0.1 Assume that the velocity head in the inlet channel is negligible and that the inlet loss.0 ft.77 ~ 1. is: h. min.5yo.. min. hi. = 0.52 > 2. minimum (2. and 2-l/2 D.27 feet at the inlet. C. + hi 4. As?jD= 5 x 15 = lOinches. = d.and 10+6 0 = 16 inches. as shown in figure 4-44. the hydraulic control would be located at the outlet.SMALL 240 Had the actual slope of the pipe been flatter than the critical slope. the water surface in the inlet channel will be 1. + 11.. Thus.13 feet (use 3.77 = 3.52) = 1. (7) Zlzlef water surface. C. the height of the dike. (9) Pevcolution. c.. Thus.99 + 1.75 feet). + 1. Thus. resulting from the required freeboard: c = hd -. h. as shown in subsection 4-8(c).5 feet) upstream and downstream from the pipe centerline. Outlet protection should consist of 12 inches of coarse gravel. . + d = 2.D = 3. plus inlet losses. where Ah. + 0 = d. Then the hydraulics in the inlet end would be determined by the Bernoulli method.

50. New York. “Handbook of Hydraulics. E..” Armco Drainage and Metal Products. [7] L L _ 1 . “Some Experiments with Emergency Siphon Spillways. 1974.” Bureau of Reclamation. Second Edition.” Armco Drainage and Metal Products. for Canals and Related Structures. 66. Second Edition. [3] “Handbook of Water Control. 191 “Operation and Maintenance Bulletin No. [I ] “Water Measurement Manual.. October 1958.” Bureau of Reclamation. 1973. 1949. H. 1101 “Handbook of Welded Steel Pipe. B. 1957. and Brater. (111 Rouse. 1958. [5] “Design Standards No. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 20.” Fifth Edition. Reprint. Hydraulics Division. 19. 1963. Inc.” Bureau of Reclamation.” Bureau of 141 “Hydraulic Reclamation. [8] “Design of Small Dams. McBirney.PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES 241 D. [2] King. F. Eleventh Edition.. W. 1968. W. [6] “Operation and Maintenance Equipment and Procedures. 1974. 1967. 1957... Revised Reprint. 1967.” Bureau of Reclamation. 3. Bibliography. Release No..” ASCE Proceedings 1807.” Second Printing. H. and Excavation Tables. BIBLIOGRAPHY 4-46. “Engineering Hydraulics. Inc. Revised Reprint 1974.” Bureau of Reclamation.

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figure 5-3. Design examples show how a particular size of water measurement structure is determined. The types most commonly used in Reclamation systems are Parshall flumes. adaptability to site. A general description of each type of structure is given. weirs. figures 5-4 and 3-22.«Chapter H. In a typical irrigation system. Flow through a 9-inch P 20-D-29299-S20 Parshall flume. of Reclamation. Recently constructed Parshall flume. and ease of operation. open-flow meters. Standard design drawings of Reclamation measuring structures are also included. weirs. the canal headworks. economy of installation. Figure 5. Acoustic velocity meters and magnetic flow meters are expected to offer a reliable method of flow measurement in 1 General Engineer. V Bureau irrigation systems but they are not included herein. PX-D-72610 243 . W ARREN GENERAL 5-1. Figure 5-1. figures s-I and 5-2. Parshall flumes. and constant-head orifices (CHO). along with its advantages and disadvantages. and at lateral and farm turnouts. Constant-head orifices are mainly used in turnou ts and have been previously discussed in chapter III.2. Types of Measuring Structures. Engineering Reference Branch. water is usually measured at the storage reservoir ou tlet. A. weir boxes and open-flow meters are discussed in this chapter. J. -There are many different types of water measurement structures used in irrigation systems. The type of measuring structure selected for these locations depends on availability of head.

Open-flow meter attached to a concrete pipe. Concrete weir structure with standard contracted Cipolletti weir. flat-converging section through a narrow downward sloping throat section and then diverges on an upward sloping floor (fig.-Parshall flumes are s p e c i a II y designed inline open channel measuring structures in which canal water flows over a broad. The tailwater elevation may be appreciably higher than the flume crest without affecting the free-flow discharge through the flume. PX-D-72611 Figure 5-4. It is level both longitudinally and laterally and is usually set above the upstream canal invert. These conditions prevail over a wide range of FLUMES tailwater depths. CTPX-D-31408. thereby providing a means of determining the rate of flow from a single water depth measurement. if the Figure 5-5. PARsHALL 5-2. Artist sketch showing Parshall flume ina canal. . 5-5). However. The floor of the converging section is the crest of the flume. Description.244 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Figure 5. The flume geometry forces the water at free-flow conditions to pass through critical depth on the crest. Free-flow conditions occur when the downstream canal water surface (tailwater) is low enough to have no effect on the depth of water on the crest. 222-0-33586 B.3.

(5) can not be easily altered to obtain unallocated water. are set at the flume crest elevation so that water depth measurements are depths above the crest. 5-5. -Parshall flume sizes are designated by their throat widths. Before a Parshall flume can be selected. These discharges correspond to throat widths of 6 inches through 8 feet.000 cfs. (2) capable of measuring a wide range of free-flow discharges with relatively high tailwater depths using a single water depth measurement. 5-4. Care should be taken in construction so that the structure is built as closely as possible to the standard dimensions given in figure 5-7 with one exception. With these . the width of the Parshall flume should be about one-third to one-half the width of the upstream canal water surface at design discharge and normal depth. Minimizing construction costs is an important factor. turbulence. (2) cannot be used in close combination with turnouts because the inflow must be uniform and the water surface relatively smooth. and free of turbulence. (4) virtually a self-cleaning structure because of flume geometry and the throat velocity. This discussion will be limited to small Parshall flumes having free-flow capacities of 0. the maximum degree of submergence for free flow is 70 percent [ !I. which is automatically controlled.WATER MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES 245 downstream water surface exceeds specified limits. for flumes 1 through 8 feet in width. wood. when the flume is built to the given standard dimensions and used where the incoming flow is uniform.* Gage zeros for both H. Parshall flumes should be located only in straight sections of channels where the flow is relatively smooth and uniform. As a general rule. Disadvantages. the range of discharges to be measured. and (3) must be constructed carefully and accurately for satisfactory performance. S-3.5 cfs. galvanized metal or any other construction material that can be built to the given dimensions in the field or prefabricated in a shop. Parshall flumes can be designed to measure flow from 0. Parshall flumes should be located as close as possible to canal discharge regulating gates for convenience of operation. and the normal depth of the flow in the channel must be known. A particular discharge or discharge range can be measured by any one of several different size flumes. the wingwalls may be lengthened as required. evenly distributed. see fig. Also. it is important to have the floor of the converging section level so that the same amount of water is passing over each increment of throat width.and 9-inch flumes. unless the flow *Numbers S-29. For 6. and H. as in a turnout. Advantages.01 cubic foot per second (cfs) to 3. in brackets refer to items in the bibliography. -Parshall flumes are recognized as accurate and reliable flow measuring structures and have the following advantages: (1) capable of measuring rate of flow with relatively small head loss. -Parshall flumes: (1) are usually more expensive to construct than weirs. the maximum degree of submergence Hb (H ratio. and waves. Correct zeroing and reading of the gages is necessary for accurate results which is usually within about 2 percent for free flows and about 5 percent for submerged flows [ 21. (3) capable of measuring submerged flow using two water depth measurements when the degree of submergence impedes the free-flow discharge. Size Selection. submerged-flow conditions occur and two water depth measurements are required to determine the rate of flow. An angle iron is usually embedded flush with the floor and perpendicular to the flow at the downstream end of the crest to prevent crest erosion and to provide a smooth surface for setting gage zeros. Sidewalls of the throat must be parallel and vertical. but far enough away from the gates so that the flow is uniform and free from eddies.05 to 139. the channel cross section. Parshall flumes can be constructed of concrete. and (6) unaffected by velocity of approach. Final selection is based on the flume width which best fits the canal dimensions and hydraulic properties. 5-6) for free-flow discharge is ‘3 60 percent. They should never be located on a curve or at right angles to the canal flow. see has been straightened and uniformly redistributed. whereas. allowable head loss through the flume.

0 feet.00. therefore the tailwater elevation is set 0. assume that a Parshall flume is to be selected for use in a canal to measure flows from 4 to 40 cfs with free-flow discharge. the headwater would rise about 0. the velocity at H. Flume size throat width. From the continuity equation.04 Hb 1.15 CANAL STRUCTURES Flume size throat width. The design capacity of the canal is 40 cfs.$.85 feet per second (fps) and the velocity head.0 feet. 5-6. Since the crest of the Parshall flume is set above the upstream canal invert a distance M of .246 SMALL conditions known.16 foot and encroach on which is the upstream canal freeboard undesirable. H.25 1.0 feet and the canal bank freeboard 1. Table 5-3 gives the following values of H. the selection and setting of a Parshall flume for free flow and submerged flow can be described best by design examples. Using the general rule to determine the throat width. Consider for now only the size range where the depth at H. The energy at H. The head loss for a 5-foot flume is 0.5 feet. The depth at H.55 1. further investigation is required and the final selection of the flume is made on a trial and error basis.00.” the Parshall flumes that have free-flow measuring capabilities within the desired discharge range are those with throat widths from 3.. is the difference in elevation %f the tailwater and the crest of the flume.65 foot of head is available if required for losses through the flume. and as previously indicated the normal depth of water in the canal is 2.. side slopes l-1/2 to 1.0 + 0. H. From figure 5-7 “Standard Parshall Flume Dimensions. The 6-foot flume is the next smallest. is 0.04 = 67 percent. free-flow discharge exists until the degree of submergence exceeds 70 percent. for a free-flow discharge of 40 cfs is 1.a flume that is too narrow would cause 4 the headwater to rise and encroach on the upstream canal freeboard. is the crest elevation + H.55 feet. The ratio of K = 1. Q = VA where A is the cross-sectional area at H. the Hb degree of submergence is the ratio of --H. Design Example with Free-flow Discharge. width of water surface 12.0-foot flumes meet the depth and loss requirements. is the difference in water surface elevation of the headwater and tailwater as shown in figure 5-6. Assume the upstream canal invert elevation is 100.38 1. + g or (100. however. As noted from the dimensions in figure 5-7 the crest elevation is set + above the upstream canal invert or 0.49 0. The following head losses for a discharge of 40 cfs and a 70 percent degree of submergence are obtained from figure 5-S (see subsection 5-8(c) for explanation on reading this chart).0 feet. Further assume that 0.58 0..0 feet.58 foot. is 3. Next check to see if this is a free-flow flume.0 to 8. Since the . The 5.23 = 102. For flume sizes in this example. feet 5 6 7 8 1. If this flume were used.0.0 feet. for free-flow discharge is less than or equal to the upstream water depth. or 1. so using the same procedure try a 6-foot Parshall flume.0 to 6. feet Head loss HL.-In this example. feet Upper head H.58 foot lower than the headwater elevation. is the same elevation as the tailwater. feet 5 6 7 8 0.55 + 0.38) + 1. the size range would be 4.38 foot.55 a which meets the free-flow criteria. Then Allowable head loss through the Par-shall flumes must also be considered. for a discharge of 40 cfs for different flume widths that meet the criteria set forth in the preceding paragraph. feet.16 feet.through 8. bottom width 6. Since the water surface at H. First try a 5-foot flume as it is the smallest and least expensive to build. normal depth of water in the canal 2.37 The head loss.42 0.23 foot. then the headwater elevation is 102.

reading of 1. the degree of submergence is K = 1. Then the new H. be designed for fret-flow discharge.28 *This value is only an approximation determined from figure 5-l 1. The crest elevation is the same as for the 5-foot flume.38 feet a or 70 percent which meets the criteria for free-flow conditions.3 = 9. Ls: = 82 percent (should be 70 percen. 5-7.21 foot. select values of H. Submergence in excess of 70 percent.58) = 1. If a flume is set for this high submergence and hydraulic conditions in the downstream channel change to cause greater submergence.62 1. The energy at H. The new tailwater surface is set 1.90 (1.78 49.24 feet. 40-cfs discharge and a 6-foot flume. The 6-foot flume should be selected because it is the least expensive to construct.24 feet above the crest. Then the ratio 3 = 0.:. crest elevation is 100. From figure 5-8 determine the head loss for 90 percent submergence. Recalling that 0.38 feet.? or less as previously determined). feet Throat width.58 1.3 = 9.57 6. 0.and 6-foot flumes.00. the flume becomes useless. When checking this flume for Hb free flow. for a discharge of 40 cfs is 1..97 which is slightly less than the upstream water surface elevation. The depth at H. measuring well and an erroneous discharge would be read or computed using only this reading. will influence the water surface at the H.35 and the new Hb = Hb 0.90 and Hb = Ha 0. An Ha of 1. from table 5-3 and read the free-flow discharge for a 6-foot flume. however.? 1. that portion of the flume downstream from the throat section is not needed. however.62 or 1.0 6. as dimension M is the same for both the 5. In the preceding example of the 6-foot Parshall flume assume that the flume is set for 90 percent submergence.58 feet and an H.74 .18 40.0 51. From the continuity equation the velocity at H.20 39.49 foot below the upstream water surface. The actual Submerged-flow correction (correction* times multiplying factor M) 2.42 feet. The tailwater surface is then tentatively set at elevation 10 1.97 foot 0.38 feet. The flume is now set for 90 percent submergence and will measure 40 cfs with an Ha reading of 1.21 = 101.49 foot. set the downstream water surface 0.65 foot of head was initially available.WATER MEASUREMENT 247 STRUCTURES head loss through the flume is 0. cf. If.38 + 1. Hence a new Ha and H. Read a head loss of 0.9 ( 1.54 Submcrgcd-flow discharec ~ 3 cfs 42.24 x 4.38 + 1.81 49.38 + 0. can be set for free-flow conditions.70 feet per V2 second and velocity head.0 6.42 = 101.3 = 9. the downstream channel should become silted up or clogged with vegetation. is 3.23 x 4.42 feet.42 feet above the crest elevation or 100. Design Example with Submerged-f10 w Discharge.38) = 1. If a Parshall flume is always going to be operated at 70 percent or less submergence. for 90 percent submerged flow must be determined. The ratio of K now equals 1. however they will measure submerged flows up to 95 percent submergence.63 2. Then from figure 5-I 1 read the correction for 90 percent submergence and subtract it from the free-flow discharge until an Ha is found that will give a correct reading for measuring 40 cfs through a 6-foot flume at 90 percent submergence. reading is 0. is 100. z. feet Free-flow discharge. Using a trial and error procedure. the submergence would increase to greater than 70 percent and the downstream portion of the flume with an measuring well would be needed to Hb determine the discharge for submerged flow. which does not meet the criteria for free-flow discharge.17 foot. the downstream water surface should be set at elevation 101. and does not cause an encroachment on the upstream freeboard.22 x 4.97 foot.58 2.80. Recall that the headwater elevation is 102.38 and Ha for free-flow discharge is 1.58 feet is then determined to be satisfactory. -If possible Parshall flumes should Ha.

Q. and H the submergence ratio $.2 cfs. 103-D-1224 . in cubic feet per second is plotted as the ordinate. the value of (H.58 feet and H. Find 84 per&t 1. respectively [I] .248 SMALL calculated difference between the headwater and tailwater elevation (102. Knowing the design discharge and the desired degree of submergence. The two simultaneous equations may be solved for H. in feet as the abscissa. ) can be read directly.00 -.101. (H..80) is 0. On figure 5-l 1 project a line horizontally to the right from 1.3) = 40. From this point drop vertically downward to the base of the figure and read a correction of about 2.42 feet would be computed as follows: (I) Hb compute submergence ratio. assume flow through a 6-inch flume with an H. __ = 1.through 8-foot Parshall flumes can be read directly from tables 5-1. gage reading 1.23 cfs. Submerged flow conditions exist because the submergence ratio is greater than 70 percent.-Head losses for I.25 cfs on the bottom line of the figure. and 5-3. and H.58 would be 49. or 49. H. 5-2. = CANAL STRUCTURES The corrections for submerged-flow discharge in I. W.25 feet and Hb H.05 feet.78 cfs. gage reading 1. gage reading = 1. and l.23 (4.through 8-foot flumes are determined from figure 5-l 1 [ 1] .. lines. (b) Submerged-jlow Discharge. the flow through a 6-foot flume with an H. and (3) from this point go vertically downward and read the head loss of 0. Engineers at Utah State University have developed submerged-flow calibration curves for a number of Parshall flumes. M. 5-8.3 sloping H. The submergence ratio. 9-inch. When the flow is submerged. -(a) Free-jlo w Discharge. Relationship of flow depths to the flume crest elevation. Proceed horizontally along the 84 percent submergence line to half way between the 1. This correction should then be multiplied by the size or multiplying factor. -Figures 5-9 and S-10 give the submerged-flow discharge directly for 6. The discharge. Use of Tables and Figures for Discharge and Free-flow Determinations. Figure 5-6.17-foot head loss taken from figure 5-8. For instance. .in percent as the a varying parameter [ 31. From this point proceed vertically downward and read a discharge of 2.2 and 1.58 Ha percent.and 9-inch flumes respectively [Il. These curves eliminate the need for trial and error procedure as given in the example problem for submerged flow. a correction must be applied to the free-flow discharges. = 1. For example. = 1. (c) Head Losses.25 submergence on the left side of figure 5-9. The downstream canal water surface is set above the crest an amount equal t0 H.Hb). The corrected discharge for the 90 percent submerged 6-foot flume is the free-flow discharge minus the correction times the size factor.3.58 feet to the 90 percent sloping submergence line. (2) from this intersection project a horizontal line to the 6-foot throat width.05= 84 percent. (2) from table 5-3 the free-flow discharge for H. -Free-flow discharge for 6-inch. for a specified flow and a specified submergence. to H. 1. for a 6-foot flume which is in the insert table on figure 5-l 1. The desired submergence ratio gives the relationship of H. These discharge corrections are then subtracted from the free-flow values in table 5-3. .42= 90 1.49 foot. which is slightly greater than the 0.H.20 foot. Follow the 70 percent submergence line vertically upward until it intersects the sloping discharge line where Q = 40 cfs. In this case M = 4.78 cfs minus 2.through 8-foot Parshall flumes can be obtained from figure 5-8 by the following procedure: (1) for the free-flow design example find 70 percent submergence at the bottom of the chart.

WATER MEASUREMENT Extend wingwall into canal bonk OS required STRUCTURES 249 --h I i. 103-D-1225 i . t Converging Section Throat (Section . Standard Parshall flume dimensions. . Diverging ( Section I i I \ ‘f? LA I wingwol I PLAN PROFILE Figure 5-7.

6 0.2 1. 1 through 8 feet wide.250 SMALL 90 9Y-- PERCENT a5 70 80 015 02 02503 60 50 04 05 06 070809/ I10 OF SUBMERGENCE Figure (0 loss r- STRUCTURES 1 20 15 I 25 30 3540 50 60 70909010 HEAD 5-8. 103-D-1226 m UPSTREAM 0) HEAD Ha. FEET through Parshall flumes.4 DISCHARGE.e 0. Head -cur)tu? CANAL LOSS.8 I .” FEET z 2 2 ” 94 96 0 0. Diagram for determining CFS rate of submerged flow in a 6-inch Parshall flume. . 103-D-1227 P . W=6 INCk Figure 5-9.4 0.o 1.

6 I.50 chart 60 CORRECTION./I.70 80.90 I.0 12 I4 1.8 2. 7 89 SECOND-FEET Diagram for determining correction to be substracted from free-flow discharge to obtain rate of submerged-flow discharge through Parshall flumes. FEET SECOND-FEET rate of submerged flow in a 9-inch Parshall flume. Diagram for determining Ha. . Figure 5-10.30 . equals multiplied 3 3. Figure 5-II.5 used For the by 4 4.0 2. 1 through 8 feet wide.5 directly lor~er value size 5 for sizes from factor. 103-D-1228 NOTE: Correction I-foot I/ /I/ 9% . 103-D-1229 . 6 the the M./ PJb //I 35 correction 96 4045.WATER MEASUREMENT 251 STRUCTURES UPSTREAM HEAD DISCHARGE.5 is flumes.

00 2.37 .38 .91 1.53 2.92 1.16 .23 1.12 .20 .26 .09 Sl .45 .82 .56 .05 1.46 .21 . Discharge.48 .15 1.80 1.55 .60 .75 2.86 2.03 1.06 Ha”s8.57 2.05 0.15 .07 .06 .81 1. 103-D-1230 CANAL .18 .42 .19 1.39 .32 .252 SMALL Table 5-l .39 .64 .43 .26 1.12 1.36 1.36 2.-Fret-jlow discharge through h-inch Parshall measurinx flume in cubic Computedfi-om the formula Q= 2.98 .52 .65 1.28 .18 1.50 .89 .88 .69 .10 0.84 1.24 1.38 .94 .39 1.63 .09 1.22 1.36 .78 .40 .68 .12 2.25 .48 1.86 1.27 .14 1.71 1.95 .00 1.02 1.29 .50 2.41 .62 .71 2.71 .22 .10 1.89 2.50 .28 1.78 .65 .79 .97 2.29 2.97 .15 .62 .71 1.54 .93 2.45 1.22 2.I6 1.59’ 1.45 .17 .57 .87 .70 .64 2.94 1.34 .47 .01 3.71 .01 1.97 .20 1.19 2.99 1.74 1.58 .16 .67 .43 .99 1.31 .10 2.96 1.25 1.80 .56 .61 .26 2.02 1.93 .58 .11 2.68 1.08 .89 .09 .31 .ll .19 .56 1. Discharge.14 .76 .feetper second.53 .72 .16 2.59 .65 .29 3.92 .54 .90 .28 .14 .17 1.67 .22 .41 .20 .19 .49 .34 .ll .04 3.40 Head H feea.31 1.69 .26 .91 . STRUCTURES Discharge.44 .85 .90 1.93 .47 .30 .63 .68 2. cfs Head H fee”.12 .52 .43 .07 1. cfs .34 1.73 .82 .15 1.83 .07 1.29 .17 .66 .21 2.35 .06 2.32 2.13 .lO . cfs 0.I5 .04 1.82 2.23 .85 .61 0.20 1.48 .84 .03 2.33 .81 1.73 .12 1.08 .06 2.36 .87 .60 .46 2.26 .50 1.32 .42 1. Head H feea.17 1.23 .78 .16 2.25 .53 1.21 1.74 .24 .04 1.08 1.87 1.23 1.28 1.18 .13 1.

01 4.lY .00 1.01 2.81 2.lO .14 2.56 .08 1 .59 6.38 .58 1.32 .32 1.42 5.96 2.59 .20 .98 3.56 5.17 3.40 1.53 1.28 .Yl 1.03 1.40 1.57 2.YO .70 2.91 5.54 .00 1.36 .37 1.80 3.YO . 103-D-1231 feet per second.09 0.61 2.92 .10 3.14 5.90 3.70 .82 .84 2.10 1.46 .63 1.12 1.40 3.12 1.32 .15 3.43 4.31 5.69 4.50 1.55 1.93 2.75 4.48 2.50 .15 1.10 2.79 .17 1.48 4.62 .71 1.80 .37 1.79 2.87 .49 1.34 1.21 3.21 1.69 .75 .35 .36 1.54 1.41 4.94 1.48 .14 1. Head H fe$ Discharge.36 4.54 5.22 1.44 1.18 2.23 .14 .26 1.55 1.00 6.37 5.45 3.78 .85 .73 .33 1.63 .57 28 .51 .90 1.41 .38 1.66 1.15 .31 .95 .44 1.65 5.88 .39 .51 1.44 .06 4.lY .25 .25 1.04 1.~Free-flow discharge through 9-inch Parshall measuring flume in cubic ComputedfromtheformulaQ=3.34 .64 .33 .18 1.21 3.84 .31 .88 1.42 .11 .61 1.25 5.65 .13 1.30 1.86 2.20 1.94 6.19 .24 .Yl 2.22 4.02 1.95 4.60 1.81 .83 .39 1.89 .23 1.05 1.84 .22 .13 .46 .43 1.12 6.I6 1.47 .24 1.78 .29 .94 .59 5.Yl .59 .39 2.ll .24 ’ .51 5.30 .83 5.23 1.20 1.80 486 4.31 2.75 2.28 1.55 1.70 1.46 5.68 .30 .12 .13 1.66 1.06 3.52 2.15 .53 .54 .67 .26 3.35 .28 .06 .17 .I3 .YY 1.59 4.18 6.35 1.31 3.74 1.55 1.65 3.08 5.49 .51 .26 .56 .43 .06 .39 .19 1.11 5.48 .64 .98 .92 .35 2.OY 1.07 3.29 1.07 1.17 .22 1.37 .76 .53 4.47 1.85 .27 2.93 .11 3.98 2.I2 .60 .37 .31 4.10 3.40 .26 .12 .62 .41 .70 .44 .07Ha’~53.03 1. Discharge.03 5.24 .78 1.20 .48 1.94 .89 5.21 .52 .59 1.50 3.44 1.61 .77 .32 4.22 .45 1.57 1.26 4.86 1.27 .82 1.48 1. cfs Head H feea.02 1.74 .64 .02 3.16 1.11 . cfs Head H feti Discharge.10 0.66 1.16 4.18 .52 1. cfs 0.06 2.49 .30 1.45 .16 .14 .WATER MEASUREMENT 253 STRUCTURES Table 5-2.87 .16 3.33 1.42 1.27 4.

15 2.57 1.55 8.59 14.41 6.64 2.62 2.67 .35 .62 3.85 10.68 12.49 4.30 1.18 1.75 2.12 3.89 12.86 5.44 4.13 5.92 5.69 .22 2.65 8.18 2.43 5.63 .72 1.10 5.34 7.80 6. in cubic feet per second.31 4.56 3.48 6.54 4.11 1.81 17.46 6.47 1.53 9.21 .57 1.08 3.95 4.02 13.I1 .48 3.44 .95 .71 4.-Free-flow discharge through Parshall measuring flumes.48 1.68 .0 6.82 .65 2.24 .05 14.05 1.12 3.82 2.60 1.43 .63 1.05 5.07 4.08 3.32 .28 13.52 2.35 5.71 .53 7.33 4.21 .61 9.36 12.74 7.20 3.73 3.42 .28 1.70 4.03 12.24 6.55 1.99 1.64 1.59 6.52 1.65 2.0 2.50 4.87 2.24 2.14 10.52 1.88 6.44 3. 103-D-1232-1 1 Width of thrc lat.12 2.92 2.35 1.08 4.15 4.19 10.71 6.43 .11 9.35 10.13 9.86 8.56 .026 Q = 4 Wfla .18 4.29 .30 1.22 .28 2.30 .36 .03 5.35 0.91 8.57 .40 4.51 1.51 .88 .06 .65 2.46 1.40 .36 8.71 8.20 6.36 13.28 .62 3.98 5.91 3.20 4.73 1.10 11.23 1.71 12.80 2.48 .46 14.61 .50 2.12 6.32 .53 2.58 1.66 .10 15.59 10.49 11.38 4.70 5.34 3.49 .08 8.72 7.63 11.43 8.12 7.94 8.52 4. Computed from the formula *.98 9.94 8.20 0.20 3.22 4.81 3.92 11.46 .98 1.69 7.91 4.25 .84 3.23 .25 1.0 1.23 6.84 .through X-foot size.18 2.51 8. I.03 6.95 6.62 .01 2.68 3.64 7.66 6.30 4.96 7.48 2.22 4.19 2.41 .44 1.31 8.15 7.92 4.23 15.04 5.83 10.04 1.11 5.21 1.40 7.51 4.45 1.97 8.36 12.76 10.66 0.20 6.20 1.71 .46 5.20 8.51 9.50 1.91 9.86 5.58 .63 18. feet Head H feS 1.01 4.58 .46 .80 3.42 2.11 5.61 .02 2.66 5.22 2.91 2.93 2.70 1.0 3.17 10.82 16.31 .66 8.37 .I1 .78 12.69 13.13 2.60 6.69 1.64 .26 6.35 3.80 2.64 .51 2.25 5.49 .70 2.93 1.52 9.62 16.0 2.26 .85 11.90 4.31 4.93 3.32 2.80 7.01 .24 8.38 12.80 1.32 3.55 .34 .37 1.70 14.0 8.41 .44 3.15 1.53 5.80 2.23 9.52 7.40 14.15 3.33 13.23 2.39 .46 8.57 5.72 8.50 4.86 1.30 4.39 2.03 2.34 2.07 10.09 2.82 1.34 10.64 1.62 4.94 9.22 17.12 1.03 1.11 1.07 1.97 3.68 4.92 3.02 6.24 . W.31 .36 2.31 .88 .96 1.SMALL 254 CANAL STRUCTURES Table 5-3.48 6.45 6.96 7.93 1.0 4.05 7.63 5.12 6.74 8.39 .52 .41 6.85 11.96 13.98 13.05 4.17 3.39 6.68 .10 4.90 2.53 .51 .44 1.99 3.98 5.08 .33 .28 3.07 11.75 15.03 2.45 10.60 12.78 3.33 3.70 5.05 6.26 .99 1.17 4.82 5.97 1.92 4.36 1.46 15.56 6.20 11.83 6.20 8.20 5.I4 .84 4.70 14.71 3.19 11.44 3.26 3.39 5.39 11.27 2.10 10.61 3.25 9.20 1.41 16.86 .11 10.44 1.54 11.66 1.52 4.25 6.09 7.19 9.84 15.31 1.37 9.36 5.30 4.87 7.65 1.75 1.53 3.84 10.24 .53 5.88 1.0 0.40 2.08 3.89 9.97 6.SZZW0.92 .79 1.80 .54 .68 5.24 5.50 1.71 6.16 2.13 4.59 .98 2.08 12.13 5.38 .88 5.54 .

22 6.00 16.68 36.71 20.49 17.06 4.17 29.45 30.28 24.66 26.10 1.05 1.66 24.34 10.22 36.02 5.0 6.68 20.06 40.30 9.21 5.86 22.67 19.37 19.56 4.31 4.60 10.55 28.83 .22 27.07 1.81 4.75 17.06 34.81 11.89 .39 38.58 3.01 3.06 26.67 12.63 8. feet 5.38 4.84 13.13 8.14 9.49 16.50 15.96 16.I9 .94 24.27 9.66 27.50 20.55 5.52 1.46 6.90 29.25 11.62 24.17 15.82 10.18 21.0 7.94 20.78 .18 18.29 17.58 30.96 9.10 32.91 5.26 14.72 24.11 6.94 24.25 15.82 30.02 17.61 10.12 11.84 1.60 22.07 14.71 27.51 16.80 18.51 38.58 21.59 19.14 1.02 27.00 10.35 3.60 26.20 1.91 22.48 13.96 21.47 29.13 27.94 5.04 16.19 15.80 9.04 33.42 18.94 10.85 .01 26.76 12.33 7.01 9.75 7.94 26.03 1.28 5.50 24.27 22.15 16.40 19.55 15.27 7.24 23.08 1.26 23.00 32.50 8.0 2.62 33.96 3.43 2.50 4.75 15.66 18.30 8.93 .15 5.57 19.70 11.20 31.00 1.63 11.88 8.26 23.16 4.48 30.94 28.34 5.38 12.63 4.73 14.37 8.96 13.88 9.00 28.76 15.48 11.54 13.88 12.29 20.07 3.92 .WATER MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES 255 Table 5.94 15.13 19.93 14.76 12.80 2.13 1.28 21.18 41.67 9.61 14.90 .15 1.02 .01 9.02 35.64 20.22 23.18 24.24 23.53 10.79 26.32 15.09 1.04 1.88 6.10 27.25 19.41 3.90 .0 9.54 35.38 11.62 1.48 16.20 10.92 17.93 23.71 2.02 3.76 2.77 7.55 25.53 14.88 15.03 11.64 3.08 34.68 2.68 6.46 15.48 28.53 14.53 36.38 8.92 17.29 3.75 4.33 8.00 4.57 12.98 31.36 26.82 12.75 42.71 10.11 4.75 22.49 7.31 13.56 6.0 3.93 20.96 3.11 .74 27.83 31.62 13.52 18. in cubic feet per second.91 3.01 21.83 18.92 9.55 13.05 21.84 .82 23.40 12.31 28.12 5.62 24.07 11.18 5.15 16.82 4.65 22.88 3.15 7.12 4.17 7.39 20.75 .13 18.00 17.22 19.72 .00 37.14 19.0 8.81 2.62 16.49 24.85 15.74 13.87 19.08 5.29 19.25 8.12 3.12 1.75 16.93 25.53 9.07 18.48 13.96 25.0 4.18 4.14 32.54 27.97 .03 14.44 5.61 35.35 12.44 6.76 37.81 17.00 6.55 16.24 3.99 28.61 25.34 15.0 0.39 7.14 1.38 26.73 .40 13.48 10.65 7.07 13.36 25.92 12.90 16.00 41.81 9.28 30.94 39.97 .02 1.50 37.30 37. Head H fee? 103-D-1232-2 1 l- dth of thrc W.94 14.33 21.74 .74 33.79 8.60 14.49 32.58 34.51 14.88 4.27 14.44 18.74 2.57 5.14 20.85 2.34 10.70 3.87 .80 6.06 30.through tl-foot size.65 9.16 10.35 31.38 21.25 31.79 21.89 11.76 15.86 .-Free-jlow discharge through Parshall measuring flumes.17 20.34 28.81 2.28 17.53 2.45 7.79 16.34 18.46 21.01 21.76 29.14 12.76 7.47 1.36 22.99 1.82 18.22 14.68 8.54 20.52 3.17 1.86 23.99 21.53 27.3.99 23.17 10.58 26.21 13.21 5.00 30.76 14.33 14.87 20.03 7.60 18.38 12.19 1.12 22.13 17.04 14.17 15.00 8.82 .89 43.82 16.34 13.77 .06 19.68 32.48 2.95 10.76 17.36 29.32 22.81 19.33 16.97 29.98 .23 .80 .56 34.25 4.22 19.32 11.00 20.13 9.41 33. Computed from the jbrnzl/la -Continued.77 25.75 21.66 5.08 25.00 24.18 1.00 36.10 35.63 10.15 12.50 38.88 .20 19.54 9.32 42.04 18.97 8.00 12.62 4.74 9.64 25.15 18.58 2.43 4.61 21.50 40.40 22.82 3.78 21.94 .46 8.06 7.17 18. I.50 .67 32.95 .44 11.94 4.52 17.70 7.63 7.51 10.16 25.

48 1.45 1.90 27.42 17.26 1.33 41.30 31.28 48.55 5.51 1.39 1.17 49.41 22.86 47.65 8.21 18.92 37.44 12.80 29.26 35.70 31.31 1.88 23.72 1.98 19.34 33.72 43.38 46.04 23.56 1.79 59.00 46.13 52.41 10.55 20.80 46.02 36.50 58.66 17.50 28.13 17.42 68.89 5.95 32.59 33.38 61.12 40.22 51.02 30.38 66.59 29.22 17.60 1.30 37.16 12.0 3.28 55.25 64.76 51.69 5.08 14.16 15. feet Head H feea.08 60.60 26.08 1.86 71.04 18.19 13.42 19.43 43.87 20.37 75.44 31.86 54.84 52.02 40.94 28. 103-D-1232-3 Width of throat.78 19.68 6.42 32.86 42.32 55.87 7.90 64.06 38.99 26.55 27.22 5.05 25.80 28.76 11.19 48.85 45.82 13.65 63.52 1.28 38.38 18.79 76.44 22.26 16.47 36.78 49.87 44.69 14.53 1.09 53.37 49.90 24.74 61.01 12.75 6.59 12.50 1.05 41.54 49.28 35.34 30.09 40.83 53.41 1.34 16.64 1.20 19.30 27.58 8.34 7.49 7.74 39.95 15.02 60.62 5.44 1.26 37.54 41.33 30.88 18.57 8.32 52.78 58.08 24.45 11.90 56.flumes.0 7.64 25.54 23.96 37.28 55.92 25.71 1.94 27.02 11.51 40.026 Q=4WHa -Continued.61 1.73 11.64 50.69 1.80 25.62 36.25 1.62 8.73 8.06 36.20 39.12 29.53 6.18 28.06 51.59 16.20 32.14 28.98 37.35 50.07 35.36 23.51 48.48 5.65 1.86 29.90 27.31 46.66 1.02 53.03 18.37 6.17 22.14 58.74 12.0 2.57 1.39 33.33 1.56 24.05 9.82 46.82 33.41 22.48 66.-Free-Jlow discharge through Parshall measuring .10 66.52 41.28 1.38 17.18 13.66 30.65 45.81 54.18 22.04 34.42 43.79 35.63 13.05 1.68 1.58 32.29 1.17 70.S2*W0.93 14.03 63. Computed from the formula 1.58 41.74 16.42 6.96 38.0 1.89 16.72 13.31 11. W. in cubic .43 46.14 67.26 8.25 6.49 1.48 13.16 54.22 1.76 29.26 7.50 34.30 17.30 25.96 30.44 41. I.03 11.55 17.81 60.27 5.28 44.93 26.24 21.66 74.70 54.0 4.60 26.88 56.30 50.81 17.23 17.56 46.85 15.50 .04 7.21 27.feet per secorld.42 55.48 57.10 25.72 7.40 1.51 40.22 33.00 8.28 39.80 46.54 35.99 1.30 47.86 57.83 50.08 1.through &foot size.52 27.68 40.33 54.69 25.26 33.67 36.89 47.84 24.35 1. 1.28 36.70 30.62 43.66 38.50 44.38 35.10 18.49 8.86 44.89 44.19 34.32 6.63 31.54 1.46 36.54 32.38 64.54 21.46 53.17 48.89 13.01 51.34 53.26 34.48 1.32 51.26 45.96 15.95 56.60 16.82 38.46 12.10 23.31 22.67 8.57 42.92 24.80 7.15 23.30 1.27 32.64 70.47 21.60 6.58 56.60 26.78 26.59 34.18 6.10 45.60 23.02 8.12 7.64 22.41 7.58 36.0 5.78 59.0 6.82 62.87 12.82 32.45 28.26 43.00 39.48 57.74 60.76 18.14 39.71 65.06 i.31 41.21 24.96 37.32 18.43 1.66 44.32 5.23 14.29 26.23 1.62 15.05 44.36 1.59 54.89 6.34 45.06 17.33 27.06 36.42 63.93 41.09 42.97 1.03 6.12 34.82 5.33 13.20 44.10 11.80 52.94 16.10 8.96 6.38 1.39 25.89 40.00 15.97 9.13 45.30 51.SMALL 256 CANAL STRUCTURES Table 5-3.67 47.89 8.45 53.24 58.34 1.78 15.95 55.58 16.99 46.62 68.46 42.47 15.92 47.70 35.63 1.30 31.56 72.10 20.55 1.42 16.46 38.24 1.04 27.39 6.38 14.22 45.46 1.99 48.57 14.86 65.47 6.82 34.17 11.60 51.75 42.01 21.70 1.32 31.10 42.26 1.70 21.06 62.59 1.18 8.78 49.60 39.54 33.79 69.07 29.43 1.32 20.22 61.64 45.72 8.62 23.88 18.38 21.42 66.94 43.14 43.38 49.91 7.0 72.11 34.14 28.50 24.20 50.04 64.40 62.64 7.

64 25.44 50.16 54.25 57.8 113.6 101.00 89.46 12.0 5.92 71.95 10.14 95.40 70.16 24.12 55.29 9.69 44.73 12.62 86.67 59.32 52.94 58.83 9.36 81.93 21.56 80.l.92 56.63 21.37 47.96 43.24 82.00 47.14 69.52 50.64 38.00 76.22 51.19 13.34 54.79 33.09 53.01 26.77 48.1 112.6 105.63 76.0 3.27 46.57 65.85 70.59 77.93 68.73 52.59 20.WATER MEASUREMENT 257 STRUCTURES Table 5-3.31 22.10 21.83 62.25 93.24 42.24 20.53 45.58 78.17 2.82 29.20 2.19 2.94 1.4 115.79 97.06 2.75 72.79 23.05 49.28 31.77 1.00 2.72 19.82 93.cond.50 77.32 56.87 30.21 18.14 2.93 39.90 81.88 23.01 64.9 2.56 82.95 104.29 61.90 71.0 2. 103-D-12324 Head H fee? Width of throat.4 101.84 42.97 45.75 1.90 79.89 67.81 1.98 75.85 56.53 35.61 49.8 2.92 1.73 40.0 107.87 34.52 55.33 33.92 55.6 114.60 59.08 60.69 74.96 1.00 54.20 70.41 85.91 66.83 1.65 30.66 100.93 12.54 41.0 103.70 97.09 36.77 39.5 1 108.45 31.80 10.89 80.74 61.25 66.38 10.20 67.46 25.76 PO.14 91.88 42.3 111. feet 1.22 69.67 50.01 2.37 67.81 36.0 7.09 2.75 87.13 55.18 31.30 86.05 1.11 71.08 11.26 84.34 29.54 9.37 78.10 2.PO 1.522w -Continued.50 88.38 80.34 77.10 80.25 41.78 78.42 76.54 27.75 90.96 27.20 10.40 77.59 69. irz cubic feet y.25 86. W.08 96.61 60.39 67.7 109.98 32.97 82.15 27.12 2.49 11.38 62.79 45.99 2.91 1.84 11.21 2.83 51.08 73.15 91.4 106.32 38.53 67.92 72.60 38.89 68.39 73.14 11.35 22.19 58.64 53.16 2.03 73.0 8.10 26.46 63..86 1.2 103.25 1.61 23.00 62.3 116.80 84.24 78.37 13.52 91.74 57.04 19.08 29.72 69.76 20.37 96.96 68.50 43.99 22.41 83.34 24.37 12.78 66.80 1.22 2.58 26.05 50.70 34.38 19.23 98.21 51.02 2.75 81.98 52.29 49.56 26.51 1.40 41.94 74.37 40.08 40.99 96.19 94.96 41.13 59.89 1 .58 83.13 30.92 40.44 100.48 77.04 39.74 48.16 41.19 24.55 54.63 86.19 87.85 1.02 85.14 48.83 38.80 41.92 65.81 67.00 86.55 28.90 46.79 1.41 65.45 40.21 19.13 12.82 62.66 74.78 49.18 12.91 83.40 11.98 10.36 95.01 13.34 38.42 44.0 6.58 92.63 70.27 25.12 10.06 38.05 2.37 89.60 42.38 9.78 9.4 102.02 57.64 25.73 9. Computed from the formula .07 2.39 68.94 78.06 11.10 12.43 64. I.08 25.28 12.23 13.75 23.83 75.59 94.46 21.59 51.03 83.79 9.-Free-flow discharge through Parshall measuring flumes.0 1.95 1.56 80.88 10.39 55.94 85.28 51.04 61.76 64.52 48.03 11.84 92.04 19.54 53.57 28.22 1.46 20.23 89.56 61.20 26.42 34.13 65.52 24.94 54.94 37.69 39.33 74.97 11.78 71.0 4.93 10.17 48.43 23.70 24.06 58.25 41.92 1.92 13.82 1.94 PP.29 10.81 21.46 9.90 20.24 84.87 1.46 13.1 111.05 44.66 11.06 33.37 52.70 9.29 92.14 34.73 66.90 59.66 79.84 2.87 9.through X-foot size.25 98.88 21.52 32.15 53.77 84.32 56.07 20.05 99.98 35.53 22.34 27.50 39.06 33.64 47.71 31.04 2.39 39.48 98.9 2.88 19.97 79.67 60.35 80.68 81.29 83.68 88.72 58.84 1.28 76.54 93.23 11.35 38.50 37.18 60.65 36.82 12.71 28.90 70.71 10.52 71.58 11.46 64.57 82.62 10.50 73.15 2.66 53.97 1.76 1.06 69.1 .42 29.17 32.55 12.79 40.11 2.38 50.66 95.28 13.22 37.48 62.39 26.93 85.54 10.50 49.25 35.5 110.70 22.89 36.62 18. Q4wH.10 40.39 30.02 12.06 89.24 23.39 69.46 63.97 63.2 107.74 1.26 99.

50 32.03 32.27 2.43 57.7 108.03 62.66 79.07 100.13 78.5 109.11 64. W.57 77.69 29.77 94.61 91.27 47.62 103.50 82.31 81.49 29.61 62.4 2.32 2.89 44.80 66.84 13. Computed from the formula Q=4wH.84 82.89 45.42 2.49 15.41 2.61 78.93 58.5 121.24 13.35 89.13 33.7 131.45 15.08 30.07 30.52 44.62 43.39 14.13 49.37 2.96 61.45 83.35 46:66 46.82 49.38 96.31 2.53 85.73 43.90 42.50 93.5 .87 14.8 2.0 2.56 113.43 2.48 30.76 50.98 102.93 85.15 72.28 2.0 7.through a-foot size.69 31.26 2.83 45.69 30.9 2.10 32.21 98.47 2.90 48.34 14.5 112.69 64.11 50.3 121.-Free-flow discharge through Parshall measuring flumes.3 116.25 80.23 66.29 29.10 32.78 14.6 119.20 48.13 45.9 120.16 15.35 15.30 2.5 132. 103-D-1232-5 Width of throat.0 126.02 14.51 63.3 104.89 47.20 75.44 62.50 28.55 31.0 4.73 89.39 67.0 110.9 129.36 2.92 83.49 14.6 118.30 32.74 59.11 88.96 60.48 2.86 63.2 100.78 81.41 95.33 110.53 64.34 58.64 15.87 101.2 2. I.27 77.05 95.09 29.89 15..31 28.4 133.22 44.40 14.46 2. in cubic .44 15.9 123:7 124.2 102.s22w .65 67.6 2.8 137.0 128.4 139.6 135.08 65.92 42.8 130.95 65.5 117.58 47.09 90.2 128. -Continued.8 116.69 96.6 125.32 43.72 93.97 14.99 84.7 138.65 27.7 111.24 91.52 57.0 104.62 98.40 2.97 15.33 2.74 13.92 51.l.0 122.8 118.09 31.8 105.05 76.91 99.50 16.21 14.3 134.97 97.26 15.0 3.2 107.01 75.04 46.37 60.~ond.94 16.1 135.0 116.56 59.9 136.74 15.0 8.7 114.53 76.SMALL 25% Table CANAL STRUCTURES 5-3.5 115.35 2.38 80.1 119.2 122.fect y:.5 120.49 87.12 28.14 106.38 2.93 14.45 49.5 102.12 71.68 14.0 107.43 59.45 2.28 30.59 29.0 6.74 46.49 88.3 127.2 2.0 5.07 67.02 43.8 117.46 73.30 14.12 28.87 92.43 72.29 13.0 2.3 119.9 101.feet Head H fee? 1.25 2.92 86.89 48.6 103.2 113.94 73.19 79.49 31.79 61.29 31.70 28.

and location of the H. pressure tap are constructed to the standard dimensions given in figure 5-7 [ I] . hva. Modified Parshall flume. free-flow Parshall flume should be determined as follows: (1) from the given discharge and selected width of flume. Therefore. measuring point. and 70 percent for lthrough 8-foot flumes). S-10. -The upstream canal water surface required for a modified. that portion of the flume downstream of the throat is not required. Determination of Upstream Canal Water Surface. H.. l-4.. chute. As previously stated. throat. a Parshall flume. and the major modifications are made downstream of the throat section. Using this width and the depth. The canal water surface is obtained by subtracting the velocity head in the canal from the energy elevation. the energy elevation of the upstream canal water will be the same elevation as the energy at H. plus the velocity head. 103-D-1233 . compute the velocity and velocity head in the flume.WATER MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES 259 C. H.. The energy is then the depth. Generally. value from the appropriate Parshall flume tables 5. If modifications are made for submerged t-low (greater than 60 percent submergence for 6. All critical factors which can significantly affect accurate measurement such as dimensions for the crest.1. the downward sloping floor of the throat section can be extended as a rectangular chute into a stilling pool without affecting the flow measurement accuracy and the standard free-flow discharge tables may be used. (3) neglecting losses.12. Description. For instance. Measuring Figure 5-12. 5-2 or 5-3. (2) determine the width of the converging section at the H. and stilling basin may be combined into one structure as shown in figure 5. for free-flow measurement. MODIFIED PARSHALL FLUMES 5-9. -Some of the Parshall flume dimensions shown in figure 5-7 are modified so that the flume fits the canal profile. only the flumes operating at free-flow conditions are modified. read the H. then the flow should be calibrated with a current meter or some other suitable device to determine the effects of the modifications.and 9-inch flumes.

if the sides and crest of a rectangular. Intake pipes to stilling wells should be cleaned occasionally either by hand or by some type of flushing system. hook gages. If the sides of a rectangular weir are coincident with the sides of the approach channel and extend downstream from the weir. 5-l 2. Weirs discussed herein are those that will measure flows from about 1 to 100 cfs. They have been used for many years and offer a simple. water surface in the measuring structure is effectively dampened. weirs. the nappe will fully . Purpose and Description. WEIRS 5-l 3. figure 5-2. 5-14). In either case. inches Diameter of inlet conduit. 5-14. However. thus the end contractions are suppressed and weir is called a suppressed weir (fig. Description. They provide a water surface essentially free from surface fluctuations. reliable method for water measurement if they are built correctly and maintained properly. Sediment or other foreign material lodged in the pipe could cause improper water levels to be transmitted to the stilling well. 20 to 30 feet long. -Stilling wells are used in combination with Parshall flumes.-Weirs are identified by the shape of their openings. and triangular or 90’ V-notch weirs shown in figure 5. -Gages for Parshall flumes and weirs should be set so they show the depth of the water above the crest and not above the pressure openings. permanent flushing systems usually are not warranted except where the water normally carries a significant suspended sediment load. The inlet area of the conduit should be increased if the stilling well is offset from the channel by more than 20 to 30 feet. the sheet of water (nappe) leaving the weir crest does not contract laterally. Weirs also may be designated as suppressed or contracted. Those most frequently used for water measurement and discussed herein are trapezoidal or sharp-crested rectangular. Design Criteria. float gage recorders or any other type of device suitable for measuring water surface levels. inches 112 112 518 314 112 314 314 1 l-114 1 l-1/2 2 l-1/4 2 l-112 3 2 4 Stilling wells can be constructed monolithically with a measuring structure or placed adjacent to it. figure 5-3. Some dimensions [ 11 for stilling wells and their inlet pipe diameters are given in the following tabulation: Float well dimensions 12-inch diameter 16-inch diameter 20-inch diameter 24-inch diameter 30-inch diameter 36-inch diameter 3 feet by 3 feet square 3 feet by 4 feet rectangular 4 feet by 5 feet rectangular Diameter of inlet port. and constant head orifices. or V-notch weir are far enough away from the sides and bottom of the approach channel. -Weirs are overflow structures built across open channels to measure the rate of flow of water. STILLING WELLS S-11. E. Stilling wells are connected to the measuring structures by small pipes and provide a place for the installation of staff gages.SMALL 260 CANAL STRUCTURES D. These openings can be either sharp-crested or broad-crested. the structure must be well anchored to prevent movements that would otherwise cause undesirable water surface fluctuations. figure 3-24. Types of Weirs. since the primary purpose of the stilling well is to provide a smooth water surface. to permit more accurate reading of gages.13. However. By restricting the area of inlet port to 1 [ l] of the inside approximately 1000 horizontal cross-sectional area of the well. depending on whether or not the sides of the weir are coincident with the sides of the approach channel. trapezoidal. Cipolletti. The water surface in the stilling well is essentially the same elevation as in the measuring structure at the pressure taps.

WATER

MEASUREMENT

RECTANGULAR

STRUCTURES

CIPOLLETTI

WEIR
STANDARD
\ Q..,

Flow
-=.

SECTION

War

261

90°V-

WEIR

CONTRACTED
(UPSTREAM
FACE)

NOTCH

WEIR

WEIRS

blade

A-A

V-Notch
mstalled.

Figure

5-13.

Standard

contracted

weir

contract laterally at the ends and vertically at
the crest of the weir. When these conditions
occur, the weir is called a contracted weir. In
this case water flows slowly and uniformly in
its lateral approach to the weir ends. As the
water nears the weir it accelerates and turns to
pass through the opening. When the water
turns, the streamlines contract and the water
springs free (fig. 5-l 5) from the weir ends to
form a jet narrower than the weir opening [ 11.
Similarly, streamlines from the bottom spring
free from the crest. A contracted Cipolletti
weir is shown in figure 5-16.
If the weirs and weir pools are built to
specified shapes and definite dimensions as
shown in figures 5-17 and 5-18, standard
conditions exist and the weirs are classified as
standard weirs. Standard type weirs used by
Reclamation are standard contracted and
standard suppressed rectangular weirs, standard
Cipolletti weirs, and 90’ V-notch weirs.
5-15. Types of Flow.-All
weirs may be
classified as free flow or submerged flow.
Free-flow conditions exist when the water

discharging

at free flow.

Weirs

103-D-1234

surface downstream of the weir is low enough
to allow air to circulate between the weir and
the underside of the nappe. In a suppressed
weir the sides of the structure prevent the air
from circulating under the nappe so the
underside of the nappe has to be vented.
Submerged-flow conditions exist when the
water surface downstream of the weir rises
above the heir crest. Weirs should be designed
to discharge freely rather than submerged
because of greater measurement accuracy,
although a slight submergence does not
appreciably affect the discharge as much as the
lack of ventilation under the nappe. The
underside of the nappe on a free-flow weir
should be properly vented so the nappe springs
free from the weir crest and full contraction
occurs.
5-16. Application.-Weirs
can be used,
where adequate head is available, as inline
measuring structures as shown in figures 5-l 7
and 5-18, or in combination with division
structures and turnouts as shown in figures
5-I 9 and 5-26, respectively.

262

SMALL
Air

vent

CANAL

STRUCTURES

-l

Figure 5-14. Typical suppressed weir in a flume drop. 103-D-1235

5- 17. Adjustable
Weirs. -Weirs
used in
division structures are usually adjustable (fig.
5-20). Adjustable weirs can be rectangular,
trapezoidal, or V-shaped. They are mounted in
a frame and can be raised or lowered by a
threaded stem and handwheel (fig. 5-21). Some
adjustable weirs are attached permanently to
the division structures while others are
constructed so the weir and frame may be
removed from one structure and used on
another (figs. 5-22 and 5-23). Adjustable weirs
installed in division structures
serve as
measuring devices but their primary purpose is
to control or divide the flow. When two or
more adjustable weirs are used in one division
box (fig. 3-3 l), the proximity of the weirs and
the small pool could have a detrimental effect
on the head-discharge relationship of each weir.
Consequently,
the accuracy of the flow
measurement is less than that expected from a
weir operating under standard conditions. The
division structures shown in figures 3-35 and

3-36 in chapter III do not include staff
gages for measuring heads on the weirs. Instead
a portable staff or weir gage (fig. 5-25) is
placed on the crest of the weir to measure the
head as shown in figure 5-l 9. Some of these
gages or weir sticks contain both a piezometer
and manometer to show the total head (depth
over the weir and velocity head) causing the
flow. After measuring the head, the flow can
be determined from the standard weir tables. If
a permanent-type
weir gage installation is
preferred over the portable gage, the weir gage
may be installed as shown in figure 5-24. If
greater accuracy is required for either the
portable or permanent gage installation the
weir should be calibrated to determine the
head-discharge relationship.
5-l 8. Advantages and Disadvantages. -Weirs
have the following advantages:
( 1) Capable of accurately measuring a wide
range of flow.
(2) Easy to construct.

WATER MEASUREMENT

STRUCTURES

263

Figure 5-15. Water flowing over a standard Cipolletti

weir. P20-0-34861

r--\

~

~w
A
<1

Cresj

~Weir
(...

-1

.;t:-

-1

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WEIR

UPSTREAM

/'

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ga-ge
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DETAIL

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,.

SECTION

,

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Nappe

A-A

Figure

,1\,

-

5-16.

CipoUetti

weir

in a permanent

bulkhead-free-flow

conditions.

lO3-D-1236

SMALL

264

Figure 5-17. Cipolletti

weir structures-12

CANAL

inches to 4 feet. 103-D-1237

STRUCTURES

WATER MEASUREMENT

265

STRUCTURES

--:-~;
SECTlON

-zc J
WEIR
WElR

DETAILS

STRUCTURES

Figure 5-18. Cipolletti

weir structures-5

feet to 16 feet. 103-D-1238

C-C

266
(3) Can be used in combination with
turnouts.
( 4) Can be used in division structures.
(5) Can be both movable (portable) and
adjustable.
Some disadvantages of weirs are:
( 1) Impose a greater head loss in the canal
system
than
other water measurement
structures.
(2) Weir pools must be cleaned of sediment
periodically and kept free of weeds and trash( 3) Can be easily altered to obtain
unallocated water.
( 4) Some leakage occurs around movable
weirs.
5 -19.
Requirements
for
Accurate
Measurement. -To obtain the highest degree of
measurement
accuracy,
standard weir
structures must be accurately constructed and
properly
maintained.
The
necessary
requirements for weir blade, nappe, approach
channel-weir relationship and gage location are:
(a) Weir Blade. -The weir blade should be
designed and installed as follows:
( 1) The upstream face of the bulkhead
and weir blade must be vertical.
(2) The crest of the weir blade should be
level and have a sharp right angle corner on
the upstream side.
(3) The sides of a rectangular contracted
weir blade should be vertical, have a sharp
right angle corner on the upstream side and
form a right angle at the junction with the
crest.
( 4) The sides of a Cipolletti weir blade
should be on 1 to 4 slope, and have sharp
right angle corners on the upstream side.
(5) The sides of a 900 V-notch weir blade
should have a sharp right angle corner on the
upstream side.
( 6) The downstream edge of the crest and
sides of a movable weir blade should be
chamfered at a 45° angle or more (crest
should be about one-eighth inch thick);
however, knife edges on all weirs should :he
avoided because they are difficult
to
maintain.
(7) Weir blades must be kept free of rust
and nicks. Any form of roughness will cause
the weir to discharge more water than
indicated in the standard tables.

SMALL

CANAL

STRUCTURES

Figure 5.19. Division structure with adjustable
weirs. Operator is measuring depth of water on
weir crest. P222-116-52034

(b) Nappe.-The nappe requirements are:
( I) Air should circulate freely under the
nappe. In suppressed weirs the underside of
the nappe should be vented from both sides.
An increase in discharge as much as 25
percent may occur if the nappe is not
properly vented [2] .
(2) The nappe should only touch the
upstream side of the crest and sides of the
weir blade.
(c)
Approach
Channel-to-weir
Relationship.-The
following design criteria
have been developed from extensive tests and
prolonged use of standard weirs:
( 1) The approach channel or weir pool
should be designed so that the velocity of
approach in the weir pool is about 0.5 foot
per second. I t should extend upstream from
the weir a distance of 15 to 20 times the
head on the weir. If for some reason the
weir pool cannot be designed to meet this
velocity
requirement, then a discharge
correction coefficient must be applied. The
second edition of the Bureau of Reclamation
"Water Measurement Manual" [ 1] contains
a table for determining the discharge
correction for various heads and approach
velocities.
(2) The distance between the weir crest
and the invert of the approach channel or

WATER MEASUREMENT

STRUCTURES

267

-IA
Y

WEIR

ASSEYBL

Y

CL

t

SECTION

SECT/ON

Figure 5-20.

Adjustable

weirs-2

and 3 feet wide. 103-D-1239

C-C

S-B

268

SMALL

CANAL

STRUCTURES

Copooty

550 Lbs

COk?
/$'I?

Smooth

costfng

COVER
CAST
For

ia’ond

PLATE
,RON

21” dto

handwheels

Rough bronze nu cos ,n
hondwheel, threaded
f
OWPS~ZP for /i’stern
wth
smgle Acme threads
4
per inch
HAND

Rough bronze nut cost ,n
bondwheel, threaded
8
overs,ze
for /:-’ stern
w,+h

4 per

s,“g,e

AC”%?

fi7OS

inch
HAND
t*si

WHEEL
,RON

WHEEL
1ST

COVER PLlTt
used for i8”ond 21’
die handwheels

Some

ASSEMBLY
Cowctty

495 Lbs
Capacity

Smooth

.G’S Lbs

costi

COVER
CAST
For 14” die

PLATE
,RON
handwheel

core f
i’RSmooth
Hub

cast

costmg

smooth

Rough

Rough bronze nut cost in
hoodwheel. threaded
$”
OYtTSllP for !;‘stem
wlfn sl”g,e Acme threads
4 per mc h

COVER
CAST

For

12’ die

bronze

nut Cost

PLATE
,RDN

4 per

&h

hondwheei
HAND
WHEEL
CAST iRON

HAND
WHEEL
CAST iRON
Capacity
,wll of

Figure 5-21. Handwheels-12,

NOTE
based on o handwheel
20 pounds

14, 18, and 21 inches. 103-D-1240

WATER

MEASUREMENT

STRUCTURES

269

FILLER
STEEL
TWO REO”iRE.9

SEC
SECTION

B-8

A -A

Figure 5-22. Two-foot

movable weir. 103-D-1241

270 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES SEC. =nnn SECrlON c-c SEC D-D LEGEND Figure 5-23. 103-D-1242 S-8 . Three-foot movable weir.

103-D-1243 . A-A Round bend 2.Requwed Golvonrzed.on set zero of we/r goge below crest of wwr o dlstonce equal to A h For ony pwtmn of wer crest equals wer goge reodrng nunus stem protection above handwheel hub 4 ~8"DlO SECTION 2” Bar U-Bolt Golvonved IX.golvanrzed SECTION Not D-8 to scale Figme 5-24. Staff or weir gage installation.WATER MEASUREMENT t Operotmg 271 STRUCTURES A rood II I ’ I I I / BAR DE Not TAIL to scale above If’ Pipe cop /Bottom of wer goge NOTES With wer m fully lowered pos!t. tier nuts .

Staff OI weir gage. drilling and punching of the Plates shall be completed before the vitreous enamel is applied The face of the gage Shoii be white ond ailnumeroIs and oroduotions shoii be black Griduotions shall shown in COSP o greater who.~ occuroie +&On.unched or drilled Ail cutting..m.5 ~hovm to the dimensmns required for shorter the deta!ls lengths .SMALL 272 CANAL STRUCTURES NOTES Gqges to be mode of No Mgoge (US stondordlmtid steelplote and to be covered with utreo~s eoomel with 0 mmniwm +hickneSS ofi2 miis on numeroi side and3 ml/s On the reverse side and on edges where Plate has been Cut.. .w -8e b'iocki' 6 - - Figure 5-Z.eng+h to and than deto. 103-D-1244 be sharp ... be s.

5-18). Select the structure having the least weir length for a design discharge of 40 cfs and F = 3. Table 5-7 gives the discharges for various heads.0 feet. B = 100.0 feet.00 + 2. Design Example of Selecting and Setting a Weir.-The discharge in cubic feet per second of these standard weirs depends on the crest length and the head on the weir. T = 103. of 6 feet which meets this criteria. 5-5. The reason for this is that the nappe springs free from the V-shaped section even for small heads. Table 5-5 shows that for a 6-foot weir and a discharge of 40.50 is the weir blade In the above calculation.2 foot the nappe does not spring free of the crest and measurement error results. The maximum design capacity of this structure is 57 cfs and a maximum allowable F = 3 feet.00 feet. velocity = 2. S-21.3( 1. B + 2h . (b) V-notch W&s-The discharge in cubic feet per second of a standard 90’ V-notch weir is determined only by the head on the bottom of the V-notch.00 .21 El. More head is required in V-notch weirs to pass a given discharge than in rectangular and Cipolletti weirs but for flows up to 1 cfs they are generally more accurate.16 feet is greater than the 12-inch minimum. Q max. normal water depth upstream (dl ) and downstream (d. whereas the nappe 273 clings to the crest of other weirs. 12 .50 El.2 foot.58 feet. has a crest length. bottom width = 6. the free-flow discharge can be read directly from tables 5-4. Head-discharge 5-20. B = Canal invert elevation + d1 . El. The minimum head on a V-notch weir should be 0.) on the weir should not exceed the values given in the table because in unlined canals excessive channel erosion may occur immediately downstream of the structure.26 feet Since 2h = 3.22 feet per second. Then El. The head is measured by: (1) Either a staff gage in the weir pool or a gage in a measuring well located upstream of the weir a distance of four times the maximum head on the weir. -(a) Rectangular and Cipolletti Weirs.2. The minimum head on standard rectangular and Cipolletti weirs is 0. the head on the weir can be one-third the crest length and the discharge computed from the appropriate weir formula. The elevation of the top of weir wall (El. -Set the weir pool invert so that elevation B shown in figure 5-18 is 3h below the upstream normal water surface (NWS) elevation. and minimum and maximum drops. Relationship. If this structure is used in a hard surface lined canal where erosion is not a problem.-The table of weir structures in figure 5-l 8 gives some standard weir lengths with their corresponding maximum discharges. F. and canal bank freeboard = 1.42 feet 2. W. the maximum head (h max. equals 1.1 cfs. The maximum head on standard rectangular and Cipolletti weirs is one-third of the crest length. side slopes l-1/2 to 1. The distance between the corners of the weir crest and the sides of the approach channel should also be at least twice the head on the weir and never less than 1 foot for all standard contracted weirs.2 foot..x+ l2 + 3. and 5-6. Assume a 3-foot drop (F) between upstream and downstream normal water surfaces has been provided in the canal profile. Assume the upstream canal invert elevation is 100. The weir structure is to be constructed in a trapezoidal earth canal which has the following hydraulic properties: Q = 40 cfs.16 . Structure No. At heads less than 0.WATER MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES weir pool should be at least twice the head on the weir and never less than 1 foot for all weirs. T = 97. -The head on the weir is the difference in elevation between the weir crest and the water surface upstream.5 feet.3h El. Knowing the weir length and head on the weir. -(a) Requirements. (d) Heud on Weir. T = El. h. T) is given by the following equation: 2. For the weir structure shown in figure 5-18. the head.50 G El.26 + 3.) of weir = 2. between upstream and downstream water surfaces. The V-notch weirs are usually limited to flows of 10 cfs or less.0 feet.58) = 97. (b) Weir Selection. 6A (from table on fig. B is satisfactory. (c) Weir Setting. -Select and set a Cipolletti weir structure to measure a maximum flow of 40 cfs.

Cutoff walls are added to provide additional percolation path to prevent piping of foundation materials from under the structure.00 = 3.B .0 Cutoff thickness.5.3. is 24 inches. 10.0) = 10. As a general rule cutoff walls should extend below the canal invert as shown for the following water depths at the cutoff: Water depth. is: CANAL STRUCTURES example is 4. K H = 103.12) = 10. K.00+ 9 + (2 . K should be at or below El.50 feet In all cases El. - protection thickness) = (97.50) + 2. the cutoff should extend 2..58) + 2(3. Using the general rule. B.00 + 1. K+0.50 + 2.) .50) 2. K = NWS El. is: H = El.26 . K). Lane’s weighted creep length in this example is: Weighted creep length H’ = 0.96.50 H = 6.5 feet and using the general rule.(96. then H’ = 0.42 .92 feet The height of the sloping sidewall.42 feet. . (upstm.42 feet Compute weighted creep ratio factor) for AWS = 3. El.2. = = = = 2.5 feet below the invert.0. The percolation factor calculated is greater than 2. Qin. B+2h) ~ (El. the structure can be made 11 feet long..43 Percolation factor = 342= (percolation 3.5 .00 = 3.d.43 feet Next determine the maximum difference in water surface @WS) between the upstream and downstream ends of the structure: (1) For design discharge. feet o-3 3-6 >6 2.K) 2. .5 .5 and therefore the cutoffs are adequate in length.El.96.74 feet. to protect the structure from being undermined if channel erosion occurs. H.50 El. AWS = 3.00 .76 1.(E1. emin.97.F .74 feet Therefore. of the weir structure should be long enough to contain the plunging nappe and to provide a pool for stilling the water before it passes downstream into the canal. inches 6 8 8 The upstream water depth (3h) adjacent to the upstream face of the structure for this + cemin. K = 102.) 6 + (2 . H’. The length is computed by the following empirical formula: L= 3h+ 2F L = 3( 1.5 3.1) + (2 .00 .5 (min. and cutoff lengths may be emin.. Additional required depending on the percolation factor as discussed in detail in section 8-10.00 .0 feet (2) For upstream water ponded to weir crest and downstream water at canal invert AWS = Crest elevationDownstream canal invert elevation = (El.274 SMALL projection in feet above the concrete sill and G is the concrete depth of the weir notch given in the Anchor Bolt and Weir Blade Data table shown in figure 5-l 8.E1.50) = 100. T . shown in figure 5-l 8 is: Then Gin.1 Assume the required percolation factor for the foundation material for this structure is 2.26 .0. K = 96.42 . Next calculate the elevation of the weir floor (El. Use 24 inches for both Kmin. .74 feet Water depth at the downstream cutoff is 2. Kmin. and to provide structure stability to resist overturning and sliding.96.0 2.0. Kmin.) El. feet Cutoff depth.5 (minimum) + dz + structure freeboard As the weir structure freeboard is 1 foot. The height of the weir wall.in.5 . L.50 feet The length.

10 5.34 3.77 4.1 10.88 8.31 .11 2.46 5.64 2.79 4.92 3.41 3.68 4.86 9. 103-D-1245-1 Len Head h.16 2.58 6.5 12.39 .0 10.72 6.33 (L-0.84 2.46 .91 7.7 11.44 2.0 11.99 4.45 1.84 2.94 2.42 .53 8.68 1.44 .00 5.59 .46 5.67 .5 10.05 2.12 8.0 6.29 0. Values below and to the left of heav.99 4.12 .58 3.58 4.94 2.06 1.40 3.41 .1 13.37 2.34 .08 1.57 5.86 6.60 2.74 1.93 3.35 4.98 1.80 3.80 1.55 2.59 1.72 2.78 10.26 5.23 2.36 5.32 3.30 3.56 Sl .07 3.80 4.48 1.94 6.12 3.22 3.0 0.11 1.70 1.46 4.61 9.08 1.78 .04 1.48 10.25 3.91 .Jk]h3”.98 5.19 2.00 7.82 7.65 2.68 .35 5.4 11.87 10.18 3.14 6.99 4.43 2.63 .24 3. feet 7 of weir.60 6.66 8.12 3.55 5.52 .4 1 4.71 .39 1.06 7.22 1.77 1.84 3.36 .85 1.50 9.22 7.08 9.48 2.52 3.74 7.66 .23 .86 1.03 4.19 2.3? .43 3.18 1.94 6.56 1.59 1.67 .78 2.46 2.61 4.69 .74 5.17 1.91 4.07 .32 .18 4.91 2.50 2.95 .40 .44 1.2 11.11 6.74 .63 .98 3.94 3.21 .86 .69 8.42 .25 .47 .47 .81 .26 4.79 8.58 3.96 1.06 3.2 10.66 3.55 2.74 1.75 7.95 1.4 1 3.05 3.9 11.82 2.64 .44 8.3 12.51 .17 5.95 7.43 5.01 1.28 1.68 3.37 7. L.11 9.26 4. others computed from the formula Q = 3.90 5.86 . f 4.89 ‘26 .83 .71 2.27 1.72 36 .56 .31 2.95 1.14 5.7Q 3.55 9.57 3.30 4.98 2.26 2.80 .62 4.21 .55 3.28 5.75 5.70 2.18 7.33 1.49 6.00 6.45 6.23 5.92 4.24 .4 0.62 3.37 2.30 1.36 1.33 .88 9.61 8.11 2.7 12.19 3.10 9.02 1.60 5.57 4.43 5.98 3.57 7.01 6.02 2.92 .62 2.20 -+ .I7 .37 8.0 5.29 6.09 3.71 5.18 7.05 2.64 7.31 .75 3.92 4.15 7.48 .14 4.88 1.28 9.80 1.4 10.83 .49 .37 7.02 3.14 4.57 2.83 2.26 3.33 .23 1.-Discharge of standard contracted rectaangular weirs in cubic feet per second.01 1.16 1.62 .71 2.06 4.41 7.69 3.64 2.06 1.34 6.40 5.74 2.74 6.61 1.00 8.35 .30 6.24 4.4 12.40 .69 .92 2.Sl .36 .24 3.49 SO .28 .45 .27 6.38 4.37 .61 3.05 6.93 8.36 7.22 8.61 .15 6.38 .32 9.22 .54 6.82 1.93 4.69 1.38 1.61 5.94 5.86 5.64 1.54 .54 3.09 3.60 2.89 9.32 4.48 2.72 3.53 1.v line determined esperinxntoily.46 6.30 2.3s .18 2.44 4.19 4.6 .70 2.28 2.59 5.04 2.58 .53 .64 7.78 2.I WATER MEASUREMENT 275 STRUCTURES Table 54.63 2.89 .43 .37 2.12 3.50 1.0 .12 5.8 13.45 1.33 2.73 4.44 .s4 .2 11.11 1.58 0.95 2.55 2.82 3.11 2.0 7.29 .71 6.19 5.55 a.84 1.39 2.42 3.46 4.55 1.31 8.30 .

2 12.9 16.06 9.4 15.08 1.-Discharge of standard contracted rectangular weirs in cubic feet per second.04 6.7 25.0 7.82 .38 4.11 1.9 18.79 .15 14.3 21.4 14.9 19.16 7.38 9.0 14.7 22.7 15.09 1.1 18.4 21.05 12.26 7.7 16.5 15.7 21.19 9.7 15.71 .98 4.93 6.2 24.13 1.9 19.2 10.4 12.8 24.7 15.69 7.3 21.3 19.82 3.46 4.0 23.6 16.2 14.53 8.2 13.3 23.9 15.6 14.1 16.66 11.28 6.9 29.3 20.18 1.81 5.77 5.5 17.99 1.40 6.1 15.90 5.69 5.4 26.1 10.9 12.1 20.4 .0 11.33 (L-0.81 .78 .68 5.0 22.3 13.98 9.2h)h3’2.5 12.0 1.1 12.06 4.86 .4 14.3 10.2 18.0 13.8 0. feet Length of weir.1 26.80 4.0 24.22 6.98 .7 15.8 19.02 10.3 15.3 24.3 14.2 11.8 14.97 .2 16.3 .2 28.88 10.9 13.9 12.5 16.1 15.0 20.0 25.9 20.3 1.6 24.06 1.2 29.40 8.72 .31 8.90 3.6 11.6 14.7 12.65 9.49 8.5 18.15 8.03 1.96 6.7 13.19 1.7 20.94 .4 20.14 7.1 19.8 13.80 8.8 13.5 12.2 16.5 19.70 4.6 20.0 16.89 .5 14.15 10.0 5.59 5.8 20.1 23.7 11.9 14.3 10.0 19.74 .4 12.5 13.84 .14 5.9 22.5 10.82 8.65 8.14 .02 1.0 13.01 7.0 I 3.07 1.7 13.41 7.23 5.64 7.6 22.05 6.30 4.6 1.6 16.0 24.9 11.0 11.5 18.22 4.8 . L.16 1.2 14.2 12.6 21.1 11.7 16.1 21.0 15.4 17.0 4.83 .6 24.48 9.14 1.1 18.7 26.89 7.87 4.62 4.4 13. 103-D-1245-2 Head h.2 17.32 5.68 9.5 15.01 1.96 .4 18.6 19.4 11.8 17.75 3.89 8.8 19.76 7.2 28.93 9.1 15.0 .28 8.6 .00 5.9 25.6 17.4 21.6 17.SMALL 276 CANAL STRUCTURES Table 54.9 14.52 6.95 6.7 13.3 16.32 11.13 6.3 12.7 16.7 10.9 16.7 27.0 6.16 8.0 21.4 17.6 18.9 15.10 13.5 18.5 1 7.5 20.33 9.50 5.4 13.2 19.9 12.76 .77 .04 1.92 .82 10.2 20.86 8.0 5.7 10.88 .7 13.8 23.78 4.93 .5 11.5 17.17 1.84 8.85 4.8 16.3 16.64 6.77 8.1 19.1 14.32 9.00 8. Values below and to the left of heavy line determined experimentally: others computed from the formula Q = 3.54 6.7 14.3 15.2 14. feet 2.73 .3 21.95 5.20 15.3 11.1 23.4 23.05 5.9 17.9 17.2 13.4 25.1 17.-CQntinued.91 .87 .0 18.0 12.5 28.12 1.3 22.8 1.8 16.5 22.

4 27. Computed from the formula Q = 3.3 26.72 1.6 29.1 2.57 1.12 2.1 23.0 31.0 56.06 2.91 1.9 31.1 55.9 24.6 37.3 43.68 1.5 34.3 48.6 49.79 1.31 1.3 1.6 39.1 21.8 38.3 61.0 34.4 45.2 31.1 42.4 1.6 41.73 1.80 43.5 32.1 46.97 1.44 1.2 36.0 25.3 39.0 28.8 61.33 (L-0.23 1.9 32.2 37.0 7.7 31.61 1.0 64.1 50.7 47.5 25.9 33.6 49.7 52.4 56.7 41.9 30.96 1.37 1.0 1.3 29.51 1.6 29.8 43.36 1.8 50.4 41.3 17.5 53.95 49.1 17.7 23.2 42.04 2.7 16.87 1.34 1.03 2.2 32.7 31.0 39.58 1.3 44.8 30.93 1.48 1.9 48.3 31.26 1.25 16.5 47.28 1.02 2.8 32.7 1.5 35.8 51.2 32.0 2.83 1.4 50.0 45.3 30.0 38.-Continued.7 46.9 38.0 50.9 19.9 17.0 1.0 52.9 65.2 35.6 1.5 42.6 63.0 2.8 46.0 29.3 1. L.75 42.24 1.7 62.53 1.0 29.9 44. feet Head h.0 59.6 39.9 23.66 1.46 1.5 25.08 2.5 64.4 24.10 64.4 22.2~~)/23’2.6 45.7 27.8 26.39 1.74 1.8 32.98 1. bet Length of weir.99 2.9 18.60 30.2 43.7 49.6 50.2 44.3 30.6 21.8 66.01 2.8 54.49.4 40. feet l.7 18.0 56.9 39.4 60.3 18.63 1. feet 6.13 2.14 2.WATER MEASUREMENT 277 STRUCTURES Table S-4.84 1. 103-D-1245-3 ‘ead h.4 21.5 69.7 37.1 18.0 4.09 2.1 41.6 35.6 34.4 32.4 46.7 55.7 17.1 32.7 28.6 29.8 27. L.2 34.78 1.2 2.11 2.7 60.2 40.0 1.3 29.88 1.4 .8 44.5 36.49 1.29 1.2 28.8 40.0 53.9 36.6 45.0 6.0 5.89 1.42 1.9 -- .41 1.9 36.64 1.4 1.21 1.2 40.0 30.2 58.9 28.5 32.94 1.2 46.3 48.1 63.6 22.33 1.1 1.8 35.8 22.6 43.8 47.1 52.85 45.43 1.77 1.6 26.00 51.2 24.2 25.4 31.1 26.4 51.1 27.1 67.2 1.5 47.1 23.30 17.52 1.40 25.81 1.69 1.59 1.2 51.45 26.15 67.2 1.3 31.55 29.4 69.17 69.35 18.3 65.2 53.4 34.07 2.0 7.8 41.5 37.4 30.5 50.54 1.65 31.5 35.16 2.9 48.3 57.67 1.9 57.1 35.1 25.32 1.8 33.62 1.5 59.05 62.82 1.4 1.1 68.5 22.6 68.4 43.9 1.4 26.56 1.5 33.4 39.86 1.2 37.47 1.6 30.1 27.7 40.0 45.38 1.7 28.5 21.27 1.7 1.9 33.70 33.0 1.9 34.6 52.5 28.7 33.8 26.22 1.3 36.50 27.0 30.9 58.2 38.6 59.3 21.-Discharge of standard contracted rectangular weirs in cubic feet per second.92 1.8 42.76 1.6 41.9 37.9 33.90 47.-- Length of weir.71 1.4 41.2 66.4 52.0 31.3 54.

36 8.85 6.88 8.8 11.-Discharge of standard contracted rectangular weirs in cubic feet per second Computed from the formula Q = 3.91 3.1 34.15 6.I0 14.5 15.2 21.60 6.2 30.80 8.56 .62 .4 18.00 9.0 12.3 24.66 8.0 15.8 19.2 24.4 34.14 5.27 6.92 4.7 22.39 .0 10.55 2.03 9.0 14.94 9.5 29.0 13.6 19.0 9.39 5.44 .41 .86 9.33 .2 10.9 32.86 10.5 36.4 12.26 9.2 20.60 11.38 8.7 21.3 10.1 13.5 23.40 5.58 9.3 14.49 .4 29.89 6.7 10.52 .3 11.3 33.3 11.81 9.72 3.2 18.3 17.2 14.58 5.42 6.6 26.9 34.08 8.2 31.29 3.0 12.43 9.49 5.18 5.22 5.41 4.0 18.1 24.63 .28 .50 3.6 16.3 16.30 3.30 .1 21.0 20.6 24.58 .4 20.8 20.1 19.64 5.0 23.5 12.4 12.6 18.4 11.8 16.1 15.3 37.5 16.-Continued.9 28.36 .67 2.5 10.56 4.86 10.11 4.6 11.18 1.30 9. ff :et .5 12.18 6.13 4.4 14.24 .1 26.83 1.2 21.69 .2 21.8 35.6 12.5 32.8 13.01 5.0 25.3 10.37 .9 15.42 3.65 4.1 13.9 .21 .7 12.75 9.7 20.8 20.94 .2 19.25 2.42 .19 7.4 10.92 7.4 29.23 8.51 7.41 6.81 8.59 9.4 21.93 8.4 25.2 22.34 3.32 9.5 14.7 27.5 15.17 6.6 17.3 11.7 14.61 .84 10.08 3.8 19.17 7.6 13.68 .2 13.69 7.1 18.8 11.4 14.89 4.92 3.64 .44 1.1 37.90 4.7 16.0 30.5 18.31 2.0 11.66 .1 12.33 7.22 8.7 16.38 .18 4.11 3.9 12.9 15.0 15.14 5.26 .16 5.35 5.0 17.8 30.7 16.1 22.1 18.8 12.24 5.28 5.6 24.54 .6 12.45 6.5 15.0 11.7 13.1 .0 15.3 15.7 13.2 13.2 18.61 8.7 23.65 4.3 27.2 16.23 .56 6.87 3.6 14.6 26.3 23.8 13.53 6.1 12.11 3.69 6.91 4.2 11.1 33.9 13.48 8.0 15.8 25.1 29.27 .51 3.0 13.98 1.21 6.2 16.7 .63 9.86 10.0 16.22 .59 7.79 5.2 11.0 27.03 1.8 21.65 12.99 9.8 17.3 15.0 0.50 8.70 5.83 4.3 21.0 12.4 12.96 8.3 19.7 15.67 6.37 2.59 .0 .5 14.5 17. 103-D-12454 Head h.17 5.1 23.32 .0 14.7 19.3 21.30 9.39 4.4 14.55 9.24 7.58 8.4 22.2 16.42 6.8 15.4 11.8 28.1 13.1 16.61 .7 Length of weir.6 11.95 7.95 4.0 17.8 .9 17.33 9.05 8.4 10.5 31.31 .4 10.0 17.37 8.20 2.0 18.31 9.86 7.43 .6 33.9 38.86 6.35 4.99 6.39 6.8 25.90 6.6 19.4 20.94 6.5 27.53 7.0 .96 7.3 10.1 11.4 Sl .4 18.7 11.8 28.47 5.1 14.4 13.19 3.7 13.0 31.82 8.29 .33 (IA2h)h3’2. feet 8. L.41 .44 5.1 14.66 3.31 1.6 12.SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Table 5-4.0 22.57 .14 7.5 16.91 5.4 13.4 14.8 12.53 .4 16.9 18.5 17.68 4.8 11.13 2.56 9.4 18.9 22.0 25.0 10.1 10.14 3.67 10.39 4.1 20.8 .6 23.14 8.8 17.48 .0 14.9 15.2 12.4 14.96 10.56 4.8 14.71 5.46 .45 5.43 7.34 .11 8.

3 61.3 84.4 59.98 .8 22.6 39.8 19.1 34.1 .91 .1 26.0 36.06 1.6 49.6 25.1 59.1 25.4 32.2 25.5 33.82 .3 44.1 33.0 1.9 29.a .05 26.5 20.0 56.9 74.6 40.7 18.6 36.9 70.1 45.0 28.6 36.5 21.5 24.80 17.2 27.0 37.9 26. feet Length of weir.6 73.I6 .5 52.7 35. 103-D-1245-5 Head h.3 23.0 36.3 28. feet I I 8.3 29.7 22.9 37.9 36.6 35.0 60.4 68.3 48.0 17.02 1.12 1.7 42.7 48.5 47.6 40.5 21.9 67.3 26.6 34.1 36.0 76.7 45.3 63.8 77.84 .0 49.4 26.6 37. 2h)h3’*.3 57.7 54.2 45.3 37.0 0.6 28.03 1.3 30.4 44.6 42.8 29.95 22.2 34.6 18.8 51.6 38.2 49.4 56.11 1.6 31.0 61.4 28.19 1.07 1.6 23.6 54.7 35.90 20.5 27.3 75.9 74.-Discharge of standard contracted rectangular weirs in cubic feet per second Computed from the formula Q = 3.a7 .3 53.1 20.9 40.99 1.1 21.7 42.9 1.9 60.86 .4 21.-Continued.3 30.6 17.1 45.00 24.3 36.7 I I I 82.3 59.6 41.0 38.1 39.15 30.6 66.9 32.1 40.3 16.1 34.3 20.2 es.2 32.2 40.09 1.7 43.8 25.1 35.2 30.9 30.5 41.7 51.2 22.0 15.83 .1 26.0 23.92 .9 24.7 21.6 23.8 64.0 36.6 27.9 31.2 54.7 24.1 42.7 19.18 1.9 38.7 20.4 19.1 47.1 80.7 32.8 64.0 18.1 29.1 72.4 34.5 58.8 38.0 I 9.9 1.2 31.9 .0 65.3 .5 52.4 40.9 68.7 16.8 30.7 31.4 26.8 24.9 57.8 76.I9 .1 31.3 17.0 63.3 23.6 39.0 23.9 41.96 .1 71.6 35.8 43.2 61.94 .8 56.5 43.93 .3 24.8 33.6 36.6 34.6 24.4 37.2 41.2 60.0 27.0 65.8 33.7 53.7 27.2 34.2 54.3 30.5 31.9 62.5 55.4 38.04 1.2 32.8 43.8 .4 41.1 44.8 48.9 29.0 20.I3 .4 53.9 34.13 1.3 71.0 44.72 .1 78.5 55.5 33.7 28.1 39.3 55.0 18.4 42.9 31.9 45.20 32.9 21.9 50.9 63.89 .1 26.7 46.5 27.0 50.85 19.6 37.8 30.1 33.1 21.6 65.1 47.1 38.2 25.7 33.2 30.2 28.6 23.0 17.3 29.75 15.0 64.2 56.7 66.4 .6 20.10 28.7 31.3 33.1 37.7 51.0 23.2 83.6 26.3 46.3 40.2 50.5 44.7 35.6 58.4 23.9 49.9 69.2 59.1 20.5 61.1 24.5 48.91 .1 38.3 62.4 40.2 1.78 .0 73.9 75.4 86.7 25.9 31.9 46.5 36.7 52.4 32.6 39.1 31.7 27.1 19.5 .4 28.7 29.0 32.4 85.6 45.33 (L-O.1 81.4 47.5 32.4 18.0 49.4 67.4 42.7 27.WATER MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES 279 Table S-4.16 1.0 16.I4 .6 57.0 I : I 1 IO.8 25.1 35.0 38.3 18.6 29.08 1. .01 1.3 70.3 53.1 27.8 44.5 29.5 19.2 34.0 41.2 22.0 19.4 47.1 47.0 63.6 69.7 37.7 29.2 50.1 37.7 39.2 42.8 21.9 20.71 .1 33.3 32.77 .7 28.9 72.14 1.7 42.4 39. L.6 50.9 22.7 48.0 79.2 42.3 24.5 25.7 41.17 1.8 51.4 62.3 58.0 21.0 18.0 12.6 30.8 50.81 .2 23.1 25.5 46.

1 59.6 47.7 42.3 73.56 1.6 68.9 60.0 57.1 47.1 51.49 1.7 85.7 90.6 65.51 1.1 55.5 62.6 49.2 53.7 95.4 64.1 95.1 44.7 97.1 46.5 48.7 43.1 82.4 52.8 1.23 1.8 48.0 56.48 1.2 35.3 50.2 52.5 89.4 56.9 68.3 76.4 1.6 47.3 51.3 44.7 96.8 53.30 36.1 56.6 48.2 I I I 1.3 88.8 55.SMALL 280 CANAL STRUCTURES Table 5-4.34 1.1 77.9 46.4 75.4 i 53.66 1.33 1.1 51.4 51.57 1. .8 I 56.5 99.52 1.2 54.9 1.6 57.1 52.7 100.6 86.6 55.4 63.21 1.2 42.5 I I I I .6 63.42 1.1 60.4 34.43 1.8 39.8 38.0 ! 10.2 41.8 51.5 98.8 63.6 91.8 58.2 93. Length Of WieI.1 42.5 36.7 53.2 43.28 1.41 1.9 56.6 46.1 71.2 51.6 98.67 1.3 49.3 50.7 77.59 1.-Continued.7 52.6 85.7 53.7 54.5 39.8 69.4 68.58 1.5 80.60 1 1.6 88.0 ! 9.54 1.4 87.3 57.32 1.6 48.8 45.9 60.2 57.1 55.7 79.3 59.3 68.6 45.0 48.2 70.3 64.7 65.9 44. 103-D-1245-6 H.9 37.8 99.1 45.7 80.0 18.4 70.45 43.7 42.8 1.2h)h3’*.62 1.6 92.1 53.2 65.0 1 20.53 1.26 1.7 89.9 40.5 43.6 49.40 40.0 67.2 67.3 41.d 1 .0 67.64 1.6 61.9 69.0 54.0 43.5 61.3 55.6 39.24 1.29 1.68 1.9 83.8 59.3 97.L.6 90.5 65.0 59.7 78.27 1.8 63.2 46.4 43.0 94.5 53.4 58.65 52.0 66.39 1.1 89.7 46.9 69.0 64.3 39.0 82.6 94.6 87.8 44.6 81.0 15.6 86.8 66.0 88.3 37.37 1.2 49.9 52.5 70.6 60.6 44.6 74.44 1.0 64.3 1.7 54.4 81.0 47.8 68.8 41.2 52.25 I 8.0 12.7 62.1 50.7 67.1 39.63 1.4 54.1 49.4 67.8 91.5 61.3 62.8 100.7 83.7 I 43.6 84.7 55.9 71.3 45.7 50.0 58.36 1.9 57.8 35.6 61. feet I feet 1.6 36.2 58.4 44.4 47.8 78.6 59.5 49.1 45.70 54.50 45.3 66.9 50.3 55.7 79.6 61.-Discharge of standard contracted rectangular weirs in cubic feet per second Computed from the formula Q = 3.8 84.9 72.69 1.4 66.6 82.38 1.9 1.9 1.55 47.0 34.3 71.6 54.31 1.3 56.0 49.2 41.1 61.7 62.8 40.47 1.8 59.2 96.33 (L-0.22 1.6 56.2 40.6 48.46 1.35 38.1 I 38.61 1.3 54.9 62.6 I 87.6 50.5 93.6 58.2 89.

05 5.65 .10 2.39 1.64 3.21 .31 6.05 7.50 1.52 .99 3.49 3.47 8.12 3.02 8.60 2.11 .48 .61 .27 2.20 0.66 3. others computed from tile formula Q = 3.39 1.95 6.51 .10 4.28 1.58 4.50 6.65 9.81 4.05 3.68 6.42 8.74 1.56 .44 9.82 2.83 4.62 9.70 .08 2.92 .38 .49 3.12 1.19 1.54 .I WATER MEASUREMENT 281 STRUCTURES ~~~~~ 5-5.90 3.67 2.69 8.79 3.95 .34 1.13 4.25 .5 11.47 SO .23 4.88 10.34 4.84 9.4.46 2.74 5.77 2.19 5.68 3.79 3.43 2.0 3.27 4.6 11.42 6.06 4.42 4.41 6.os 1. 103-D-1246-1 7 Length :ad h.80 3.45 .03 3.07 4.22 1.90 2.57 4.05 3.75 3.2 11.34 1.98 1.74 1.61 .-Discharge of stm&wd Cipolletti weirs in cubic feet Per second.05 5.51 6.29 5.90 7.89 2.6 12.0 6.2¶ .90 6.55 2.37 3.49 6.74 .35 4.7O 3.58 1.11 1.25 5.20 5.64 .4 10.70 2.36 3.00 1 .35 9.22 7.11 .10 6.59 60 2.73 6.77 1.34 .45 3.88 .57 6.49 .53 .28 .45 2.41 .44 2.19 6.30 .15 9.50 5.36 .82 9.38 2.92 9.79 8.0 I.52 2.79 .47 4.16 1.68 2.15 3.367 Lh312.55 4.15 4.65 6.34 5.29 3.52 1.17 5.25 3.83 2.44 7.44 .1 11.35 7.26 7. Values below and to the left of heavy lines determined experimentally.84 .94 1.47 .9? 1.39 .32 3.26 1.85 1.95 .76 5.37 A0 .89 9.09 2.93 4.40 .22 8.22 .66 5.46 3.10 6.80 5.3 11.14 7.46 .43 .45 1.90 3.8 12.60 5.15 3.32 .61 .62 8.8 12.42 5.77 5.03 9.79 2.81 2.63 2.90 5.69 .26 .5 13.02 8.24 8.92 5.91 3.1 10.53 3.92 2.10 2.58 8.65 .58 .83 1.68 3.05 3.66 .53 .31 2.55 2.42 .86 10.37 2.08 1.04 1.36 4.50 1.26 4.23 ‘24 .70 5.09 9.23 9.58 1.sa .28 3.95 6.96 2.0 6.59 7.30 1.32 2.75 2.68 1.34 3.12 4.I3 .19 3.46 4.39 9.57 7.72 6.63 7.5 .53 2.62 1.96 .51 1.41 3.00 4.05 1.60 0.56 2.30 6.17 2.94 2.8 11.92 .98 4.16 3.00 2.95 3.55 7.94 4.30 0.21 2.09 5.24 2.49 2.0 7.78 1.58 1.18 4.20 4.90 5.42 .79 .0 2.88 7.73 4.35 +- .08 8.38 7.88 .86 10.58 4.72 1.23 2.9 13.54 5.31 .33 .8 .36 2.08 5.21 3.87 7.90 4.3 10.11 5.37 .97 3.64 1.0 1.93 7.83 1.20 1.36 7.20 2.77 2.62 4.84 8.6 11.21 .24 7.64 5.18 2.82 8.01 4.86 1. :et 1.11 1.35 .69 5.30 5.03 2.67 2.16 1.23 2.55 .42 5.62 .49 3.87 .10 1.76 .57 .67 .48 1.33 .31 3.00 2.4 7.38 3.66 1.7 11.02 1.98 2.1 10.48 4.63 .42 1.32 .68 .2 13.64 1.54 3.67 4.06 8.85 2.91 5.65 2.52 5.93 5.13 6.27 2.66 3.82 .60 2.30 5.90 1.1 12.61 --He 3.89 .

73 .2 14.65 9.1 20.1 25.6 27.8 .01 1.! 1.0 0. feet 2.3 24.6 10.1 14.1 17.96 5 .5 20.7 17.1 14.3 28.10 9.9 14.1 12.50 9.3 25.75 4.4 18.82 10.2 22.1 14.4 10.78 4.04 6.93 .11 1.24 5.24 9.8 20.64 5.6 23.0 20.7 23.5 26.12 1.83 .7 13.7 11.95 10.8 18.71 .4 13.82 6.9 11.7 23.7 10.6 16.2 19.04 6.51 4.15 4.1 16.9 26.3 12.6 25.2 25.84 .3 11.94 .5 17.8 18.2 30.4 18.9 14.4 14.09 7.91 .92 9.5 18.96 7.1 22.15 12.2 17.17 1.9 12.367 Lh3”.99 1. Values below and to the kft of heavy lines determined experimentally.3 21.6 19.8 19.07 1.8 16.03 1.5 19.0 17. 103-D-1246-2 Head h.06 4.30 6.9 28.6 15.3 15.05 10.19 1.2 16.6 24.9 14.2 20.82 .9 22.92 9.3 17.9 13.98 .0 6.14 1.24 4.6 29.5 .7 15.34 8.77 .43 6.20 9.75 10.13 1.36 8.4 21.00 6.5 17.9 20.6 12.4 1.2 10.1 19.25 6.0 7.9 15.3 15.0 15.80 4.9 11.1 15.3 14.7 20.0 21.-Continued.44 5.9 14.74 5.79 .5 13.5 17.4 11.8 19.1 10.80 6.7 15.5 22.8 30.4 13.8 23.7 13.06 8.8 27.89 .06 1.92 .3 i2.7 21.5 17.2 12.81 .6 31.5 14.5 20.0 3.6 1.18 1.02 1.34 7.0 17.2 14.0 15.4 13.3 10.87 6.1 15.3 11.9 12.94 6.33 4.1 12.8 16.6 16.0 13.7 20.54 5.69 4.4 22.9 15.95 5.-'6 .9 23.9 18.9 19.7 15. L.SMALL 282 CANAL STRUCTURES Table 5-5.4 11.0 13.3 19.1 14.2 16.69 6.9 24.87 .6 21.0 Length of weir.56 8.8 10.16 1.6 25.7 11.1 11.3 12.5 12.40 8.1 12. feet .7 12.1 26.57 8.8 21.8 17.7 14.72 .6 19.36 7.0 19.9 16.5 10. others computed from the formula 0 = 3.5 20.0 10.4 16.23 8.4 29.3 18.69 6.3 13.8 12.6 16.35 11.3 16.47 6.60 4.14 5.91 9.3 .1 13.1 18.46 9.2 26.4 22.7 13.64 7.1 16.6 18.5 10.9 24.2 1.20 8.3 15.3 24.5 15.91 9.7 29.42 6.10 11.4 16.6 12.78 .6 14.58 6.14 6.48 8.08 1.0 16.7 26.9 13.7 10.os 5.78 7.9 .2 22.1 12.9 13.6 15.96 .4 16.0 25.62 10.50 7.6 17.2 11.1 21.97 .2 13.06 8.85 4.09 1.5 12.23 8.0 4.74 .2 23.5 15.8 17.4 12.8 21.86 .3 17.5 21.77 8.0 13.9 27.0 5.80 9.7 13.04 1.88 .1 21.84 8.90 5.0 23.1 18.-Discharge of standard Cipolletti weirs in cubic feet per second.64 11.17 6.6 11.6 11.6 17.1 .20 12.1 13.06 9.

7 42. Length of weir.36 1.67 1.8 60.3 51.1 26.54 1.6 50.0 7.8 22.7 68.2 68.2 32.6 27.7 40.4 48.0 36.4 57.6 54.6 55.6 44.46 1.4 18.6 49.5 50.2 63.9 45.4 35.9 40. feet ’ .7 57.0 28.0 1.49 1.4 20.91 1.3 47.2 31.95 53.5 31.5 34.6 36.2 23.3 30.63 1.4 44.3 1.5 19.7 1.2 34.8 59.55 31.42 1.56 1.5 40.8 33.2 32.97 1.0 43.2 38.4 1.5 52.6 37.9 56.3 60.9 35.0 50.5 28.2 51.7 2.9 1.4 31.34 1.29 1.83 1.8 33.1 64.2 20.8 38.88 1.86 1.35 20.4 42.9 58.30 19.2 31. L.8 24.7 44.7 35.58 1.0 30.-Continued.4 33.1 52.1 41.7 54.7 41.2 1.85 49.5 39.74 1.8 29.50 29.01 2.3 31.5 37.8 47.92 1.40 Head k feet Length of weir.5 56.0 32.6 46.93 1.4 55.22 1.25 17.4 46.2 62.3 39.8 34.68 1.81 1.9 46.1 34.5 37.0 42.0 49.3 56.0 7.8 so.87 1.0 44.7 36.7 41.2 49.82 1.96 1.4 SO.94 1.8 52.6 39.2 53.2 1.WATER MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES 283 Table 5-5.2 45.48 1.4 22.2 43.1 33.04 2.-Discharge of standard Cipolletti weirs in cubic feet per second.70 36.2 25.7 66.7 1. feet 1.2 54.4 34.23 1.80 47.57 1.0 56.79 1.8 61.2 44.1 40.3 33.0 42.5 25.4 37.7 70.03 2.53 1.5 26.2 36.0 46.2 65.9 35.6 42.06 2.7 69.05 67.4 32.0 31.7 53.2 28.2 61.98 1.1 48.9 27.0 19.78 1.6 39.9 28.4 24.3 19.2 67.3 30.8 32.0 45. L.1 18.9 18.33 1.1 54.62 1.9 38.2 38.0 35.0 Head h.9 43.47 1.37 1.26 1.9 51.2 66.39 1.9 29.99 2.5 32.6 27.4 39.4 36.75 45.2 .0 6.65 34.3 40.45 28.6 18.2 47.3 35.9 59.8 32.7 25.00 55.90 5 1.44 1.0 62.8 57.5 2.41 1.0 55.7 30.3 53.6 48.9 1.0 23.07 69.6 33.8 52.5 37.2 1.7 34.8 55.4 56.61 1.0 48.1 29.3 26.4 so.43 1.7 64.52 1.64 1.32 1.1 33.8 48.51 1.60 32.9 32.6 29.0 27.6 45.1 39.3 29.0 5.7 63.8 34.4 33.59 1.2 1.77 1.7 20.02 2.367 Lh3’*.7 65.73 1.7 27.3 58.9 1.0 23.76 1.69 1.31 1.7 37.7 35.28 1.8 26.0 1. feet 6.7 23. Values computed from the formula Q = 3.7 25.3 27.6 30.0 1.5 34.0 1.6 31.6 28.3 41.7 52.21 1.24 1.4 42.2 27.1 24.27 1.4 46.66 1. 103-D-1246-3 4.38 1.9 30.71 1:72 1.0 43.84 1.89 1.

52 8.2 17.47 3.14 6.36 .7 23.7 21.59 1.2 22.06 8.8 14.65 4. feet 8.4 15.6 11.4 17.9 17.34 7.52 9.9 21.9 16.96 4.7 19.3 15.20 5.2 17.82 7.0 11.53 8.3 19.81 10.30 3.97 7.36 7.6 16.0 13.31 3.43 4.4 27.53 4.3 18.5 13.2 15.25 2.51 3.09 5.2 23.15 8.31 8.24 3.39 6.3 16.81 6.0 11.5 23.46 9.0 19.49 6.3 12.33 .49 5.84 9.34 8.8 20.5 19.7 13.41 .0 .0 13.49 9.22 .37 7.13 7.56 .13 3.89 8.97 3.61 6.01 7.-Discharge of standard Cipolletti weirs in cubic feet per second.4 12.4 13.61 7.01 3.48 5.89 .68 6.3 19.5 11.23 5.58 5.6 17.46 4.38 .1 24.0 11.41 .8 16.58 .0 17.4 21.6 13.91 4.92 8.8 20.45 9.31 1.1 10.54 4.2 10.7 12.51 .13 4.31 .78 6.6 11.95 8.1 14.54 8.55 9.5 15.5 13.9 26.4 13.14 8.2 15.78 2.0 13.58 7.7 14.7 10.9 22.8 18.6 11.2 13.0 14.34 .70 7.2 .2 9.7 23.1 14.55 7.2 12.8 21.48 .24 9.1 14.5 25.59 2.7 16.2 16.22 .16 9.4 21.5 10.3 19.4 22.09 6.68 .19 6.54 .68 8.02 1.I0 14. 103-D-1246-4 Head h.31 6.92 3.0 24.5 15.6 25.2 20.7 15.8 12.69 .0 15.0 11.49 4.84 9.21 7. L.27 5.31 6.54 6.83 5.4 14.62 .7 11.7 15.88 5.35 9.5 14.8 15.12 10.61 6.3 12.80 6.0 13.64 5.2 9.0 16.56 3.38 6.8 11.3 13.20 5.2 16.7 21.02 4.4 17.99 5.3 14.8 13.3 13.9 12.81 6.52 .23 .40 5.76 .24 .44 .63 .34 3.0 21.9 .45 9.42 .05 4.2 21.94 9.7 13.0 12.35 4.3 25.0 12.47 4.5 24.39 .86 8.96 9.40 8.21 .56 6.14 6.99 4.32 .66 8.5 15.3 12.01 6.1 18.59 .1 25.84 10.-Continued.75 5.63 3.61 .20 2.38 1.6 17.98 4.26 .4 11.73 9.6 14.9 12.2 20.17 4.33 1.7 .8 13.84 7.2 15.97 6.21 4.8 17.7 18.9 17.9 14.7 19.9 20.28 .37 2.46 .7 20.8 15.10 7.4 10.75 .4 14.9 11.09 9.29 .06 6.367 Lh312.9 16.7 14.82 6.7 13.3 11.61 .18 3.6 -- -- 10.76 10.67 5.21 .21 4.9 19.68 9.9 15.7 18.36 5.3 18.7 22.0 11.60 11.2 10.0 0.8 18.68 9.9 14.4 17.5 18.45 1.3 20.11 5.7 11.71 3.25 4.1 10.56 3.01 8.53 .9 .4 16.6 11.7 15.5 12.46 4.1 10.71 3.5 11.1 14.21 3.1 14.4 16.98 7.4 11.66 .91 5.8 21.4 10.72 4.89 4.9 17.43 .17 3.86 5.00 8.30 8.15 5.2 12.4 12.3 20.4 16.1 15.0 23.54 5.3 10.25 8.6 13.41 2.4 10.2 .1 12.6J 3.09 4.8 17.1 10.50 8.37 .9 11.02 9.9 22.64 .6 24.25 6.4 19.99 6.2 11.9 12.49 .0 9.9 16. feet Leneth of weir.8 14.83 10.8 19.2 11.82 4.26 5.51 .SMALL 284 CANAL STRUCTURES Table 5-5.20 8.9 18.34 5.1 .6 15.85 10.3 19.35 4.79 3.65 12.4 13. Values computed from the formula Q = 3.7 15.52 4.0 16.1 18.2 18.6 11.8 13.

2 31.4 61.0 36.2 32.9 28.-Continued.9 .3 38.0 38.7 36.2 37.6 38.10 29.7 44.0 27.6 23.16 1.1 29.0 35.1 22.8 42.8 31.1 16.2 38.5 33.4 41.8 39.6 24.91 .6 49.2 43.6 54.9 32.5 25.80 17.4 21.3 23.3 22.0 43.8 40.4 33.0 12.7 21.3 36.3 27.7 33.2 62.2 27.1 33.1 32.4 1.8 33.a9 .78 .8 51.1 31.7 50.9 37.1 36.4 35.0 26.6 18.6 31.5 28.1 33.3 27.2 30.5 16.1 20.5 37.9 48.5 20.9 38.0 55.2 42.5 51.2 36.2 17.3 .7 30.18 1.0 21.1 1.9 30.9 44.0 29.2 29.0 29.0 46.367 Lh312.3 19.6 23.2 30.3 27.0 41.7 36.3 47.5 26.6 .0 11.6 36.6 30.8 27.1 26.92 .85 19.4 20.8 29.9 56.4 37.4 38.6 42.9 26.95 23.4 35.15 31.1 42.8 30.0 25.9 40.72 .0 0.0 25.7 45.5 29.2 22.5 53.1 34.2 34.8 57.5 26.9 53.4 56.a7 .4 41.9 26.8 28.7 25.9 28.6 21.2 31.5 18.1 24.5 35.05 27.8 37.7 39.0 41.1 45.6 43.5 18.6 31.6 42.0 30.1 35.2 33.5 58.3 39.0 14.1 47.1 33.6 24.7 32.7 .6 24.4 39.6 28.1 30.1 1.7 .6 34.9 36.9 43.3 38.7 34.5 35.7 31.5 51.8 23.2 28.3 46.1 51.1 33.7 22.81 . Values computed from the formula Q = 3.9 23.7 1.1 22.1 43.4 23.4 39.7 I .5 25.2 32.7 60.2 23.0 41.6 20.79 .6 25.2 18.7 34.4 .3 43.0 .8 40.02 1.8 48.3 28.3 39.9 52.17 1.4 52.2 22.12 1.7 31.4 47.0 28.06 1.20 33.8 46.9 39.5 31.7 33.99 1.8 33.4 30.4 46.3 31.0 38.1 44.5 22.2 24.4 35.4 37.97 .74 .8 38.13 1.1 31.6 25.2 26.7 46.6 53.a4 .8 37.-Discharge of standard Cipolletti weirs in cubic feet per second.4 45.2 41.3 45.5 48.9 35.2 51.3 43.93 .7 55.6 39.1 48.2 24.WATER Head h.4 29.0 50.7 35.5 33.2 33:7 34.8 50.4 36.01 1.7 20.88 .2 39.8 37.1 18.11 1.3 27.9 48.7 27.9 40.04 1.2 25.4 27.9 27.9 41.86 .9 59.8 34.0 35.9 32.73 . feet r MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES 285 Table 5-5.77 .0 10.4 41.75 16.6 32.3 20.5 45.1 55.3 46.2 32.6 42.2 32.5 34.3 31.9 19.5 49.a2 .7 44.8 18.0 13.03 1.2 26.94 .98 .1 24.3 39.0 45.08 1.7 26.6 39.8 24.8 28.07 1.4 28.25.3 34.83 . feet 8.1 45.0 30. 103-D-1246-5 -? Length of weir.7 32.9 36.5 26.6 31.76 .1 49.0 20.4 32.9 32.3 54.1 54.5 43.1 56.14 1.5 29.6 40.4 29.2 35.8 28.3 25.7 26.9 34.3 26.2 35.2 52.2 30.4 28.7 24.0 25.8 44. L.3 37.9 26.5 30.4 47.5 43.3 35.9 19.6 57.5 21.8 17.3 21.2 49.0 9.0 34.5 30.00 25.96 .90 21.7 31.5 34.0 29.1 23.5 49.9 22.3 50.5 36.6 47.7 27.9 21.09 1.9 41.1 20.8 42.19 1.6 29.9 29.9 47.4 38.0 38.4 58.8 52.7 47.2 42.9 22.8 29.5 40.2 28.0 30.8 35.6 38.5 44.2 24.0 24.

27 1.1 63.3 41.0 66.1 55.9 1.7 64.2 1.0 54.1 48.7 86.-Discharge of standard Cipolletti weirs in cubic feet per second.5 55.35 40.0 71.3 66.9 66.6 57.54 1.1 46.6 58.39 1.1 55.1 1.4 68.0 10.6 81.5 62.8 62.4 66.7 37.8 54.2 53.7 59.2 56.7 71.4 43.8 57.3 78.62 1.9 42.28 1.4 70.9 62.6 55.50 47.38 1.5 39.2 60.0 49.7 63.3 54.4 40. feet 8.0 9.8 41.9 79.5 59.6 54.5 82.1 49.5 47.2 43.1 1.9 42.46 1.8 42.5 51.8 49.1 51.9 44.9 50.pContinued.41 1.1 1.3 72.3 65.49 1. Values computed from the formula Q = 3.8 58.6 61.9 47. 103-D-1246-6 Head h.1 45.2 61.3 73.0 72.3 51.4 46.1 58.4 69.5 56.63 1.0 1.6 64.6 67.1 63.55 50.2 83.9 56.5 54.9 46.7 61.7 61.31 1.45 45.1 65.2 58.32 1.3 65.23 1.34 1.43 1.4 60.6 46.6 52.8 52.6 40.5 53.1 38.5 68.0 56.8 69.1 69.9 85.2 59.5 49.29 1.8 65. feet 12.3 49.6 49.6 61.7 68.69 1.0 50.9 36.4 60.5 74.4 70.7 61.5 63.5 52.1 56.2 66.0 11.4 57.9 45.4 44.37 1.6 76. L.7 43.25 35.7 69.7 67.3 36.6 78.24 1.1 51.6 66.5 48.40 1 of weir.5 62.8 61.0 60.68 1.53 1.7 59.4 45.26 1.4 65.3 41.5 50.3 40.60 52.5 51.5 64.0 64.8 55.6 39.0 46.6 60.61 1.2 52.6 1.0 53.58 1.2 59.1 1.2 57.7 64.3 69.9 43.1 63.8 65.7 50.9 58.22 1.5 51.4 54.1 73.2 I .9 65.66 1.4 77.47 1.48 1.64 1.4 52.2 84.56 1.2 55.0 54.0 59.8 45.3 1.1 69.7 51.286 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Table S-5.0 66.5 63.59 1.5 53.0 51.42 1.4 44.36 1.5 56.9 41.8 80.65 55.3 64.8 58.6 48.2 56.67 1.0 49.0 62.0 39.2 68.5 59.0 54.6 48.6 58.2 48.9 67.5 54.1 1.1 61.0 48.8 57.0 14.2 66.0 55.8 70.9 74.0 84.44 1.3 57.3 62.33 1.7 59.7 44.5 66.70 57.9 52.1 44.1 64.5 68.0 60.5 47.367 Lh3’2.4 70.0 68.9 57.0 50.7 63.8 15.0 62.8 73.5 47.0 47.5 72.51 1.57 1.8 53.4 64.0 53.30 38.8 56.3 49.4 53.21 1.8 42.0 57.6 55.2 37.1 60.5 58.52 1.

8 16.4 67.4 43.56 5.0 40.2 90.1 12.14 1.3 29.7 42.49 .7 82.94 .8 17.9 64.99 1 .5 56.84 .7 28.9 33.20 4.3 73.1 69.4 37.86 .15 59.5 62.9 91.35 8.8 95.0 29.3 25.58 .2 68.9 18.7 16.48 1.87 .1 24.2 80.4 22.29 1.2 32.41 8.1 37. feet 15.95 43.57 .6 39.oo 47.26 .50 15.8 81.5 86.72 9.30 7.1 27. feet Length of weir.0 90.11 1.6 54.06 1.09 1.9 1.60 21.0 43.97 .7 65.7 36.52 4.4 17.0 .9 70.69 .82 .3 63.2 10.23 1.6 77.54 .83 .70 7.65 24.41 .9 26.59 .8 12.74 .5 50.18 1.46 1.48 .9 82.5 20.41 1.67 .42 .31 5.85 .5 36.68 .38 .4 1.3 41.6 19.92 .62 .6 Head h.6 28.7 15.0 1.52 .30 71.2 23.9 27.25 67.8 .33 6.9 23.80 33.5 42.0 52.90 40.28 1.2 20.9 .5 22.0 0.21 5.0 99.8 53. L.7 41.71 .34 1. feet 16.0 10. L.-Discharge of standard Cipolletti weirs in cubic feet per second.8 47.40 10.73 .0 63.4 72.27 1.37 1.3 26.9 39.6 45.5 61.56 . 103-D-1246-7 Head h.57 5.0 16.7 26.98 .1 49.3 22.6 83.31 .5 34.0 20.89 8.49 1.VVA I tK IVltHSUKtlVltl’J I S I KUL I UKtS Table 5-5.3 14.93 .33 1.3 89.4 11.53 .4 25.45 13.1 59.6 66.1 90.56 7.79 .0 1.6 13.4 18.3 53.1 35.24 .02 1.1 5 3.5 30.3 54.1 74.30 9.73 .70 27.3 57.86 5.8 11.89 .1 58.25 4.81 . feet .2 77.4 86.72 .5 .16 1.8 14.63 .2 30.6 66.6 34.8 32.43 .7 7 2.3 16.21 .64 .3 .1 94.2 . feet 15.6 20.1 13.5 74.2 15.5 38.77 .9 31.17 1.0 96.3 .94 6.0 .8 17.2 69.04 1.9 60.2 92.2 91.22 .2 .39 .0 74.27 .8 38.5 25.47 .9 31.09 7.94 6.36 1.01 1.2 32.4 87.3 58.05 51.43 1.0 Head h.1 .9 79.2 14.32 1.5 48.5 58.9 69.38 1.0 49.98 8.47 1.0 98.6 23.8 21.23 .9 19.40 80.6 1.55 18.7 25.0 46.2 1.2 21.367 Lh3”. L.7 44.96 .9 92.1 68.3 52.1 81.9 64.3 46.9 29.07 1.6 60.8 59.1 55.50 89.3 79.4 75.7 15.2 1.0 97.6 85.66 .4 87.82 .9 1.76 .34 .0 0.75 30.8 37.2 30.5 32.3 88.3 17.3 49.6 84.28 .33 .9 56.85 36.19 1.36 .24 1.7 22.8 46.2 46.14 7.0 Length of weir.1 34.7 11.5 9.26 1.44 1.12 1.3 88.3 13.8 50.35 75.1 63.57 10.9 76.1 14.6 .13 1.14 9.30 6.10 55.5 45.1 78.0 1.7 57.31 1.03 1.20 63.2 .29 .42 1.3 40. Values computed from the formula Q = 3.3 12.6 12.8 83.88 .45 84.8 24.32 .18 5.5 48. 15.0 16.61 .7 76.9 11.37 .0 78.7 61.6 28.3 49.8 35.1 93.7 65.6 71.5 78.51 .7 51.22 1.-Continued.21 1.0 81.91 .3 35.8 44.6 73.2 38.48 7.1 43.1 .75 10.0 1.5 19.7 85.5 52.3 68.44 . feet Length of weir.7 55.0 41.9 16.08 1.3 62.39 1.78 .7 70.46 .

51 1.50 2.12 1.13 5.96 2.73 .60 2.16 4.29 .00 3.79 2.41 1.21 .4 1 4.49 .86 .5 I 4.40 1.53 2.88 3.28 2.46 .28 1.08 2.34 .24 6.66 .16 2.38 .60 .60 3.44 .90 4.59 .60 I 4.50 1.41 7.13 8.19 6.17 2.93 .62 .33 8.95 .32 .14 .50 6.32 .49 SO 1.61 .15 .82 2.63 .98 2.41 2.0 I 0.43 6.69 .0 2.55 2.26 1.64 .99 1.55 .08 .19 1.87 1.25 .12 2.14 5.41 3.22 2.20 Length I 1.12 3.34 9.46 1.83 .15 3.00 5. L.92 3.41 .43 3.30 I 0.89 4.I0 3.21 .36 .93 8.31 5.61 1.67 1.89 1.43 2.66 6.25 2.96 1.31 7.64 5.13 9.19 4.66 1.51 2.31 1.5 1 .48 .21 2.34 2.04 1.52 .45 of weir.15 1.53 4.28 .58 .03 1.65 3. Computed from the formula Q = 3.64 1.88 6.81 2.I8 .h312.35 6.52 .25 3.18 1.64 2.31 3.17 3.11 5.0 I 5.63 3.68 2.82 6.39 .60 2.19 .0 I 0.49 4.85 5.15 2.86 5.08 1.29 5.54 9.85 1.68 .31 .16 4.41 .14 1.62 .64 .49 .43 4.81 1.48 .00 5.44 1.64 2.55 1.19 5.35 1.16 3.04 6.53 .66 .33 I.66 .96 4.33 1.98 1.77 1.11 1.81 1.33 3.84 1.01 2.35 3.36 5.5 1.55 . in feet 3.36 1.60 5.45 .03 1.24 3.29 4.34 .I0 .38 1.30 2.09 1.15 3.06 4.63 .88 . 103-D-1 241-l Head fezG 0.10 4.02 3.43 .12 1.24 .98 1.90 .80 8.82 .14 .54 5.12 5.41 .64 3.58 5.44 .52 .12 3.65 5.31 .69 .45 1.91 2.11 1.06 6.12 3.85 3.11 5.22 1.94 2.53 2.I4 .74 .34 2.75 1.32 3.30 3.72 1.62 2.42 .42 .61 .56 1.26 .26 1.10 1.41 1.10 4.I8 .89 .89 1.41 2.35 .99 1.32 1.87 3.22 3.30 4.59 .48 5.88 5.56 1.03 .08 4.53 4.02 4.16 2.57 3.19 2.37 1.22 .11 1.93 9.43 2.88 1.58 .40 1.0 I 0.56 .63 7.30 .60 1.56 1.54 .08 2.43 6.57 .51 1.50 3.01 3.07 2.73 5.39 .24 6.288 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Table M-Discharge of standard suppressed rectangular weirs in cubic feet per second.21 .02 3.31 .23 .21 1.16 3.61 6.53 8.94 3.48 1.33 .62 1.31 4.53 4.25 1.

14 1.83 9.17 1. I.0 27.75 5.3 25.3 13.48 8.2 15.3 15.1 14.9 1.4 12.42 7.90 7.53 10.56 1.83 .34 1.5 11.18 9.5 13.6 10.24 1.49 7.18 1.62 6.6 21.6 .4 .5 1.52 1.29 1..9 13.9 14.2 15.04 1.47 1.9 16.86 .53 1.8 19.75 6.25 .91 8.a9 .0 19.36 1.36 6.3 16.0 11.0 25.79 .0 20.25 11.77 .06 1.3 10.aa .4 12.46 1.07 1.8 24.38 1.4 18.91 .4 19.-Continued.00 9.31 8.11 8.96 9.71 9.7 .WATER MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES 289 Table M-Discharge of standard suppressed rectangular weirs in cubic feet per second Computed from the formula Q = 3.82 8.09 1.2 11.8 14.6 10.05 13.8 13.89 10.61 1.1 12.48 1.10 14.9 17.2 20.5 14.8 11.1 21.45 .23 6.3 19.60 1.8 11.50 1.a7 .7 19.0 4.23 1.2 17.67 8.3 17.59 1.13 1.4 24.6 16.76 .81 .39 8.30 18.14 8.0 11.3 21.5’8 1.6 12.4 16.0 20.5 13.4 18.21 1.0 Head h.7 14. in feet h. 103-D-1247-2 Length of weir.1 12.9 15.73 .35 9.74 .55 1.8 26.6 11.32 1.49 1.1 1.39 1.25 8.31 1.01 1.51 1.78 .7 11.71 .96 .42 1. in feel I 23.57 1.1 19.9 1.a4 .40 .7 20.9 17.08 1.0 16.02 1.28 1.98 6.7 27.26 1.3 27.8 16.6 23.98 .7 1.2 1. feet 3.9 1.1 13.9 15.27 1.62 1.19 1.4 26.5 19.5 20.00 9.20 16.7 17.93 .72 .9 12.53 11.4 13.43 1.96 10.2 18.3 14.55 7.4 1.3 11.5 14.0 5.88 7.94 .84 9.63 1.7 14.80 6.15 15.40 9.35 20.5 25.4 10.69 7.7 15.02 7.4 17.65 1.10 6.a5 7.22 1.3 20.97 8.44 1.64 1.2 16.69 9.33 1.65 9.54 9.7 25.0 14.83 9.82 .12 1.2 1. L.99 12. feet Length 0.92 .54 1.8 21.95 8.7 12.2 10.41 1.66 of weir.1 26.03 1.1 17.2 16.1 10.7 13.5 19.15 8.16 1.5 12.6 15.10 9.37 1.99 1.33 Lh3’2.1 24.8 1.11 1.97 .28 7.

24 .61 .85 .64 .90 1.20 3.11 1.49 .09 1.33 .22 1.83 .02 1.07 4.22 .92 .60 .25 .66 .81 .09 .34 .15 .77 .14 1.61 2.56 0.04 0.48 1.ll .91 .80 1.30 3.30 .01 1.52 1.71 1.18 1.18 1.79 .58 .05 .64 .73 .84 .29 .02 2.06 1.37 .97 2.61 1.40 .70 .42 .83 3. cfs Head h.27 .25 3.17 .86 .67 3.75 1. Computed from the formula Q = 2.14 2.85 1. 103-D-1248 Head h.96 .59 .62 .39 .81 .49 .23 1.70 .40 .67 .43 2.01 1. cfs 0.75 3.73 .15 3.38 .52 .34 .68 2.25 2.45 .51 .81 1.45 .06 1.93 . feet Discharge.44 3.08 3.24 4.63 .29 .59 .57 .22 3.94 3.27 .76 1.74 .20 0.41 .88 .71 .07 .31 2.12 1.76 .37 3.89 .06 .99 1 .43 .54 .66 1.49h2’48.59 3.57 1.52 .42 .13 1.92 .55 0.89 1.08 .95 1.55 2.31 .48 .99 4.16 4.17 1.10 2.21 .62 .91 .36 .10 1.37 2.13 2.14 1.56 .39 1.30 1.08 1.14 .24 .97 .34 1.36 .47 .06 .44 .96 . cfs Head h.19 1.-Discharge of 90° V-notch weirs in cubic feet per second.53 .03 1.21 1.lO .18 .31 .SMALL 290 CANAL STRUCTURES Table 5-7.22 1.69 .23 .35 .67 .13 .04 1.81 .16 .52 .86 1.54 .26 .32 .92 .46 .99 1. feet Discharge.33 .65 .82 .79 .20 .12 .49 .87 2.28 .03 1.32 .16 1.24 1.oo 2.19 .43 1.15 .72 .07 1.26 1.I8 .08 2.47 .21 .05 2.76 .50 .23 .98 .38 .82 .68 .26 .94 . feet Discharge.

Therefore. Examination of these drawings show that the weir pool dimensions and the placement of the weir gage do not conform to the standard conditions given in subchapter E for sta. Purpose and Description. into a short length of pipe. -Figures 5-27 and 5-28 are design drawings for 3. Recently a 4-foot weir box was developed and calibrated by Reclamation. Assume the length of pipe between the turnout gate and the weir box is 50 feet. both baffle assemblies dissipate excess energy and distribute the inflow from the pipe so that the water surface in the weir pool is smooth and free from turbulence as it passesover the weir. the loss varies uniformly as shown in figure 5-29 from 0. Design Considerations. -Weir boxes are small structures used in combination with pipe turnouts (fig. These discharges were determined from full-scale model studies conducted in Reclamation's Hydraulic Laboratory in Denver.-The inlet loss to the pipe is 0. The loss through the pipe outlet. The following example problem gives a procedure for selecting and setting a weir box. baffle assembly. -(a) Head Discharge Relationship. 5-26) to dissipate excess energy and measure rate of flow of water to laterals or farm turnouts.35. The normal water depth in the lateral is 1. experience indicates that for a flow of 5 cfs the head loss through the baffle assembly and stilling pool is about 0.00. -From the con tinuity equation. No figures are available on the losses through the 3-foot weir box baffle assembly.WATER MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES 291 F.045 foot for a discharge of 3 cfs to 0. They are equipped with 3-foot suppressed rectangular weirs and are capable of measuring flows up to 5 cfs with effective heads up to 6 feet on the control gate.25 square feet . Q=VA A = 9/4 A = 2.and 4-foot weir boxes respectively. These structures are economical to build. (a) Solution. (b) Head Losses. find the area of pipe to satisfy the allowable velocity of 4 feet per second in the pipe. Longitudinal section turnout box.5 of the velocity head in the pipe with the slide gate fully opened. easy to operate and have proven to be an accurate and reliable method of measuring small flows. In both of these structures. PX-D-31417 and weir standard discharge equation for rectangular weirs is not applicable to weir boxes. however. [ 4] [ 5] . select and set a weir box at th~ downstream end of the turnout to measure a flow of 9 cfs. Further assume that there is one 5° mitered bend in the pipe. 5. The delivery water surface elevation required in the lateral is elevation 101.0 foot. Normally the pipe should be sized so that the water velocity in the full pipe at the entrance to the box does not exceed about 4 feet per second. -For this example. the water passes from the canal through a gated turnout.33 foot for a discharge of 12.4 cfs.23. 5-24. Q = V 1 Al = V 2 A2 .15 foot. The box is capable of measuring flows up to about 12 cfs with effective heads of 6 feet on the control gate.ndard weirs. Three-foot weir boxes developed by Reclamation have been successfully used for a number of years. The pipe loss is controlled by the pipe diameter. assume that water is to be turned out from a canal to a lateral through a turnout with a weir box as shown in figure 5-28. WEIR BOXES 5-22. and through a system of baffles into the weir box. Design Example. The discharges for various heads are given on the design drawings. length of pipe. the Figure 5-26. CO. In the 4-foot weir box. The control water surface in the canal is assumed to be at elevation 103. Although the baffle arrangement in the 3-foot weir box is different from that in the 4-foot weir box. Then. and into the stilling well vary with the discharge. and discharge.

.T”O. Three-foot B weir box.LLING SECTlON A-d SECTlON 8-B ASSEMBLY WELL ESTlMATCO /Weir DETAIL Figure 5-27.ES bar.ome.NAL SECTION i”o.OLv LONG.SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES PreCo5f CDnCrPfP PreliUrP pipe O”d f.er hoie A- -. 103-D-1249 C)UANTIT. PLAN OF AN0 BAFFLE ST.

WATER MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES 293 iier. i_’ Figure 5-28. Four-foot weir box.--. 103-D-1250 \ .

0 foot. pipe loss. The mean velocity of water in the pipe. 6 IO 12 14 cfs 5-29.00 .11 foot and the pipe loss = loo0 H(L) = S(50) = 0.16 foot From figure 8-1. velocity head. V. In this problem the DWS could have been as high as 101. weir crest = 103. K = 101.35.01 0 I//” 2 4 Water surface 14 differential I 6 DISCHARGE. the loss coefficient (<) for a single angle miter bend of 5’ is 0. = 0.58 = 99.5 h. With a discharge of 9 cfs. and the head on the weir. = 1. a 4foot weir box will measure a flow of 9 cfs with 0. Loss Coefficients for Pipe Bends. H. Always set the crest of the weir at least 0. 103-D-1251 Figure Since the delivery water surface (DWS) elevation required in the lateral was 101.84 feet then: El.000 feet of pipe.74 foot of head on the weir. Therefore H.013 h. and the normal depth in the lateral was 1. 5-28) = El.16+0. bend loss if any. figure 5-28.15 foot.16 feet The maximum elevation of the weir crest is: El.25 foot above the downstream water surface to prevent submergence and to assure air circulation under the nappe of the weir.003 foot Since the bend loss is so small. set the invert of the lateral at elevation 100. h. it can be neglected for this problem. weir crest . Water surface drop and total head loss across baffles and weir gage stilling well of 4-foot weir box. can also be read from table 8-1 after the pipe diameter has been determined as shown above. . the turnout gate can be partially closed to obtain the appropriate water surface elevation in the weir box for the desired discharge.74 H. The pipe outlet loss and the baffle assembly loss are determined from figure 5-29.35.weir height El. the pipe outlet loss and baffle assembly loss is 0.26 feet Sid~skwerbge) ii?’ 0. If the differential head between the control water surface in the canal and the water surface in the weir box exceeds the head loss through the structure.22) = 0. The bend loss is then: i a Fbintsbemge) Bend loss = 0. baffle assembly loss.22) = about 0. Pipe inlet loss = 0.2.15+0. From the discharge table on the weir box drawing.013.11+0.5 (0. The total head loss from the canal to the weir is the sum of the pipe inlet loss.013 (0.59 without submerging the weir.84 ..SMALL 294 CANAL STRUCTURES Then from table 8-l select a 2 l-inch-diameter pipe which has more than adequate pipe area.1. = 0. K (fig. and the friction loss per 1. =0.16 = 101.

(b) Requirements for Accurate Flow Measurement. cubic feet. standard meter bearings require excessive maintenance. Propeller meters are very sensitive to spiral flow. however. Purpose and Description. the propeller should always be submerged and the conduit should be flowing full. Meter propeller diameters generally range f. To provide for this requirement. -The head loss across a propeller-type meter is usually considered to be negligible.5 to 0. Many meters have been taken out of service because they were too large to accurately measure the average day-to-day flows.-When used properly. For velocities exceeding 8 feet per second. some allowance for loss should be included in the design. installed a short distance upstream of the propeller will reduce the measurement errors caused by spiral flow. Thus. A slight eccentricity or misalinement of the propeller will affect measurement accuracy. If possible. Therefore. or in any other desired units common to water measurement. that is. acre-feet.-(a) Velocity. PX-D-31428 295 METERS velocity of the water is less than abou t 1. as recommended by the meter manufacturer. -Open-flow meters provide accurate measurement for flow velocities of 0. -Open-flow meters are propeller-type meters which may be installed at the ends of gravity pipe turnouts as shown in figures 5-30 and 5-31. a 24-inch meter would be used in a 24-inch-diameter pipe. several pipe diameters in length. 3-23). Straightening vanes are not required if a straight level section of pipe. stoplog guides are included in the outlet transition as shown on figure 5-31 to accommodate placing stoplogs when required to force the conduit to flow full. Artist sketch of turnout with open-flow meter attached.:om 0. The meter size is designated according to the diameter of the conduit where it will be used. and large measurement errors result from this condition. The meter . (c) Size Determination. OPEN-FlOW 5-25. The propeller should be suspended so that the propeller hub is in the center of the conduit which can be either rectangular or round.5 to 17 feet per second.8 of the pipe diameter. particularly if head is a critical consideration.5 feet per second. similar to a speedometer in an automobile. 5-26 Design Considerations. Some manufacturers guarantee accuracy to 2 percent of the true flow for all flows above the minimum specified rate. however. to measure and record the rate of flow of water.WATER MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES G. anchor bolts for the mounting bracket must be located very accurately (fig. Laboratory tests show that the best accuracy is obtained when the propeller diameter is 75 percent or more of the pipe diameter . They are generally accurate to plus or minus 2 to 5 percent of the actual discharge. The rotation of the propeller actuates a register which totals the flow and gives a direct volumetric reading in gallons. a meter that measures flow in the midrange of its capability should be selected. Heavy-duty meters are usually used for velocities greater than 8 feet per second. ( d) Head Loss. Flow straightening vanes. The multibladed. -The selection of the size of the meter is a very important design consideration. measurement accuracy is likely to be affected when the Figure 5-30. Some meters not only totalize the flow but give an instantaneous discharge reading in desired units on a dial. Open-flow meters are commercially available for pipe diameters ranging from 4 to 72 inches. conical propeller is rotated by the energy of the moving water. Open-flow meters have a reasonably accurate measurement range of about 1 to 10. the meter can measure and total flows up to 10 times the minimum flow. is used immediately upstream from the meter location.

olm” CANAL STRUCTURES and brackets for open flow f’l0 DETAIL PLAN ‘No protect!on SECTION for Form A Tur A-A SECTION Figure 5-31. Advantages. air in the line. -Portability of a meter permits the user to measure flows at several turnouts which have the same pipe diameters or turnouts having different pipe diameters if the meter is specially equipped with a removable register and change gears. Practically all . there is a limit to the amount that can pass without clogging or affecting the water measurement. Disadvantages. these meters have a flow range in excess of 10 to 1 above the minimum flow and the head loss is very small. or any other factor that affects the rate of propeller rotation affects the measurement. Although the propellers are designed to pass some weeds and debris. Spiral flow. Xb’Plpe B-B meter. S-28. 5-27.nsta.296 SMALL Anchor bolts . -Initial cost of an open-flow meter is usually relatively high.. As previously mentioned. particularly if the meter is used in water that contains appreciable sediment. Maintenance costs may also be high. The sediment causes the bearings to wear and this becomes a problem unless a well-planned maintenance program is followed. Meters should be inspected and serviced at regular intervals as corrosion and wear may affect the calibration. Flow rate and volume can be read directly thus eliminating computations. Outlet transition for open-flow 103-D-1252 manufacturer can usually provide meter head loss information.

Report No. Utah State University. “Hydraulic Model Studies of Small Weir Box Turnout Structures for General Irrigation Use” Hyd-396. Palde. Hyd-577. Simmons. W. .WATER MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES conditions which affect the propeller rotation rate reduce the number of propeller revolutions 297 and result in underregistration. “Hydraulic Laboratory Studies of a 4-foot Weir Box Turnout Structure for Irrigation Use”-REC-ERC-72-31. 1974. W. Case. Bureau of Reclamation.. Hyatt. 1967. P. Logan.. BIBLIOGRAPHY S-29. [1] [2] [3] Water Measurement Manual. C... Revised Reprint. Bureau of Re clamation.. Water Measurement Procedures. 1972. Bureau of Reclamation. Second Edition. Bibliography. Utah. B. L. Skogerboe. Bureau of Reclamation. V. 1967. H. J. “Design and Calibration of Submerged Open Channel Flow Measurement [4] [5] Structures”-Part 2 Parshall Flumes. 1967. M. 1954. U.

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Stilling pools (chapter II F) contain the turbulent water until it can be discharged into the downstream channel without damage to the channel. The impact-type of energy dissipator is considered to be more efficient than the hydraulic jump type. Bureau of HAYES’ in grade. Other energy dissipators use the hydraulic jump to dissipate excess head. The design of energy dissipators has been the subject of many model studies and the designs recommended for this type of structure are based primarily on empirical data resulting from these studies.<<Chapter Energy VI Dissipators A.-Baffled apron drops are used in canals or wasteway channels to provide dissipation of excess energy at drops ‘Civil Engineer. 6. -Energy dissipators are used to dissipate excess kinetic energy possessed by flowing water. such as in a chute or drop and energy dissipators are incorporated into the design of these structures. GENERAL 6-l. The use of a vertical drop in combination with an overchute is shown in chapter IV C. Energy dissipation occurs as the water flows over the concrete baffle blocks. Impact-type energy dissipators direct the water into an obstruction that diverts the flow in all directions and in this manner dissipates the energy in the flow. B. and vertical stilling wells are all impact-type energy dissipators. the use of an impact-type energy dissipator results in smaller and more economical structures. The sumped pipe drop (chapter II E) is a closed conduit drop in which the hydraulic jump occurs within the pipe. In some structures the flow plunges into a pool of water where the energy is diffused. BAFFLED APRON DROPS R. Energy Dissipators. baffled aprons. baffled outlets. Check drops and vertical drops (chapter III C). Hydraulic Structures Branch. The studies continue in an attempt to develop more effective and more economical energy dissipators. An effective energy dissipator must be able to retard the flow of fast moving water without damage to the structure or to the channel below the strut ture. Reclamation. 6-2. which are located along the floor of the chute. -(a) Usage. This energy or velocity head is acquired by the water where the velocity is high. General. Generally. The of the baffled apron drop to ability accommodate a widely fluctuating tailwater elevation makes it especially suitable as an 299 . In this type of structure water flowing at a higher than critical velocity is forced into a hydraulic jump and energy is dissipated in the resulting turbulence.

a bridge deck may be incorporated in the inlet design. and some splashing is permissible. Baffled apron drop P-328-701-9501 before backfilling. Excessive splashing may require frequent maintenance of the erosion protection. 6-1). but it becomes uneconomical for large flows with great drops. as shown in figure 6-2B. 6-2C) is used where there is not a requirement to control the upstream water surface for turnout SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES deliveries. restricting the flow. or to avoid the excessive splashing that would result from supercritical flow at the inlet. or near the downstream end of the structure. and where the upstream channel is sufficiently stable to withstand (without erosion) the higher velocities associated with water surface drawdown. to reduce the velocity of approach. to control the upstream water depth. -Where a crossing is required. The sill also provides a controlled water surface for upstream turnouts. as shown in figure 6-5. as the extensive accumulation of sediment would allow the flow to sweep over the sill at a velocity too fast for effective dissipation of energy. -The simplest type of inlet (shown in fig. (c) Miscellaneous Features. an invert curve may be provided to allow the flow to strike the blocks in a direction normal to their upstream face.300 energy dissipator at the end of a canal or wasteway that discharges into a reseIVoir. wingwalls are provided at. a slot is provided through the crest. -A sill may be provided at the inlet. Where an excess of trash. (2) Control notch. causing splashing as the fast velocity flow strikes the first row of baffle blocks. . The more common types of inlet control features are as follows: ( 1) Sill control. To minimize splashing as the flow strikes the first row of baffle blocks. While the control notch is designed to maintain normal depth and velocity in the upstream section. trees. the curve is sometimes omitted. or tumbleweeds accompanies the flow. -In addition to the inlet cutoff walls. it produces a fast velocity in the inlet itself. Where flows are infrequent. due to the wide section and numerous blocks required. (3) Inlet without control. (b) Inlet Control Features. The length of the baffled apron does not affect the efficacy of the structure. To permit complete drainage of the upstream pool. as shown in figure 6-2A. It is effective in dissipating excess energy for drops of any magnitude (see fig. a cutoff wall is extended down Figure 6-1. to decrease percolation and to retain the backfill along the slope. ( 1) Bridge deck. and minimize scour in the upstream section.-A control notch may be provided at the inlet. The inlet should be kept free of sediment deposits. Removal of this material is sometimes difficult.-Various types of inlet control features are utilized to maintain an upstream water surface as required for turnouts. as shown in figures 6-28 and 6-3. The control notch should be kept free of trash. Where the downstream channel is subject to degradation. ( 2) Cutoff walls and wingwalls. or to provide a velocity of approach consistent with the scouring tolerance of the upstream section. they may become lodged in the baffle blocks.

PX-D-72607 from the invert. see subchapter IV C. per foot of width. and should provide . as shown in figure 6-5. IO3-D-1334 which should be located above the tailwater elevation to minimize erosion.The inlet should be the same width as the baffled apron. -The capacity of the baffled apron drop is a function of the allowable discharge. The wingwalls may be located at the end of the structure to coincide with the cutoff. as shown in table 6-1. -(a) General. within the range indicated. For consideration of the baffled apron drop to provide dissipation of the excess energy at a wasteway turnout. Baffled apron drop with wingwalls located upstream from the outlet end. They have been operated for short periods at about twice the design capacity without excessive erosion. This provides a better stilling action at the outlet. Figure 6-2.-Recommended discharge Figure 6-3. Baffled apron drop with inlet control notches.. but they are often located a few feet upstream from the end as shown in figure 6-4. 6-3. -Protective drains are sometimes provided under the invert of the baffled apron drop to relieve the uplift pressure following the termination of flow. (b) Capacity. Table 6-1. q. (3) Protective drains. For the application of baffled apron drops to cross-drainage structures. and raises the top elevation of the wingwall. NO UPSTREAM Typical inlet } CONTROL types.ENERGY DISSIPATORS 301 Figure 6-4. P-492-701-IIO2A -0- (Curve optionol C. *Discharge per foot of width. Design Considerations. see subsection 4-2(b) Wasteway Outlets. q should be interpolated (c) Inlet.

Es1 =E. and q = allowable discharge per foot of width (see table 6-l). should conform to the design requirements of subchapter III G. k = Es.-The following steps are suggested as a guide to be used in setting the dimensions [2] : Esc . +hi+h..5 [-. Other design considerations are as follows: (1) Sill control. A 6-foot radius is frequently used. (2) Control notch. (4) Baffle block height. to nearest inch.-2g The curvature of the sill crest should terminate at its point of tangency with the slope of the downstream apron (see subset.* the entrance velocity should V not exceed about >. in brackets refer STRUCTURES (1) Set the longitudinal slope of the chute floor and sidewalls at 2 to 1 (tan @= 0. For the permissible entrance velocity. V. Thus. as shown in figure 6-2A. E.hi B=Q 9 where where h.. 5. Alternate rows of baffle blocks should be staggered so that each block is downstream from a space in the . 3. This is assured by limiting the radius of curvature to a maximum of 9 feet.. = 4% in the rectangular inlet section. (d) Baffled Apron Dimensions (see fig. and the length between the notch and the sill should be equal to three times the upstream water depth. B = width. should be about 0. . (5) Baffle block widths and spaces should be equal.5). where 2 v. see subsection 6-3(c).. (3) Set the first row of baffles so that the base of the upstream face is at the downstream end of the invert curve and no more than 12 inches in elevation below the crest. Where splashing must be minimized [ 1] .302 SMALL a velocity of approach slower than the critical velocity.i ) VI2 vc2 22 1 =“. should be placed against the sidewalls in rows 1. d. but not more than l-1/2 h..5 (h”. h-5). c or [ I]. Q = maximum total discharge. EsC = d. having a width not less than l/3 h. 6-4(b)(7)). This point should not be more than 12 inches in elevation below the crest *Numbers see sec. + hvC in the control at the sill. + hvl in the upstream channel.5nh. and not less than h. etc.h.9 times critical depth. = d. . as shown in figure 6-2B.-The inlet length should be at least 2d. The rectangular inlet section should begin 5 feet upstream from the control notch. and not more than 2/3 h. - CANAL to references in bibliography. The sill has a 6-inch-wide slot to provide drainage of the upstream pool. = 0. The required height of the sill above the inlet floor may be determined from the energy balance between the inlet and the upstream channel. 6-14.. Partial blocks. where used. 7. is the sill height. to permit the flow to spread to the full width of the section. (2) Approximate width of structure should be set by the relation.. section and hi = 0. h.-A control notch.

-The net force causing flotation of the structure should be considered. B. . of the baffle blocks at the top should be at least 8 inches. determined above. Hocks have indicated an average net water pressure on the blocks in the downstream direction of between 4 and 5 feet of water. tending to induce sliding along the horizontal plane. piezometer readings on the b&l. in chapter I).. -The slope stability or tendency of long baffled aprons to slide down the 2 to 1 slope should be checked. Major forces. . (8) Baffle blocks are constructed with their upstream faces normal to the chute floor. F. A spacing of 6 feet may be used for all blocks equal to or less than 3 feet in height. but not more than 10 inches. but no greater than 6 feet. Complete removal by erosion of the earth material downstream from the downstream cutoff walls should be assumed. and F. (1) Long baj~led apron drops. as the sloping portion can move horizontally with no frictional resistance. (9) Suggested height of the walls to provide adequate freeboard is three times the baffle block height measured normal to the chute floor. s. where is the hydrostatic force on the upstream face of the upstream cutoff walls. resisting sliding during maximum flow in the channel are frictional resistance and passive earth pressure. during maximum flow in the channel are as follows: F. or uplift pressure varies with the theoretical height of the percolation gradient as determined by Lane’s weighted-creep method [ 31. is the horizontal component of the hydrostatic force on the upstream face of the baffle blocks.. + F.. should be adjusted so convenient baffle block widths can be used. Frictional resistance is considered for the inlet portion only (length L. + F. (f) Slidirag Stability. and a safety factor is also included in the coefficient of sliding. The baffled apron should be extended so that the top of at least one row of baffle blocks will be below the bottom grade of the outlet channel as discussed in subsection 6-3(g). The net flotation force is equal to the weight of the empty structure minus the hydrostatic force remaining in the soil around the structure. It is generally not feasible to set the freeboard for these structures to contain all of the spray and splash. F. reference [ 51 . between rows of baffle blocks. (e) U. = F. A horizontal sliding plane should be assumed rather than the sloping plane assumed for long baffled apron drops. The structure width.ulift Stubility. The magnitude of the maximum hydrostatic force. The apron should be extended beyond the last row of blocks a distance equal to the clear space between block rows. The hydrostatic load on the downstream side of the cutoff walls is omitted as a safety factor. should be at least 2 h. T. (7) A minimum of four rows of baffle blocks should be used. The longitudinal thickness. The frictional resistance is a function of the structure weight reduced by uplift. is the hydrostatic force on the vertical face of the sill. + Lz ). This is particularly important in channels where erosion may remove the earth material at the downstream toe of the apron. (6) The slope distance. assuming a sudden cessation of flow in the channel. is the force of the saturated earth load on the upstream face of the downstream cutoff walls (see bibliography. and the passive earth pressure is a function of the angle of internal friction of the earth material. figure 6-5.-Short baffled apron drops also should be checked for sliding. (2) Short baffled apron drops. as shown in figure 6-5. F. F. This is equivalent to a force of between 250 and 310 pounds per square foot of block area. + F. In model studies performed on baffled aprons.ENERGY 303 DISSIPATORS adjacent row. Major forces F. assuming an upstream gradient at the normal water surface elevation. unless the stability of the downstream channel is assured. See block detail.

extending laterally a distance equal to the wall height. find by interpolation q = 16 cfs (approximately). 6-2 A). 58. 2. FR = p (W. (3) A drop of 6 feet in invert elevation is required. where I-( is the coefficient of sliding friction. is the weight of water in the inlet portion of the structure. A slope of 0. and a sill-type control is preferable (see fig. find the recommended discharge per foot. (g) Miscellu~2eous Considerutions. When scour has occurred. Passive earth force is the total force resulting from passive earth pressure on the downstream side of the cutoff walls (see bibliography reference [ 51 in chapter I).s. W. If the forces tending to induce sliding are greater than the forces resisting sliding (using suitable safety factors). additional cutoff walls should be included. = 2. (2) The channel grade may be controlled by a downstream structure. Rockfill at the bottom of the apron may be unnecessary. the apron and walls should be extended by exposing the reinforcement in the end of the structure and bonding a new extension to the original installation. but CANAL STRUCTURES for normal canal flows the assumed slope should be no steeper than that of a canal in the same material. 4.025 0. (a) Asswnptiom(1) On the basis of soil type and operating conditions. For Q = 120 cfs. = = Vl h “1 = 120cfs 8 ft.1 ft. This protection above the maximum downstream water surface is to prevent erosion from splashing.02 sq.00035 l-1/2: 1 2. 6-4. (3) Greater economy may be achieved by precasting the concrete baffle blocks. 6-S for dimension rwmenclutwe). An approximate method of determining the hydrostatic uplift pressure may be used by assuming a pressure gradient extending from the maximum upstream water surface to the downstream water surface. 0. = A. q. Channel protection downstream from the structure should be in accordance with subchapter VII B. .10 ft. ft.08 f. generally assumed to be equal to 0. for a total capacity of 120 cfs.0 ft. r= n= s= ss = f. + w. 6-4) hold the slope protection in place.0018 will usually be stable for storm waterflows. to provide for future storms. The bottom row of blocks should be set the computed channel invert below elevation.U) + passive earth force.55 0. and determine a preliminary chute width. = h. (b) Solution (SW fig. is the weight of concrete in the inlet portion of the structure. by geologic formation. W. or by being on a stable slope for the design capacity. ~ (1) Gravel or riprap should be provided on each side of the structure from the top of the slope to the downstream wingwall. U is the vertical uplift force as determined by Lane’s weighted-creep method.p. Design Example. 6. Wingwalls (see fig.p (1) From table 6-1. it is decided that little splashing should be permitted. Below this water surface the protection is required to prevent erosion by eddy currents. it is decided that a baffled apron drop would best meet the need.07 ft. -A wastcway channel descends a slope that requires energy dissipation to prevent excessive erosion. (2) Hydraulic properties of the wasteway channel are as follows: Q= b= d. As a dependable tailwater cannot be assured. .35 (see chapter I).I 304 SMALL Thus.

B. 103-D-1 335 L1 = 2d.22 max. simplicity. L1 : BLOCK DETAIL Figure 6-5. i for block width of B = 4 x 1.91 ft. = 1. (3) Determine exact dimensions of baffle blocks and chute width.9 d. = 1. 17 in Block height. Max..83 = 7. Rows 1 and 3: 1 full block = 1w 2 full spaces = 2w 2 half blocks = Iw B = 4w Rows 2 and 4: 2 full blocks = 2w 1 full space = lw 2 half spaces = Iw B = 4w Thus. q = y= 15 cfs.83 = 2. w: Min. w = 1. = 0.75). d.2 ft.83 ft. (2) Determine the limits of baffle block dimensions. = 1. h.0 ft. For d..5 ft.0 ft. based upon critical depth. Use L. fig.83 ft. Select T = 9 inches (see block detail.83 ft. Use hb = 1 ft. (> 1. of any row is B=4w Using the minimum 1.61< 1.. 3 b Try wP = + hb . hb = 1. (>0. 10 in. B=4w=4x2=8ft.. = 1. Use w = 2.22). and wP = 1. 6-5) > 8 inches < 10 inches (4) Determine inlet length. Then. = 2 x 4.ENERGY 305 DISSIPATORS Then. To simplify dimensions.. or 1. wP = khb min. = 8 ft. the total width.75 ft. Block width and space. = 1. Say 1 ft. d. use alternate rows as follows: Then B=% 9 F= 7.32 ft. and 2 h max. As the partial block width. . w = h.5 h. = 2.72 ft. 3 in.8. = 0.6 1 min.1 = 8. 9 in.5 x 1.83<2.o ft. (from table bibliography reference [ 4]). Baffled apron drop design.

26+1. Determine critical velocity.9 1 + 0. + h.91 x 8 = 7. over crest: v =Q ’ = A = (8) Determine the slope distance. =EsI .0.42 ft. 120 d. and dimension e. d. = .85 ft.. h.Esc .0.26 ft. Sill curve dimensions.83 foot (6) Check splashing: inlet velocity to minimize Using a radius. d. L.+d. V.9 1.B 120 1. + d. 3.07) -0.p.96) . z = 0. and splashing will be minimized.p.+h.07) = 0. and an invert slope of 2 to 1) @ = 26’34’ Determine depth. = 7.s. . C -hvI) -(l. C =h.42 = 2. 6-3(d)(6)).7 x 8 and e = h. Then h. =(4. +hvl)-(d. -Although the baffle blocks just downstream from the crest may have some effect on the water depth over the sill.96.2361 = z/R Substituting. 103-D-1336 Use h. . S. Thus. Q A1 d. sin @= 0.63 = 0. at inlet cutoff: G/2 = 13O17’ d.96 . x = &= 1. q = 15 cfs.20 foot. ~ y = 0..86 f. the assumption that critical depth occurs at the sill is adequate for determining the sill height. L. =Q= Then. = h. = x + z = 1. = 10 inches = 0. = 2 (1.63 ft. y = 0.83 .75) = 3. h vc = 0. use S = 6 feet (see subset. the inlet velocity is approximately equal to half the critical velocity. min.0 f.SMALL 306 CANAL STRUCTURES (5) Determine inlet sill height.4472 = y/z tan # = 0.hi (where hi = inlet 10s~) =(d.s.5 ft. as shown in figure 6-5. = 1. Figure 6-6. S = 2 h.5 = y/x +d” 2 = 0. as shown in figure 6-6.68 feet. and V.p.s. between rows of baffle blocks.85 f.10+0.5(0.120 = 4.96 = 3.. .0.91C+o. (7) Determine sill length.2361R = 1. The entrance velocity is then v.70 feet tan @/2 = 0.83 + 1.) Using B = 8 ft.4472~ = 0. R = 6 ft.5(h.

8944) = 1. + 1 ft. h. S. d. (10) Determine apron lengths. The height of the chute walls. F = 6 feet. j. length of L = L.ENERGY 307 DISSIPATORS (9) Determine minimum depth of cover. @$=3.72 ft. L.5 = 10. Minimum rows of blocks: Kows+~ Y where the cutoff depth. 7-2). = 4(6 cos @) = 24 x 0.5 feet for a water depth.75) = 5. L. = 4.5hl + c. Minimum distance.5 feet for an assumed channel water depth of 4. Use h. = 4 (2. = d. to h2 .25 ft.. L.40 ft.10+ 1 = 5.17) + 2. M.=4S = 4 (6) = 24 ft. and with the top of the walls level from h. overall Figure 6. and .1 ft. h. +C. C. (12) Determine the following wall heights (see fig. = 4 ft. = 10 ft. (1 1) Determine structure.8944 = 2 1. = 3( 1. =e+F+j = 0. 6-S): 103-D-1337 ( 14) Determine length. = 3h. 12 +“. Use 4 rows. = 4.1 ft. M. = 5 ft. 2 in. = 5 ft. = S sin $J= 6(0. = 4 s.47 ft.4472) = 2. . L3 and L. = 5 ft.75(0..5 (5. at outlet to insure that the last row of baffle blocks will be covered by the backfill. 7-2).68) = 10. Where the ratio. -h. M3 = 1. 3 in.68 + 21. (13) Determine length. MS.20 + 6 + 4. = 1. Y Y h.47 = 32. 4 in.1 feet (see fig.45 ft. + Lz + L3 = 8. 2 indicates that fewer Y rows would be adequate. Then. 3 in. the minimum number of four rows should be used by extending two or more rows below the downstream grade. M. = 4. = 1. 2 in.68 ft. @= 1. = 4 s. of downstream wingwalls. Finally.25 ft. where the cutoff depth.25 + 2. = 2. C.57 ft. minus 10 in.7. h2 = h. Upstream wingwalls.25 ft.5h. for a drop. placed in the structure to the elevation of the downstream grade.9 . = 2. L. (see fig.25 = 10. as shown in figure 6-7. With a level invert. as shown in figure 6-8. of the upstream wingwalls. .

covers the riprap to the elevation of the natural grade (see fig.1 feet.5 = 11. -Excess energy forces in flowing or falling water must be effectively dissipated to prevent erosion damage to downstream channels.5(5. For the best operation. by the and provide C. Excess 3Civil Engineer. The baffled outlet is a boxlike structure having a vertical hanging baffle and an end sill (figs. and pipe cross-drainage culverts are examples of structures that require some form of energy dissipator. 2-23.25 0.87 ft. whichever is greater. Outlet Protection: Type 3. 103-D-l 338 (with @= 26’34’) 5. Purpose and Description.81 + 2. Inlet Protection: Type 1. or a baffled outlet. the tailwater should be about (t + f) above the invert of the baffled outlet. for inclined drops with a water depth of 4. Bureau of energy of the incoming water jet is dissipated primarily by striking the baffle and to a lesser degree by eddies that are formed after the jet strikes the baffle. Slope Protection: Type 1. B. = 1. placed over the last row of blocks.308 SMALL Figure 6-8. a stilling pool. pipe chutes. Then M. The height of tailwater above the baffled outlet invert should never exceed b + f because then some of the flow will not strike the baffle. BAFFLED OUTLETS R. Downstream h. and up the sloping sides to an elevation 1 foot above the normal water surface. Usually the energy is dissipated in a sumped pipe. A tailwater depth is not required for satisfactory hydraulic performance as is the case for a hydraulic jump basin. as described in subsection 6-3(g). chapter VII. extending a distance d. the baffled outlet invert is usually a distance f below the downstream channel invert. 6-10. ( 16) Check sliding stability of the structure according to the requirements of subsection 6-3(f). Because the baffled outlet does not require tailwater. If the tailwater depth is uncontrolled. cutoff walls if needed. or to top of constructed bank. Note that the backfill. upstream.31 6-5). although a smoother outlet water surface will sometimes result if there is tailwater. and 4-24). extending downstream a distance 4d. Use ( 18) Check percolation requirements of chapter VIII.5 = 8.87) + 2. (17) Determine protection requirements. CANAL STRUCTURES (15) Check flotation of the structure (due to uplift forces) according to the requirements of subsection 6-3(e). Select type of protection from figure 7-8. 4 in. A hydraulic jump is involved with the energy dissipation in a sumped pipe and a stilling pool whereas the baffled outlet is an impact-type energy dissipator. Pipe drops. YOUNG3 6-5. Reclamation. this . = c$ - wingwalls. . 2-25. Hydraulic Structures Branch.8944 = 5. 6-9. and up the sloping sides to an elevation 1 foot above the assumed water surface. M3 = 11 ft.

Also the depth of the baffle should not be less than the diameter of the incoming pipe to prevent the jet from passing over the baffle. -The baffled outlet was developed using hydraulic model studies [5] from which detailed dimensions for the baffled outlet were determined for various Froude numbers. The head. If there is a possibility of both the upstream and downstream ends of the pipe being sealed. For this Froude num ber excess energy is minimal. Other basin dimensions are ratios of the width as shown on figure 6-10. The baffled outlet. Large baffled outlet. the outlet end of the pipe should be turned horizontal for a length of at least 3 pipe diameters so as to direct the jet into the baffle. should be determined using a velocity of 12 feet per second assuming the pipe is flowing full. if the basin is too wide the energy will not be effectively dissipated because the incoming jet will spread and pass under the baffle rather than strike the baffle. However. the depth of the incoming flow. the curve was not extended beyond a width-to-depth ratio of 10. outlet is therefore particularly useful where tailwater depth is uncontrolled or where the rate of discharge increase is sudden and the tail water buildup is slow. the theoretical pipe velocity (~) should be limited to 50 feet per second. Figures 6-11 through 6-20 show complete (continued page 321) . Because the size of the jet was becoming very small in relationship to the width of the basin. F. of the incoming The curve on figure 6-10 indicates the minimum width of basin that should be used for a given Froude number. To standardize the method of computing Froude numbers. 6-6. However. From this data a recommended design curve for determining proper basin widths could be drawn and is shown on figure 6-10. Each of the test flows was judged to be satisfactory or unsatisfactory and plotted in dimensionless terms using Froude number. Therefore the use of this basin for excess energy dissipation appeared to be impractical for ~ ratios smaller than 3. Figure 6. which corresponded to flow having a Froude number of about 9. Water surface roughness and downstream channel erosion together with the ability of the basin to contain the flow were used as guidelines in evaluating the hydraulic performance of the test flows. h. d. The diameter of the pipe outletting into the baffled outlet structure. For partial discharge as well as design discharge. friction loss in long chutes may be significant and therefore it should be considered in the determination of h. thus. best overall dissipation is achieved only if the basin design wid th is equal to or slightly greater than the width determined from the curve for design discharge. if properly designed. Hydrau/ic Considerations. If the entrance pipe slopes downward. To prevent cavitation or impact damage to the basin. the shape of the jet is assumed to be square. is a more effective energy dissipator than the hydraulic jump [ 5] . For a ~ ratio of about 3. is the head to be dissipated and it is usually sufficiently accurate to use the difference in the channel invert elevations at the inlet and outlet ends of the structure for this value. P455-520-408 tests showed that the corresponding Froude number of the incoming flow was about I. an air vent near the upstream end may be necessary to prevent pressure fluctuations and associated surging of flow in the system. is considered to be the square root of its cross-sectional area using the equation A = SJ.ENERGY 309 DISSIPATORS flow and the ratio of basin width to the incoming depth of flow. ~. In this equation V is the theoretical velocity and is equal to ~ [6] .9.

TIsthe area d. Represents width NUMBER of the velocity 5 4 6 7 8 9 43 basin of the incomlng flow and is \12gh to be dissipated of flow entering the basin the depth of flow entering and is Q/V the basin and isfi Figure 6-10.ft. 5 4 m 23 2 -t 4 I I 2 3 FROUDE W.Isthe head A.ft. Is the inside V. Is the theoretical h.ft.ft...I SMALL 310 Protectioc. Design width of basin.fps.as CAN AL required.(W) protection= .. b=?&(W) c=1/2 (W) SECTION Rock diameter for I/. 103-D-1339 IO STRUCTURES ..

ENERGY DISSIPATORS 311 “4@12 "4 Hoop L-IN m SECTION C-C Edge bol PLAN across SECTION s=O for o dlstonce of (It ieo5t 3 c OptlOnOl D-D May beconstructed with 8" heodwoll I" he" of 6'heodwall and 3"collor shown SECTION A-A ELEVATION "4 Hoops E-E NOTE Speclol design IS required where ~ncormng pope diameter IS greater than the Inside depth of baffle SECTION B-B Figure 6-11. Type 1 baffled outlet. 103-D-1340 .

de depth of baffle SECTION B-B Figure 6-12.ome+er 15 greater than the ~ns.SMALL 312 CANAL STRUCTURES Eoptlonol SECTION C-C Edge bar PLAN z’.pe d. Type 2 baffled outlet. 3” 16’y f-0” SECTION 1’ 6’1 * 5-o” / A-A m ELEVATION ESTIMATED concrete Reinforcement steel E-E QUANTITIES 2 8 Cu Yds 230 Lbs NOTE Special desq" 1s reqwred where mcomng p. 103-D-1341 .3” 3’.

SECTION -Splice o’cio*s E optional A-A ELEVATION ESTIMATED SECTION El-8 Figure 6-13. 103-D-1342 E-E QUANTITIES . Type 3 baffled outlet. For face. ocioss SECTION c optlonol -4 1 Edge bar C-C PLAN coarse ‘4Hoops Maybe constructed wifh 8”headwoii in lieu of6’heodwoll and 3”collor shown .6”- .ENERGY DISSIPATORS 313 E Splice 1.

SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES ‘Splfceacross SECTION C-C SECTION D-D C optmnol PLAN 2"Riprop on 6"sond ond gro vel bedding --3 . 103-D-1343 ESTIMATED QUANTITlES E-E . Type 4 baffled outlet. . SECTION B-B Figure 6-14.L..^ NOTE’ May be constructed wth 8”headuali in lieu of6"heodroll ond J'collar shown SECTION A-A Splm ocr**s E optmal ELEVATION r. ..

103-D-1344 E-E ..15.nna/ SECTION C-C _ -i SECT/ON D-D 6” sand bedding SECTION A-A ELEVATION SEC T/ON 5-B Figure 6..mrC 6nn.^^^.. Type 5 baffled outlet.315 ENERGY DISSIPATORS .

Type 6 baffled outlet.3 860 Cu Yds Lbs .SMALL 316 34 CANAL STRUCTURES Edge bars SECTION C-C PLAN Splice *cr*ss E optional’ Q 9”Bond i-e SECTION into side walk 9ravel D-D bedding r 1 .+ SECTION '4@9 - B-B Figure 6-16.I SECTION *4(a/z A-A ELEVATION ESTIMATED Concrete Rei?forceme. 103-D-1345 Steel E-E QUANTITIES il.

' p6” - SECTION P C-C -L -15 L4’.ENERGY DISSIPATORS r -r - splice across 0pt. Type 7 baffled outlet. PLAN if4 SECTION Edge bar each face A-A IT4 %@I2 *4@/2 ELEVATION SECTION B-8 Figure 6-17. 103-D-1346 E-E .0M7/ S4@/2.

Type 8 baffled outlet./’ (I=0 .318 SMALL * 8” Y i - 1 po” CANAL r’ Yplrce SECTION .-i-*4 / Edge bar each face \ cf PIP -2-c --i SECTION SECTION A-A B-8 Figure 6-18. 103-D-1347 across c optionoi I PLAN STRUCTURES c-c .

103-D-1348 .J LSplice *cross EoptiOnol SECTION D-D ELEVATlON E-E ~z”R. Type 9 baffled outlet.prop on 6” sand and qrovel bedding SECTION SEC T/ON A-A B-8 Figure 6-I 9..ENERGY DISSIPATORS E I #4 Edqe hors PLAN 1: Lm3.6.

6 D-D ‘I J .SMALL 320 CANAL SECT/ON STRUCTURES C-C E 2-c Edge bars I PLAN Splice across c 0ptKJnoi' SECTION SECT/ON SECTION A-A B-B Figure 6-20. 103-D-1349 -3'. Type 10 baffled outlet.

-During periods of very low flow or nonoperation. -Selection of the pipe diameter is based on a maximum pipe velocity of 12 feet per second assuming the pipe is flowing full. as an added safety precaution.10.2 x 30 = 43. other types of energy dissipators should be used.f’ the basin dimensions: ( 1) Theore tical velocity V = &!gh = d/z x 32. -Cross-drainage pipe structure with a design Q of 150 cfs. Protection. An air vent into the pipe near the inlet is therefore required.p.85 ft. Minimum pipe area required = vQ -.42ft* 43. Select 4%inch-diameter pipe (A = 12. flow may also enter the basin from a rectangular open channel. the basin is capable of satisfactorily discharging the entire design flow over the top of the baffle. the width of the baffled outlet basin is determined as follows: (1) Compute the theoretical velocity in feet per second. they will not wash out.-The water surface required at the inlet will submerge the top of the pipe and the outlet of the pipe is assumed to be sealed for this example.93 d32. Although uncommon. -(a) Given : (1) Hydvuulic data.* >. (6) Then W in feet = d(!).‘. most having diameters equal to one-twentieth of the basin width. Therefore a baffled outlet may be used.of the pipe diameter 6 no or -2 = 8 inches.150 12 = 12. This protection will generally consist either of 12-inch coarse gravel or 12-inch riprap on a 6-inch sand and gravel bedding. The maximum allowable theoretical velocity is 50 feet per second for a baffled outlet.ENERGY DISSIPATORS design dimensions and details for baffled outlets ranging in widths from 3 feet 6 inches to 14 feet 3 inches with flow entering the baffled outlet from pipes. See figure 7-8.5 ft.85 = 5’7 . of 30 feet. In this case the channel walls should be as high as the basin walls and the invert should be horizontal for a minimum of three channel widths upstream from the basin. Sediment and Debris. There is no practical method of making the basin self-cleaning of debris. Where debris is a problem. F = VQ (5) For this Froude number read T ratio from the curve on figure 6. (3) Air vent requirement. screening devices are recommended at the entrance to the incoming pipe and at some locations it may be advantageous to screen the top of the baffled outlet structure itself. 6-9. This is a serious deficiency of this structure in many locations. If thistles are allowed to enter the basin. -Protection with a well-graded mixture of rocks.57 ft. h.) 321 V (4) Compute the Froude number. A = $ (3) Next compute the depth of flow. 6-7. The vent diameter 1 should be about . d in feet. d = fi (This assumes the shape of the jet is square.2 x 1. (b) Determination o. V = &!gh (2) Then compute the cross-sectional area of the incoming flow in square feet. This is the minimum width which should be used. (4) Froude number F=?= &d (5) !Ratio 43. and a head.s. 6-8. Design Example. (2) Select pipe diamc ter. should be placed to a depth equal to the height of the end sill for a distance equal to one basin width downstream from the end sill. Notches in the baffle permit concentrated jets to form which will normally start erosion of the sediment and eventually wash the sediment from the basin with an increase in flow.93 f.-For a given design Q and head. Basin Width Design Procedure. sediment may accumulate in the basin. However. (2) Area of flow A=% v --15’ -3. such as Russian thistle. h. 6-l 0.93 ’ (3) Depth of flow d=fi=m2= 1. or if practical.

figure 6-20 would be selected to construct the basin. bend losses. D. Field usage and laboratory studies have contributed to the development of design criteria for optimum dissipation of energy in sleeve valve stilling wells. (6) Minimum width of basin W = d x .7 = 14. This arrangement represents the configuration for which design parameters are presented in detail in subsequent paragraphs. HAYES’ ( 1) Basic arrangement (descending flow). cit.. For this particular example. W = 14 feet 3 inches (8) Basin invert. p.dia3 = 0. but the size of rock is much larger than required so this thickness will be considered adequate. with the inflow entering near the top of the well. Use 15 feet.19 cubic foot. ( 2 ) Alternate arrangement (ascending flow). (c) Determination o.71 foot (3) Depth of protection required W = required = T = 14. The general arrangement is of two types: ‘Op. since the average volume of the largest and smallest permissible rock for 12-inch riprap = 0. -(a) Descriptiotz. where an elbow directs it vertically downward through the sleeve valve.85 x 7. CANAL STRUCTURES in diameter is 71 .25 feet. VERTICAL SLEEVE VALVE STILLING WELLS R. it can be seen that coarse gravel protection has a maximum size of $ or 0.= 7. From 6 subchapter VII B.f erosion protection reqrlirements: W = 20 1425 (1) Required rock diameter = 20 = 0. 6-l 1.25 _ 2.-This is the usual arrangement.7. including the notch dimensions are related to the design width and may be computed using relationships to W as shown on figure 6-l 0. and valve losses. Other losses occur through pipeline friction. Therefore.322 SMALL For W F = 5.38 feet. discharging a tranquil flow to the downstream canal. B. 299. = 1.13 cubic foot which is less than required.25 ft. 6-2 1A). Dissipation of energy occurs as the vertical jet strikes the floor and floor cone and as the subsequent radial flow strikes the sidewalls of the well (see fig.IO. (7) Baffled outlet design width Use (2) Length of protection 14. Twelve-inch riprap on 6 6-inch sand and gravel bedding has a total thickness of only 18 inches (1. General. The sleeve valve can also be used to regulate the flow. (9) Other dimensions.-Set the basin invert a distance f below the natural ground surface. Erosion Protection.7 from curve on d figure 6. The next size protection is 12-inch riprap on 6-inch sand and gravel bedding and is adequate. A gate valve is usually required upstream from the sleeve valve to permit closing down the installation for maintenance or for the end of the seasonal operation. coarse gravel is too small and should not be used.-To conform to the ground surface and pipeline profile another configuration is . read .-The vertical sleeve valve stilling well is capable of dissipating an excess head as great as 800 feet. For this particular example. The volume of a rock 0.71 foot. if the baffled outlet in figure 6-20 had been selected the protection would agree with the above protection.5 cubic foot.5 feet).

extending to the sidewalls. it is suspected that the legs may be creating the erosion problem on the sidewalls [7]. The corlzer angle design. (b) Types of Vertical Sleeve ValvespTwo basic types of vertical sleeve valves are used: (1) The standard sleeve valve includes two basic designs. as described in the following paragraph. each using a plain sleeve (without ports). the corner fillet design is illustrated in the following paragraphs. ALTERNATE Figure ARRANGEMENT 6-21. 103-D-1350. as shown in figure 6-22. the earlier designs used a pedestal on the floor of the well. also yields a very smooth outlet water surface and is more economical. 6-21B). As the corner angle design has not yet been proven in the field. Dissipation of energy occurs in a manner similar to that described for the basic arrangement. Turbulence. BASIC ARRANGEMENT Valve stem B. Subsequent designs may locate the supports higher on the vertical pipe. and alinement provided mounting difficulties can be overcome. sometimes used. and cavitation resulted from the location of the . has in the past been supported by legs extending from the bottom of the valve to the floor or pedestal. Recent experience has indicated that the pedestal may be causing concrete erosion in the well and that a more effective arrangement is offered by omitting the pedestal and lining the floor and sides with steel. with the pipe entering the well near the bottom and discharging upward through the sleeve valve (see fig. (3) Horizontal arrangernest. The pedestal also provided a convenient means of seating and anchoring the valve. (4) Other features. The standard sleeve valve. Sleeve valve stilling well arrangements. This arrangement has the advantage that the sleeve valve control stem is not subjected to the high velocity flow encountered in the basic arrangement. as tested in the USBR Hydraulics Laboratory. As this location is in the zone of high velocity and concrete erosion has been experienced on the sidewalls opposite these legs. To improve the energy dissipation characteristics of the well for the basic arrangement. vibration. noise. Most of the earlier sleeve valves incorporated an internal sleeve fastened to an internal valve stem which extended through the vertical pipe and 90’ elbow to the handwheel. consists of a horizontal sleeve valve discharging into a horizontal chamber. currently being developed in the Bureau of Reclamation Hydraulics Laboratory.-A third arrangement. -To assist in obtaining optimum dissipation of energy two innovations have been used in the corners of the stilling well: The cOr?ZeY fillet design [ 73 has resulted in a very smooth water surface at the outlet. giving it the capability of withstanding higher velocities without excessive vibration. as indicated in subsection 6-12(e). The sleeve may be inside or outside the valve housing.ENERGY 323 DISSIPATORS A. except that the initial jet strikes a baffle instead of the floor.

324 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES PLAN SECTION SECTION SECTION A-A C-C VALVE Figure 6-22. B-B . 103-D-135 1. Typical sleeve valve installation DETAIL for pipe turnout.

pump discharge line. (4) Powerplant bypass. suggest some head limitation may constitute an irresponsible omission. a few major aspects warrant careful consideration: (1) Head und velocity. 103-D-1352. 6-23A). (c) Usuge of Verticul Slmve Valve Stilling We&. is being used to dissipate heads considerably greater than those permitted for the standard sleeve valve. However. approximately equal to the operating head on the plant. Further. (2) The ported sleeve vuZve(multijet). (EXTERNAL 1 PORTED SLEEVE SLEEVE SLEEVE) VALVES VALVES Figure 6-23. or cavitation. or pipeline at a location where a considerable excess of head exists (see fig. Subsequent designs have incorporated an external sleeve. providing a gross cross-sectional area of about twice the area of the vertical pipe. the stem connections to the internal sleeve were streamlined to reduce turbulence. as shown in figure 6-23B. -Standard sleeve valves have been used by the Bureau of Reclamation for heads in excess of 400 feet. A modification [8. However. to allow for widely varying the failure to conditions of operation. With proper design of the valve.ENERGY 325 DISSIPATORS stem in the high velocity flow. Therefore the following recommendations are offered as flexible limitations on the maximum permissible pressure head and velocity at the valve while discharging the design flow: 150 feet ~ Standard sleeve valve with internal sleeve and enlarged pipe for bend (30 fps).-A turnout for water delivery may be required from a siphon. dissipating the energy with very little vibration. 101 to the internal sleeve design alleviated this problem by increasing the diameter of the pipe used for the 90’ bend.-Excess energy may exist at the outlet of a pipe extending from a reservoir to a canal. The ported sleeve valve incorporates a perforated housing with many tapered holes Vertical WV? PIP? (INTERNAL SLEEVE A. experience indicates that damage from severe vibration of the internal valve control stem may result where they are used with velocities greater than 30 feet per second in the vertical pipe.-The ability of the vertical sleeve valve stilling well to dissipate high heads is utilized in the following design conditions: (1) Cum1 headworks. (3) Tur/?out. . (d) Limitations. noise. ~ A canal may have a need for a drop on a slope that is too deep for other types of energy dissipators. Flow from the small jets mixes with the water in the well.-In the design of the vertical sleeve valve stilling well. -A powerplant bypass. Typical vertical sleeve valves. 6-22). with stem connections outside the valve and therefore outside the high velocity flow (see fig. or slots of carefully determined sizes and configurations. STANDARD 8. carrying the discharge that would otherwise flow through the penstocks and must dissipate a head the powerplant. head in itself need not be a limiting factor. This design greatly reduces the possibility of cavitation and vibration in the valve and obviates the need for an enlarged bend. (2) Pipe drop.

is the cross-sectional area of the pipe. -The horizontal and vertical components of the hydrostatic force on the 90’ bend are: F. as the resulting water-hammer pressures [ 91 could destroy the installation. The minimum length of the reducer is then equal to AD. 6 . -The standard sleeve valve can tolerate a small amount of the load which usually weed or trash accompanies the flow in an open irrigation system. Current investigations arouse confidence that improvement to the ported sleeve valve will soon permit satisfactory performance for heads to 800 feet. Where a pipe turnout branches off from a pipeline.x = FaY = QpV The horizontal and vertical components of the total thrust force are shown to be equal where a 90’ pipe bend has a uniform diameter of pipe Thus. (2) Water quality. should be used only where clean water is assured by screening. and is the hydrostatic head at the centerline of the pipe. the total thrust force.coscu-V. 600 feet .4132.x = Fhy = wAH = 62. Design Considerations (Standard Sleeve Valve with Corner Fillets in Well).94. and 01= 90°. the sleeve valve opening should be adjusted to conform to the change in discharge. p = w/g = 62. -(a) Itllet Conditions. V is the velocity in feet per second. F. thus reducing the velocity in the bend [ lo].ay = Qp (V. vibration. sin cy.-To minimize noise. The ported sleeve valve. however. the standard sleeve valve with an internal sleeve and stem should have an inlet bend which provides a gross cross-sectional area equal to about twice the area of the vertical pipe.Ported sleeve valve with enlarged pipe for bend (38 fps).) and F. should be resolved into two forces.I 2. A thrust force on the pipe bend results from the change in direction of flow and should be balanced by an opposing force supplied by suitable anchorage as shown in figure 6-22. -The horizontal and vertical components of the acceleration force on the 90’ bend are as follows: F ax =-Qp (V. 6-24). F. A reducer is required to comrect the bend to the vertical pipe. and cavitation. representing the horizontal and vertical components of the thrust force. This adjustment can be simplified by the use of automatic or remote control to synchronize the pipe flow with the upstream discharge. and F. . and cr is the change in direction of flow in degrees. FTx = FTy = 50D2H+QpV . = V. the difference in diameters.4 ‘F H = 50D2H where w A D H is the weight of water per cubic foot. is the inside diameter of the pipe. (3) Opcratiolzal limitations-To avoid air problems in the pipe upstream from the stilling well.326 400 feet ~ Standard sleeve valve with external sleeve (38 fps). (see fig. the sleeve valve should be operated in such a way that the pipe will flow full.2 = 1. F.0) where Q is the discharge in cubic feet per second. To SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES provide adequate anchorage of the sleeve valve. The thrust force is a function of two forces as follows: (1) Hydrostatic force. It should have a convergence no greater than 1 in 2 on each side [8]. (2) Acceleration force. When V. As the canal discharge varies. Rapid closure of the sleeve valve should be avoided. the centerline of the turnout pipe should be set at the centerline of the pipeline.. Inlet trashracks should be submerged to facilitate the intake of clean water.

. The sleeve diameter. H. The cone also improves the sensitivity of the valve to small adjustments. F. 103-D-1353. and the diagonal opening. has a flow area. The head. Valves have been tested with various port (c) Hydraulic Requirements. As the head. F. as shown in figure 6-22. For control of flow velocities at higher heads. -The standard sleeve valve usually has a sleeve travel equal to one-half the sleeve diameter. a = 0. . -The sleeve valve is often designed for manual operation with adaptability to power operation. H. -The standard sleeve valve usually has D a maximum sleeve travel equal to 2. AH. A. (2) Ported sleeve valve. A. The sleeve is raised by the handwheel. the smaller the greater its the discharge and susceptibility to plugging.. the orifice area of the sleeve valve is greater than the cross-sectional area of the valve. the more rapid is the diffusion of its jet and the greater the energy dissipation. The orifice of a valve with a 45’ cone. A handwheel attached to the valve stem is operated to adjust the valve opening as follows: ( 1) Standard sleeve valve. . a. -The ported sleeve valve has a sleeve similar to the internal sleeve of the standard sleeve valve.707a. the worst condition is not always apparent without a hydraulic analysis (see comments in (3) below. The sleeve diameter should be large enough to permit discharge of the design flow when fully open. A steel truncated cone is located under and concentric to the valve. x should be resisted by adequate horizontal bracing. (b) Sleeve Valve Design. H. should be resisted by the legs placed at or%ear the base of the vertical pipe. The horizontal thrust force. (4) Orifice area (standard sleeve valve).ENERGY DISSIPATORS 327 sizes and shapes. This diameter may not be the same as the diameter of the pipeline or of the pipe bend. (3) Sleeve valve diameter.-The diameter of the vertical pipe and sleeve valve should be determined for maximum design discharge when minimum head exists. when the vertical opening. (2) Velocity. It provides a seat for the beveled edge of the sleeve and seals off the flow when the valve is fully closed. Figure 6-24. exposing the ported (or perforated) housing. Thrust forces on bend. = 0. as shown in figure 6-25.. The head. Further testing is necessary before optimum port size. and in section 6-l l(d)(3). When 2 fully open. and the vertical thrust force. equal to the cross-sectional area of the valve. -The head.H.46 D. and cone angle can be varied to meet specific conditions..-To reduce the threat of cavitation in the valve. Complete closure of the standard sleeve valve would shut off all flow. the smaller the port. The bottom row of ports should be about 24 port diameters above the base to eliminate cavitation damage [7]. a conservative velocity limitation should not exceed 30 feet per second when using an internal sleeve and 38 feet per second when using an external sleeve. to be dissipated by the sleeve valve is the differential pressure head across the valve equal to H. is measured from the centerline of the pipe to the hydraulic gradient immediately upstream from the valve elbow. and distance from the well surfaces can be established. it may be desirable to oversize the sleeve and increase the cone angle. is measured from the same pipe centerline elevation to the water surface in the well. However.. as shown in figure 6-28. (1) Head. the valve . The smaller the individual port. varies with the upstream water surface and also with the discharge. shape. travel. Therefore.

Head loss coefficient for the standard sleeve valve. Substituting or D. . 6-26). when the valve is fully open (a = 0. K = v= 1. (d) Well Dimctzsiotls (set jig. and V is the velocity in the vertical pipe. = D.).. is related to the head loss coefficient. 6-25).5. where AH is the differential head across the valve.707an (D.-Laboratory studies [ 71 indicate a head loss coefficient.73 for the fully open valve.84 (see fig. (i-28 Jar /zornctzcluture).). 103-D-1354. Orifice of the standard sleeve valve. A.328 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Figure 6-2. ~ . = 0. Figure 6-26. b and read the ratio D” where Q is the design discharge in cubic feet per second. 103-D-1355.>. A.707a (nD.46D. (5) Dischurge coejficim t for stmdurd s 1e e v e valve. -Well dimensions are determined from figure 6-27 as follows: Enter along the abscissa with [g 1“’ Q’ Follow vertically to the curve representing h’ and then horizontally to the ordinate. can be considered 100 percent open when a = 0. = 0. c=&= 0. D. . C.735 Use C = 0.46 D. The valve discharge coefficient.t( see fig. as follows: K=-L c‘2 When the valve is fully open. The orifice area. K.

is the valve diameter in feet. d. it has been established that satisfactory performance is achieved using well depth to width ratios. the well width and depth where d. 103-D-1 356.5 (see fig. . D” is the acceleration of gravity (32.$ and where d. 103-D-1357.=l. dW d.0 Figure 6-2 7.5 b B.2 feet per second per second). ‘ After determining from figure 6-27.ENERGY DISSIPATORS A. 6-28) or h’ = 1. Typical sleeve valve and stilling well. Based on a ratio. the dimension amount.=Zb and b = 2.8h for l.l/2 to 1 side slope and h’ = 2. < b 2’ . d-=W 1. >i. is the width of the well in feet (3 ft minimum required for access). From the Bureau of Reclamation Hydraulics Laboratory Studies [ 71 .sb w ELEVATION SEC SECTION C-C A-A Figure 6-28. Vertical sleeve valve stilling well dimensions. 329 d. Based on a ratio. h’= zh g b dW Figures 6-27A and 6-27B are provided to utilize both ratios. The foregoing well dimensions are valid for a tailwater depth to well width ratio. and is the depth of the well in feet as shown in figure 6-28.23h for 2 to 1 side slope. d -L= 0. could be reduced by the d.

(f) Outlet Transition. and erosion resistance of the tailwater channel or canal.2 ft. (e) Armor Plating. the total water surface differential is equal to 1. removing all but small debris. equal to 0. as between the maximum and minimum water surfaces in a reservoir.). a baffled apron drop is sometimes used in conjunction with. h. The transition is usually the broken-back type. Allowing a loss of 0.lOOb 0. plus transition losses. Where the tailwater elevation may vary considerably. (a) Assumptions. For the range of discharges treated in this text.5 D. Design Example.10 foot (0. they should be covered with a steel cover as follows: l/2-inch-thick stainless steel on the floor and on the sidewalls to a height of 1. v = 1. The water surface in the well must be higher than the tailwater elevation by an amount equal to the velocity head.s. AH. Establishing a permissible tailwater wave height is a judgment factor based upon the depth. .330 SMALL the dimension d. is considered to be permissible. 6-13. measured vertically from trough to crest (see fig.. = 0. leaving a differential head: AH= 150- 50= lOOfeet (4) The basic arrangement (downward flow) best fits the profile.69 f. a permissible wave height.3nh. h. (6) A tailwater wave height. friction and bend losses plus pipe velocity head are equal to a total of 50 feet. To avoid damage from galvanic action. care should be taken to prevent contact between the stainless steel and the reinforcement steel.-To prevent cavitation or abrasion damage to the floor and walls of the stilling well. freeboard. s = 0. (1) Canal properties are as follows: Maximum Q = b= ss = n= 70 c. h. The velocity head in the well is considered to be zero (in the direction of the downstream flow).0003 (2) The maximum differential head. amount should be increased by the g.025 d... It is decided to accomplish the drop with a pipe and vertical sleeve valve stilling well. where Ah.-The flow from the well is discharged through a rectangular opening.417b 0.s. -To prevent erosion damage in the outlet channel.210b 0. (g) Outlet Protection. 8 ft.f. = 3.05 times the normal depth is recommended (see fig. or downstream from.3Ah. as indicated for a closed conduit drop with baffled pipe outlet. measured from the upstream canal water surface to the dcwnstream canal water surface. which is suitable for a well-defined channel or canal section.02 to 0. l-1/2: 1 0.04 ft. Therefore. in the downstream section.dll Corner fillet dimensions are determined from the following relationships: C= J= F= and Z = O. of about 0. the total water surface differential is equal to 1. for the broken-back transition. (5) Trashracks at the inlet to the pipe drop assure fairly clean water through the valve. the sleevevalve stilling well.715 See figure 6-28 for nomenclature. h. across the closed valve is 150 feet.3 times the downstream velocity head. -A canal profile requires a drop of 150 feet on a steep slope. The steel plating should be welded at junctions and should be anchored to the concrete with stainless steel anchors to prevent loosening. 6-28). through a transition to the outlet channel or canal. (3) At the design flow of 70 cfs. is the difference in CANAL STRUCTURES velocity heads in the well and in the downstream section.p. protection should be provided in accordance with figure 7-8.031 d. The design of the outlet transition should be similar to that discussed for bench flumes (subchapter II D). 6-28).

0 2 x 2. using a coefficient of discharge.-Check the adequacy of the 21-inch-diameter sleeve valve.1 f. = A.41 sq. Q 30= 70 2.41)~/64. or the minimum head of 100 feet during maximum discharge. (close enough) . (2) Diameter. A.74 sq. to discharge the design flow. and V. a. A. Thus.41 sq.. = 0. equal to 72 percent. determine the required valve opening.4~100 = 141>70 cfs Then.p.75 > 1. From figure 6-26. = 2. minimum Use From the orifice orifice area. Thus Use 1 foot. fig?= 1. c = 0.73. or equal to 72 K = 4. with A. (3) 90’ elbow and taper.. D.ENERGY 331 DISSIPATORS (b) Solution. the pipe diameter for the bend./A. ft. the diameter of 21 inches (determined to prevent cavitation) is more than adequate to discharge the design flow. Try an area ratio. ft. A.-The long-radius bend should have a pipe diameter providing a gross area equal to twice the area of the vertical pipe.33 sq. Therefore. (1) Sleeve vulve type.725 feet.= 2.72 x 2. A.41 = 4. = 29.75) = 0.82 sq. ft. (4) Discharge. the diameter of the valve (and vertical pipe).5oJi?ixam = 1.-Using a trial-and-error method. Use D. and AH = 100 ft. From the orifice equation. = The length of the taper should be at least: LID = (2./A.75 feet.= 1 0.75 ft. D. = A.s. AH = 100 ft. the required --% C&!gER D.41 = 1. = 2.50 equation. and it is better able than the ported valve to pass the small debris that may pass through the trashracks. = 1. = 2. (5) Required vulva ope?lirzg. A.50 ft. percent.73 (2. for a discharge of 70 cfs.72A.1. ft. 70 0.-A standard sleeve valve with an internal sleeve is adequate for dissipating the maximum head of 150 feet. the diameter of the vertical pipe and sleeve valve is determined on the basis of a maximum velocity of 30 feet per second.74 sq.-To minimize cavitation. with a differential head. giving c=== Then. Anchorage of the bend should be designed to resist the thrust forces discussed in subsection 6-12(a). ft.).48 ft. = 0. when fully open (A. A= v= Q = CA&m = 0.5 . ft.

g(16. n = 3. b and d. = 11 ft.707 arr(D.88 a ~ 1. d. = 3.lo.38 feet (6) Determine well dimensions.58 . = Say d.510 = o. 2 in.18 ft.76 + 0.8 . Actually From the equation for area of the sleeve valve orifice (see subsection 6-l 2(c)(4)). v l/2 = 3.45 x 1.1. d. should be determined again.1 la* where Then. =$ h’ D.2 = 0.27)“’ Using the curve. 4v using figure 6-27A. = 0.5 Thus. 1/z Q’ c g(D.5 b = 1. find b D. should be increased. the well depth.22 a (1. .).75 = 3.75 = 7. . = 1. in tailwater depth.75 . 6=+-d a = 0. are valid.5 x 7.05 On the abscissa. . = 10. and d. >” I (70)* 1 /2 [ 1 (7) For an economic comparison.) .= 4. (say b = 7 ft.3.1. the dimensions. and CANAL STRUCTURES d. as before. an orifice area equal to 72 percent of the valve area is sufficient for the design discharge at the design head.38 = 11.0 b = 3.2 feet b 717 -= &= 2 2 3.75 = 6. find b D.17= 10.= 0. .= 2. 6.75 = 2. only if: d.76 feet These values for b and d.04 feet (use b = 6 ft.332 SMALL Therefore. the required sleeve travel. or from the quadratic equation.58 feet A.1 x 1.10. 1. with a ratio.4) 1. = 3. b and d. resulting in a depth d. and using the same curve. 2 in. using figure 6-27B. . by trial.g) Therefore.45 Then b = 3. as indicated in subsection 6-l 2(d). where Then. b = 4. dw .05 . h’= D. with a ratio T = 1.14 feet On the abscissa. should be increased to compensate for the relative deficiency.55 ft.41) = (9. lD8” .

J = 0. H. 24-1971 United States Department of the Interior-Bureau of Reclamation.8 ft. “Sleeve Valves” from “Institute on Control of Flow in Closed Conduits. resulting in a (10) Outlet trmsition and losses.14.. E. 1973. A. b is slightly more economical. P.0 .100 x 7.100 b = 0.2 = 11.2 feet F = 0.05 ft. and Brater. 1973. 8 in.” Research Report No.” Bureau of Reclamation. Bibliography. a broken-back transition should be used.” Water Power.63 ft. (use 3 ft. E. 3. John. “Waterhammer Analysis. Assuming the more economical well is obtained by using the dimensions resulting in the smaller concrete area.ENERGY DISSIPATORS 333 (8) Determine the following from the established ratios: and d. “Hydraulic Model Studies of Vertical Stilling Wells. (11 Peterka. E.-The earth section of the canal downstream from the vertical sleeve valve stilling well should be protected from erosion by providing type 2 protection. in accordance with figure 7-8. could be reduced. September 1969.=. (1 1) Outlet protection. “Hydraulic and Excavation Tables.3.” Bureau of Reclamation. H.17 = 1. BIBLIOGRAPHY 6.= 1.0. (use 18 in. in Flow [lo] Miller. [6] King. Thus. D. dw .” Bureau of [41 Reclamation.2 .3 x 0. 1963.” Colorado State University. Say 11 ft.0 = 0. Revised Reprint.417 x 7.. C= 0.04 = 0. E.2 ft. New York. [5] “Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basin or Channel Outlets. =2b= 12ft. the well depth.5. Reprint. 1974.5x1. 1.” Fifth Edition. Second Edition. extending 14 feet beyond the concrete transition. “Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basins and Energy Dissipators.17 = 2. F.” Bureau of Reclamation. Eleventh Edition.” 1955.) These dimensions are valid only if d. J.. 1957.) b 76 = 3.5D.) Actually d. . d.. Bureau of Reclamation. s=d. loin.417 b = 0.-As the canal section is well defined. McGraw-Hill Book Co. [9] Parmakian.210 b = 0. [7] Burgi. 1967. = 1. L = 3.3nhv = 1. 1974. “Some Recent Developments Regulating Valves. could be reduced to compensate for the relative excess of tailwater depth.0 feet T= and (9) Steel plating should be provided in accordance with subsection 6-l 2(e). and the water surface differential from the well to the canal is equal to: 12. [8] Johnson. (use 9 in. 1964.51 ft. extending up the sidewalls to a minimum height: Therefore. 1970. “Handbook of Hydraulics. the structure designed with a ratio. d.72 ft. depth of dimensions Use 2 ft. for Canals and Related Structures.-$ 1. [3] “Design of Small Dams.75 = 2.99 ft.17 = 0. (21 “Design Standards No.210 x 7.. = 3. W.

.

2-19) are discussed in other chapters. 2-6. and freeboard at the cutoff are applicable. Earth transitions are used to transition base width. Transi tions usually produce gradually accelerating velocities in inlet transitions and gradually decelerating velocities in outlet transitions. B. Purpose and Description. Types. YOUNG A. of Figure 7-1. invert elevation. 7-1. (2) straight warp. P33-D-25693 335 . The refinement of rectangular to round transitions is usually not justified for capacities discussed in this publication. (3) minimize canal erosion. I. Closed transitions are used to further reduce energy losses for pipe structures by providing an additional gradual change of water prism cross section from rectangular to round. -The most common concrete transi tions for in line canal structures are: ( I ) streamlined warp. Broken-back refers to the intersection of the vertical and sloping plane surfaces on the sides of the transition as shown on figures 1-12. Bureau structure or concrete transition to that of the waterway section. Type 1 concrete transition. Transitions are either open (no top) or closed. Hydraulic Structures Branch. and (3) broken-back. cutoff dimensions. Broken-back transitions used with structures other than pipe structures (fig. TRANSITIONS General 7-I.-(a) Inline Canal Structure Transitions. and (6) to retain earthfill at the ends of structures.« Chapter VII R. Open transitions may be either concrete or earth. However. 7-2. criteria in this chapter for water surface angles. the allowable pipe velocity may be increased and the size of pipe may be decreased if sufficien t head is available. (5) provide additional stability to adjacent structures because of the added resistance to percolation. Engineer. and side slopes from a canal 1 Civil Reclamation. -Transitions usually produce gradual changes in water prism cross sections and are used at structure inlets and outlets and at changes in canal sections to: (I) provide smoother water flow. The streamlined and straight warp transitions will not be discussed because their refinement is usually not justified for the capacity range in this publication. (2) reduce energy loss. and 7-2 and is sometimes also referred to as dogleg. (4) reduce ponded water surface elevations at cross-drainage structures. Because of the improved flow conditions at the ends of a pipe structure.

considered adequate for determining energy losses for earth transitions connecting a canal section to a pipe are K.6 should be used. the top of the opening at the outlet transition headwall should have little or no submergence.7 for the outlet or inlet loss = 0. a type 2. = 0. For minimum head loss. Dimensions for broken-back transitions are usually such that additional transitioning to the canal section must be made with an earth transition where the canal is earth and a lined transition where the canal is lined.’ Q = CA= x pipe area x discharge coefficient 4 2 x g x head. and it is usually considered adequate in the hydraulic design to use only the concrete transition losses with the assumption that the velocity at the transition cutoff is the same as the velocity in the canal. ) Ah. figures 7-5 and 4-22: and type 4. Coefficients of Ah. Hydraulic S24bmergencc. (b) Cross-drainage Pipe Structure Trunsitiom-The most common concrete transitions used with cross-drainage structures are type 1 (broken-back). A type 1 transition is used if the natural drainage channel has a well-defined cross section with dimensions that can reasonably be transitioned to the broken-back cross section.5 times the difference of velocity heads in the pipe and canal ( 1. 7-3. However.4 for the inlet and K. The seal is measured between the upstream water surface of the inlet transition and the top of the opening in the transition headwall. type 2. See chapter IV for further discussion of cross-drainage structures. the head required to discharge the design flow can be determined by the orifice equation [ 11. 2Numbers set 7-16 in brackets refer to items in the bibliography.5 Ah. the head loss should be computed on the basis of a sudden enlargement rather than as an outlet transition. = 0. Where an inlet transition connects to a free-flow closed conduit in such a way that the conduit inlet is sealed. Desigrr Considerations for Pipe Structure Transitions -(a) Pipe Design. figures 7-6 and 7-7. If the submergence exceeds one-sixth of the depth of the opening at the outlet.) or 3 inches minimum.. which are considered adequate for determining energy losses in broken-back transitions are K. figures 7-4 and 4-19. Addition of an inlet transition to a cross-drainage pipe structure permits the pipe inlet to be lowered which results in lowering of the required upstream water surface (provided the control is upstream). or 4 transition is usually more suitable. 2. (b) Head Losses. and Kz are transition head loss coefficients described in the following paragraphs. -The energy head loss in a concrete transition will depend primarily on the difference between the velocity heads (Ah. at the outlet. figure 7-2. Coefficients used with Ah. This inlet submergence allows for a pipe entrance loss and a conversion of static head in the canal to full-pipe velocity head.0 for the outlet. Lower upstream water surface minimizes inundation of farmland and increases the canal embankment freeboard. and outlet loss = 0.5 for the inlet and Kz = 1.336 SMALL A type 5 transition (fig. ee . The head is measured from the center of the headwall opening to the inlet water surface.) at the cutoff end of the transition (usually taken to be the canal velocity head) and at the normal to centerline section of the closed conduit at the headwall.4 Ah.. Where the uphill canal bank obstructs storm runoff from a relatively wide or lesser defined drainage channel. = 0. Friction losses for short transitions associated with capacities up to 100 cfs will be small and are usually omitted. 7-3) is sometimes used to transition from a concrete-lined canal to a pipe structure. 3. at the inlet. energy losses attributed to these transitions are small. and a discharge coefficient of C = 0. and AWS = ( l-K2 ) Ah.7 ah. The transition energy head loss will be greater with this transition than with a more streamlined transition. and K. transitions to pipe structures where the hydraulic control is at the downstream end of the structure should have a seal of 1. -Inlet CANAL STRUCTURES Theoretical differences in water surface in the canal and immediately inside the conduit at the headwalls are: AWS = (l+K. These values omit the small transition friction losses. type 3.

TRANSITIONS

AND

EROSION

PROTECTION

ON

337

8-E

PLAN

-

,

LONGlTUDlNAL

SECTION
DIMENSIONS

SECTION
ISECT!ON

c-c

A-A
SW!‘““,

Figure 7-2. Concrete transitions-type

1. 103-D-1288

d

AN0

tw

338

SMALL

Figure 7-3. Concrete transitions-type

5. 103-D-1289

CANAL

STRUCTURES

TRANSITIONS

339

AND

r

B>

t

t--- F

Space

horirontolly

on Structure

E’
OUTLET

INLET

TYPICAL

PLANS

Pppe emoedment.

LONGITUDINAL

SECTlONS

c

*4 @)12 Bend i
mto w/i /

SECT/ON
A-A
ISECTION 8-B SIMILAR,

Figure 7-4. Concrete transitions-type

2. 103-D-1290

SMALL

340

CANAL

STRUCTURES

24

Q

/z

Bend

mto

heodwoll

24
of

PLAN

SECTION

embedment

f concrete

SECTION

STR.

MAX.

pioe

A-A

DlMENSlONS

EST

QUANTITIES

1.90
200
0’1

6’

615’

26

2 6

210

24”

2 8

220

30

240

.,24’
‘-0-l

3:6

1
0’1

6’

24’

3.2

260

8’

$6”

4 3

290
320
340

Tabulated
d/mensions
and
wth
full-p!pe
velocfties

ml w/mum
ronglng

Ok, proude
up to IO fps

freeboard

at

the

heodwoll,

Figure 7-5. Concrete inlet transitions-type

3. 103-D-1291

(?4

@ 12 /n center

B-B

@ 12 In center
heodwoll

of

heodwoll

TRANSITIONS

AND

EROSION

PROTECTION

/

Symm

341

about

t-

PLAN

Ape

SECTION

SEC

TABLE

OF

Figure

T/ON

DIMENSIONS

A -A

B-E

AND

QUANTITIES

7-6. Concrete inlet transitions-type

4. 103-D-1292

embedmenf

342

Figure

SMALL

7-7.

Type

4 inlet

concrete

transition.

P-328-70t-9300

(c) Water Surface Angle.- To obtain the
most desirable hydraulic conditions, the angle
between the water surface and the transition
centerline should not exceed 27-1/2° for inlet
transitions and 22-1/2° for outlet transitions.
For some structure designs it may be
economical to use an angle of 25° to allow the
same concrete transition to be used for both
inlet and outlet. For this angle the loss
coefficients remain 0.5 for the inlet and 1.0 for
the outlet.
(d) Channel Erosion.-To
prevent undue
channel erosion downstream from a structure
outlet, the following criteria for pipe velocity
should be observed. If the pipe velocity is equal
to or less than 3.5 feet per second, an earth
outlet transition is usually sufficient. If the
pipe velocity is greater than 3.5 feet per second
a concrete outlet transition or other outlet
structure is required. If the pipe velocity is
greater than 10 feet per second a baffled outlet
or a stilling pool should be used.
7-4. Cutoffs.-Cutoffs
are provided
to
reduce percolation around transitions and to
add stability
and structural
strength to
transitions. Cutoffs are required at the ends of
transitions in concrete-lined canals as well as in
other lined or earth canals.
Cutoff
walls should, in general, be a
minimum of 24 inches deep for water depths
up to 3 feet at the cutoff; 2 feet 6 inches deep
for water depths of 3 to 6 feet; and 3 feet for
water depths greater than 6 feet. For some
small structures, 18-inch cutoffs may be
satisfactory .The minimum concrete thickness

CANAL

STRUCTURES

ShoUld be 6 inches for 18- and 24-inch cutoffs
and 8 inches for cutoffs deeper than 24 inches.
Excavation for the structure may disclose soils
that are unusually susceptible to piping, in
which case the cutoff ShoUld be extended
vertically or horizontally,
or both, beyond
these
minimums
to provide adequate
protection against percolation. Nonreinforced
Concrete may be used for the extension.
7-5. Standardization. -Concrete
transitions
may be standardized as a means of reducing
CoSt by designing them to fit a range of
conditions thereby rendering them applicable
for a number of transition installations. If
Concrete transitions are standardized for inline
canal structures it will probably be necessary to
supplement the Concrete transitions with earth
or Concrete lining transitions to complete the
transitioning to the canal section. Transition
losses for these supplemental transitions are
usually neglected.
7-6.
Type
1
Transitions
(Broken-back). -Figure
7-2 ShoWS a typical
type I transition. The type I transition is
generally used with inline structures because of
its applicability to a well-defined channel croSS
section.
A transition length L equal to three times
the pipe diameter has given satisfactory
performance
in providing
the necessary
distance for smoothly changing the water
velocity.
Dimension B is chosen So that the I-I/2 to I
sloping walls are approximately tangent to
the opening at the headwall, and may be
determined using the relationship, B = 0.303
times the pipe diameter. The computed value is
rounded to the nearest greater inch.
The base width C at the cutoff walls is
dependent on the design refinement of the
water surface angle. If y -6 inches is assumed
to be approximately the same as the depth d in
the canal at the cutoff, an acceptable C value
can be determined by using the following water
surface angles, equations, and relationships for
pipe diameter D to depth d:
For a water surface angle of 22-1/20:
C = 0.5D when D = d,
C = I.ID when D = 1.25d,
C = 1.5D when D = 1.5d, and
C = 2D when D = 2d

TRANSITIONS

AND

EROSION

PROTECTION

For a water surface angle of 25’:
C=
C=
C=
C=

0.8D
1.4D
1.8D
2.3D

when
when
when
when

D
D
D
D

=
=
=
=

d,
1.25d,
l.Sd, and
2d

For a water surface angle of 27-l/2’:
C=
C=
C=
C=

l.lDwhenD=d,
1.7D when D = 1.25d,
2.1D when D = l.Sd, and
2.6D when D = 2d

Additional transitioning
to the canal base
width, if required, can be accomplished with an
earth or concrete-lined transition.
Dimension y should not be less than the
sum of the water depth at the cutoff and
design freeboard at the cutoff. To avoid
unnecessary erosion in an earth canal, it is
desirable to set the invert of the transition
cutoff at the canal invert. Freeboard at the
transition cutoff adjacent to concrete canal
other
hard
surface
or
lining
or
buried-membrane canal lining is usually the
same as that of the lining. For capacities up to
50 cfs this freeboard will usually be 6 inches,
and for capacities between 50 and 100 cfs the
freeboard will generally range between 6 and 9
inches. In unlined and earth-lined canals the
minimum freeboard at broken-back transition
cutoffs should be as follows:
Water

depth at cutoff,
feer
0 to 1.25
1.26 to 2.00
2.01 to 5.00

Minimum

freeboard,
inches
6
9
12

The value for p is the difference in elevations
of the inverts at the transition cutoff and at the
headwall opening. The invert at the headwall
opening is established by the required
submergence of the top of the opening as
previously discussed, and the invert at the
transition cutoff is assumed to be the same as
the canal invert. The p value should not exceed
:D for an inlet transition or ;D for an outlet
transition. These dimensions provide maximum
floor slopes of 4 to 1 for inlet transitions and 6

343

to 1 for outlet transitions. If additional
transitioning to the canal invert is required, it
should be accomplished in the adjacent earth
transitions, or with concrete lining for a
concrete-lined canal.
Dimension “a” is dependent on the design
headwall freeboard and the invert of the
opening established by required submergence
as previously discussed. The freeboard at the
broken-back transition headwall should be as
great as or greater than the freeboard shown in
the preceding tabulation for freeboard at the
cutoff.
Headwall freeboard for transitions
connected to 24-inch-diameter pipe and smaller
may be the same as the freeboard at the cutoff,
therefore the tops of broken-back transition
walls are level for this pipe diameter range. For
larger diameters, the transition
headwall
freeboard should increase as the size of the
structure increases; frequently, freeboard at the
headwall will be twice that at the cutoff.
Cutoff dimensions have previously been
discussed in section 7-4, and required pipe
embedment at the headwall is discussed in
chapter VIII.
7-7. Type 2 Transition.-Figure
7-4 shows a
typical type 2 transition. Dimensions in the
table are for pipe diameters sized for a full-pipe
flow velocity of 10 feet per second, and a
free-flow pipe with hydraulic control at the
inlet transition headwall. A free-flow pipe is
common for cross-drainage culvert structures
where the water surface at the outlet is usually
considerably below the invert of the opening at
the inlet headwall. A maximum full-pipe flow
velocity of 10 feet per second is permitted for
culvert
structures having
cross-drainage
concrete outlet transitions.
To prevent degradation at the inlet, the
invert at the transition cutoff is located at or
near existing ground surface. Sloping the
transition floor lowers the headwall opening,
and because the hydraulic control for the
design flow is at the inlet headwall, the water
surface required to discharge the flow is also
lowered.
Inlet sidewalls are flared for three reasons:
(1) to produce a more hydraulically efficient
entrance condition for the opening (orifice) at
the headwall, (2) to provide a width at the
cutoff sufficient to insure that the hydraulic
control of the water surface is at the pipe
entrance, and (3) to provide a greater width at

SMALL

344

the cutoff which reduces the likelihood of
erosion by reducing the depth and velocity for
flows less than design flow. Flaring the outlet
sidewalls also allows the water to be released at
the cutoff with less likelihood of erosion for
partial flows.
The tabulated dimensions (fig. 7-4) provide
for freeboard at the inlet headwall which
increases as the size of the structure increases.
If submergence of the top of the headwall for
design flow is not objectionable, the listed
transition dimensions may also be used for the
design flow for a full-pipe velocity of 12 feet
per second. This velocity is allowed if a baffled
outlet is used.
To provide adequate freeboard for the canal,
the inlet water surface for design flow
should be at least 2 feet below the top of the
canal bank. The orifice equation, [ I] Q =
CA&?$
may be used to calculate the inlet
water surface required to discharge the design
flow. For a type 2 inlet transition, a discharge
coefficient, C = 0.6 may be used. The head, h,
measured from the centerline of the opening to
the water surface for free flow may be
conveniently determined by rearranging the
orifice equation and making appropriate
substitutions:
h = 0.0433V2
where V is the design velocity for the pipe.
7-8. Type 3 Transitions.-Figure
7-5 shows a
typical type 3 transition. Dimensions provided
in the table are for capacities from 16 to 70 cfs
and pipe diameters of 24 through 36 inches.
Full-pipe velocities range from about 5 feet per
second for 24-inch-diameter pipe to about 10
feet per second for all pipe diameters listed.
The dimensions provide control at the inlet
headwall and also freeboard at the headwall for
the design capacity and free-flow pipe. A
maximum full-pipe flow velocity of 10 feet per
second is permitted for cross-drainage culverts
having concrete outlet transitions.
To prevent degradation at the inlet, the top
of the inlet wall is placed at or near existing
ground surface. Lowering the transition floor
by an amount equal to B lowers the headwall
opening and, because the hydraulic control is

CANAL

STRUCTURES

at the inlet headwall, the water surface
required to discharge the design flow is also
lowered.
Structures numbered 24-4, 27-2, 30-2, 33-2,
and 36-l may also be used for capacities
greater than those tabulated with resulting
full-pipe velocities up to 12 feet per second,
provided there is a baffled outlet or a stilling
pool for these higher capacities and provided
freeboard at the headwall is not required.
To provide adequate canal bank freeboard,
the inlet water surface for design flow should
be at least 2 feet below the top of the canal
bank. The orifice equation [ 11, Q = CA&!&
may be used to calculate the inlet water surface
required to discharge the design flow. For type
3 inlet transitions, a discharge coefficient, C =
0.6 may be used. The head, h, measured from
the centerline of the opening to the water
surface for free flow may be conveniently
determined by rearranging the orifice equation
and making appropriate substitutions:

h = 0.0433V’
where V is the design velocity for the pipe.
7-9. Type 4 Transitions.-Figure
7-6 shows a
typical type 4 transition. Dimensions in the
table are for pipe diameters sized for a full-pipe
flow velocity of 12 feet per second with a
free-flow pipe inlet. The dimensions provide
control at the inlet headwalls for design
capacity and free-flow pipe. A maximum
full-pipe flow velocity of 12 feet per second is
permitted for cross-drainage culvert structures
having baffled outlets or stilling pools.
To prevent degradation at the inlet, the top
of the inlet wall is placed at or near existing
ground surface. Dropping the transition floor
by an amount equal to e, and sloping the
transition floor lowers the headwall opening.
Because of this and as the hydraulic control is
at the inlet, the water surface required to
discharge the design flow is also lowered.
Inlet sidewalls are flared to provide a width
at the cutoff sufficient to insure that the
hydraulic control of the water surface is at the
headwall and to provide a greater width at the
cutoff which reduces the likelihood of erosion

TRANSITIONS

AND

EROSION

PROTECTION

by reducing the depth and velocity for flows
less than design flow.
To provide adequate canal bank freeboard,
the inlet water surface for design flow should
be at least 2 feet below the top of the canal
bank. The orifice equation [ 11, Q = CA&!&
may be used to calculate the inlet water surface
required to discharge the design flow. For a
type 4 inlet transition, a discharge coefficient,
C = 0.6 may be used. The head, h, measured
from the centerline of the opening to the water
surface for free flow may be conveniently
determined by rearranging the orifice equation
and making appropriate substitutions:
h = 0.0433V2
where V is the design velocity of the pipe.
7-10. Type 5 Transitions.-Figure
7-3 shows
a typical type 5 transition. These transitions
are simply an extension of the concrete canal
lining which matches the normal concrete-lined
section at one end and has a headwall on the
pipe end. These transitions may be used where
minimum head loss is not a factor. Figure 7-3
has a table of dimensions for pipes up to 36
inches in diameter. Because of headwall
stability considerations, the maximum pipe
diameter used with type 5 transitions is 36
inches.
The table of dimensions provide for the
following:
1. Full-pipe velocity of 5 feet per second.

345

2. Transition
length equal to 3 pipe
diameters or 5 feet minimum.
3. Maximum invert slope of 4 to 1.
4. Inlet pipe submergence of at least 1.5
pipe velocity heads when full-pipe velocity
equals 5 feet per second.
5. Pipe submergence at outlet sufficient to
cause pipe to flow full.
6. lnlet and outlet freeboard varying from
the lining freeboard to about 1.5 feet at the
headwall.
7-1 1. Earth
Transitions. -Earth
transitions
may be used for transitioning from a canal
section to a canal structure where structure
velocities do not exceed 3.5 feet per second.
Lengths of earth transitions are usually related
to the size of the structure. For pipe structures,
inlet and outlet earth transition lengths are
both usually equal to 3 pipe diameters or a
minimum of 5 feet. For other structures, earth
transition lengths are usually 5 feet for
relatively small capacity structures and 10 feet
for other structures. Invert slopes should not
be steeper than 4 to 1 for both inlet and outlet
transitions.
Lengths used for earth transitions in
conjunction with concrete transitions should
be 10 feet long or as otherwise required so that
invert slopes are not steeper than the maximum
allowable for the type 1 concrete transitions, 4
to 1 for inlets and 6 to 1 for outlets.

B. EROSION I IPROTECTION
7-12. Purpose and Description. -Riprap and
gravel protection
(fig. 7-8) is often used
adjacent to structures and at other locations in
earth-surfaced canals where erosion may occur.
Local conditions must be considered in
determining the type and the amount of
protection to be provided. These conditions
include the cost of riprap; cost of gravel;
danger to structures and crops or to human life
should scour occur; rodent damage; type of
soil; and velocity of water. The following
protection requirements should be used as a
guide only. The types shown represent
minimum thicknesses and sizes of material to
be used, and adjustments should be made to
meet the local conditions mentioned above.

Type l -6-inch coarse gravel
Type 2- 12-inch coarse gravel
Type 3-12-inch riprap on 6-inch sand and
gravel bedding
Type 4-18-inch riprap on 6-inch sand and
gravel bedding
Except for cross-drainage structures, type 3
minimum protection should be used where
velocities exceed 5 feet per second, regardless
of water depth.
7 - 13.

protection
siphons,

Siphons. -The
following
is considered minimum for inverted

Inverted

346 SMALL Figure 7-8. Erosion protection. 103-D-1293 CANAL STRUCTURES .

dense. should be used .00 None None Type 1 I None Type 1 TYPO 2 I I Length of inlet protection Length of outlet protection __ __ 1 depth (3 ft. and Brater. Where baffled outlets are provided at the outlet of a structure the protection should be a thickness of F with the minimum diameter of rock equal to $$ and extending a distance W (5 feet minimum) beyond the baffled outlet. the length of protection should be increased to 4 depths. The 6-inch sand and gravel bedding for riprap should be a continuous layer of sand and gravel or sand and crushed rock. road crossings and pipe drops with the hydraulic control section on concrete. where critical depth does not occur beyond the concrete structure.” Fifth Edition. reasonably well graded to a maximum of l-1/2 inches in size. check-drops. W is the inside width of the baffled outlet box. the I next higher type of protection at the inlet. and should be reasonably well graded.5 depths (5 ft. inclined drops. “Handbook of Hydraulics. W. chutes. Where the velocity in the conduit is greater than 15 feet per second at the outlet. [l] King. New York. Where critical depth may occur beyond the concrete.51 to 7. feet 0 to 2. F. durable.TRANSITIONS AND EROSION PROTECTION I 347 I 7 ypc of protection Outlet Inlet Water depth. -The following protection is considered minimum for Parshall flumes.5 depths (5 ft. The rock for riprap and gravel protection should be hard. Cross-drainage Structures. min. 7-14. checks. The size range used for 12-inch riprap should have a maximum size of 1 cubic foot and a minimum size of l-1/2 inches. Other structures.16. BIBLIOGRAPHY 7..) 2. use the protection type for the next higher discharge (type 3 minimum). min.50 3. The size range of rock used for 18-inch riprap should have a maximum size of l/S cubic yard and a minimum size of l/l0 cubic foot. Gates or stoplogs near the outlet increase turbulence. min.) 2. C. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1963. The size range used in coarse gravel protection should have a maximum size of l/8 cubic foot and a minimum size of 3/ 16 inches..) . Length of protection for outlets should normally be 2. E. turnouts. H.-The following protection is considered minimum for cross-drainage structures with concrete transitions.15. but where turbulent water may occur at the outlet. Bibliography.0 feet minimum). that is.5 depths (5. 7 .00 2.01 to 3.

.

D= diameter of pipe in feet. The assumed roughness (continued on page 359) 2 Numbers in brackets refer to items in the bibliography. Hydraulic Head Losses. easy access for inspection and maintenance.((Chapter Pipe and Pipe R. and n= coefficient of roughness (see sec. I. VIII Appurtenances B. It may be desirable to use a larger minimum diameter if clogging by indigenous weeds is a major consideration. entrance and exit losses. sec. materials such as reinforced corrugated metal. asbestos cement. GENERAL 8-l.59 D2’3~“2 n or s = where V= velocity of water in feet per second. Hydraulic Structures Branch. adequate percolation path. and welded steel. and bend losses. Friction losses can be determined by using ‘Civil Engineer. Reclamation. wp = wetted perimeter. Appurtenances to a pipe are those structural elements necessary to provide efficient hydraulics. and effective safety. 8-2. r= hydraulic radius S= slope of energy gradient in feet per foot. see 349 . A. pipe is considered to be any circular conduit used for conveying water and may be manufactured from many different concrete. A pipe diameter range of 12 through 72 inches for this publication was established by the above 12-inch minimum diameter and by what was considered to be a large enough pipe for cross-drainage structures that will be encountered in this publication. YOUNG’ A.486 r* I3 s’ I2 1-l r = hydraulic radius (water area divided by wetted perimeter) For a pipe flowing full A l-2 wP R = nR* __ =-=2rR 2 D 4 then v = 0. A minimum pipe diameter of 12 inches should be used for structures in an open irrigation system to reduce the possibility of clogging by sediment or debris. S-19. -In this publication.-The main energy losses (hydraulic head losses) associated with water flowing through a pipe include friction losses.16). in feet R= radius of pipe in feet. structural integrity. reinforced plastic mortar. effective watertightness. Pipe and Pipe Appurtenances. = cross-sectional area of full pipe in square feet . Bureau of Manning’s formula [ 1 ] * : v = 1.

103-D-1 316-l CANAL STRUCTURES .-Friction losses for circular conduits.350 SMALL Table 8-l.

30 .04 .60 .35 .03 .13 4. .60 '.79 1.43 .o* .67 1.45 4.00 7.60 8.20 4.20 5.41 5.06 .40 L.os .52 .39 .5C 3.77 5.68 7.40 9.05 r05 .60 6.83 1.00 19.0" 9.00 8. 1.31 8.66 +g 6.bb .0 5.03 .-Continued.38 . . 4.55 1.04 AND CONDUITS n=.91 1.63 .20 8.20 9.19 .80 7.80 *oo .20 7.31 .00 3.3* 18.87 1.06 .04 6.48 .69 ..25 .Lb .65 l.05 .83 LOSSES MANNING’S 24”.40 6.27 .60 3. DIAMETERS Sheet 2 Of 9 .a.00 21.03 .76 .60 A X0 5.54 1.52 1.00 22.71 1.80 9.00 LO.03 13.58 .1.51 .41 1.75 1.00 FOR CIRCULAR FORMULA 30”. .‘*5 1.o* 1.50 .20 3.5.013 33”.o+ 04 *z . 0 7.95 3.36 6.03 o’i .09 5.-mFriction Table 351 losses/or circular conduits.32 FRICTION .38 I.57 .45 4.40 8.40 3.PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES 8-l. 1.10 6.?7 29 .40 7.82 ii.*3 .‘+b . 27”.73 6.40 .2* .63 1.05 . 103-D-1316-2 A :?42 0 CfS 3. .

55 .61 5.81 2.07 4.39 6.79 6.82 3.32 NOTES s+ Rosed on form”.ZB .77 5.35 8.57 1.00 17.00 w.00 15.&B 8.00 .52 .00 33.82 3.62 bZ.36 4.35 .74 3.00 2.90 8.52 6.97 1.15 .‘7 80.9* .25 3.00 a.25 1.10 90.81 .59 4.62 1 iif 3.13 Y h” n i I?045 H- LOSSES MANNING’S 36”.44 ?.0*00 48.00 1.55 5.42 7.56 1.77 1 4.39 54.72 5.00 114.0 v: * .53 28.00 25.43 .17 .57 Iii.00 12.99 la.68 2.02 .01 1.00 6.00 .9621 H h” CANAL h”=“PlOCl+y n = Coefficient r= Hydro”ilc 5’ Frlctlon H=Frictlon In feet of ra”gh”ess rod.90 .00 04.29 1.35 1.65 6.02 .31 8.16 4.60 9.17 .8L .04 .13 1.12 2.55 4.80 4.77 .00 Z.40 9. il.00 3.43 3.00 23.51 3.r* .78 .00 7L.27 1. FOR CI!?CULAR FORMULA 42”.00 8.5* .19 4.40 1.66 .3* .49 1.00 53.00 10.00 76.43 4.47 .41 1.17 3.00 11.98 2.31 1.00 20.15 3.00 08.10 .00 34.00 60.25 110.82 .00 3.*5 .II* .00 2i.70 !.94 9.36 z.44 0.00 .00 .64 .5” 1.36 .88 1.82 2.17 1.78 92.00 28.52 3.65 31.14 9.03 :I: . AND 45”.37 59.30 18.13 8.00 losses.68 .38 .15 a.30 4.21 .20 9.52 4.03 7.60 .ZZ .08 I.02 .11 3.99 7.85 10.69 1.67 5.94 5.36 .&5 60.02 .32 r4.88 6.20 3.24 9.71 2.60 10’1.92 .54 6.I8 .25 1.3rr 3.54 3. 1 I ~ 446.01 6.65 5.00 2.81 19.51 1.33 9.51 6.31 .00 I.&4 .08 I.83 100.00 56.09 3.00 45.70 5.00 12.*2 1.97 108.00 1.00 06.22 1.26 4.52 .87 .15 6.45 .46 3.55 1.22 2.19 .18 1.59 3.58 4.00 39.04 4.39 .23 .63 9.00 70.00 1.71 -73 *76 .18 .-Fricfion 0 A El68 cfs v 1.10 k.43 3.Gb 26.53 3.69 32.12 7.00 15.20 2.00 9.37 1. .91 9.85 .00 8.66 2.85 3.99 3.61 30.54 .06 6131 6.89 4.00 .4O .24 .05 .96 6.I8 .68 .61 5.00 .91 66.17 .00 49.00 2.77 9.13 .W 8.17 .7.00 I.06 I.00 86.15 .18 .00 .12 1.21 1.34 ii.86 7.ZL .22 1.06 1.69 7.ll 1.37 1.-Continued.19 1.00 3.50 7.*o .ZO 8.00 6.78 1.21 1.72 9. 70.39 .00 22.94 .78 .50 .46 8.30 41.94 .74 5.38 1.00 52.Are0 of Pipein SQUOW feet v: Velocity In feet per second FRICTION STRUCTURES 103-D-1316-3 42” 4.67 3.64 .76 3.90 2.I1 .00 .49 1.88 .52 8.97 6.30 5.07 3.40 9.99 3.06 .60 8.ZO .9B 1.00 58.38 45.I4 .69 .45 2.2* .13 6.80 10.OZ .00 62.75 4.06 55.22 2.29 7.93 5.18 1.03 I.02 .*3 .20 8.89 4.07 1.00 27.00 1.5 82.CO 59.10 1.50 .80 6.16 .78 34.81 .15 L.00 9.63 6.55 .91 5.81 3.60 8.63 3.09 .73 .30 .69 .59 6.00 OZ.37 .00 37.27 .X ‘.34 2.00 64.10 9.29 18.00 14.00 4.73 077 .00 14.35 7.65 6.*1 .*3 3.12 1.53 3.04 86.Lb .51 5.62 4.72 .OC 2.f 4.68 106.*o .26 4.for circular conduits.70 3.00 68.87 9.50 .5’1 1.00 n e-296 h” 1.12 .19 7.33 1.00 94.li .47 4.23 6.89 2.95 .4 8.40 5.00 98.93 37.30 4.91 3.92 9.19 .00 3.89 .00 7.43 4.07 1.79 6.12 3.19 .33 6.31 .33 .81 4.00 13.00 13.39 0.5n .56 .89 .00 42.47 9.07 Z:E i / 5.35 2.97 2.22 6.03 6.00 32.00 16.37 .26 P.96 3.66 8.Zb .00 ii.35 8.32 .63 7. 10.51 19.80 ’ .74 7c.84 1.42 1.07 .31 12.18 2.99 8.33 8.00 47.95 5.05 9.16 1.29 .02 1.27 7.40 8.06 7.22 3.82 5.93 .35 3.09 3.98 I.25 *26 .5c .95 4.63 7.26 3.49 Z.30 7.24 1.60 1.“5 I” tee+ loss I” feet per loss in feet per I.02 5.: .00 he& foot thouwnd feet n:.42 9.00 51.14 10.79 H ” .00 ‘3.09 .86 2.84 .00 8.00 10.00 2.87 2.10 8.53 2.00 25.10 2.00 5.75 6.98 1.60 .00 .00 .39 6.31 6.II .01 J8.80 10.03 66.33 .00 2.67 2.03 t3.73 8.99 6.bb .16 .00 19.70 1.20 XI.il .96 0.35 :-:z 5.bZ . 90.90 *.77 9.00 1.32 3.ib .00 ‘16.60 7.57 2m .013 DIAMETERS Sheet 3 Of 9 .14 1.15 .80 9.39 3.4’l 1.47 .I5 .06 8.69 8.75 .40 .98 ! 38.71 4.30 1.00 84.01 3.61 .64 .13 .30 1.2* .85 5.31 .00 54.40 4.05 4.00 22.7’* 33.06 4.10 .51 .13 1.34 .85 52.G.47 2.00 r7.00 92.24 r.68 8.61 1.14 .6” 3.00 30.I2 .66 12.72 7.23 .00 2.38 .81 2.38 . 9.98 2.I6 .00 19.12 4.00 26.83 35.48 7.35 1.27 .56 2.51 5.96 7.34 5.15 .01 3.44 1. 1.96 8.0’2 .00 80.00 51.26 2.55 .94 1.27 2.88 36.53 6.04 94.67 3.l’i 16.44 r.7* 2.00 4.93 6.98 1.56 .23 7.60 9.92 8.15 5.09 .00 .43 1.63 6.44 .15 78.83 2.13 1.00 18.50 1.78 9.‘*1 .00 .16 9.39 11. 5.50 36.66 4.09 5.61 1.08 .I8 ::% .2‘ R.32 .71 2.00 12.4Z .29 3.00 24.94 76.ZS .28 .27 4.92 53. 7.58 3.li* .72 .27 1. CONDUITS ” h” 0 H CfS .75 .00 31.46 7.70 .87 .78 I.26 88.00 2.1c .34 .03 *OS .21 .10 5.37 5.9d 11.27 5.3v .58 .83 8.61 2.11 1.81 .54 2.:g ia:.87 k.65 9.26 8.07 8.62 9.08 I.37 .30 82.00 48.03 39.00 .98 5.>1 8.11 5.27 .98 10.00 6.79 5.34 .00 7.352 SMALL Table 8-l.17 I.00 1.63 6.42 1.66 .59 .38 3.64 1.00 8. ’ / .55 .00 17.17 5.18 .56 98.00 24.52 1.00 50.40 9.03 6.88 3.77 10.3i .14 72.00 21.72 .47 1u.79 1.20 8.39 i.52 .80 9.00 4.35 9.15 6.R7 .40 2.39 1.3* .00 23.00 3. 1.58 2.00 44.48 .96 4.09 40.92 6.79 7.22 .32 3.57 .77 2.00 72.00 29.28 .90 *.04 1.08 6.95 5.88 112.70 1. 39”.78 7.00 .00 5.57 8.05 9.38 6.43 1.09 4.00 7.49 .19 9.00 20.3.00 35.27 1.30 :*:: .59 1.19 10.90 10.11 2.00 88.00 55.08 2.00 14.00 11.30 57.04 7.00 96.15 be.96 8.00 00.00 16.11 5.29 96.83 5.61 5.25 .16 .27 6.46 .12 102.18 10.99 1.78 7.22 7.58 .47 7.22 57.03 6.79 64.lr.53 / 3.34 ! VT 1.12 .79 .66 .16 .07 .23 4.19 .&9 .23 5.00 3.43 .15 .to 2.56 9.52 4.97 5.36 1.63 2.36 .04 .29 .63 :% 6.C4 1.: 1.28 .97 3.70 2.50 27.97 1.19 1.

DIAMETERS ibee.PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES Table 8-l. 51”. -Continued. FOR CIRCULAR FORMULA 54”. 4 n* 9 .013 57”. 103-D-1316-4 CONDUITS n=. AND (ones for circular conduits.-Frict~on FRICTION LOSSES MANNING’S 48”.

. -Continued. CANAL STRUCTURES 103-D-l 3 16-5 .354 SMALL Table 8-l .-Frlriction losses for circular conduits.

69 .94 .26 .23 .29 .3* .34 1. AND CDND”. -Continued.TS n: El”.zz .24 .3’ 3.65 .“5 .PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES 355 Table 8-l .‘.88 .3? . 103-D-l 316-6 .-Friction .97 MANNING’S 72”.91 . circular conduits. 013 DIAMETERS 9.2* .3+ FRICTION LOSSES 75”.72 . lossesfor FOR CIRCULAR FORMULA 78”.74 :.bZ .25 .’ .-c. .SC .8i .67 .31 .::z .

66 .91 4.30 .** .I9 circular . 5.RZ .19 .32 .117 4. DIAMETERS STRUCTURES I.bd 5.39 5.for .c: L.51 3.87”.i.39 3.L. FA.44 .4-s .SC . go”.98 5.17 7.06 3.40 .4Z .‘rZ conduits.356 SMALL Table 8-1.34 .I7 .?D “.52 Iosses.32 .39 .5* .78 .37 .3.pFriction 3.33 .6” 3.3R . AND 93”.16 .77 .56 4.R5 .01 l.5 k.15 .21 5.P5 8.*1 . CANAL 103-D-l 316-7 3.16 .013 MANNING’S FORMULA 84’O..L .28 ..-Continued.Cb *.CTION LOSSES FOR CIRCULAR CONDUITS n=.45 .I8 .9 .

-Friction 357 lossesfor circular conduits.-Continued.PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES Table S-I. 103-D-l 316-S .

-Continued. CANAL 103-D-l 316-9 STRUCTURES .358 SMALL Table 8-1 .-Friction t losses for circular conduits.

A typical set of tables is provided in bibliography reference [ 31. Pipe structures using PCP are limited to combination loadings of hydrostatic heads measured to the centerline of the pipe not exceeding 150 feet with earth cover over the top of the pipe (fill) not exceeding 20 feet. 8-6.024 is assumed. and also for conveying storm runoff water through canal banks into canals.-Precast reinforced concrete culvert pipe (RCCP) is used for conveying canal water or storm runoff water under roadways and railroads. in the Standard Specifications [6] shows the class of pipe required to withstand the loadings imposed for various combinations of head and fill. In use this pipe should have little or no internal hydrostatic pressure. 4 through 42 inches in diameter. . Reinforced Plastic Mortar Pressure Pipe.-Reinforced plastic mortar pressure pipe (RPM) may be used as an alternative to PCP pipe for conveying canal water or storm runoff water. A typical set of tables is provided in bibliography references [4] and [5]. and cross drain culverts under canals should be PCP which has watertight rubber gasket joints to prevent leakage.001 times the number of feet of pipe. The use of PCP is limited to a maximum head of 150 feet. down steep terrain to a lower elevation. respectively. The required gage of CMP for a combination of given height of fill and surcharge load from vehicles may be determined from tables provided by a pipe manufacturer. railroads. B.5hv P and l. Except for corrugated-metal pipe. the friction loss for all pipe flowing full can also be determined by multiplying the friction loss per 1. 8-2. and 8-3). This pipe is composed of resin. =$ V2 The value of Hind’s c (zeta) can be obtained from figure 8-1. Table 1 in the Standard Specifications [2] shows designs for pipe.013. where h. 8-4. natural drains. 8-4 and 8-5). except for corrugated-metal pipe where n = 0. A special design is required for fills exceeding 20 feet. The selection table for pipe. channels.-Precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe (PCP) is used for conveying canal water or storm runoff water under roadways.Ohv . Precast Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe (figs. Asbestos-cement Pressure Pipe. 2-6.-Asbestos-cement pressure pipe (AC) may be used as an alternative to PCP pipe for conveying canal water or storm runoff water. For pipe structures without concrete transitions. Corrugated-metal Pipe (figs. The pipe design may be determined from tables provided by a pipe manufacturer. Entrance and exit losses for pipe structures having concrete inlet and outlet transitions are discussed in section 7-3. chutes. PIPE 8-3. 12 through 108 inches in diameter. that will meet requirements for various loading combinations of head and fill. 8-7.359 PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES coefficient for pipe as related to this publication is n = 0. and for turnouts through canal banks.--Corrugated-metal pipe (CMP) fabricated from either galvanized steel or aluminum alloy is used for conveying canal water or storm runoff water under roadways and railroads.000 feet (table S-1) by 0. is the pipe P P velocity head for pipe flowing full. sand. other canals. Precast Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe. All precast concrete pipe which must operate under hydrostatic pressure or pipes used for turnouts. depressions. This pipe has a connecting collar with rubber gaskets and may be used for hydrostatic heads up to 675 feet in combination with fills up to 20 feet. Bend losses can be determined by using the formula: h. entrance and exit losses for a submerged condition are assumed to be 0. 2-5. 8-S.

360 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES i’\ i / .L++-.I I rr I I I I I\I I II-I I I I I I I \ II h I I I\I\I 00 - .+ i i I I i i I G.

-Welded steel pipe (WSP) is used for carrying canal or storm runoff water over other structures or natural features. 8-6 and 8-7). Precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe in trench prior to backfilling. pipe used for road P-796-701-1548 Figure 8-5. Corrugated-metal crossing. P-271-701-3819 Figure 8-4. Figure 8-3. . P-328-701-8498 and fiberglass reinforcement and may be used for heads up to 450 feet in combination with fills not exceeding 15 feet. P-328. Steel pipe is usually used for this purpose because lengths of pipe may be welded together to form a continuous length of pipe with sufficient strength and watertightness for spanning between supports.701-8759 road paragraphs for specifications [ 7] shows the class of pipe required to withstand various combinations of head and fill. We/ded Stee/ Pipe (figs. included with the standard 8-8. The selection table for pipe. Stiffeners mayor may not be required to obtain the required beam strength.PIPE AND PIPE 361 APPURTENANCES Figure 8-2. 8 through 48 inches in diameter. Precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe used for inverted siphon. Installation of corrugated-metal-pipe crossing.

A typical set of tables is provided in bibliography reference [ 8] . Lane's weighted creep method [9] is commonly used for percolation path studies related to canal structures. and (3) two times any percolation path distance that short-cuts through the soil. and 8-8) that extend from the pipe into the surrounding earth and function as barriers to percolating water and burrowing rodents. 2-23. Lane's weighted-creep ratio is the weighted-creep length divided by the effective head. . or prestressed concrete pipe are not economical when used for structures discussed in this publication. Collars are often needed to reduce the velocity of water moving along the outside of pipe or through surrounding earth thereby preventing removal of soil particles (piping) at the point of emergence. Larger ratios may be required where warranted by the type of soil or importance and the type of structure. c. 4-22. Other Pipe. therefore their design has been omitted. PIPE APPURTENANCES 8-10. P-31-D-22581 Figure 8. (2) one-third of the horizontal path distance along the structure (flatter than 450). weighted-creep ratio -weighted-creep length (percolation factor) -difference in water surface elevations The weighted-creep ratio should be at least 2. the length of weighted creep (weighted path) necessary to prevent piping is directly related to the head of water and the type of soil. Overhead welded steel pipe crossing. Effective head is the difference in water surface elevations at the beginning of path and point of relief. Pipe Collars and Percolation.6.-Generally reinforced monolithic concrete pipe. Welded steel pipe flume. For any pipe structure where the inlet water surface is significantly higher than a potential point of relief for the percolating water (percolation gradient through earth of 5 to lor steeper). pre tensioned concrete pipe. the structure should be examined to determine the need for pipe collars. Using this method. 8-9.7.5 to 1 as computed by Lane's weighted-creep method.SMALL 362 CANAL STRUCTURES Figure 8. 4-19. P-211-101-38SS The required gage of WSP for a given span length and internal water pressure may be conveniently determined from tables and other information provided by the pipe manufacturer. -Pipe collars are transverse fins (figs. Recommended weighted-creep ratios (percolation factors) vary with the type of soil due to the soils resistance to percolating water. and weighted-creep length is the sum of: ( I) vertical path distance along the structure (steeper than 450).

PIPE I Pipe AND to be PIPE centered 363 APPURTENANCES . . Pipe collars. plastic mortar plpel . asbestos-cement . 103-D-1318 AND QUANTITIES concrete pipe.FSymm about iPIpe collar pipe and (1 ~16 Gage vert 5 D (/B”Min for precast / reinforced with corrugotlon ) ELEVATION (Pipe collar for SECTION corrugated metal plpel B-B Figure 8-8. asbestos-cement plostlc mortar pIpei DIMENSIONS ESTIMATED .n collar I t-L_ LEVEL AZ-L PIPE SLOPED SECTION PIPE A-A ELEVATION (Pope collar pipe and for precast reinforced concrete pope.

The thrust is thereby spread over a greater surface area resulting in reduced soil pressures.0: I 2. thrust forces tend to push the pipe out of the ground.35 is frequently used. For vertical bends which are convex (~). For a vertical convex upward bend. the thrust is resisted by the dead weight of the full . for relatively high heads. See figures 4-26 and 4-28 and chapter IV for locating collars on cross-drainage structures.5:1 3. collars should be added to the pipe structure. If allowable soil-bearing capacity for these vertical bends or allowable passive pressure for these horizontal bends is exceeded.0:1 6. 8-9 ).364 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Lane's recommended weighted-creep ratios are: Material Very fine sand or silt Fine sand Medium sand Coarse sand Fine gravel Medium gravel Coarse gravel including cobbles Boulders with some cobbles and gravel Soft clay Medium clay Hard clay Very hard clay or hardpan Ratio 8. Static thrust for low heads is also usually insignificant. However.0:1 3.4 = weight in pounds of a cubic foot of water . the static thrust is significant and stability of the bend should be investigated.0:1 5.-(a) Purpose and Design Considerations. 8-11. Cross-drainage structure pipe under a canal requires at least one collar around the pipe in the uphill bank and two collars around the pipe in the downhill bank.0:1 1. Resisting these forces are the weight of the full pipe and the earth cover. in pounds H = hydrostatic head to centerline of pipe A = area of pipe opening in square feet 6 = deflection angle of bend in degrees 62. The total static thrust (T) on a bend can be computed by where: T = thrust.8:1 1.-Pipe bends are used both for horizontal changes in pipe alinement and for vertical changes in grade. Two collars are required around the pipe in the upper bank if the invert elevation at the inlet cutoff is below the bottom grade of the canal. Thrust on horizontal bends and on vertical bends which are con~ave (~) is resisted by soil pressure. Dynamic thrust for most pipe structures can be omitted because of the relatively slow design velocities.0:1 4.5:1 7. P-499.700-5 19 sliding coefficient of 0. Earth cover is usually omitted in the stability computations as such cover may be removed or washed away. For horizontal bends.6:1 If the computed weighted-creep ratio is less than that recommended. thrust blocks are provided usually by encasing the bend in concrete. A Figure 8-9.0: I 2. resistance to sliding developed by friction is also sometimes included in the bend stability computations. Pipe Bends (fig.5: I 3. Forms for thrust block on 54-inch-<liameter precast concrete pipe. Bends in pipe cause directional changes in the flow of water which results in dynamic and static thrusts at the bends.

The class of pipe used in fabricating the bends should not be less than the class of pipe in the adjacent pipe units. (2) Bevel-end pipe. the distance A (fig. These bends are fabricated by cutting straight pipe units to one-half the required deflection angle and mortaring the two pipe units together as shown on figures 8.-Bends may also be formed using beveled-end pipe. Where tongue-and-groove mortar joint pipe is laid on a long-radius curve. the grout space on the outside of the pipe should not be less than one-half inch wide and the mortar space on the inside of the pipe should not be less than one-fourth inch wide. the pipe bend is usually encased in a concrete thrust block. the distance from the face of the encasement to the pipe joint should be limited to 18 inches for pipe up to 36 inches in diameter and one-half the diameter for pipe larger than 36-inch diameter. 3. = 5‘ ? as was (1) Banded mitered pipe. -Bends formed with mitered pipe are commonly used for pipe structures in small canals. (2) Pulled joints. -Precast elbows are sometimes used for fabricating pipe bends as shown on figure 8-l 1. This limitation permits the use of circular joint-forming rings at the slightly elliptical (beveled) end of the pipe. Pipe bend energy losses can be determined by using the equation: 11. Where pipe with type R-l joints is laid on a long-radius curve. The stability of the bend for static thrust may require additional concrete encasement. and 6 in bibliography reference [2] ) is not less than one-fourth inch at any point on the circumference of the joint. Type R-3 and R-4 joints may be pulled on one side of the pipe so that the joint opening on that side of the pipe is not more than one-half inch wider than the joint opening on the opposite side of the pipe provided that the distance A (fig. provided that the alinement or profile will permit this procedure. however. Pipe with type R-2 joints may be deflected an amount such that distance A (fig. Elbows should be the same class of pipe with the same type of joint as the adjacent pipe. The pipe extension beyond the concrete encasement should be limited to 18 inches for pipe up to 36 inches in diameter and one-half the diameter for pipe larger than 36-inch diameter. 5.PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES 365 pipe for a length extending between joints at each end of the bend. (c) Bends for Asbestos-cement Pipe. It is often necessary to provide additional weight when using miter bends because of static thrust as previously discussed. 2 in bibliography reference [2] ) is not less than one-eighth inch.11. The deflection angle between adjacent pipe units should not (continued on page 371) . The deflection of each bevel should not exceed 5’. The units may either be curved or contain an angle such that the ends of the elbow units are normal to the longitudinal axis. If concrete encasement is used with pipe having rubber gasket joints.-Bends of long-radius may be produced by deflecting (pulling) a sufficient number of pipe units at their joints. 4. the joint opening at any point on the inside circumference should not be more than one-half inch wider than a normal joint. -Long-radius bends formed by deflecting (pulling) joints may be used where pipe alinement or profile will permit this procedure. The miter bend shown on figure 8-13 may also be used as shown or with cast-iron fittings substituted for the mortar-lined steel pipe. 1 in bibliography reference [2] ) should not be less than one-fourth inch. (3) Precast elbows.-Bends may be fabricated by joining mitered asbestos-cement pipe with an approved type of cement and encasing the bend in concrete as shown on figure 8-12.-Methods used for changes in alinement or grade of asbestos-cement pipe include the following: (1) Mitered pipe.10 and 8. A full-laying length of pipe should be used on both sides of each joint. (4) Pulled ioilzts. If additional weight is required for equilibrium.

i equal ienqth of odjacent pipe Transverse reinforcement to be welded or lopped 24 bar diomefers of splice. pipe required equal to oud of 24 bar O/J SECTJON A -A NOTES Compoci bockfiii to top of encasement of o/i bends Eievotion of compacted backfill for banded mitered pipe bends shall be the some OS the of compacted bockfrll specified for the odlacent pipe P!pe shall be i8"mox when D 4 36"ondj 0 mox when 0'36: TIISS flqure shoas ivv~ occeptobie woj‘ n wh cn p.rq hydrosfat!c thrust must be checked if the thrust IS great enough to make these bends ‘nsiub'e.'. rhe rncocemcnomensions of +he encased bend may be wcreoied for c+obrlity elevation extension Figure &IO.:j be fobrtcoted The stability of the bend in ic '. Precast concrete pressure pipe bends.pe bends r. 103-D-1319 .ot required for o. ---mm- weided or lap 4- PIPE Pipe CANAL STRUCTURES jornt- BEND ENCASED MITERED PIPE Encasement about C 6' i 'z l- #ret of tro~sverse reinforcement shall be equivalent to that in pipe whose rnslde dro is outside die of encased pipe the s"me p!pe cioss Lop bars BEND symm.366 Reinf wrre SMALL 2"" 2"'/2**/2 fabric Weld BANDED MITERED Drovide transverse reinforcement not less fhon tl.

‘“M.pe Compnct backfill to top of concrete ot all encased bends This ftgure shows three occeptoble WOJS in which p!pe bends may be fabricated Figure 8-11. Longitudinal bars shall be loppedamin~mumof . 2”. e2.. 103-D-1320 .PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES 367 Pipe I Reinf may becut offorextended Omit encasement 3 is iess thon Provide transwrre rein?orcement not less that required for a” equal length of adjacent pope Transverse reinforcement to be welded or lapped 24 bar d/a’s at ENCASED MITERED PIPE BEND / ’ if ‘i. fobrrc it/2x “12 welded not shown. 22”m30’ . 3”Min A .-A WENDS 0’ +ronsverse re~niorcrmenl shall be equlvolent to that in pipe whose inside die is die of encased pipe same pipe class Lop bars ‘5 \ Provice transverse reinforcement not less than that required for on equal lenqth of CdjaCeat pipe Transverse reinforcement to be welded or lopped 24 bar diameters ot spices Remf we reinforcement Symm about required equal to and of 24 bnr die E __ /..“. Precast concrete culvert pipe bends. thaq ENCASED PRECAST ELBOW (iI. M 0 x onqit BANDED MITERED WAND PIPE THICKNESS @ /z BEND J SECTION A-A DATA NOTES Clevutior of compacted backfiii for unencosed elbow bends and bonded pipe bends shall be the same as the elevalmn of compacted backftll specified for the odlacent p.-ro 2’.

Pipe extensfon shall be I6’mox when 0s 36”ond i D mox when D > 36” Min extensfon shall be a* For olternot!ve bend fobrlcotton.coted &-~~~~--P. 103-D-1321 .368 SMALL E Asbestos-cement Pipe TYPICAL BEND (SO” extenslo”. OR (460 VERTICAL MA x.1 SENDS total steei II. to be STRUCTURES PfPC notes MAX.mens.) E Jomt see CANAL Asbestos-cement P’P’ fobr.oDOp s I on outsIde NOTES acted Excovot. see Figure 6-13 Detolls show” o.on d-*4 Longrt bockffll Ime Comport bockhll to top of encasement at oil bends.-P muwnum bend fobr.pe extens9 see notes Ak TYPICAL BEND HORIZONTAL Complete hoops lone or two p~ecesl wrth oreo computed for bursting stress of w.g#plled drometer of p!pe for encasement length. The stabfifty of the bends I” resisting hydrostatic thrust must be checked if the thrust IS great enough to make these bends unstable.5 feet).th hydrostotx heod ct E pipe . A-A Asbestos-cement pressure pipe bends (maximum head 17.ons moy be /“creased forstobd!iy hors SECTION Figure 8-12. the encasement d.cot!on requwements.

Mortarc-oofmgondrod TABLE wroptobe omr'teo I TABLE For in hand applied or p"e"mot~‘0li.x.apDII?d iinings "G"for IhlchnPss ofmortor iinlng Hand applied or pnwmotrcoliy oppiied linrn~s shoii reInforced wrth 2x.PIPE AND PIPE See Je’ad APPURTENANCES 369 A\ '%/I At E to be computed usmg "R" voices and “A’ angles Minimum *C’ to be / 0' specific Steei cylinder pipe ond For thickness mortar of iioing shown structure on the pion Table ondprofiie of the stee. pr'essur~p~pt- Figure 8-13.3 gogp welded w.rc fobrrc for SIIPS greater than 42:' 2 uIP b? NOTE for optional asbestos-cement flqure 8-12.see . 103-D-1322 bmds. see Tobie . Asbestos-cement pressure pipe and reinforced plastic mortar pressure pipe bends (maximum head 4.50 feet).

103-D-1323 D-D . TURNOUT WIT” CLTF 47 b#l^PL”*L_ IP” rHRoUGH SECTION 72” o.DIA SECTION E-E Figure 8-14.P” THROUGH 7e” DIA SECTlON A-A PARTIAL PLAN OF CHECK AN0 PlPE INLET OR CONTROL AN0 PPE lNLET w. Precast concrete pipe embedment (asbestos-cement pressure and reinforced plastic pressure pipe similar).A71a.n E-E ELEVATlON BOX OUTLET B-8 m IN ELEVATION .0.SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES .‘N FOP 12” THROUGH 27” DIA A-A SECTION PARTIAL PLAN OF OWlSlON PIPE DlWSlON BOX. <.A E-E A‘TERNATIVE DESIGN FOR is?” THROUGH p.r/1 I”’ .~.Z” THROUGH SECT/ON 72” D..rri . u X8J PARTIAL A-A PLAN OF PlPE TURNOUT OR C. BAFFLED OR WE.: o’-r.H.ll 12” THROUGH SECTION 72” Did A‘TERNATIYE DE5..-l.iianw.? BOX ~w.

however. by usual practice. The joints may be pulled on one side of the pipe so that the joint opening on that side will not be more than one-half inch wider than the joint opening on the other side. The alternative embedment for sloping pipe as shown on the figure is restricted to diameters 27 inches and less. This provision allows small movements. (b) Joints for Precast Reinforced Concrete Pressure PiPe. the pipe joint should be placed within 18 371 inches from the face of the embedment for 36-inch pipe and smaller and within one-half the pipe diameter for pipe larger than 36 inches. joint flexibility. exposure of the joint to cold water in the spring months which may cause contraction cracking. or lateral displacement.14 shows connections between precast concrete pipe and adjoining structures. The joint assemblies should form a continuous watertight conduit having a smooth and uniform interior surface. 8-l 3.PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES exceed 5’ for 18-inch-diameter pipe and smaller. 8-l 2. (e) Bends Pipe. -Long-radius bends may be formed where alinement or profile will permit by deflecting (pulling) joints a small amount. especially where some uneven foundations settlement may reasonably be expected. These joints also provide for slight movements in each pipe unit of the pipe structure which may be caused by foundation settlement. When pipe having a rubber gasket joint is used. Pipe Joints. relative importance for the safety of a structure under which the pipe may be placed. Pipe Embedment. Careful consideration must be given to the type of joint permitted so that the pipe structure will function as intended without unnecessary maintenance. The alternative allows pipe of this size range to be miter-cut and is restricted. This diameter restriction is not applicable if other than precast concrete pipe is used. the distance A (fig. circular in cross section. Embedment of corrugated-metal and welded steel pipe may be similar to that shown on the figure.13. Encasement in concrete may be required to provide bend stability for static thrust. 4’ for 2 l-inch-diameter pipe. the end of the pipe to be embedded should be wire-brushed to remove all laitance and foreign matter and then wetted prior to placing concrete. (2) Pulled joints. and exposure to atmospheric temperature changes which cause contraction-expansion movement. (d) Bends for Rcirzforced Plastic Mortur Pipe. and are the only element in the joint to provide watertightness. To insure good bond between the concrete structure and the precast concrete pipe. . -(a) Purpose mu’ Design -Pipe joints are used to connect individual pipe units to form a continuous pipeline for a pipe structure. to be absorbed in the joint and minimizes the possibility of cracking the pipe or the pipe embedment. Considerations should include joint leakage from hydrostatic pressure. expansion. and 3’ for 24-inch-diameter pipe and larger. Steel pipe laid on a steep slope will usually have a steel ring welded to the pipe near the end that will be embedded in the concrete and will provide pipe anchorage with the concre tc. A full-laying length of pipe should be used on both sides of each joint to insure stability against static thrust.-These joints use solid rubber gaskets. A full-laying length of pipe should be used on each side of the joint to provide stability for static thrust. Embedment for a gated structure requires a vertical step in the floor at the headwall as shown on the figure to accommodate installation of the gate frame. due to unequal settlement of the structure and the pipe. Rubber gasket joints for precast reinforced Corzsideratiom. -Figure 8. 1 in bibliography reference [71) should not be less than one-fourth inch at any point in the circumference of the joint. to a maximum diameter of 27 inches.-Changes in alinement or grade may be made by one of the following methods: (1) Mitered [‘@-Miter bends may be fabricated and encased in concrete as shown on figure 8. contraction. -Changes for Corruguted-metul in alinement or grade of corrugated-metal pipe may be made with standard prefabricated elbow fittings of the same gage as the adjacent pipe. or the pipe may extend through the headwall with the pipe end flush with the face of the headwall.

and 6.‘. . strips of asphalt roofing paper.. 103-D-1324 2” . and smaller. see sec. 4. the joint may be pointed from the inside with mortar or joint compound. 8-19.TO $9 33” 36*TO 45’ 48’TO 51’ 54=TO 60’ 63=TO 96’ I ‘I If” 8-1.. __/ GROOVE TYPE 2”x 2”. or cement grout inserted around the circumference.‘. type R-3. The ends of culvert pipe sections are formed to permit effective jointing which reduces Reinforcement Welded wire TONGUE CANAL Inside face JOINT 6 Reinforcement Welded wire 2”x 2”-*l2x#l2 fabric Reinforcement SELF-CENTERING TYPE DIA OF PIPE MINIMUM THICKNESS 12”TO 20’ I. or type R-4 (figures 1.= B and B-l. . Reinforcement mortar joint u for 2l”dio. . 5. Requirements for all materials used in type R joints and other detailed requirements of these joints are given in bibliography reference [2].. as each piece of pipe is placed ahead of the jacking :. in the joints.. in bibliography reference [ 21). This cushioning can be provided by a piece of l/2-inch manila rope stuck to the pipe with asphaltic cement.#I2 x#l2 fabric LCement Inside cement mortar joint.. for Culvert Pipe. ond lorgel: AND STRUCTURES form. metal strips.. type R-2.SMALL 372 concrete pressure pipe may be type R-l. (t 1 Figure if JOINT B-I PfTO 24=27. After the pipe is in final position. hand pocked for 24”dio. Precast concrete pipe joints-types If” I. 2.5. Type R-2 is used for installations where the pipe is to be jacked.. 8-15) are perhaps the most commonly used joints for culvert pipe installations. 3.‘. Some cushioning between the joints will reduce the likelihood of breakage due to concentrated pressure. -Reinforced (c) Joints mortar-banded joints of type B or type B-l (fig.

or lateral displacement. wire fabric is embedded in the concrete pipe and protrudes into the annular joint space. lap Ii-” PIPE DIA. These couplings provide for expansion-contraction and other slight pipe movement. (g) Joints for Welded Steel Pipe. settlement. Detailed requirements of these joints are given in bibliography reference [6]. The tongue and groove dimensions should provide an inside or outside annular joint space for filling with grout as shown on the figure.-24”OR LPa.-These joints are made by welding or by using sleeve-type couplings [ 121 without pipe stops. Copper for seals should be in accordance with Federal Specifications [ 111. (d) Joints fkr Corruguted-metul Pipe. -These joints are made with corrugated coupling (connecting) bands [4] [5] which are furnished by the pipe manufacturer. see sec. 8-16) are used if a copper-seal-type joint is specified where culvert pipe is to be jacked under a railroad or highway.PIPE AND PIPE 373 APPURTENANCES leakage and infiltration to a satisfactory minimum.nt afJa/nt sealing surface with compound LARGER Figure 8-16. (e) Joints for Asbestos-ccmetzt Pressure Pipe. settlement. The ends of the copper strip are Paint wth surface seolfng Ffeld grout af/arnt compound cement aofsrde /. Type F joints may be substituted for type B or type B-l joints. contraction. The joint assemblies provide for slight movements which may be caused by expansion. Past experiences indicate that regardless of the . 8-l 9.- Pipe not Ohae face No 2i”OR fabrx 2688s SMALLER re/nfarcement shown -\ Copper elpO”*lD” s trq Nosl 268 0 5 Gage. units of pipe may be joined to form a continuous watertight conduit with a smooth and uniform interior surface. or lateral displacement. 4 lap If” rrae. contraction. Resilient gaskets in the couplings effect a flexible. A copper expansion strip is embedded in the tongue or groove end of each pipe unit and protrudes into the annular joint space. -Pipe safety barriers made of barbed wire strung on a frame are placed on pipes crossing over waterways to discourage the use of the pipe as a pedestrian walkway.19. The need for a barrier is dependent on the accessibility of the site to the general public.W!re <Capper Gage) expansion strip 4” w/de . circular rubber gaskets to serve as the only element of the joint to provide watertightness. With these couplings.14. see sec. Ffeld grout cement Ins/de PIPE i DIA. Figure 8-17 shows details of the barrier and a means of fastening it to steel or corrugated-metal pipe.-These joints are made with coupling sleeves having rubber gaskets circular in cross section. Detailed requirements of these joints are given in bibliography reference [ 71. 103-D-1325 overlapped l-l /4 inches and soldered or brazed together along the edges of the lap. 8. (f) Joints for Reirzjkwccd Plustic Mortar Pip-These joints also use solid. watertight joint assembly. Pipe Safety Barrier. Precast concrete pipe joint-copper seal-type D. and produces a continuous and uniform line of pipe. At the opposite end of each pipe unit. 8. The type F joint design and rubber gaskets for this joint should be in accordance with the American Society for Testing amd Materials [ 103 except that the taper on the tongue and groove should not be more than 3-1/2O measured from a longitudinal trace on the inside surface of the pipe. The joint assemblies form and provide a continuous watertight conduit with smooth and uniform in t erior surface and provide for slight movements due to expansion. Type D joints (fig.

SMALL Go/v CANAL barbed w.M. 103-D-1326 C -C .re space welded to angles SECTION PLAN OF PIPE SAFETY B-B BARRIER N WS STEEL PlPE C.P DE SECTION A- TAIL kid B A SECTION DETAIL STRUCTURES u A Figure 8-l 7. Pipe safety barrier.

Air Vents. the blind flange is then removed from the vertical pipe and a pump suction line is inserted into the siphon. tees. Details of blowoff installations vary with the size of the siphon pipe and the topography near the siphon low point. flanges. inverted siphon . Short siphons may be dewatered by pumping from either end of the siphon. TO drain the entire pipe by gravity. After the siphon has been drained by gravity down to the discharge pipe elevation.-Air vents should be provided at all locations along a pipe structure where air may accumulate or where a partial vacuum may occur. 8-16. One of the more common uses of an air vent as related to structures for an open irrigation formation of system is to prevent subatmospheric pressures immediately downstream from a gate.-Blowoff structures are provided at or near the low point of relatively long inverted siphons to permit draining the pipe for inspection and maintenance or wintertime shutdown. Figure 8. and also the size of required welds. to provide an intermediate access point for inspection and maintenance. If annual wintertime draining is not required. An air vent having a diameter of one-sixth the pipe diameter (or 4 inches minimum) and located as shown on figure 3-l 5 has given satisfactory performance in preventing these adverse conditions. Blowoff and manhole assemblies for asbestos-cement and reinforced plastic mortar pipe require steel pipe fittings. A blowoff can be tapped into the siphon at or near the top of the pipe which will permit the draining of water from the pipe by gravity to the invert elevation of the blowoff discharge pipe. and covered wells similar to those shown for precast concrete pressure pipe. Blowoffs may also be used in an emergency in conjunction with wasteways for evacuating water from canals. The drain arrangement associated with the blowoff installation is also determined by the topography. Draining by the combination gravity and pump method is usually required. 8-I 8 and 8-Z9). A typical manhole and blowoff combination structure is shown on figure 8. 375 The blowoff appurtenances should ordinarily be enclosed in a covered well extending above the adjacent original ground surface and protected by earthwork to near the top. blowoff structures should be located to permit the water to flow directly into the natural drainage channel. An inline section of mortar-lined steel pipe is used to provide connections for the blowoff and manhole nozzles. A 6-inch blowoff is commonly used with siphon pipe to accommodate a reasonable time for draining. A pipe drain may be tapped into the siphon near the bottom of the pipe which will permit draining the entire pipe by gravity. breaking into pipe smaller than 24-inch diameter for emergency draining is an alternative to providing a blowoff. Joints at connections of the mortar-lined steel pipe and AC or RPM pipe should be as shown on figure 8-13. and therefore. and the remaining water can then bc drained by pumping. 8. These structures consist essentially of a valved steel pipe tapped into the siphon barrel. rings. can cause blowbacks of air and water of sufficient force to damage the structure.I5 Blowoff Structures (figs.19. A manhole should be included with a blowoff on siphons one-half mile in length and longer and 36 inches and larger in diameter.PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES proximity of other pedestrian access over the waterway. and can cause detrimental unequal air pressure loads on the gate leaf. Where feasible. concrete encasement. High water velocity issuing through a partial gate opening can entrain air immediately downstream of the gate and cause a partial vacuum. a pipe barrier should be used on all pipe crossings except those in remote areas and for those crossing over fenced waterways. a blowoff is not required. This condition can create very undesirable water surface surging resulting in unsteady flow. Draining can then be completed by pumping. The probability of an air and water blowback occurring in a long. the topography should permit the discharge pipe to be relatively short and laid on a steep slope without bends. This is essential to prevent clogging of the pipe.18 shows a typical 6-inch blowoff installation tapped into the top of precast concrete pipe. The hydraulic head on the blowoff will determine the class of fittings such as valves.

Blowoff O-O for precast concrete pipe. 103-D-1327 CANAL STRUCTURES .376 SMALL ul@i? SECTION Figure 8-18.

103-D-1 328 .PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES Figure 8-f 9. Manhole and blowoff 377 for concrete pressure pipe.

PitCEl MO”NT.37% SMALL TOP LADDER iON.Chi .!vGS TURNED TYPICAL IN WALL SECTION NO”NTINGS MOUNTING INTERMEDIATE TURNED OUT SECTION BOTTOM a DETAIL FLOOR RUNG SPLICE CANAL DETAIL i T”P. 103-D-1329 MouNTiNG DETAIL STRUCTURES SECTION . 16-inch steel ladder. DETAIL Figure 8-20.

. The depth of the cradle should be 0. In rock or other unsuitable foundation material.25 times the change in velocity head through the taper for an increasing diameter and 0. or generally shallow cuts at road crossings and turnouts. As a result. These temporary excavation slopes will generally be stable during the time required for construction. are not particularly conducive to machine trenching. Air release is essential to avoid trapping air bubbles which can reduce or completely stop the flow of water. Air vents are discussed here only as a corrective measure in the event a blowback condition develops. To be assured that the distribution of foundation pressures approximates the distribution assumed in the design of concrete pressure pipe and approximate field strength requirements of concrete culvert pipe and asbestos-cement pipe.10 times that change 379 for a reducing diameter. The process is repetitive and may produce sufficient violent force to damage the structure. Figure 8-24 shows the excavation.-These tapers may be used to transition from one pipe size to another. If taper is gradual the above losses may be reduced by one-half. Head losses for step-type pipe tapers may be assumed to be 0. therefore. (outside diameter). special attention must be given to the bedding during field installation. Six-inch-diameter air vents are commonly used with inline pipe diameters as large as 21 inches while la-inch air vents are installed in larger diameter pipe. 8-18. pipe installation in an open irrigation system is generally a minor part of the total work.PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES with a free-flow inlet may be determined by the procedure shown on figure 2-7. drops.17. and bedding for reinforced plastic mortar pipe (RPM). Because RPM pipe is relatively flexible. and inverted siphon sites. The pipe vent should extend at least 24 inches above the hydraulic gradient.30). Installation of air vents in asbestos-cement. and reinforced plastic mortar pipe may be similar to figure 8-21 except tee fittings may be used. backfill. 8 . The cradle can be omitted if free-draining. which are usually relatively short. make it desirable or necessary to use flatter slopes. Pipe Earthwork. These blowbacks are caused by air being entrained in the water at different locations such as the hydraulic jump then accumulating in the downstream portion of the jump until the pressure and volume of the resulting bubble is sufficient to cause it to rise and explode into the atmosphere. Siphon design should be adjusted if necessary to reduce this probability. provided the hydraulic head is 50 feet or less and provided the head loss in the taper is permissible. -Excavation required for pipe installation in an open irrigation system is generally such that the use of a motorized trenching machine would seldom be advantageous. For example. Air valves are sometimes used in place of pipe vents. the trench should be overexcavated to provide a compacted cushion of selected material to furnish a uniform bedding for the pipe. Air entry into a pipe while being drained is essential to equalize air pressures inside and outside of the pipe which otherwise might collapse the pipe. an earth cradle to fit the bcttom of the pipe is needed. Also. If the backfill is consolidated by surface compaction. Step-type Pipe Tapers (fig. side slope excavation pay lines used are 1 to 1 for earth and l/4 to 1 for rock.05 D. and bedding for precast concrete and asbestos-cement pipe. noncohesive backfill material is used and compaction of the backfill is accomplished by saturation and internal vibration. Unusual soil conditions may. 8-22). backfill. design effort should be made to avoid this condition. If the head is greater than 50 feet or if the head loss associated with this taper is too great it may be necessary to use a gradual pipe taper instead of the step type. steep topography at chutes. Figure 8-23 shows the excavation. Air vents are also commonly located at high points along a pipe profile to allow accumulated air to escape and also to permit entry of air when the pipe is being drained. Experience has shown that this method will fill the small spaces around the bottom of the pipe for pipe laid on unshaped bedding and on pipe slopes not exceeding 30 percent (0. Figure 8-21 shows the installation requirements of a concrete pipe air vent used for the above purposes. Backfill should be to a vertical distance of compacted three-eighths the outside diameter of the pipe above the bottom of the pipe to achieve these conditions. however.

corrugated-metal pipe is often used for such structures as drain inlets into canals and drain . earth pressures around the pipe will adjust and approach the more favorable condition of uniform pressure around the pipe as the pipe deflects from external loading." p/m.\ 4A 1 t PLAN SECTION LONGITUDINAL A-A SECTION Figure 8-21. the foundation should be overexcavated to the same requirements used for the other types of pipe as previously discussed. 103-D-1330 the backfill should be compacted to a vertical distance of 0. excavation should carefully follow the alinement and grade to provide a firm and uniform bearing for the entire length of the pipe. In rock or other unsuitable material. With this earth support on the sides of the pipe. In open irrigation systems.380 SMALL Hardware cut frt to CANAL STRUCTURES cloth screen No P i~go bell and grout. Excavation and bedding requirements are otherwise the same as previously discussed for precast concrete and asbestos-cement pipe. For corrugated-metal pipe.7 Do above the bottom of the pipe. Concrete pipe air vent.

I" TO 72" 7E' 5.ocote ot pipe SeCtIon CONCRETE STEP TYPE TAPERS .c reaulred required Locate at center of pipe sectloll where I. see detm Monollthlc bond moy be wbstltuted for precast bond Remf not shown CASE CASE I TYPICAL JOINT AT CHANGE OF PIPE 2 SIZE The amount of clrcumferentlol reinforcement ("the bond shall not be less than that requred for on equivalent length of the odjocent pfpe - PRECAST TABLE DIA. ELI space 6" DETAIL PRECAST PIPE Mln thickness Mm lenqth BAND 6' 24" MONOLITHIC BAND TO 45" 2.' 2. 103-D-1 Step typetopers shall be used I" p.PIPE RElNFORCEMENT NOT SHOWN.q 96" 7' 7 9" : Figure 8-22. 84" 6" 90" . BAND Step-type pipe taper. OF Mn colkmq FOR 6" TO IS" 18" 21" It] I$ I.PIPE AND PIPE APPURTENANCES 381 One or more umts of p!pe (IS requlredtoabtun change Joint t type in dlometer R reqwed steooed speclfled between woe tooer cone 1 P4P. 48" NOTES DIMENSIONS TO 63' 66" 4' 2f' 7. For precast bond details.pe where head IS 50' or less except that step type tapers moy be replaced by precast or Steel tapers otthe Contractors OptIOn All ftttlnq to be the some class of pipe osthe odjocent line OS shown on proflle Clean and roughen surface of pipe in contact wtth mortar and concrete 33 1 .

pe she. (71 Standard Specifications for Reinforced Plastic Mortar Pipe-United States Department of the Interior. or surface vfbro tlon methods Provrde cushion of compacted backfill of selected moterrol wherever rock foundotmn . F.382 SMALL culverts under roadway approaches to bridges over the canal. McGraw-Hill Book Co. “Handbook of Hydraulics. [lo] ASTM Designation C443.P.P. 1963.P. pg. or any other pipe structure which extends through or under canal sections. and Brater. Elk River.. [3] Cretex Pipe Products Publication-The Cretex Co. above the bottom of the pipe as is shown for RPM pipe on figure 8-24.. 161 Standard Specifications for Asbestos-cement Pressure Pipe. 103-D-1332 except at roadway crossings and where pipe extends through or under canal sections. [5] Culvert Pipe made of Reynolds Aluminum Culvert Sheet.f bockhii for beddmq is compacted by tompmq.s encountered 1 EARTH ROCK NOTES Backfill over.” Fifth Edition. ASCE Vol. Bureau of Reclamation. BIBLIOGRAPHY 8. Bureau of Reclamation.19. 1235. or (3) to top of compacted embankment if canal embankment has been compacted prior to construction of the pipe structure.. Armco. E. Minnesota. W. and seepage along the pipe is reduced. For pipe which is to be placed within canal or roadway embankment. 103-D-1333 oy EARTH or eXCO”O ran Provrde cushron of compacted bockfrll of se/e&d materrol wherever rock found&on IS encountered ROCK NOTES Backfill over p. “Security from Under-Seepage. (11 King. [4] Armco Handbook of Drainage and Construction Product. [S] Armco Handbook of Welded Steel Pipe. C. E.. C.M. H. The backfill should be compacted to a vertical distance of 0. [9] Lane. Backfill over the top of the pipe and above the compacted backfill required for properly bedding the pipe is usually uncompacted Jy~ml orlqmol qround surface Typrcol CANAL oriqmoi ground STRUCTURES surface\ earth Cradle required . Pipe earthwork details-precast concrete or asbestos-cement pipe-earth or rock excavation. Bureau of Reclamation. [2] Standard Specifications for Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe-United States Department of the Interior. New York.m”m shall be 3 feet Bockf!li sholi be compacted OS shown unless otherwiSe sptvfed Figure 8-23. W. (121 Sleeve Type Coupling Welded Steel Pipe Handbook..” Trans.M. 100 1935. .7 D. Pipe damage from construction equipment travel is thereby avoided. For roadway crossings all backfill to the top of the roadway should be compacted. For structures such as turnouts. be to the onqmoi qround surfoce em-p+ the m~n.pipe shall be to the onqmol ground except the mmmwm shall be 3 feet. United States Department of the Interior.. the backfill should be compacted to the highest of: (I) 1 foot minimum over the top of the pipe and the collars. Bibliography. (2) original ground surface. W. Pipe earthwork details-reinforced plastic mortar pipe-earth and rock excavation. drain inlets. D. cross drain culverts. Bockfdl shall be compacted OS shown unless othcrwse soecifrcd surface Figure 8-24.‘s Inc. it is commonly required that the embankment material be placed to an elevation approximately one-fourth the diameter of the pipe above the prescribed pipe invert and then excavated carefully to provide a firm and uniform bedding for the pipe. [ 1 l] Federal Specification QQ-C-576b.S.

A. -The type of safety features included on an irrigation structure depends on many factors. in the Bureau bibliography. subject to frequent visits by children Class B. WARREN’ 9-l.-Those canals that would be an extreme hazard to big game animals The type of protection used on or around canal structures is dependent on the class of exposure. so it is impractical to standardize designs. and their classification and use. guardrails. and pipe safety barriers are safety devices which limit or 383 . Similar preventive measures have been undertaken for animals but on a smaller scale. One of the most important considerations is the number of people which will be exposed to the hazard through ‘General Engineer.-Those canals nearby or adjacent to urban areas or highways and subject to frequent visits by the public Class C.-Those canals nearby or adjacent to farms or highways which could be subject to visits by children seeking recreation. or living nearby. 9-2. warning signs. of Reclamation. This consideration has prompted Reclamation to classify hazard exposures as follows [ 21 : Class A. and recreational playgrounds. General. 9-4. ‘Numbers sec. This chapter presents the design and selection of some waterway safety devices.-Those canals far removed from any dwelling subject to infrequent visits by operating personnel and an occasional sportsman Class E.<<Chapter IX Safety H. and incorporates protective features [ l] ’ into the design of new facilities and modifies existing irrigation features for the protection of the public. recreation. -The Bureau of Reclamation is acutely aware of the safety hazards associated with open waterways. Engineering in brackets refer Reference to items Branch.-Those canals adjacent to schools such as areas. These safety devices can be separated into two groups: (1) Those which limit access or deter people and animals from getting into the canal (2) Those which are escape devices in the event a person enters the canal either deliberately or by accident Fencing. some general rules on safety are useful to the designer in determining if safety devices are needed.-Many types of safety devices are used on canal structures. Hazard Exposure Classification. Types. SAFETY DEVICES 9-3.-Those canals that would be a hazard to domestic animals Class F. such as swimming Class D. operation. J. However.

384

SMALL

deter people and animals from entering a canal
system. Of these, fencing is probably the most
effective deterrent; however, warning signs are
heeded by some people and guardrails are used
to keep people and vehicles from accidentally
falling or driving into canals. Pipe safety
barriers present enough of an obstacle to
reduce the temptation for people to use the
pipe crossings over a canal as a walkway.
Safety nets, safety cables, safety racks, and
safety ladders are devices which aid people to
escape from a canal. A combination of these
devices and those which deter access are
usually constructed at the upstream ends of
hazardous structures where a fatality would
surely occur if a person entered the structure.
(a) Fencing.-A
fence is the most common
and effective safety device to deter people and
animals from entering a canal. Reclamation
uses six types of safety fences. Selection of the
appropriate type fence is dependent on the
hazard exposure classification. Requirements
of these fences, constructed on or near the
canal right-of-way, are described in table 9-l.
Table 9-1 .-Safety

CANAL

STRUCTURES

Standard design drawings for different types
of fences are given in figures 9-1 through 9-5.
Fences are used in conjunction with safety
nets or safety cables around inlets to siphons
30 inches in diameter and larger for Class A, B,
or C exposures. The fence should meet the
requirements
of the pertinent
exposure
classification. It should be constructed across
the transition headwall and extend along the
sides of the transition to the anchor posts of
the safety net or cable as shown in figure 9-6.
Sometimes a short length of the fence is
constructed to the water’s edge as shown in
figure 9-7 [3] .
Fences or guardrails should bc constructed
along each side of chutes (fig. 9-8), rectangular
inclined drops and stilling pools (fig. 9-9)
having a 4-foot depth or more in Class A, B, or
C exposure. Fence or guardrail might also be
used on each side of a bench flume to prevent
people from stumbling into the flume when the
flume is set into the ground flush with the top
of the wall.
(b) Gzluru’vails.-There are two types of

Fence Classification.

103-D-l 196

385

SAFETY

PLAN
2m Stvod
Wia12;
w'h4-poi"+borbs

IPIC't
qote Itop
ddoptoble
to qote
3tch used

GATE

Z- Stropd
epoint
Combinotron

cop

NO

al
bores

and

9o9e
qalv
ootmore

barbed
wire
than 5'oport,

AND

ADJOINING

9oye

9clv barbed
IVLT~
not more than 5'oporf

:
-~-

PANELS
z-Strand
NO 12; qoge 90/v borbcd
with 4 point barbs
"ot more
than

with

\

/ II
IO-0

k--

PANELS
AND

/Gate
post
,-Combrnotion

i,PP

or coroer

PLAIN

cop

ii"k

m-----

JCL--

ADJOINING

PULL

Attachment

3- ~'DIo.
of
No

on

*ire

*ewe

GATE

post

side

AAlOlNlNG

~-

4

POST

P'pftch
4 goqe

spiroled
wre

loops

NOTES
p,pe
dia!rPterS
we,9ht
Morimum
inteiroi

bolbed
9ote

Undisturbed
Wuroi
qround
or compacted
bockfrli

-;

AND
PANELS

strffeoer

A

SECTION

II

ord

\I l90i” pIpI?-

pa/v

obrrc

PANELS

post

TYPICAL

yire
apart

barb

Cho,"

CORNER

5

wrc
guard
posts

xhown
betwren

ore

fro"

prpe

ou:lpos+s

t0 be mounted

sizes,

standard

2~x7 feet
vert~coiiy

onall

Barbed
wre
supporting
arms shoii conform
with
stondords
or shall
be fobrlcoted
from
1;
They shoii be welded
in place
or otherwe
to prevent
rotot,on
School
Urban

safety
safety

Figure 9-I. School and urban fence. 103-D-1197

fence
7?0"
fence 5'-0"hiqh

high

monufocturerj
inch p,pe
secured

386

SMALL

Figure

9-2.

Rural fence. 103-D-l 198

CANAL

STRUCTURES

Figure 9-3. Stock fence with wood posts. 103-D-l 199

388

SMALL

CANAL

STRUCTURES

SAFETY

389

n

Figure 9-5. Deer fence. 103-D-1201

390

SMALL

CANAL

STRUCTURES

Figure 9-6. Warning sign, safety cable, and safety
fence at siphon inlet. 805-236-14106

Figure

9-8.

Safety

fence

along

a chute.

Figure 9-7. Safety fence, handrail, and safety rack at
siphon inlet. P328-700-103 NA

guardrails: ( 1) Those used to keep vehicles
from entering the canal along the canal bank at
dangerous turns; and (2) Those used to prevent
pedestrians from falling into the canal at
structures. Only the latter type, which is
identified as pipe handrail, will be discussed
here.
Handrails
are usually constructed
of
1-1/2-inch-diameter metal pipes in combination
with metal posts set in concrete or attached to
a wall mounting. They are 42 inches high and
have two or three horizontal pipe rails
depending on the exposure classification.
Two-rail handrail (fig. 9-10) will suffice for

Figure 9.9. Typical pipe handrail installation along
sides of inclined drop and stilling pool.

most canal structures having a Class C or D
exposure.
For Class A or B exposure, a
three-rail handrail (fig. 9-11) is recommended.
Sometimes
chain
link
fence
is used in
conjunction
with three-rail handrail to prevent

SAFETY

INTERMEDIATE
POST

391

CORNER

POST

END

POST

GUARD
CHAIN
POST

4

STEEL

Std

block

D,DF

POST

SOCKET

w*.r*;.
GUARD

WALL

MOUNTING

WALL

SPLICE

CHAIN

ANCHOR

NO.

3

SMALL

GUARD
CHAIN
POST

Figure 9-U. Three-rail handrail-42

WALL

ANCHOR

inches high. 103-D-1203

CANAL

STRUCTURES

Oftentimes the handrails on structures interfere with handling stop planks or cleaning trash from trashracks. handrails should be built on both the upstream and downstream side of the operating platform (fig. 3-10). 9-13) . (d) Pipe Safety Barrier. should be installed near the structure in a conspicuous place as shown in figure 9-6. are safety devices installed on pipes crossing over canals.SAFETY children from crawling or slipping between the rails and falling into a structure. 9-14) . Handrails are required on both sides of the walkway if the walkway is 5 feet or more above the floor (fig. Some have been made of rope netting (fig. (e) Safety Nets. Pipe safety barriers should be used on all pipe crossings except those in remote areas and those within fenced waterways. Only a downstream handrail is required when the operating deck is 3-1/2 to 5 feet above the downstream floor (fig. but signs pointing to a specific danger are more effective. Figure 9-15 shows the design of a typical safety net and cable currently preferred on . These handrails are constructed across the transition headwall and extend the length of the transition on both sides of the canal. In these casesremovable pipe rails or guard chains as shown in figures 9-10 and 9-11 are used in place of permanent type rails. and similar structures. or C exposure unless safety fence and safety nets or cables are used as previously described. Check inlet with safety fence. To alert them of these dangers. or a steep chute of similar size. Pipe handrails are used in conjunction with safety racks around the inlet transitions of all siphons 30 inches and larger in diameter for Class A. Pipe handrails are also used along operating platforms and walkways of many irrigation structures. No trespassing signs serve a useful purpose. handrails are required where the top of the walkway or operating platform is more than 3-1/2 feet above the downstream floor of the structure. 9-12). If a check structure is constructed monolithically with or immediately upstream from a siphon inlet whose diameter is 36 inches or larger. safety net. B. or C exposure as well as around the inlet transition for Class D exposure. They provide an opportunity for the person in the canal to save his life by grabbing the net and pulling himself along the net to the safety ladder where he can escape from the canal. others have been made from galvanized wire mesh enclosed in a wood frame and suspended from a cable (fig.-Pipe safety barriers which have been previously shown in figure 8-17. in southwestern United States warning signs are written in both English and Spanish. 9-12). For instance. P328-701-7147 languages. and some were simply wire rope suspended across the canal with rope or chain drop lines hanging from it. In areas where a large number of people speak a language different from the native language. Pipe handrails are also required around the outlet transition of all siphons 30 inches in diameter and larger for Class A. and having handrails on both sides of walkway. Many different types of safety nets have been used. B. well-worded warning signs advising of specific dangers. Their purpose is to discourage people from trying to walk on the pipe and then accidentally falling into the canal. checks.-Oftentimes the public is not aware of the dangers associated with structures in a canal system. (c) Warning Signs. warning signs should be written in dual 393 Figure 9-12. Generally.-Safety nets are escape devices suspended across the canal immediately upstream of siphons.

They are generally used in small canals where the canal is relatively free from weeds and debris.-Another type of safety device used to aid people in escaping from the canal is safety cables. 9-17). They are usually used on large canals where excessive spans might limit the use of safety nets or safety racks. but both types accomplish the same purpose. Note handrails on both sides of walkway. suspenders. 9-16) where water depth is greater than 3 feet. Generally. (0 Safety Cables. on which the sloping pipes are bolted. B. The cable assembly includes a 5/8-inch-diameter yellow polypropylene rope with a minimum tensile strength of 5. If the water depth is less than 3 feet. or similar structures (fig. Rope safety net upstream of checked siphon inlet. Figure 9-20 shows a safety rack on a warped transition.394 Figure 9-13. The shells should be at least 0. or C exposure areas. The ends of the float should have a counter bore molded at least 1-1/2 inches into the float to provide a wearing surface for the rope. and pipe drops to prevent people from being drawn into the structure. Safety cables consist of a number of floats attached to a cable that is placed across the canal immediately upstream of siphons. Safety racks and guardrails in combination can be used in lieu of fencing and safety nets or cables at the inlet transitions to siphons 30-inch diameter and larger in Class A.1 inch thick and contain an ultraviolet inhibitor and orange color pigment incorporated into the polyethylene during manufacture. safety racks are made from standard steel galvanized pipe. The welded frame. This device is used in canals (fig. -Safety racks are barriers placed across inlets to inverted siphons. They also provide a means for a person to climb out of the canal. Figure 9-19 is a design drawing of a safety rack placed on an inlet transition with a check. the chain tie. and rungs can be omitted.701-4241 Reclamation projects. Figure 9-18 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES shows a safety cable currently used on Reclamation canals. The sloping steel pipes are usually 1-1/2 inches in diameter with 9 inches of clear spacing between pipes. may be 2-inch . The floats are high-density polyethylene shells filled with 2-pound-density polyurethane foam.800 pounds. checks. (g) Safety Racks. In comparing the two safety racks there are obvious differences. bolted and welded together to form a grille that is attached to the headwall of an inlet transition. Wire mesh safety net at siphon inlet. Safety cables serve the same purpose as safety nets but are simpler to build and less expensive. the Bureau of Reclamation does not have standard design drawings for safety racks. P328. Since safety racks are designed in a num ber of ways to fit the various types and sizes of inlet transitions. P328-701-7223 Figure 9-14. pipe chutes. The polyurethane foam should have a minimum of 95 percent closed cells and should not absorb more than 10 percent water by weight when subjected to a 6-inch head of water for 24 hours. The components of this safety cable are commercially available. Short pieces of rope are braided into the cable at each end of the floats to hold them in place.

15.~( ~ bar ... Safety Figure 9-16."Oio anchor ~~ spiral T 14" -2'-6" 12 :-Pipe rungs see Detail A.D. -c-NWS "' i '0 -.1204 Figure 9-17. IO3.~ SAFETY 395 {Standard brace bands ~End past 2" standard pipe . PX-D-72613 net and cable. 6" dia All parts of safety net and cable assembly ta be galvanIzed Figure 9.' i"x12' Turnbuckle with one eye -- ."' ~ i"xI2" Turnbuckleeye and eye I ~ i" Wire rape thimble f--Symm abaut { canal " ar lateral . 2' pitch. Safety cable with floats upstream of a siphon inlet. Far spacing see chart Typic late I r-ota:--1 'I: .'? 6' Min threod length Typlcol conolor Loterol bonk ~ 1-. Wire reinf . "' ~ "' Tie ..-J-i Wire rape clips .../i"x4" Eye bait with I cut washer and nut ---+t . .and ' cailsuspenders chain . ". Safety net and cable at siphon inlet.0 -.es 1.10 !4@7 2'-6" ~~ ~ Nate Alltabe t. " :i . P214-D-37162 ... -12-... 1 I rAt tach ties firmly ta suspenders -1 '10 ! ". 'Concrete deodmon 24"squore DETAIL A NOTES All concrete sholl be placed In undisturbed earth or campacted fll{ All foundation for end posts to be reinfarced with Na 4 gage x 5'-0' wire spiral reinf. i' Wire rape safety cable ~Attach suspendersta cable with repair links Suspender L.

with floats. An accelerating velocity usually occurs where canal water enters a canal structure. depends on the ability of the person in the canal to get to them. Their effectiveness. Safety cable pipe or larger depending on the span of the safety rack. For this reason safety nets or safety cables should be installed in .SMALL F&u-e 9-18. these pipes do catch weeds and make cleaning the rack difficult. CANAL STRUCTURES 103-D-1205 (h) S’ujc’tJ Ladders-Ladders are the most commonly used escape devices in a concrete-lined canal. Safety racks should be placed on a 3 to 1 slope or flatter so a person may pull himself from the canal. The horizontal pipes give the rack rigidity and provide steps for aiding a person to escape. however. however.

397 SAFETY “4‘F PL4N .TRANSITION SECTION WlTH CHECK HALF PLAN-S4FETY RACK A-4 DET4lL SECTION B-S DETAIL / 6 I . 6 ‘0”s SECTION 4 C-C Figure 9-19.‘I 1”. Safety rack. 103-D-1206 13 .

Bureau of Reclamation. check drops.71-36. [ 1] [3) 131. S. BIBLIOGRAPHY 9-4. J. Figure 9-22 is a design drawing of a ladder used in a con crete-lined canal or in a bench flume. checks. Sep. Bureau 3-Revised of Safety Latham. and chu tes. M.398 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES Figure 9. B. Part Reclamation. Safety rack on inlet transition. ladders are required immediately upstream of all siphons. Bibliography. Safety ladders are also required to be installed at 500-foot intervals in bench flumes where walls are 36 inches and higher. Safety ladder and safety cable with floats upstream of a siphon inlet. Reclamation Instructions. .1.20. pipe drops. P328-701-9467 combination with ladders and located a short distance upstream of the canal structure (fig..'Reducing Hazards to People and Animals on Reclamation Canals. Bureau of Reclamation. .. PX-D-49120 Figure 9. Generally. 9-21 ). H." REC-ERC.21. In concrete-lined canals where the vertical lining height is 30 inches or greater. [2] Design Standards No. safety ladders are used only in hard-surface-lined canals. Chapter Standards. This allows the person to grasp the net or cable and pull himself to the ladder where he can usually escape from the canal. 1971. and Verzuh.

0'-- Concrete LATION conoi not shown Iming DETAIL Anchors not shown Limng th/ckness f2f' M/n) SECTION A-A I*1OOER RUNG OETdll C Anchors.T6 6061~T6 alum. offset anchors 5" from center of ladder) J NOTES Lodders ta be used on sides of canal where the vertical Ilnlng hefght IS 2. _ Lauders to oetobricatea oetobricated trom steel or 6061.andupstreomofstructures as d/rected. 103-D-1207 i ' . *?a 1 F 5.O'Mln for water depth equal to or greater than 8.num. .. feet or more.) LADDER SECTION Figure 9-22.. Ladders to be located opposite eachotherot750-footmtervolsoneoch s/deofthecan~l. Lodders to be paInted yellow after fabrlcatton C Anchors (See notes. =_ Anchor of center of/adder for sect/ens longer than 6!3" [for ladders w/th 5or 7 rungs. subject to the approval of the contracting officer. Safety ladder.SAFETY Use two or more /odder the requfred length Mm operot/ng water sect/ens exceeds when 13'. Ladders shallbe anchored to the conoll~n~ng wfth staInless steei exponslan type orlmpoct type anchors.3" ~Polnt two area coots 16"~ lB"0n of trofflc concrete with yellow pain% surface.

.

List of Symbols and Abbreviations. cross-sectional area of a pipe or an orifice AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AC Asbestos-cement pipe Adj Adjustable Approx Approximate ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials Avg Average b Bottom width of a channel C Coefficient of discharge Centerline cc Center to center CF Cold finish cfs Cubic feet per second CHO Constant-head orifice 401 . -The following is a list of symbols and abbreviations used in this publication.<<Appendix Glossary A of Terms A-l. cross-sectional area of flow in an open channel or pipe. Symbol or abbreviation Definition - A Area. Commonly used mathematical symbols and abbreviations are not listed.

vertical drop of invert d Depth of flow in an open channel or pipe flowing part full dc Critical depth d” Normal depth D” Outside diameter of a pipe Dia. diameter of a bar Dim Dimension DOC Designers’ operating criteria Dw Drawing DWS Delivery water surface E Energy EC Critical energy Es Specific energy EG Energy gradient El Elevation .AEl Difference in elevations . 4 Diameter. height of a siphon throat opening.SMALL 402 Symbol or abbreviation CANAL STRUCTURES Definition CI Cast iron CMP Corrugated-metal pipe cone Concrete crs Centers csk Countersink cu Cubic CWS Control water surface D Diameter of a pipe.

h Hydrostatic head. head on the centerline of a free-flow orifice or head across a submerged orifice. difference in energy elevations. fb Freeboard fig Figure fps Feet per second Frm Frame ft foot or feet ft2 Square feet i! Gravitational acceleration Ga Gage galv Galvanized H. head at the centerline of a pipe. differential pressure head CH Summation of lateral forces acting parallel to assumed sliding plane f 5 hb Head loss in a pipe bend 11 f Head loss due to friction . difference in invert elevations Allowable extreme fiber compressive stress in concrete Specified compressive strength of concrete Allowable tensile stress in reinforcement steel fY Specified yield strength of reinforcement steel Fb. head on a weir crest. atmospheric pressure head AH Difference in water surface elevations. difference in water surface elevations. head on a siphon spillway.GLOSSARY OF 403 TERMS Symbol or abbreviation F fc Definition Froude number. head across a structure.

acceleration factor for trajectory of flowing water L Length. hexagonal Ht Height ID Inside diameter of a pipe In Inch or inches IllV Invert Alnv Difference in invert elevations K Head loss coefficient. length of a pipe. length of a structure: length of a transition Lv Length of weighted creep for percolating water Lbs Pounds LF Load factor Longit Longitudinal M Montuori number math Machine (machine bolt) max Maximum min Minimum Mist Miscellaneous n Manning’s roughness coefficient ZN Summation of forces acting normal to assumed sliding plane . length of a weir crest.SMALL 404 Symbol or abbreviation CANAL STRUCTURES Definition~~ ____Velocity head k Difference in velocity heads h w “c Velocity head for flow at critical flow hd Head hex Hexagon.

rate of flow in cubic feet per second 9 Discharge per foot of width in cubic feet per seconu R Hydraulic radius.i Projection. # Number Nws Normal water surface O&M Operation and maintenance OD Outside diameter of pipe OGS Original ground surface PC Point of curvature PCP Precast reinforced concrete pressure pipe PF Percolation factor PI Point of intersection Pl Plate pr0. radius of a circular curve.GLOSSARY OF 405 TERMS Symbol or abbreviation Definition ~-___- No. radius of a pipe bend. project PSf Pounds per square foot psi Pounds per square inch PT Point of tangency Q Discharge. N. radius of a pipe r Hydraulic radius RCCP Precast reinforced concrete culvert pipe Reinf Reinforcement req ‘d Required RI Rectangular inclined (rectangular inclined drop) ROW Right-of-way RPM Reinforced plastic mortar pressure pipe .

invert slope of channel or pipe Average slope of energy gradient between two points Slope of profile of channel bottom Critical slope Friction slope. top width of water surface in an open channel t Time in seconds. surfaced on four sides SPC Spaces Sta Station Stnd Standard Str.SMALL 406 Symbol or abbreviation CANAL STRUCTURES Definition Slope of energy gradient in the Manning equation (friction loss in feet per foot). head loss due to friction in feet per foot sq Square s: s. ss Side slope of channel. concrete thickness TO Turnout Transv Transverse v Velocity V - Vedernikov number vc Critical velocity vt Theoretical velocity LIV Difference in velocities . horizontal to vertical ratio s4s Dressed lumber. Struct Structure Symm Symmetrical T Thrust acting on a pipe bend.

GLOSSARY 407 OF TERMS Symbol or abbreviation Definition CV Summation of vertical forces vert Vertical W Throat width of Parshall flume. roadway width W Unit weight WP Wetted perimeter ws Water surface nws Difference in water surface elevations WSP Welded steel pipe X A coordinate for defining a trajectory profile Y A coordinate for defining a trajectory profile Depth from water surface or hydraulic gradient to center of gravity of a water prism cross section YdS Yards Z Difference in invert elevations between two points GREEK LETTERS Greek letter Greek name Greek letter Greek name a Alpha IJ Mu P Beta 7-r Pi Delta P Rho Zeta c Sigma e Theta Phi . baffled outlet basin width. length of weir crest.

.

55 (mmZ) square 0.944 44 square meters 0.653 24 miles 1151 55 x 103 x 103 25.1 (ft) 36 mlllwneters x 10-s miles (nmi) 333 0.105 square miles square meters (ml?) hectares 0.3701 meters 3 Inches 0.937 inches 0.621 371 meters 1.195 square hectares x 10-e 2.569 99 x 108 256.063 333 AREA square milli- meters square cem- meters square square inches feet square centimeters square Inches square millmwters square meters 1.393 701 0.6 by LENGTH angstrom units nanometers (nm) micrometers urn) millimeters meters 0.333 feet mils mils (yd) Inches 1 x 10’ (cm) 0.3046 12 meters x 10-9 Inches feet yards 3.092 903 (ha) 0.9144 kllometers 3.4 meters 0 0254 mils 1 x 103 feet 0. To convert from To Multiply B Customary ConversIon Factors To convert by from To Mulbply mrlluneters 304.295 68 127 6.636 05 1.609 34 kilometers 1609 34 feet 526 x 103 yards 1.260 a4 miles x 103 IO 0 01 mils 393 701 inches feet mllhmeters 1 x 103 nautical 0.01 square hectares square (cmz) (II+) (km?) 2.4516 feet 6.’ 10.356 1 x 10’ square 2.092 903 meters hectares square .S.1 (mm) (m) inches (ln) 01 x 10~6 3937 01 1 x 10-s umts (A) yards meters 0 039 370 01 micrometers 1 x 103 miles kilometers 1 x 103 milhmeters 0 039 370 3.471 x 103 05 1 x 108 meters 100 1076 feet 39 x IO’ 247.3701 yards 39.066 square hectares hectares square square x 10~3 16 square acres 1 x 10.361 27 square x IO-5 9 12 x 10’ miles 4046 66 686 x IW 4.366 102 2.213 71 x 10~’ meters 1 x 103 feet 3 260 64 miles 0.9cres feet x 10~’ x 10~3 yards square meters (ydz) kilo- meters 2.155 square millimeters square centimeters 64516 1.996 square kllometers square feet acres x 10-J 0 404 meters square x 10~5 99 feet acres 0.076 645 acres 39 meters 6.7639 feet WWS inches (fP) hectares square 1 * 10-4 feet inches meters x 103 100 (m2) square square yards 0.<<Appendix Conversion Factors B-l.76 x 103 kilometers 1.937 meters meters Inches inches 1 x 10~3 centimeters centimeters 1 x IO’ mlllwneters angstrom mtllimeters meters 1 x 10-10 mils micrometers feet 1 x 10’ (ml) 1 093 61 6.767 84 x 10’ 640 409 .032 808 (km) 1 x 103 39.589 99 2. Internet/one/ System (SI metric)/U.471 square acres square 144 2.

606 65 7.3792 cubic 1 x 10-S 0.765 41 gallons x 103 cubic deka- meters 0 026 (darns) meters 1 04 (km3) 3.224 9.260 64 0.606 2.107 13 x 105 1.356 x l(r 3.3147 1.233 46 x 103 46 0 035 315 cubic dek