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A new method for modelling of arbitrary dynamic crack and shear band propagation is presented. We show that by a rearrangement of the extended finite element basis and the nodal degrees of freedom, the discontinuity can be described by superposed elements and phantom nodes. Cracks are treated by adding phantom nodes and superposing elements on the original mesh. Shear bands are treated by adding phantom degrees of freedom. The proposed method simplifies the treatment of element-byelement crack and shear band propagation in explicit methods. A quadrature method for 4-node quadrilaterals is proposed based on a single quadrature point and hourglass control. The proposed method provides consistent history variables because it does not use a subdomain integration scheme
for the discontinuous integrand. Numerical examples for dynamic crack and shear band propagation are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

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**Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2006; 67:868–893
**

Published online 6 February 2006 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/nme.1652

**A method for dynamic crack and shear band propagation
**

with phantom nodes

Jeong-Hoon Song‡, ¶ , Pedro M. A. Areias§, and Ted Belytschko∗, †

Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3111, U.S.A.

SUMMARY

A new method for modelling of arbitrary dynamic crack and shear band propagation is presented. We

show that by a rearrangement of the extended ﬁnite element basis and the nodal degrees of freedom,

the discontinuity can be described by superposed elements and phantom nodes. Cracks are treated by

adding phantom nodes and superposing elements on the original mesh. Shear bands are treated by

adding phantom degrees of freedom. The proposed method simpliﬁes the treatment of element-byelement crack and shear band propagation in explicit methods. A quadrature method for 4-node

quadrilaterals is proposed based on a single quadrature point and hourglass control. The proposed

method provides consistent history variables because it does not use a subdomain integration scheme

for the discontinuous integrand. Numerical examples for dynamic crack and shear band propagation are

provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Copyright 䉷 2006

John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

KEY WORDS:

extended ﬁnite element method; phantom nodes; dynamic fracture; shear band

1. INTRODUCTION

We present a new formulation for the modelling of discontinuities that is particularly suited to

explicit time integration methods. The formulation enables crack and shear band propagation to

be easily treated by low-order elements, particularly with one-point quadrature elements. The

method is based on the extended ﬁnite element method (XFEM) [1], but it uses a transformation

of the nodal variables that leads to the superposed element formalism of the method of Hansbo

∗ Correspondence

**to: Ted Belytschko, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan
**

Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3111, U.S.A.

† E-mail: tedbelytschko@northwestern.edu

‡ E-mail: j-song2@northwestern.edu

m E-mail: p-areias@northwestern.edu

¶ Graduate Research Assistant, Northwestern University.

Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Northwestern University.

Contract/grant sponsor: Ofﬁce of the Naval Research; contract/grant number: N0001H-98-1-0578

Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

**Received 28 April 2005
**

Revised 28 December 2005

Accepted 28 December 2005

METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION

869

**and Hansbo [2]. The advantage of this formalism is that the discontinuous element is replaced
**

by two elements with additional phantom nodes or phantom degrees of freedom, so that

little modiﬁcation is needed in existing explicit ﬁnite element programs to implement this

formulation for elements with cracks or shear bands. The associated shape functions in a

cracked or sheared element are identical to the shape functions of an intact element, which

leads to certain simpliﬁcations of the implementation in existing codes. Within this context, we

have also developed simple quadrature rules for the elements with cracks and shear bands that

involve only a single quadrature point for each of the superposed elements.

The XFEM was ﬁrst presented in References [3, 4]. The method is an application of the

local partition of unity, see References [5, 6]. In the case of elements that are completely

cracked, the local partition of unity approach in Reference [4] introduces an additional function

into the ﬁnite element basis, which consists of the product of the element shape functions with

the step function. This approach has also been used for the modelling of discontinuities such

as cracks in meshless methods [7]. Rabczuk and Belytschko [8] have developed a meshless

method called the cracked particle method wherein step functions are introduced in particles

that meet a fracture criterion.

Our motivation for introducing another method in view of the plethora of methods that have

already been developed is the need for a ﬁnite element method that has the simplicity of the

cracked particle method of Rabczuk and Belytschko [8] but greater capability in reproducing

the actual crack paths than the inter-element fracture methods of Xu and Needleman [9] and

Ortiz and Pandolﬁ [10]. The method is substantially less complex than the dynamic crack

propagation methods of Belytschko et al. [1]. However, the latter is able to deal with elements

that were partially cracked, so that the progression of the crack is modelled more accurately.

One of the aims of this paper is to compare the beneﬁts provided by the capability to model

partially cracked elements, which this proposed method lacks.

An alternative formulation of dynamic XFEM for elastic fracture has recently been published

by Réthoré et al. [11]. It uses an XFEM formulation and it is capable of greater accuracy

because it employs a time integration scheme which accounts for discontinuities in time. As we

will see from the results, the increase in accuracy that accrues to including partially cracked

elements in the formulation and implementation is quite marginal for low-order elements; this

has also been noted by Areias and Belytschko [12] in three-dimensional static crack propagation

studies.

This paper is aimed at developing a highly efﬁcient but nevertheless quite accurate formulation for dynamic fracture and shear band problems based on the XFEM basis functions. As we

will show, the method is capable of handling extensive cracking, yet unlike the inter-element

crack methods [9, 10], it exhibits almost no mesh dependence once the mesh is sufﬁciently

reﬁned to resolve the relevant physics of the problem. For cracks, the approach is similar to

that of Hansbo and Hansbo [2]; for shear bands, a new overlaid element formulation is developed. Mergheim et al. [13] have recently implemented the Hansbo and Hansbo [2] approach

for static crack growth.

In the description of a crack, we make use of implicit functions, i.e. level set theory, to

describe the geometry of the cracks, as proposed in References [14, 15]. This is not an intrinsic

part of the approach, although it does simplify implementations, particularly in three dimensions,

which are not considered here.

This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we give the displacement ﬁelds for modelling elements with discontinuities. In Section 3, we brieﬂy summarize the weak form for

Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2006; 67:868–893

870 J. AREIAS AND T. This implicit deﬁnition can be described in terms of the shape functions and is then given by fI NI (X) = 0 (1) I We also deﬁne a function g(X. although the arguments also apply to a shear band.1. we will refer speciﬁcally to a crack. t) > 0 (2) Note that the implicit functions f (X) and g(X. We allow this domain to contain discontinuities such as cracks and shear bands. The motion is described by x = (X. we give our numerical studies including comparisons with other methods. t) need only to be deﬁned locally around the discontinuity. with special emphasis on the quadrature rules we have developed for low-order elements. Representation of a discontinuity with phantom nodes In the following. M. SONG. Numer. P. Int. 2. We ﬁrst illustrate the crack modelling concept in one dimension. BELYTSCHKO non-linear dynamic analysis and the discretization. t ) 0 0 u u Figure 1. Thus. Each discontinuous surface is implicitly deﬁned by the signed distance function f (X) so that f (X) = 0 gives the discontinuity surface. Furthermore. Consider a crack at X = a and let the nodes of the element containing the crack be nodes 1 and 2 as shown in 0 t 0 c c x ( X. Section 4 presents the constitutive models which are used in this study and ﬁnally in Section 5. the image of the initial domain 0 is denoted by . 67:868–893 . t) by the index set of those elements that are cracked or sheared (Figure 2). ENRICHED DISPLACEMENT FIELDS FOR DISCONTINUITY Consider an initial domain 0 as shown in Figure 1. t) where X and x denote material and spatial co-ordinates. the discontinuity is deﬁned by X ∈ 0c if f (X) = 0 and g(X. J. Meth. t) so that the discontinuity is contained within the subdomain g(X. t) > 0. In the current domain. 2. Engng 2006. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. for elementwise propagation of the discontinuity.-H. we can replace the function g(X. A. A two-dimensional body with a discontinuity and its representation in the initial and the current domains. Ltd. respectively.

871 METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION f=0 n et crack or shear band g<0 f>0 g=0 g>0 f<0 Figure 2. Ltd. Numer. 67:868–893 . t) = 2 I =1 NI (X){uI (t) + qI [H (X − a) − H (XI − a)]} Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. Meth. A two-dimensional discontinuity representation by two implicit functions f (X) and g(X. Figure 3(a). We start with the standard XFEM description of the discontinuous displacement ﬁeld in an element u(X. J. solid circles denote real nodes and hollow circles denote phantom nodes. The representation of a discontinuity in a one-dimensional model for: (a) standard XFEM. (3) Int. t). Engng 2006. f (X) < 0 f (X) > 0 1 u 2 u(+) NI uI u 3 2 2 1 1 4 u(+) 3 2 2 I u u 1 1 u (a) 4 u X=a X (b) X=a X Figure 3. and (b) phantom node method.

element 2 in this case. As shown in Figure 3(b). we have u = u1 N1 + u2 N2 + q1 N1 H + q2 N2 (H − 1) (5) where H = H (X − a). the two parts of the model are completely disjoint except for a cohesive law which relates the traction across the discontinuity to the jump in the displacement. we can see that the discontinuous ﬁeld can be constructed by adding an extra element. Engng 2006. which is only active for X > a because of the terms H (X − a). Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. 67:868–893 . A. Int. which is only active for X < a. Numer. because of the terms (1 − H (X − a)) and element 2. the general transformation is given subsequently. P. M. Meth. respectively. Writing out Equation (3) in abbreviated notation. Ltd. SONG. We now deﬁne element 1 u11 = u1 u12 = u2 − q2 element 2 u21 = u1 + q1 u22 = u2 (7) (8) where superscripts and subscripts denote the element and node numbers.872 J. We can rewrite the above equation as u = (u1 + q1 )N1 H + u1 N1 (1 − H ) + (u2 − q2 )N2 (1 − H ) + u2 N2 H (6) where we have used the identities N1 = N1 H + N1 (1 − H ) and N2 = N2 H + N2 (1 − H ).-H. J. The displacement jump across the crack is [[u]]X = a = lim [u(X + ) − u(X − )]X=a →0 = N1 (a)(u21 − u11 ) + N2 (a)(u22 − u12 ) = q1 N1 (a) + q2 N2 (a) (10) From Equation (9). we can consider the displacement ﬁeld to consist of the displacement ﬁelds of two elements: element 1. Then two phantom nodes are added: in this case they are u12 and u21 . as shown in Figure 3(b). BELYTSCHKO where H (x) is the Heaviside step function given by 1 x >0 H (x) = 0 x 0 (4) We will now transform this to a superposed element formulation for the speciﬁc case where node 1 is to the left of the discontinuity as shown in Figure 3(b). AREIAS AND T. Equation (6) can then be rewritten as u = u11 N1 (1 − H (X − a)) + u12 N2 (1 − H (X − a)) + u21 N1 H (X − a) + u22 N2 H (X − a) (9) Thus.

which does not change the ﬁelds and make use of the fact that H − HI = H − 1 when HI+ = 0 and H − HI = H when HI− = 0: u= nN [uI HI+ NI (1 − H ) + uI HI− NI (1 − H ) + uI HI+ NI H + uI HI− NI H I =1 + qI HI+ NI (H − 1) + qI HI− NI H ] (13) We then rewrite the above as u= nN [(uI − qI )HI+ NI (1 − H ) + uI HI− NI (1 − H ) I =1 + uI HI+ NI H + (uI + qI )HI− NI H ] (14) If we then let uI1 = uI2 = uI iff (XI ) < 0 uI − qI iff (XI ) > 0 uI + qI if f (XI ) < 0 uI if f (XI ) > 0 then we can write the displacement ﬁeld as 1 2 u(X.t) (15) (16) (17) u2 (X. t) = uI (t)NI (X) H (−f (X)) + uI (t)NI (X) H (f (X)) I ∈S1 I ∈S2 u1 (X. t) = nN I =1 NI (X){uI (t) + qI [H (f (X)) − H (f (XI ))]} (11) Expanding the above as we did for the one-dimensional case by subdividing each term into parts that are associated with f (X) < 0 and f (X) > 0. Numer.t) where S1 and S2 are the index sets of the nodes of superposed element 1 and 2. each element contains original real nodes and phantom nodes. 67:868–893 . Engng 2006.METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION 873 For a multi-node element in two or three dimensions that is completely cut by a crack as deﬁned by Equation (2). respectively. We start with the conventional XFEM displacement ﬁeld u(X. J. Int. we have u= nN [uI NI (1 − H ) + uI NI H + qI (H − HI )NI ] I =1 (12) where H = H (f (X)). the two-element displacement ﬁeld form can be developed similarly. Ltd. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. Meth. As can be seen from Figure 4. We now further expand both ﬁelds by duplicating them with the multipliers HI− = H (−f (XI )) and HI+ = H (f (XI )).

SONG. f (X) > 0 2 crack opening 1 f (X) < 0 Figure 5. The representation of crack opening with the phantom nodes method.e. respectively. element 2 in this case) and phantom nodes and modify the element quadrature procedure (Figure 5). It was previously pointed out by Areias and Belytschko [16] that the Hansbo and Hansbo [2] formulation is another form of the XFEM displacement ﬁeld. u1 (X.874 J. respectively. 8-node quadrilaterals. A. 67:868–893 . Numer. P. solid and hollow circles denote the original nodes and the added phantom nodes. Int. The Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. Note that this equivalence holds for any element. though they did not present it in this form. M. one. which holds for f (X) > 0. etc.e. 3-node triangles. t). Recasting the discontinuous ﬁeld in this form simpliﬁes the implementation of the element in existing ﬁnite element codes. u2 (X. AREIAS AND T. Engng 2006. Ltd. The decomposition of a cracked element with generic nodes 1–4 into two elements. It is only necessary to add an extra element (i. Thus. This form corresponds to the concept proposed by Hansbo and Hansbo [2]. Meth. the XFEM ﬁeld for a completely cut element can be written as the sum of two element ﬁelds. J. solid and hollow circles denote the original nodes and the added phantom nodes. t). i.-H. which holds for f (X) < 0 and the other. BELYTSCHKO 4 3 4 f (X) < 0 4 3 3 f (X) < 0 1 f (X) = 0 2 f (X) > 0 1 f (X) > 0 2 1 2 1 element 1 2 element 2 Figure 4.

2. 67:868–893 . in the context of the level set formulation described here *g = ∇0 g (19) *X where g(X. Going through the same procedure as before. it is necessary to express the nodal displacements in normal and tangential components. Let the tangential direction be denoted by et . as nN u(X. t) = nN NI (X){uI (t) + qI et [H (f (X)) − H (f (XI ))]} I =1 (20) To develop the shear band element. Meth.2. Ltd. Engng 2006. J.METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION phantom nodes are deﬁned by element 1 if f (XI ) > 0 element 2 if f (XI ) < 0 I is a phantom node in 875 (18) All nodes are integrated in time by the same procedure. as will become clear subsequently. we obtain u= nN I =1 et [(utI − qI )HI+ NI (1 − H ) + utI HI− NI (1 − H ) + utI HI+ NI H + (utI + qI )HI− NI H ] + = nN nN en [unI NI (1 − H ) + unI NI H ] I =1 {et [(utI − qI )HI+ + utI HI− ] + en unI }NI H (−f (X)) I =1 + nN {et [(utI )HI+ + (utI + qI )HI− ] + en unI }NI H (f (X)) I =1 (22) We let 1 utI = utI − qI H (f (XI )) (23) 2 = utI + qI H (f (XI )) utI (24) 1 2 = unI = unI unI (25) Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. Representation of a shear band with phantom nodes The same procedure can be used to model shear bands by adding discontinuities in the tangential component of the displacement in elements crossed by a shear band. Numer. t) = I =1 NI (X){unI (t)en + utI (t)et + qI et [H (f (X)) − H (f (XI ))]} (21) where unI (t) and utI (t) are the normal and tangential components and en is the unit normal to the shear band. Int. t) is a signed distance function. The standard XFEM ﬁeld for a shear band is then et = u(X.

J. WEAK FORMULATION AND DISCRETIZATION 3. The procedure is illustrated in Figure 6. 0 is the initial mass density.-H. where the phantom degrees of freedom are indicated by dashed lines. as indicated in Reference [15]. Strong from and weak form We consider a two-dimensional dynamic problem. A. SONG. The construct in Figure 4 is replaced by that shown in Figure 6 and Equations (26)–(28). Ltd. The strong form of the linear momentum equation in a total Lagrangian description is *Pj i + 0 bi − 0 u¨ i = 0 *Xj in 0 (29) where P is the nominal stress tensor.1. t) = u2 (X. dashed lines indicate phantom degrees of freedom.876 J. However. 67:868–893 . The decomposition of a shear element with generic nodes 1–4. Some of these difﬁculties arise because we have used C 0 shape functions to describe the discontinuity surface via Equation (1). M. BELYTSCHKO 4 3 3 4 f (X) < 0 3 4 f (X) < 0 1 2 f (X) = 0 f (X) > 0 1 2 1 f (X) > 0 2 1 element 1 2 element 2 Figure 6. t) as the sum of two-element displacement ﬁelds u(X. Engng 2006. Numer. t) + u2 (X. P. b is the body force vector. t) u1 (X. Consequently. phantom degrees of freedom are added only in the tangential direction. Int. t) = u1 (X. Then we can write the displacement ﬁeld u(X. t) = I ∈S1 I ∈S2 (26) utI NI H (−f (X)) + utI NI H (f (X)) + nN I =1 nN I =1 unI NI H (−f (X)) unI NI H (f (X)) (27) (28) In the shear band elements. the modelling of discontinuous tangential ﬁelds where the discontinuity is not rectilinear does present certain difﬁculties. The interpretation and its implementation is now somewhat different than for a crack. the normal displacement ﬁeld is also identical in the two elements. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. the normal components of the nodal displacements correspond to the normal components of the original nodes and are the same in both elements. Meth. 3. AREIAS AND T.

t) ∈ C 0 . u(X. Meth. t) = 0 on 0u . Ltd. t) ∈ C 0 . J. u(X. Numer. 0u ∪ 0t = 0 . t0 is the applied traction on the Neumann boundary t and u is the applied displacement on the Dirichlet boundary 0u . The discrete equations are constructed by the standard Galerkin procedures. W kin is the kinetic work performed by inertia and W coh is the work performed by the cohesive traction on the crack surface c . u ∩ t = ∅. The ﬁnite element discretization of Equation (33) yields the discrete form of the momentum equation.METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION 877 The boundary conditions are n0j Pj i = t¯i0 on 0t (30) ui = u¯ i on 0u (31) n0j Pj−i = − n0j Pj+i = 0c i ([[ui ]]) on 0c (32) where n0 is the normal to the indicated boundary. u discontinuous on c } U0 = {u(X. u discontinuous on c } The weak form of the momentum equation is given by: for u(X. t) = u(t) on 0u . These quantities are deﬁned as (see Reference [17] for details) W kin = u · 0 u¨ d0 (34) 0 W int = 0 *u : P d0 *X W ext = 0 (35) u · 0 b d0 + 0t u · t¯0 d0t (36) W coh = − c [[u]] · c dc (37) where t¯ is the normalized traction prescribed on 0t and c is the cohesive traction applied on the discontinuity surface. Engng 2006. The admissible space for the displacement ﬁelds is deﬁned as follows: ¯ U = {u(X. 0c is the cohesive traction across the crack. Superscript plus and minus signs refer to the two sides of the discontinuity. which leads to f kin = f int − f ext + f coh Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. W ext is the external work performed by applied loads. Indicial notation is used for any lower case indices and repeated subscripts imply summations. t) | u(X. (38) Int. an updated Lagrangian form is used for (37). t) ∈ U W kin = W int − W ext + W coh ∀u(X) ∈ U0 (33) where W int is the internal work. t) | u(X. 67:868–893 .

we give them only for a generic pair of elements 1 and 2 crossed by a crack: fekin = e0 0 NT NH ((−1)e f (X)) de0 u¨ e (39) BT Pe H ((−1)e f (X)) de0 (40) feint = e0 feext = 0 N bH ((−1) fecoh = (−1) T e0 e f (X)) de0 + e0 t NT t¯0 H ((−1)e f (X)) de0 t (41) e e0 c NT c n0 de0 c (42) where the subscript e is either 1 or 2 as shown in Figure 4 and the superscript e indicates a domain restriction to element e. the historical variables stored at current quadrature points need to be projected to the newly created quadrature points when a subdomain integration scheme is used. and the cohesive force f coh are assembled from element matrices given below. 3. Engng 2006. AREIAS AND T. the external force f ext . For example.878 J. BELYTSCHKO where the internal force f int . in crack or shear band growth in non-linear materials. (a) Numerical integration with the subdomain integration scheme. Since the element matrices are standard. Int.2. B is the discrete strain-displacement operator. see References [18. M. Here we adopt a one-point integration scheme in which the Gauss quadrature point is ﬁxed. the element is subdivided into several subdomains. several difﬁculties arise in subdomain integration methods when we consider moving discontinuities. and (b) numerical integration with a one-point integration scheme. J. and each subdomain is integrated separately as shown in Figure 7(a). for details on the hourglass mode control scheme. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. A. a modiﬁed numerical quadrature scheme such as subdomain integration is needed [1]. The element uses hourglass mode control. subdomain Quadrature point f ( X) 0 f ( X) element 1 (a) 0 element 2 (b) Figure 7. Meth. 19]. Ltd. Numer. One-point integration scheme with hourglass mode control For evaluation of the integrals Equations (39)–(41) in the elements in which the Heaviside function appears. We assume that the stresses are constant within the element and given by the values at the origin of the parent co-ordinate system.-H. P. In subdomain integration. 67:868–893 . SONG. However. hollow circles are the added phantom nodes and solid circles are the original nodes.

Numer. Ltd. Time integration scheme and critical time step In this study. In Figure 8. Meth. J. we add small amount of artiﬁcial mass to the cracked elements. it can also be applied to elements with full quadrature. 3. explicit time integration is used over the whole domain. we determined the variation of the critical time step size according to the location of the discontinuity. To prevent numerical difﬁculties in the explicit time integration scheme due to zero critical time step. Expanding Equations (39)–(42) yields kin f(e1/e2) A(e1/e2) = A0 int f(e1/e2) A(e1/e2) = A0 ext fe1 = ext fe2 Ae1 A0 Ae2 = A0 e0 0 NT N de0 u¨ (e1/e2) (44) stab {BT P(e1/e2) + f(e1/e2) } de0 (45) e0 e0 0 NT b de0 + e0 t e0 0 N T b de0 + e0 t H (−f )NT t¯0 de0 t (46) H (f )NT t¯0 de0 t (47) coh fe1 =− e0 c NT c n0 de0 c (48) coh = fe2 e0 c NT c n0 de0 c (49) where f stab is a stabilization force matrix to control the hourglass modes. A0 is the total area of the uncracked element and Ae1 and Ae2 are the activated areas of the corresponding superposed elements. when we compute the force matrix for a cracked element we only modify it by the area fraction. the cracked element is replaced by two elements and the nodal forces can be integrated separately as follows: fe = fe1 + fe2 (43) where fe is element force matrix of cracked element and fe1 and fe2 are the force matrices of newly superposed elements with phantom nodes. Int. we can see that the critical time step has a peak value when the discontinuity is at the centre of the element. As we can see from Equations (44)–(47). Engng 2006. 67:868–893 . which consist of regular and phantom nodes. By studying the eigenvalues i of the one-dimensional discrete system 2i Mdi = Kdi . This computational procedure can be easily implemented within the context of the conventional software.METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION 879 As we can see Figure 7(b). it drops to zero linearly as the discontinuity is moved to the element edge.3. The eigenvalues are same as for Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons.

In this model. for the linear cohesive model in Figure 9. a surface traction is applied onto the surface c .4 0. CONSTITUTIVE MODEL 4.2. Ltd. The cohesive laws used in this study are shown in Figure 9. Damage model One of the material laws used here is the damage model of Lemaitre [20].6 0. Meth. P. 4. this is not surprising since the displacement ﬁeld basis is a linear combination of the XFEM basis.880 J. the scalar damage parameter D represents the extent of damage.2 0. In this model.2 0. This constitutive model was only Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. 4. Int. A.-H. we considered only the normal component of the cohesive traction. 67:868–893 . AREIAS AND T. For example. The cohesive traction is determined by a cohesive law which relates the traction to the jump in displacement across the discontinuity surface. Engng 2006. SONG. BELYTSCHKO 0.1 0 0 0. The variation of critical time step size according to the location of the normalized discontinuity.3 0.8 Normalized location of discontinuity 1 Figure 8. Numer. the conventional XFEM [1]. we have 2GF max = (50) max In this work. Cohesive law A cohesive crack model is used for the crack and shear band. J.4 0. The cohesive law is constructed so that the energy dissipated due to the crack propagation matches the critical fracture energy.5 XFEM This method Critical time step (x t/(c/l0)) 0. M.1.

As can be seen from Equation (51). the area under the cohesive law curve is the same as the fracture energy GF . The damage evolution law is given by D(¯) = 1 − (1 − A)D0 ¯−1 − Ae−B¯−D0 . an increase in damage parameter D leads to a softer material response. Linear and bilinear cohesive law. respectively.Cohesive traction Cohesive traction METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION max GF 881 max max max Crack opening Crack opening Figure 9. and ij and kl are Cauchy stress and linear strain components. so the constitutive relation is given as ij = (1 − D)Cij kl kl (51) where D can have values from 0 to 1. used for small displacement problems. Cij kl is the elastic modulus of the undamaged material.

The effective strain ¯ is deﬁned as 3 i . A and B are material parameters and D0 is the strain threshold. (52) where ¯ is the effective strain.

2 (53) ¯ = i=1 where i is the ith principal strain and ·.

J.3. the viscoplastic rate of deformation. Engng 2006. Celas is the elastic moduli tensor. 67:868–893 . Int. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. Meth. the compressive strain components are ﬁltered out by the Macaulay bracket. is the Jaumann rate of Kirchhoff stress. Dvp is the viscoplastic rate of deformation and Dt is the thermal rate of deformation. Dvp . Numer. The rate form of the constitutive equation is given by ∇ = Celas : (D − Dvp − Dt ) (54) ∇ where. For the vonMises material with isotropic hardening condition. Thermo-elasto-viscoplastic model For shear band simulations. Note that in Equation (53). Ltd. we used a thermo-elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model in which heat conduction is neglected for simplicity. is the Macaulay bracket. and therefore do not contribute to the damage. 4.

SONG. A. T ) is the material hardening or softening parameter. T ) is given by . P. M. AREIAS AND T. which indicates the rate sensitivity of the material and g(¯. BELYTSCHKO is given by Dvp = 3˙¯ 2¯ (55) where. T ) where m is a power index. ˙¯ is the effective plastic strain rate which is characterized by the power law relation of m ¯ (56) ˙¯ = ˙0 g(¯. In this study g(¯. is the deviatoric part of Kirchhoff stress and ¯ is the effective stress.-H.882 J.

h2 is the direction of the wave. Dt . J. 67:868–893 . p. T ) = 0 1 + −1 (57) 1 − exp 0 k The details about the constitutive equation can be found in References [21–24]. Engng 2006. The conditions that a > 0 coincides with the condition that there exist h1 and h2 such that h1 ⊗ h2 : A : h1 ⊗ h2 < 0 ∀hi (61) where A relates the rate of stress to the rate of strain. if a > 0 the response is unstable. In a rate-dependent material. is given as Dt = T˙ I (58) where is thermal expansion coefﬁcient. Int. For adiabatic heating. Continuum to discontinuity transition The discontinuous crack or shear band model is initiated when the material loses stability. For the explicit stress update algorithm.4. k is the wave number and a is a real number that determines the stability of the response. [25]. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. Reference [17. hyperbolicity is not lost. At the point that hi are found such that Equation (61) holds. loss of stability coincides with loss of hyperbolicity and the conditions are well known. we employed the rate tangent modulus algorithm given by Peirce et al. for examples. In rate-independent materials. so the transition to a discontinuity is governed by material instability. Ltd. Material instability can be determined as usual by examining whether growth occurs in an initially stressed inﬁnite body perturbed by (see. A detailed analysis is given in Reference [26]. Meth. we have 0 Cp T˙ = : Dvp (59) where is the fraction of plastic work converted to heat. 386]) u˜ = h1 · eat · ei(bt+kh2 ·X) (60) where h1 is the polarization direction. The thermal rate of deformation. see Reference [1]. a discontinuity is introduced such that ∇f is parallel to h2 . Numer. 4. ¯ N T − T0 g(¯.

Int. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES 5. Edge-cracked plate under impulsive loading 5. Engng 2006. v0 .METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION 883 5. 16. we consider both failure modes. The experiment is shown in Figure 10. In the experiment. Numer. In this study.5 m/s for the brittle fracture mode and 32. J. so we applied one half of the projectile speed. These simulations concern an experiment reported by Kalthoff and Winkler [27] in which a plate with two initial edge notches is impacted by a projectile.1. only the upper half of the plate is modelled: at the bottom edge of the ﬁnite element model. To take advantage of the twofold symmetry of the conﬁguration. Problem description. 67:868–893 .0 m/s for the shear 100mm 75mm 100mm 50mm y 25mm V0 100mm x Figure 10. Ltd. We assumed that the projectile has the same elastic impedance as the specimen. Experimental set-up for edge-cracked plate under impulsive loading: dash line denotes the numerically modelled region. at high impact velocities. at lower strain rates. a shear band is observed to emanate from the notch at an angle of −10◦ with respect to initial notch. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons.1.1. The initial impact velocity is applied on the left edge on the segment 0 y 25 mm. two different failure modes were observed by modifying the projectile speed. brittle failure with a crack propagation angle of about 70◦ is observed. Meth. uy = 0 and tx = 0.

5.245 × 10−5 m in Equation (50) and a linear cohesive law was used.0. and (d) t = 88. (c) t = 53. The crack path for a 100 × 100 quadrilateral mesh with a Lemaitre damage model at different time steps: (a) t = 39. Meth.86 s.58 s. Numerical simulations were made with two different meshes to observe mesh sensitivity: 50 × 50 and 100 × 100 meshes. J.29 s. The initial notch was modelled by including two lines of nodes separated by 0. Ltd. respectively. M. Numer. E = 190 GPa and = 0. P.213 × 104 N/m and max = 5. Dynamic crack propagation with a damage model. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons.-H. The material is a maraging steel 18Ni1900 [30] and its material properties are = 8000 kg/m3 . The stresses around crack tip were smoothed by a moving least square projection.884 J. Engng 2006. Int. B = 200. Equation (51) with A = 1. We found that a low Courant number is necessary for the elements which contain a discontinuity. References [28. (b) t = 42.0 and εD0 = 3. AREIAS AND T. The results for the 100 × 100 mesh and comparison of 50 × 50 and 100 × 100 meshes are shown in Figures 11 and 12. we used the maximum tensile stress criterion. SONG. A cohesive crack model with fracture energy GF = 2. The initial Rayleigh wave speed is cR = 2799. Both simulations are concluded at around 80 s Figure 11.2 m/s.30.1. For the crack initiation criterion. 29]).0 × 10−3 . BELYTSCHKO mode. to the left edge as an initial condition (see.58 s. 67:868–893 . We considered a Lemaitre damage constitutive model [31]. We used a central difference time integration scheme with a Courant number of 0.3 mm.1. A.2.

33]. To observe dynamic shear band propagation. the crack tip speed is substantially higher than reported in Belytschko et al. This suggests that element-byelement propagation of the crack introduces some errors in crack tip speed for coarse meshes. Comparison of crack path for 50 × 50 and 100 × 100 quadrilateral meshes with a Lemaitre damage model at t = 88. There are damaged areas in the bottom right corner of the model due to wave reﬂection. Meth. we employed a thermo-elastoviscoplastic constitutive model [22–24] with an explicit stress update algorithm [25]. [1] for a 80 × 80 cross-triangular mesh with the method that modelled crack progression within the element.1. Evidently. due to approximation errors of constant strain elements. J. Dynamic crack and shear band propagation with a elasto-viscoplastic model. However. Note that an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model does not lose hyperbolicity. Numer. it appears to increase the predicted crack tip speed. Ltd. In this example. The crack tip propagation speed is shown in Figure 13.METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION 885 Figure 12. the crack path is nearly straight. respectively. However. The material is a maraging steel. The crack tip speed never exceeds the Rayleigh wave speed 2799. In the latter. and in particular. for most engineering purposes.3. Both results show very similar trajectories for the crack. Engng 2006.58 s: (a) 50 × 50 quadrilateral mesh. are employed. and (b) 100 × 100 quadrilateral mesh. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. 5. the near-tip ﬁeld is not reproduced well enough to yield an accurate direction for crack propagation. the maximum tensile stress and loss of material stability condition. as an indicator of the propagation and the direction. [1]. 67:868–893 . the accuracy is more than adequate. Int. as in the preceding example and the material properties for the thermo-elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model can be found in References [23. Note that the crack tip speed is taken to be the average over ﬁve time steps. 32. The initial crack propagation angle is around 64◦ and the average angle from the initial crack tip to the ﬁnal crack tip is about 60◦ for both meshes. 24]. This angle is 10◦ smaller than the observed angle [27] and the angle obtained by mesh-free computations in References [11. the crack tip singularity was included as an enrichment at the notch. For the crack and shear band criterion.2 m/s. 18Ni1900. the crack tip speed for the 100 × 100 mesh decreases and agrees better with the computation of Belytschko et al. when the crack tip reaches the upper boundary. For the 50 × 50 mesh. we simulate both brittle and shear fracture mode of Kalthoff and Winkler experiment [27].

[1] 0 0 20 (a) 30 40 50 60 70 80 Time (micro sec) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Time (micro sec) (b) Figure 13.886 J.0 63. Ltd.4◦ and the average overall Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. The comparison of crack growth path between the simulation with the damage model and the elasto-viscoplastic model. P.0 20.0˚ 20.0 0.0 60. M. The initial crack propagation angle is around 67. BELYTSCHKO 3000 Crack propagation speed (m/s) Crack propagation speed (m/s) 3000 2000 1000 Rayleigh wave speed 100 by 100 mesh 50 by 50 mesh 2000 1000 Rayleigh wave speed Belytschko et al.0 80.0 40.0 40. Engng 2006. The comparison of the crack growth paths between the results with damage model and elastoviscoplastic model are shown in Figure 14.0 Damage model Elasto-viscoplastic model 60. Crack tip propagation speed for the edge-cracked plate under impulsive loading: (a) the crack tip propagation speed of this method and (b) the crack tip propagation speed of the previous results in Reference [1]. At 16.0 0.0 67. A.3˚ 80. The crack growth paths of the elasto-viscoplastic model agree better with the experimental results than those for the hypo-elastic constitutive law with damage.4˚ 64. AREIAS AND T.0 100. 67:868–893 .-H. Meth. where a 80 × 80 cross-triangular mesh is used. Int.5 m/s as in the preceding example.0 (mm) Figure 14. J. SONG. (mm) 100. Numer. we observe dynamic crack propagation.

the localized plastic strain along the shear band is substantially lower than that of the physical shear band.0 and D0 = 8. The initial Rayleigh wave speed is cR = 2119. we consider a prenotched specimen 0. [1].00 s.0 × 102 N/m. We used A = 1.5 × 10−5 for the Lemaitre damage model [31]. Crack branching In this example. = 1 MPa. Engng 2006.0. J.1. as we can observe from Figure 15(b). Int. This 2–5◦ discrepancy in the angle with the experiment may be due to the absence of a crack tip stress concentration.0 m/s. Numerical results for this problem have been given by Belytschko et al. Numer. However.20. B = 7300. Meth. If this criterion is satisﬁed and the Experimental [29] This method (a) (b) Figure 15. Tensile tractions. We assumed that the shear band energy is GF = 1. In this study. Ltd. E = 32 GPa and = 0. since we adopted a strong discontinuity approach to represent sheared elements. Rabczuk and Belytschko [8]. the effective plastic strain distribution and a comparison of the shear band path with experimental results are shown in Figure 15.1◦ . At the end of crack propagation. To capture the crack branching phenomena. the overall shear band propagation path agrees quite well with the experimental results [29]. 5. we modelled the domain with 100 × 51 uniform quadrilateral elements and used explicit time integration with a Courant number of 0. though the shear band path drifted downward more than the experimental results along the last half of the path.2.04 m as shown in Figure 16.1 m × 0. are applied on the both of the top and the bottom edges as a step function in time. and (b) comparison of shear band path with experimental results [29]. The material properties are = 2450 kg/m3 . For the discretization. Xu and Needleman [9] and experimental results with different dimensions are available in References [34–38]. we can observe some minor oscillations in the crack path because of a reduced moving least square projection domain. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. We used the Lemaitre damage law [31] for the continuum domain and imposed a linear cohesive law once a discontinuity developed. Dynamic shear band propagation: (a) effective plastic strain distribution at t = 35. 67:868–893 . we monitored the maximum principal stress criterion at several points around the crack tip. At 32 m/s.METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION 887 crack propagation angle is 65.

Numer. and (d) a sketch of the experiment paths reported by Ramulu and Kobayashi [34]. Engng 2006. we initiate crack branches. The numerical simulation ﬁnishes at 55. Int.04 s. From this initial phase until crack branching. Plate with a horizontal initial notch under tensile stress. J.93 s. at this point the crack branches into two cracks. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. This agrees with the results.-H.38 s. After branching. P. M. A. AREIAS AND T. [1]. the crack tip speed increases linearly and peaks at around 20.14 s. which were reported by Belytschko et al. the crack tip speed becomes almost constant at 75% of the Rayleigh wave speed. The crack begins to propagate at 15.93 s when the crack tip reaches the boundary of the specimen. The pattern of crack propagation is shown in Figure 17(a–c) and the crack tip speed is shown in Figure 18. Crack branching and damage evolution at different time steps: (a) t = 30. we only allow the crack to branch once and set the element stress to zero in elements in which three cracks have formed.29 s. and Rabczuk and Belytschko [8]. 67:868–893 . Ltd. The crack pattern is similar to the experimental results reported in References [34–38]. maximum principal stress directions show relatively different crack growth angles. For simplicity. SONG. (b) t = 46.20 mm J. (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 17. (c) t = 55. BELYTSCHKO 40 mm 888 50 mm 100 mm Figure 16. Meth.

see. The experimental conﬁguration is shown in Figure 19(a). Numer. Note that the ﬁnite element model has only one physical notch at the initial stage of the simulations. we allow a crack to initiate at the midspan.7.3. Figure 19(b–d). 5.METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION 889 2500 Crack propagation speed (m/s) 2000 1500 1000 Rayleigh wave speed Crack tip speed Belytschko et al. = 0. We discretized the 0. [1] 500 0 0 20 40 60 Time (micro sec) Figure 18.2286 m × 0. we used a ramp loading instead of a direct impact loading because of a rubber pad which is located between the beam and impact hammer (for more details. = dnotch L/2 (62) where dnotch denotes the distance between the midspan and the notch. Crack propagation speed for the crack branching problem compared to [1]. and L is the span between the supports. For the offset Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. B = 7300. In this case. For = 0. John and Shah [39] reported pure mode I fracture. which is in reasonable agreement with the experimental result of 60◦ . As we can see from Figure 20(a) for = 0. the crack propagates only from the offset notch since the stress is released at the midspan.0762 m concrete beam with a 30 × 91 mesh and used the following material properties: = 2400 kg/m3 .20. The location of of mixed mode dynamic crack propagation in concrete beams has been Shah [39].37 GPa. pattern of crack propagation depends mainly on the location of initial notch is characterized by the offset parameter . A = 1. the crack propagates at an angle of 52◦ . Int. J. the notch. Ltd. while > 0 can result in either a mode I fracture at the midspan or a mixed mode fracture at the offset notch. Meth.0 and εD0 = 8. refer to References [33. Numerical simulations of this experiment by the mesh-free methods have been reported by Belytschko and Tabbara [33]. 67:868–893 . To represent an impact loading. Simulations were conducted with various offset parameters to examine the different crack growth trajectories according to .0. For the simulation of the midspan crack growth. 39]).5 × 10−5 for the Lemaitre damage model in Equation (52). Engng 2006. E = 31. Mixed mode crack propagation in a beam under impact loading An experimental study reported by John and In the experiment.

0254m L=0. and (d) mode I fracture at the midspan.875 L 2 Figure 19.8. the crack is initiated at the midspan and both cracks propagate simultaneously.77 L (d) 2 0. = 0. Final crack growth path with damage evolution for different offset parameter : (a) = 0. AREIAS AND T.-H. (a) (b) (c) Figure 20. Engng 2006.75. Meth. BELYTSCHKO 60. P. Int. Finally.0127m 0.75. SONG.2032m 2 0.77). A.72 0. and (c) = 0. M. notch in the transition zone (i.0762m 0. In this simulation. when the offset notch is too far from the Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons.0127m (b) (a) (c) L 0. 67:868–893 .7. the transition is observed around = 0. Test conﬁguration of concrete beam with an offset notch for a mixed mode test and experiment crack conﬁgurations for various offset parameters. which is similar to that observed experimentally.e. (b) = 0. (c) transition stage.890 J.0˚ 0. [39]: (a) experiment set-up. (b) mixed mode fracture at the initial notch. Ltd.019m V0 (L ) 2 0. J. Numer.

due to the absence of a model for a partially cracked element. For all cases. Wang H. Overall crack and shear band propagation paths are in reasonable agreement with what was obtained experimentally. 2. it tends to overestimate the crack speed. On the principles for the selection of shape functions for the generalized ﬁnite element methods. the crack starts to grow at around 620 s. Black T. Hansbo P. J. 45(5):601–620. An attractive feature of this method is that it provides consistent history variables and low computational cost within the context of the conventional explicit ﬁnite element method. CONCLUSIONS A method for explicit dynamic crack and shear band propagation simulation has been developed. In this method. Xu J. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. Numer. Ventura G. 193:3523–3540. we found that the proposed method is quite effective for these complicated crack patterns. 5. It is apparent that element-byelement cracking requires ﬁner meshes to match the accuracy of methods with partial element cracking as in [1]. Belytschko T. This allows large-scale problems with complicated crack geometries to be solved efﬁciently. Elastic crack growth in ﬁnite elements with minimal remeshing. The numerical integration of the cracked elements is simpliﬁed with one-point quadrature and hourglass control. Xu JX. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 2002. A vector level set method and new discontinuity approximations for crack growth by EFG. a cracked or sheared element is represented by two superimposed elements with a set of phantom nodes or phantom degrees of freedom. Belytschko T. A ﬁnite element method for crack growth without remeshing. Dolbow J. 58:1873–1905. REFERENCES 1. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed method.e. the method showed a little mesh dependence. the crack is initiated at the bottom of the midspan and grows as shown in Figure 20(c). Hansbo A. 3. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 2004. 7. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2003. 4. 191:5595–5629. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The support of the Ofﬁce of Naval Research under award N0001H-98-1-0578 is gratefully acknowledged. Moës N. However. Belytschko T. Int. Osborne JE. In the dynamic crack branching problem. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1999. Belytschko T. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2002. several numerical examples for which experimental or numerical results are available have been analysed. 46(1):131–150. We attribute this effect to the element-by-element cracking procedure. Banerjee U. Zi G. 67:868–893 . by reinterpreting the conventional XFEM displacement ﬁeld. i. On the construction of blending elements for local partition of unity enriched ﬁnite elements.METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION 891 loading point and it cannot relax the stress at the midspan. 6. the crack tip speed decreases somewhat with mesh size. Chen H. Babuška I. 54(6):923–944. Engng 2006. In the Kalthoff and Winkler problem. So while element-by-element progression of a crack is simple. A ﬁnite element method for the simulation of strong and weak discontinuities in solid mechanics. 57(7):1015–1038. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2003. Ltd. 6. Dynamic crack propagation based on loss of hyperbolicity with a new discontinuous enrichment. Belytschko T. This facilitates the addition of this method to existing programs. Meth. Chessa J. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1999.

Belytschko T. 16. submitted. A ﬁnite element method for the computational modelling of cohesive cracks. Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids 1994. Tabbara M. Belytschko T. 101:1–31. 1:185–195. Fracture initiation due to asymmetric impact loading of an edge cracked plate. 44:1267–1282. 32. 23. Gravouil A. BELYTSCHKO 8. 67:868–893 . Numerical simulation of fast crack growth in brittle solids. 63:760–788. Element-free Galerkin methods for static and dynamic fracture. Peirce D. Numerical simulations. P. Rosakis AJ. 17:679–706. 5:339–361. 30. 15. 50(4):993–1013. Ravichandran G. International Conference on Impact Loading and Dynamic Behavior of Materials 1987. 13. 63:631–659. Belytschko T. Hao W. 34. 2000. Stolarska M. 20. A tangent modulus method for rate dependent solids. Usui S. Source Book on Maraging Steels. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1996. Réthoré J. Ramulu M. Thermodynamic Theory of Viscoplasticity. Lee YJ. Analysis of three-dimensional crack initiation and propagation using the extended ﬁnite element method. Tabbara M. 27. Kobayashi AS. 61(13):2316–2343. Winkler S. Steinmann P. 51(8):943–960. Freund LB. 18. 12. 90:83–102. Stability of rate dependent materials. A class of cohesive elements for the simulation of three-dimensional crack propagation. Kalthoff JF. Modeling crack growth by level sets in the extended ﬁnite element method. American Society for Metals. Rosakis AJ. 44:1007–1032. 26. Moës N. 1971. Areias PMA. Ortiz M. An energy-conserving scheme for dynamic crack growth using the extended ﬁnite element method. Rabczuk T. Ravi-Chandar K. Parimi C. Meth. Belytschko T. Moran B. 22. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2005. M. 19. Chopp DL. 1990. 1979. Pandolﬁ A. 63:276–289. Modes of dynamic shear failure in solids. 25. Suppression of spurious intermediate frequency modes in under-integrated elements by combined stiffness/viscous stabilization. Belytschko T. Liu WK. International Journal of Fracture 1998. Perzyna P. Mechanics of Solid Materials. 35. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2001. Dynamic fracture using element-free Galerkin methods.892 J. Shih CF. Chaboche JL. Lu YY. Proceedings ICM 1. Lemaitre J. Mechanics of crack curving and branching—a dynamic fracture analysis. Ltd. Needleman A. Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and Structures. 33. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2004. Journal of Applied Mechanics (ASME) 1990. Evaluation of dissipation and damage in metal submitted to dynamic loading. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 1996. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2005. Kuhl E. in press. 39:923–938. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2005. Meshfree Galerkin simulations of dynamic shear band propagation and failure mode transition. Belytschko T. International Journal of Solids and Structures 1995. Needleman A. 31. Dynamic fracture of nominally brittle materials. Moës N. Combescure A. Belytschko T.-H. Wiley: New York. A comment on the article: a ﬁnite element method for simulation of strong and weak discontinuities in solid mechanics. 21. Computers and Structures 1984. Zhou M. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1999. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 2005. Needleman A. Areias PMA. 39:1213–1240. International Journal of Fracture 1985. Xu X-P. International Journal of Solids and Structures 2002. Belytschko T. SONG. J. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2001. Lemonds J. 29. A. Liu WK. 11. Kalthoff JF. 10. Failure mode transition at high rates of shear loading. 1971. 9. 57:104–111. Lemaitre J. 64:335–353. Song J-H. A uniform strain hexahedron and quadrilateral and orthogonal hourglass control. 28. 14. Arbitrary discontinuities in ﬁnite elements. Cracking particles: a simpliﬁed meshfree method for arbitrary evolving cracks. 42(9):1397–1434. Academic Press: New York. AREIAS AND T. Int. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0 521 32853 5. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1981. Dynamically propagating shear bands in impact-loaded prenotched plates-ii. Flanagan DP. Belytschko T. 27:187–201. 17. 18:875–887. Mechanics of Materials 1986. Li S. Belytschko T. Engng 2006. Gu L. Numer. International Journal of Fracture 2000. Mergheim J. Belytschko T. Daniel WJT. 24. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2005. Belytschko T. 32:2547–2570. Finite element analyses of shear localization in rate and temperature dependent solids. Decker RF.

Meth. 121(1–2):55–69. Local crack branching as a mechanism for instability in dynamic fracture. 74(25):5096–5099. Int. 67:868–893 . Physical Review Letters 1995. Fineberg J. 37. Mixed mode fracture of concrete subjected to impact loading.METHOD FOR DYNAMIC CRACK AND SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION 893 36. Sharon E. Gross PSP. Copyright 䉷 2006 John Wiley & Sons. 116:585–602. Sharon E. Numer. Sharon E. Cohen G. Physical Review B 1996. Microbranching instability and the dynamic fracture of brittle materials. International Journal of Fracture 2003. Ltd. 39. John R. Fineberg J. Shah SP. 54(10):7128–7139. J. Fineberg J. Journal of Structural Engineering (ASCE) 1988. Engng 2006. Crack front waves in dynamic fracture. 38.

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