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American Fire Services

1982

Anal y ses, Al ternati ves, I nnovati ons,

Solutions
Ignatius Kapalczynski
Principal
139 Selden Hill Drive
West Hartford, CT
06107-3128

Office: (860) 521-7056
Cell: (860) 817-3771
americanfiresvc@juno.com

An Operational and Functional View
of a
Sprinkler System Design

Demonstrate application of the hydraulic calculation
review process as a method for evaluating and
validating automatic sprinkler system design
assumptions and layouts.

Using the implications of commonly found deficiencies
and errors on overall system performance to develop
concise and informative plan review comments.

CGS CSFSC Part I .  Public Act 83-432 introduced Section 29-263. numerous violations. Section 29-292-4e & 29-292-5e (coordination with Building Official) . corrective reconstruction required. Prior to 1982 no requirements.

adequate and appropriate for the expected hazard.  To determine if the hydraulics support the system design and layout. To assure that the delivery of water will be sufficient. . ◦ It is easier to make corrections and adjustments on the paper and to run confirming calculations than it is to explain lack of system performance.

 Assures adequate coverage  Allows design flexibility  Evaluates alternatives and special conditions  Saves time and human error (sometimes)  Minimizes water requirement. while assuring distribution .

Garbage in = gospel out  Knowledge of basic hydraulics can detect serious design errors . Human error  Computer data entry ◦ Garbage in = Garbage out ◦ Lately .

 Consequences of failure affect life and property!  Reflects poorly on official & jurisdiction  Corrective action takes time & money  Correction by re-doing rather than by recalculating  Non-conformance results in: Legal action An unreliable system .

 A Traffic Analogy ◦ Water traveling from a source to the fire in a pipe network is like a car traveling to a destination in a road network. ◦ Many of the terms and conditions are comparable ◦ We can all relate to driving and traffic .

They take you from one place to another .

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 They have Ups and Downs  They slow you on the way up  They speed you on the way down  So why do we say speed up and slow down? .

 They change direction of traffic  They add traffic  They remove traffic  They control traffic .

Ensure that the system being installed is
Capable of delivering
The minimum amount of water
Necessary for the expected fire.

valves. including changes in elevation  4 – Determine the required amount of water needed from the most demanding sprinkler . 1 – Select an appropriate density/area or flow/pressure strategy for the system to be analyzed  2 – Determine the coverage area for each sprinkler (calculation spacing versus sprinkler spacing)  3 – Determine the arrangement of the system piping. and fittings.

and then determine the primary water path and any attachment paths. .  6 – Determine which single sprinkler will be the most demanding.  7 – Calculate how much pressure and flow will be needed for the entire remote area because of that first sprinkler  8 – Compare the water flow and pressure that is required versus the available supply. 5 – Determine which sprinklers will open in a fire (remote area) and which ones will be the most demanding of the water supply.

 What is the expected fire challenge? ◦ What can burn? ◦ How much is there? ◦ How is it arranged? ◦ How quickly will it spread? .

 Light  Ordinary I  Ordinary II  Extra Hazard I  Extra Hazard II   Kind of like Beer Chapter 5 .

Educational.  Quantity and/or combustibility is low  Rates of heat release low Assembly. Residential . Health Care. Business. Occupancies or portions thereof.

Laundries.  Quantity moderate  Combustibility low  Less than 8 feet high  Rates of heat release moderate Automotive. Occupancies or portions thereof. Kitchens . Manufacturing. Storage.

Storage. Repair  .less than 12 feet high  Combustibility high .less than 8 feet high  Rates of heat release moderate  Agricultural. Mercantile.  Quantity and/or combustibility moderate to high  Combustibility moderate . Occupancies or portions thereof. Combustible Manufacturing.

 Occupancies or portions thereof. Mills. Materials Processing . lint or other materials  Rapidly developing fires  Rates of heat release high  Little or no flammable or combustible liquids  Aircraft Facilities.  Quantity and/or combustibility very high  Dust.

Spraying. Occupancies or portions thereof. Plastics. Quenching.  Moderate to substantial amounts of flammable or combustible liquids  Shielding of combustibles extensive  Painting. Dipping. Solvents .

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 Result will be a:   Volume rate (gallons per minute) over an area (square feet)  Example: 0.10 gpm / 1500 ft2 .

 Area of Coverage  Type of Sprinkler  Required Flow  Required Pressure .

.Most standard sprinklers discharge a circular pattern with a diameter of 15 – 16 feet or approximately 192 square feet.

Design hazard classes specify spacing along branch lines and between branch lines of lesser dimensions to provide overlap and increased coverage base on the hazard severity. .

 Design hazard classes specify spacing along branch lines and between branch lines of lesser dimensions to provide overlap and increased coverage base on the hazard severity.  Specify both maximum dimension and maximum area . Most standard sprinklers discharge a circular pattern with a diameter of 15 – 16 feet or approximately 192 square feet.

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 Specify both maximum dimension and maximum area  Example:  Hazard Class = Ordinary I  Maximum Sprinkler Protection Area = 130 ft2  Maximum Sprinkler Spacing (Branch Line) = 15 ft  Maximum Branch line Spacing = 130/15 = 8.67 ft .

15 gpm/ft2  Required Flow = 130 x 0.5 gpm . Example  Area of Coverage = 130 ft2  Design Density = 0.15 = 19.

 Determine Sprinkler Type  Determine K-Factor  Verify with manufacturer’s specifications  Calculate .

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 K-Factor ranges 1.4 to 28 (and larger special) . A K-Factor 5.  Sprinklers are identified by K-Factor rather than an orifice size.6 is not necessarily a ½” orifice sprinkler. Discharge coefficient (theoretical) that determines how much water can flow from a particular sprinkler.

A K-Factor 5.  K-Factor ranges 1. Discharge coefficient (theoretical) that determines how much water can flow from a particular sprinkler.6 is not necessarily a ½” orifice sprinkler.4 to 28 (and larger special) .  Sprinklers are identified by K-Factor rather than an orifice size.

6 ) 2 = 12. Flow (Q) = 19.6  Solve for Pressue (P) ( Q / K ) 2 = P  ( 19.1 psi .5 gpm  Sprinkler K-Factor (K) = 5.5 / 5.

 Check ◦ What is minimum required pressure by code ? ( 7 psi) ◦ What is minimum pressure required by manufacturer? (specs) ◦ Is minimum calculated pressure greater than minimums? 12.1 >= 7 or specs? (Yes) .

67 = 130 ft2  Area / Sprinkler Area = 1500 / 130 = 11.5 sprinklers  Round up to 12 (no partial sprinklers) ◦ Add area or sprinklers to round up (Dog Leg) . Sprinkler Spacing ◦ Sprinklers and Branch Lines ◦ Example  S x L = 15 x 8.

 Area Increases ◦ Dry or Pre-action Systems (30%) ◦ Pitched Roofs (30%)  Decreases ◦ Quick Response (QR) sprinklers  Why? ◦ Sprinkler Response Time .

 By Flow (Q) – usually the largest  By Pressure (P) – usually the highest  By Elevation (E) – usually the highest .

types  By Arrangement – branches. By piping – size. location . loops. grids  By Hazard – size. lengths.

   May be a combination of all of the above Combinations may cause counter-intuitive results When in doubt – calculate another area .

   Relative to Area Demand (industrial vs residential) To Building (distance) Actual water main .

 Date – How recent .

   Date – Day of week (weekday vs weekend) Time – Usage peak Who Conducted .

 Elevation to flow point .

biases) . Who Conducted? (qualifications.

 Who prepared the calculations?  What is the project?  Where is it located?  When was it done? .

30 day time frame. .  CSFSC ◦ 29-292-4e – Plans submittal ◦ 29-292-5e – Notify BO . CGS 29-263 ◦ No building or structure shall be constructed or altered without an application to the LBO & issuance of a permit ◦ Within 30 days of application LBO/LFM must review plans & LBO either issue or refuse permit ◦ Plans accepted must be in substantial compliance with the applicable codes.

city. alteration or modification (change) of a fire sprinkler system. town or borough building official responsible for the enforcement of laws. no state.S. shall accept or approve any such drawings or specifications which are not accompanied by evidence of licensure by the state as an automatic fire sprinkler system layout technician licensed pursuant to section 20-304a OR are not accompanied by evidence of licensure by the state as a professional engineer in accordance with chapter 391. . License Required by Connecticut ◦ C. 29-263a ◦ Working drawings used for the installation. ordinances or regulations relating to the construction or alteration of buildings or structures.G. pursuant to section 29-263.

.Professional Engineer’s Seal & Signature ◦ C.G. Except for plans for buildings or structures under the provisions of section 20-298. town. no official of this state or of any city.S. ordinances or regulations relating to the construction or alteration of buildings or structures. 20-293  The working drawings and specifications prepared for such buildings or structures. or borough therein. shall be stamped with his seal. charged with the enforcement of laws. shall accept or approve any plans or specifications that are not stamped with the seal of a licensed architect or a licensed professional engineer. which by the terms of this chapter shall be prepared by a licensed architect.

 Engineer (PE) (any PE or discipline . electrical)  NICET III (triangular seal.(landscape. layout only)  Things to watch out for: ◦ Stamps for sale ◦ Trust in computer programs ◦ GIGO .

 Hazard Type  Design Density  Design Area  Area per SprinklerAS .

rack sprinklers . Minimum Pressure Required  Flow (Q) per Sprinkler  Total Requirement + water curtains.

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 Static Pressure  Residual Pressure Flow  .

 C-Factor – roughness of pipe material  Age and Condition of Pipe  Pipe condition deteriorates with time .

 Type  Orientation  Coverage  Orifice  K Factor .

 Capacity .

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insurance . NFPA 13 – none  Design Practice – good engineering  Reliability .

 Node  Elevation  Flow (Q)  Pressure (P)  % or wastage .

  Everything the manufacturer wants you to know so that they don’t get into trouble “Following the directions” .

 Schedule  Area Density  Room Design    Construction Requirements Suppression Mode Control  Extinguishment  Life Safety Only .

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◦ When any of the following occur the system may NOT be effective and may require redesign  building expansion or extensive renovation  change in occupancy classification  change in hazards classification  decrease in available water supply .

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 More lanes = more traffic flow  More lanes = faster traffic flow .

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 Road Materials . Copper. Dirt  Pipe Materials – Steel. Asphalt. Plastic .Concrete.

rusted. Pipe Condition – smooth. pot holes. cracked. clogged  Road Condition – smooth. ruts . silted.

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 Elbows = Turns  Tees = Intersections  Check Valves = Stop Spikes  Gate Valves = Traffic Lights. Drawbridges  Flow Switch = EZPass .

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however. .Required by Dept. proper location and large friction loss if installed affect hydraulic calculations and system operation within compliance of CFSC and NFPA 13 & 14. of Health.

 Fittings are like Curves  Curves slow traffic – Fittings slow flow  Equivalent length is how far you would have traveled on a straight road if you hadn’t slowed for curves .

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 Toto – We’re not in Kansas any more .

 Flow velocity  Laminar Flow – smooth traffic and speed  Turbulent Flow – rush hour  Volume – speed .

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As Volume Increases – Resistance Increases – Traffic Slows .

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accidents.Interaction with guardrails. Pipe – Interaction of flow with pipe inner surface  Roads . frequent lane changes. rubber necking .

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000 gallons through a soda straw. but over how much time ◦ Faster requires more pressure ◦ More pressure if strength of material permits . Problem: 100 feet of 1 inch pipe ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  10 gpm = 6psi 20 gpm = 22 psi 50 gpm = 120 psi 100 gpm = 440 psi (pipe may burst) Problem: 10. Possible??? ◦ Yes.

52) x (18067.4) x 6492.11) ◦ 0.85 ) / ( C1.85 x D4.87) ◦ (4.0018 psi per foot  Problem: What if the pipe is 780 feet long? ◦ x (780) = 1.8) / (7022.85) / (120^1.52 x Q1.85) x (6.4 psi .52) x (200^1. schedule 40 pipe that is flowing 200 gpm ◦ (4. FL = ( 4.065^4.87 )  Problem: What is the friction loss for a new 6 inch.

 Pipe ◦ Path of least resistance ◦ Because that’s the only way it will go Traffic Fastest path setting on GPS .

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 1 – Choose Remote Riser .B .

433 #/ft = 28 psi  5a – Pipe 4 inch + 1 Elbow = 65 ft + 35 ft + 10 ft ______ = 110 ft @ 500 gpm = 11 psi         5b – Pipe 6 inch + 1 Tee = 105 ft + 30 ft ______ =135 ft @ 500 gpm = 2 psi .Riser B  2 – Starting Flow = 250 gpm @ 100 psi (NFPA 14)  3 – Added Flow = 250 gpm  4 – Elevation Pressure = 65 ft x 0.

Riser C

6 – Add Flow from Riser C = 250 (from A) + 500 (from B) = 750 gpm

7 – Elevation Pressure = N/A same as Riser B

Tee to Fire Department Siamese (Not Storz)





8 – Pipe 6 inch + 2 Elbows = 75 ft
+ 5 ft
+ 3 ft
+ 28 ft (14 ft x 2)
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= 111 ft @ 750 gpm = 3 psi

Total

9 – Add Pressures = 100 psi (from #2)
+ 28 psi (from #4)
+ 11 psi (from #5a)
+ 2 psi (from #5b)
+ 3 psi (from #8)
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= 144 psi

10 – System Demand = 750 gpm @ 144 psi






More
◦ Risers
◦ Building Height (Elevation)
◦ Flows
◦ Pipe
◦ Fittings
◦ More repeat calculations
◦ But Still The Same Problem!

A small building owned by a company that processes
and distributes fruit juice beverages.

Will be protected with a wet/dry pipe sprinkler system.

The 3,792 ft2 building will be used to fill small cans of
fruit juices.

Black steel. K-factor 5. ½ NPT orifice. Schedule 40  Branch tree system  Design Approach – Area Density .Ordinary Hazard Group 1  Storage over 12 ft in height or racks storage? – No  Sprinklers .6  Piping . Hazard class .QR.

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 Do calculations correlate with drawings?  Nodes  Pipe lengths  Fittings  Pipe diameters  Elevations .

 Check sprinkler elevations  Roof deck = 20 ft aff (see architecturals)  Branch Lines = 19 ft aff  Cross main = 3 ft below B/L = 16 ft aff .

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58 psi residual. Water supply ◦ 72 psi static. 1200 gpm flowing. when and elevation differences.  What don’t we know? ◦ Who. . where.

15 gpm/ft2 over 1500 ft2 (Chapter 11) . = 0.

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 Sprinkler Coverage (As) – 130 ft2  Area allowed = 130 ft2 .

 Actual (As) = 14 ft x 9 ft = 126 ft2 .

5 feet – oops)  Check distance between sprinklers on opposite sides of cross main . S = distance between sprinklers along branch line  L = distance between branch lines  As actual = S x L = 14 ft x 9 ft = 126 ft2  126 ft2 <= 130 ft2 OK  Distance from walls = S/2 = 7 feet (not 7.

15 gpm / ft2  Flow (Q) = As x D = 126 ft2 x 0.9 gpm . Determine the required flow from most demanding sprinkler  Area (As) = S x L = 14 ft x 9 ft = 126 ft2  Density (D) = 0.15 gpm/ft2 = 18.

9 gpm ◦ Sprinkler K-Factor (K) = 5.1 psi .6 ◦ Solve for Pressue (P) ( Q / K ) 2 = P ◦ ( 18.9 / 5.6 ) 2 = 12. Determine the required pressure ◦ Flow (Q) = 18.

If anyone argues where is it in the code.  Just because a particular sprinkler may cover a smaller area does not allow this pressure or flow to be reduced. they clearly do not understand physics (and probably think it can be modified) .

 Determine location of remote area (as before)  1500 ft2 as determined by Table .

      Increases? 30% for dry pipe? 30% for double interlock preaction? 30% for pitched roof 100% Combustible concealed spaces Apply twice if both apply .

 Decreases .

OK Unprotected ceiling pockets? .OK 1500 ft2 x 75% = 1125 ft2 .Yes Ceiling height? – 20 ft .Yes QR sprinklers? .No Hazard class? – Ordinary I .       Decreases? Wet pipe system? .

 Shape of remote area  Square shape not allowed because fires do not grow symmetrically  Rectangle is more hydraulically challenging (and realistic) .

 Rectangular remote area opens more sprinklers on a line .

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2 √ A  L = 1.25 .54  L = 40.2 x 33. Rectangle = A = L x W  L = 1.2 x √ 1125  L = 1.

9 = 9 sprinklers (round up)  Sometimes more sprinklers must be added . Add enough sprinklers to cover at least 1125 ft2  Number of sprinklers = 1125 ft2 / (126 ft2/sprinkler = 8.

25 ft . L is too short – must be at least 40.

 Add 4th sprinkler .

 L actual = 52 .

Close to cross main because more challenging .Add B/L to get 9th sprinklerAS Add 2nd B/L  Add 9th AS – Where? .

 Determine actual area covered .

5 ft = 442 ft2 . 52 ft x 8.

 52 ft x 9 ft = 468 ft2 .

 Actual floor area covered by sprinkler 9 = 126 ft2 .

not enough sprinklers in area    . Sprinklers 1-4 = 442 ft2 Sprinklers 5-8 = 468 ft2 Sprinkler 9 = 126 ft2 Total = 1036 ft2  1036 ft2 < 1125 ft2 .

  Add sprinkler 10 12 ft x 9 ft = 108 ft2 1036 ft2 + 108 ft2 = 1144 ft2 > 1125 ft2  OK finally .

request calculations from a different area to compare – you’ll be surprised . Determine where the remote area is located.  Same considerations as before  When in doubt.

D. flow points.L.C pipe type) . pipe size changes. Check Nodes  Pipe ends. valves. elevation changes. devices and any other points where variables change (Q.

CM3 BOR . CM2. RN3 CM1.   RN1. RN2.

 System Isometric with Nodes .

 Primary Path – Your travel on your street  Attachment Path – Your neighbors travel on their streets  System – Everyone traveling  Path K-Factor – Don’t worry – short cut not necessary for computer .

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4 psi  Code says 7 psi minimum – this would be inadequate .9 gpm @ 11. Determine the required pressure – How much gas will you need?  Step 1 – Follow the path from most remote sprinkler to source – remember this is a one way trip and all roads are one way (for a tree system)  Step 2 – Determine start Q and P (from before) 18.

Fill-in the blanks – your traffic Pipe Segment  Length (L).  Diameter (D).  Elevation (E)    .1st pipe segment Step 3 .  Flow (Q).  Fittings.

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85 / D4. F/L per foot by Table or Equation  F/L = ( 4.87 )  Step 4 – Next pipe – you and your neighbors traffic   Determine new Q based on higher P Fill in the blanks .85 ) / ( C1.52 x Q1.

Repeat until you reach source – drive until you get there . 2nd pipe segment  Step 5 – Remember to add attachment flows – still more traffic  Step 6 – Repeat.

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 Additional B/L’s   Step 7 – At source determine Q & P P = how much gas you need  Step 8 – Add some Q for hose line  .

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 Primary path with two attachment paths – everyone traveling on the highway with you .

 Step 9 – Determine if source is adequate (>demand) .

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 Data Entry ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Pipe type Pipe length Pipe size Omitted Fittings Wrong Hazen Williams Constant Note: for dry pipe. HWC = 100 .

 Sprinklers ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Listing of sprinkler Flows Pressure Application Position .

i. water curtain Calculation downstream rather than upstream Velocity pressure method which gives lower pressures .e. Calculation ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Water flowing up hill Unbalanced flows Unbalanced pressures at same point Smaller upstream flows Negative flows Insufficient supply Reversed flow in loop Negative pressures Missing demands.

◦ Points don’t match .reject . Problems ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Same elevation sprinklers Elevation to street Large pipe sizes Location of FD connection Choice of hydraulic remote area Design w/o safety factor Data entry. magnitude/number of errors FM corrections Hydraulic reference points shown on the plan that correspond with comparable reference points on the hydraulic calculation sheets.

 Bad Design ◦ Oversize pipes ◦ Inconsistent water supplies between calcs for same building ◦ Safety pressure too small ◦ Pump vs no pump ◦ Stamped drawings of calculations that don’t work .

 Pressure increases towards source  Flows increase towards source .

 Does it make sense?  Is there enough water and pressure  Were any laws of Physics violated  Penalty for Physics violation is usually death  Usually wins Darwin Award .

and boring. and boring. repetitious. and boring. repetitious. tedious. and boring. repetitious. a computer is only as good as the programmer who programmed. and we know most programmers are not engineers. tedious. on a Friday afternoon. . repetitious. The truth is. repetitious. and boring. tedious. with the least experience. and only as good as the data that was entered.  Data entry is tedious. tedious.  Current technology makes it practical for nearly all hydraulic calculations to be performed by computers.  However. we do not do many manual calculations any more. as punishment. and we know that job always goes to the junior member. in the hopes that they will still do a good job.

. However. a true understanding of how calculations are performed manually. allows the reviewer have gain insight and understanding of the software reports and to identify quickly identify significant errors and omissions that could result in performance failure.