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ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1

INTRODUCTION TO
CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE

ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1

INTRODUCTION

CBM Introduction
• Risk Based Maintenance and Condition Monitoring
• The Condition Based Approach
• Maintenance Strategy, RCM SRCM
• Continuous improvement

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Over recent years maintenance practices have changed radically leading to the current
focus on “Condition Based Maintenance”. There are probably three main factors
driving this change:
Economic Pressures

There has been a growing requirement to reduce
operating costs, both to prolong the life of existing
assets and to make new projects economically feasible.
Our objective is to plan maintenance in a way that will
evolve, representing a cycle of continuous improvement
throughout the life of the asset.

Safety/Environmental

Today, safety and environmental issues are given the
attention they deserve, and it is no longer acceptable to
reduce operating costs by arbitrarily eliminating
maintenance without considering the consequences.

Available Technology

Many technical developments have contributed to
reducing operating costs, but in the maintenance area,
two key developments are the growing availability and
understanding of condition monitoring techniques and
the evaluation of maintenance strategy analysis
techniques to optimise our efforts.

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ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1

This section is aimed at introducing the condition monitoring tools and their
application.

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3 .ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE A SCHEME WHEREBY MAINTENANCE.the science of monitoring machinery condition which makes the latter possible.the maintenance management procedure and condition monitoring . INSPECTION AND OVERHAUL OF PLANT AND MACHINERY IS SCHEDULED ON THE BASIS OF THE CONDITION OF THAT PLANT This requires techniques for CONDITION MONITORING SCIENCE OF DETERMINING THE CONDITION OF PLANT AND MACHINERY BY NON INVASIVE MEANS DURING NORMAL OPERATION OF THAT EQUIPMENT Page 2 The definitions shown in the panel are helpful in distinguishing between Condition Based Maintenance .

and only when needed. irrespective of machine condition. but let us consider the implications of each: 4 . In real life a maintenance strategy will be a combination of all three. Planned Repairs carried out at fixed time intervals or at fixed running hours. let us consider the question how can we schedule maintenance? Usually this is summarised under three headings: Breakdown Repairs carried out as and when failure occurs.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHY MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHIES BREAKDOWN PLANNED Fix it when it breaks! Fix it when its due whether it needs it or not! CONDITION BASED Fix it when it needs it! Page 3 At the outset. when. Condition Based IF a non-invasive technique can be found to indicate the condition of a machine then it can be maintained.

for example when dealing with machines of low priority or low value whose failure does not have serious effect on safety or production. 5 . a "run to failure" approach is clearly inappropriate. when dealing with machinery that is critical to the effective business operation or where the failure of the machine would have a serious safety implication. However. There are situations where this approach is quite appropriate.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE Breakdown Maintenance Page 4 Breakdown Maintenance is a procedure whereby machines are simply run to failure.

ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 PLANNED PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE (PPM) Failures Failure Characteristics (PPM) “Wear out” failure Failures Time Time Time Wear out + early life failures Page 5 This used to be the only alternative to a breakdown maintenance strategy. maintenance is carried out at fixed time intervals irrespective of the condition of the machine. shutting down a machine that is running satisfactorily and replacing perfectly serviceable bearings simply because their scheduled running hours had elapsed. The time intervals to maintenance are selected to give a high probability that the maintenance will be carried out before the occurrence of any failure. If the assumption of the failure mechanism is right and the intervals are correctly set then planned maintenance can be very effective. The second graph illustrates the situation where wear out with early life failure is assumed. However more maintenance will be carried out than strictly necessary since the machine will be overhauled sometime prior to failure. Where early life failures occur we often find that there is a higher probability that the machine will fail in the first few hours after maintenance. for example. Here. Maintenance of this type often seems to be "wasteful" involving. The first graph in the diagram illustrates the situation where a wear out or age related failure mode is assumed. There is nothing like a 6 .

7 .ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 rebuild for causing the failure of a reliable machine! Planned maintenance will also do nothing to address the small percentage of premature failures.

The maintenance practices were inspected to ensure effectiveness and the interval shortened. Further studies showed that in practice around 15% of failures follow a wear out mechanism. an oil filter) is dependent on a wear our or age related failure or where there is no alternative (e. The other 85% are random and cannot be prevented by planned maintenance. As the failures can occur at any time a scheduled overhaul will do nothing to prevent them. 8 . Gas Turbine Blade Creep).ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 Failures Failure Characteristics (PPM) “Wear out” failure Time Failures Wear out + early life failures Time Failures Random failures Time Page 6 The third graph in the above diagram illustrates components that fail on a random basis. However. If we take random failures into account then planned maintenance becomes totally ineffective. This had no effect at all on the reliability of the aircraft indicating that the assumption of wear out failure was incorrect. Studies in the aircraft industry were carried out following an unacceptable failure rate. This aircraft experience has been found to be applicable in most situations. At first it was assumed that the maintenance was either inefficient or the interval was to long.g. PPM is appropriate in situations where the life of a component (e.g.

Usually condition monitoring will achieve benefits through the following: • • • • Reduction in maintenance effort compared with PPM. unexpected failures are reduced.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE Rotating Machinery Monitoring (CBM) Is the machine fit for Service ? Mechanical Integrity Bearing Monitoring Vibration Velocity Lube Oil Fit for Service Performance Ability to Meet Duty Wear Debris Analysis Defend Against Specific Failures Run Machine or Plan Maintenance Page 7 This is a compromise between the extreme of a breakdown or preventative approach. and the results of maintenance work can be seen and measured through the improved availability or improved running of the plant. Avoiding damage caused by running to failure. The use of condition based maintenance also has benefits for maintenance personnel. The condition based maintenance approach relies on the use of non-invasive monitoring techniques. The frustration of expending effort on unnecessary repairs is eliminated. but obviously a shorter time interval than the run to failure approach. 9 . Reduction in safety & environmental consequences from early detection of hazardous situations. Reduced production loss by avoiding machinery failures and unnecessary maintenance. Condition Based Maintenance will normally result in longer intervals between invasive maintenance than PPM. which can give a reliable warning of when maintenance is required. Maintenance is then programmed only if necessary.

ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 ADVANTAGES OF CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE Advantages of Condition Based Maintenance Failure Consequences Planed Planned Page 8 This diagram illustrates in general terms why CBM saves money. It frequently happens that. In this event. any extension to the run time of machinery between overhauls will produce a proportional reduction in maintenance costs. 10 . however. minimising costs. work is carried out at fixed time intervals irrespective of the maintenance needs of the plant. In a planned maintenance strategy. this preventative maintenance work is the dominant figure in annual maintenance costs. costs will rise as a consequence of unscheduled shutdowns and failures . Ultimately.the plant is moving towards a breakdown maintenance plan. Condition based maintenance finds the optimum maintenance interval.

This will give short term benefits. there is an obvious pressure to reduce maintenance cost by eliminating planned maintenance. but may prove a false economy in the long term. 11 .ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 Stopping Maintenance Overhead Cost Stop Maintenance Programme Time Page 9 The panel illustrates a pitfall that is not uncommon. investing in a properly implemented condition monitoring programme will ensure a satisfactory and sustainable long term outcome. However. When operating margins are squeezed.

MAKING USE of the log sheet sophisticated.performance analysis Page 10 There is a wide variety of condition monitoring tools available. 12 .ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 THE CONDITION MONITORING TOOLKIT The condition Monitoring Toolkit VIBRATION MONITORING Well established approach to addressing particular failure modes on rotating equipment. the slide lists only some. Offline or online? LUBE OIL ANALYSIS Condition based oil changes AND detect failure modes which vibration cannot. particularly on reciprocating machines THERMOGRAPHY Carries the condition based maintenance approach into electrical plant PERFORMANCE MONITORING Simple.

Ultimately the choice between these approaches can be based on simple value for money or. alignment. do more sophisticated and expensive solutions provide better benefit? 13 .ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 VIBRATION MONITORING Spectrum Analysis Techniques amplitude 1X 1X 2X 2X 3X3X 4X4X Page 11 Well established as a means of determining the mechanical integrity of equipment bearings. A wide range of technology is available for both on-line and off-line monitoring. couplings gearboxes etc.

then a burst of high frequency vibration is generated each time a ball passes that defect. There are four frequencies associated with a rolling element bearing: Inner Race Frequency Ball Spin Frequency Outer Race Frequency Cage Frequency 14 . These bursts of vibration will repeat periodically at a rate determined by the bearing geometry and the machine running speed.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 ENVELOPING Rolling Element Bearings Supplement If a surface irregularity exists on a rolling element bearing race. This high frequency vibration represents the "ringing response" of the bearing housing to the impact of the ball with the surface irregularity. Such repetition rates are known as bearing defect frequencies.

dust. microscopic. To assist in Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of machinery. fuel. Why we test oils & greases • • • • To detect degradation of properties (due to normal or abnormal breakdown of the oil or matrix). Allows oil changes to be scheduled on condition. To detect degradation of machinery (by detection and analysis of debris in the lubricant). process fluid. What are we looking for • • Contamination – water. macroscopic Where does it fit in with other CBM • • May indicate conditions that precede or cause later mechanical failure Supporting other methods (such as vibration) in detection of equipment failure 15 . salt. Also identifies some failure modes on reciprocating machines to which vibration monitoring is insensitive. To enable replacement “on condition” (rather than time based or breakdown maintenance). other oils & greases Wear debris – ferrous or non-ferrous.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 LUBE OIL ANALYSIS Lube Oil Analysis What Are we looking for Why Do we test oils & greases Where Does it fit in with other CBM Management Site Personnel Maintenance contractor Test Laboratory Who CM Consultant Might manage the program How When To schedule tests To select target machines Page 13 Traditionally complements vibration monitoring. elemental. soot.

• Reduces the need for re-sampling – to re-evaluate spurious results. other observations. Reduces the risk of incorrect conclusions – due to spurious results. trained personnel Who How Should take the samples To sample to ensure quality When To sample to ensure quality Page 15 Why is a good sample important • • Increases consistency of trending – enabling rapid identification of changes and effective use of statistical analysis. sea spray or sump sludge. last oil change. Identifiable – appropriate labeling of source and oil type. This is particularly important with grease samples. Supporting information – run hours. maintenance history. 16 .ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 The Sample What Why Is a good sample important Is important to ensure in a sample Where To sample to ensure quality Competent. What is important to ensure in a sample • • • • Representative of the lubricant charge – well mixed by the machine & has passed through the machine. as grease does not necessarily circulate. Uncontaminated – by external or unrepresentative sources such as dust. unclean sampling equipment. oil consumption rate.

From an on line collection device – such as a magnetic plug. A dedicated sample point should always be used. With the machine at operating temperature – can affect some properties such as water content. Discard initial sample flow or grease surface sample – could contain “dead oil” or contaminants from the sample point. dry sampling equipment.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 Where to sample to ensure quality • • • • In an active stream – such as a return line or high in an active sump where flow is turbulent or from within a grease lubricated system After the machine or machine element – on a return system before filtering or pumping. Flush re-useable sampling equipment – with virgin lubricant or appropriate solvent (note this is not necessary for the Vampire pump type). This should be done in an environmentally friendly and safe manner. Do NOT break lines to obtain a sample. How to sample to ensure quality • • Use clean. 17 . NOT from baffled sumps or reservoirs or from partial drains (such as in some gearboxes with multiple return paths) or from an external grease pack. • • Discard sampling consumables – after each sample. filter or slew sample bottle. When to sample to ensure quality • With the machine running or shortly after running – lubricant charge well • mixed and flowing past sample point.

It’s a well-established technique for detecting faults in electrical equipment. process anomalies. HV/LV electrical equipment. power supplies. police searching for hidden criminals. The technique also has some wider applications e.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 THERMOGRAPHY Themography Themography Page 16 The obvious applications for Thermography can be seen frequently on the television – searching for earthquake victims. This can be achieved by: • • Early detection of developing faults allowing for scheduling of maintenance to rectify faults at an early stage. circuit boards etc. hot bearings. These include faults in switchgear panels. Throughout industry the objective for implementing an infrared thermographic survey is to maximise the availability of critical machinery and detect inefficient processes and defects. blocked coolers. transformers. passing valves. lagging defects and building surveys. Performing regular surveys on critical systems and equipment that confirm that they not only remain fit for continued service but that the processes they are used for remain efficient.g. firemen looking for the seat of the fire. 18 . fouling of vessels.

has an accurate phase response and can measure complex current waveforms and transients What is Partial Discharge? Partial Discharge is an electrical phenomenon. current levels and conductor sizes. which causes insulation to deteriorate and is frequently the reason for breakdown of an insulation system resulting in failure of the equipment. The alternating magnetic field produced by the partial discharge current induces a voltage in the coil that is proportional to the rate of change of current.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 PARTIAL DISCHARGE (ROGOWSKI) COIL TESTING Partial Discharge (Rogowski) Coil Testing ! Page 17 Utilising proven technologies such as Rogowski Coils and Cegelec’s Micamaxx system can offer a range of online partial discharge monitoring solutions. Partial Discharges can occur for a number of different reasons. Partial Discharge can be described as an electrical pulse or discharge in a gas-filled void or on a dielectric surface of a solid or liquid insulation system. Partial Discharge can occur when high voltage structures have sharp projections. The coil provides an exceptionally versatile partial discharge measuring system that can be designed to accommodate a vast range of frequencies. For example. internal 19 . thus causing the electrical equipment to fail. The output is independent of frequency. This pulse or discharge would partially bridge phase to ground insulation or phase to phase insulation in an electrical apparatus.

20 .ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 discharge can occur in voids and contact noise can occur if the ground connection to a bushing is poor.

If they are less convenient. compressors. ProLog reports highlight departures from normal plant operation and deterioration in the health of equipment. with built-in data validation routines. the value of collected data is enhanced by calculations – set up by the user – which automatically generate derived variables to be stored and analysed alongside the raw measurements. The flexibility is there to change the order of data collection as required. or even stop for a tea break! Plus.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 PROCESS DATA Process Data The primary function of a log sheet is to communicate process and mechanical information for a piece of equipment or system. users are instantly alerted to equipment anomalies. But without efficient interpretation its true value can never be fully realised. heat exchangers and control valves. turbines. which unlocks the latent potential of this information. ProLog is the key. Paper or Technology Page 18 Every plant collects vast quantities of routine operating data. Paper records and log sheets are probably the oldest source of information about the condition of plant and equipment we need to harness this and move from a reactive to a proactive stance as part of a condition based maintenance strategy. With ProLog. A powerful range of algorithms analyses the performance of pumps. then the system will founder. Systems designed to replace tools as simple as paper and pencil need to be userfriendly. 21 . misreadings and keying errors.

An approach is therefore required to target our effort in those areas where it will produce maximum benefit.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 THE CONDITION MONITORING TOOLKIT There are two points to be emphasised: (1) All of these techniques can be applied superficially or professionally. through a combination of condition monitoring techniques to planned preventative maintenance.ranging from nothing (breakdown maintenance). and the most effective is neither the least or the most expensive. 22 . What is required is an analysis of the failure modes of an equipment item leading to selection of the appropriate detection technique for that failure mode . Similarly. There is a difference between having a technician "check the vibes" and applying vibration monitoring as part of a CBM process to eliminate preventative maintenance. we can log a compressor discharge temperature or use a computer based system to routinely analyse performance to detect specific failure modes. and eliminate/defer major intrusive maintenance or unit change out (2) All of the monitoring techniques cost money.

ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 OCB OIL ANALYSIS OCB Oil analysis Oil Filled Circuit Breakers are used to switch circuits and equipment in and out of a system. consisting of moving and stationary contacts and ancillary components involved in making and breaking the circuit. Even stationary components such as the interrupter shell and nozzle grid materials can break down. electrical tests and oil tests to see which ones provide results exhibiting significant changes from previous comparison tests. Thermal runaway causes carbonisation and by-product polymeric films to form on conductors. The acidity is a factor in determining the 23 . compounding the overheating condition. Various approaches can be used to develop diagnostic tools to detect incipient faults in OCBs. One approach is to identify problems by visual inspection. can wear out and lost the ability to adequately perform their intended functions. which measures the acidity level. Determining the water content reveals how wet or dry the system is and whether free water exists. Three oil-quality tests are selected to provide the essential information necessary to diagnose equipment status without being too complicated. This may happen because of misalignment. The dielectric breakdown voltage test provides information on the insulating capacity of the oil. They are oil filled to provide cooling and prevent arcing when the switch is activated. Page 20 Oil Circuit Breakers (OCB). increasing the surface resistance of the contacts. Dielectric failure may occur from excessive localised moisture or excessive amounts of conductive particles in the oil. wear. poor contact surfaces and improper timing of contact movement. The neutralisation number. which results in inadequate arc quenching and carbon build-up. which can result in overheating to the point of failure. provides information on the extent of the degradation of the oil.

ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 severity of a condition because high concentrations of organic acids can exacerbate an already deteriorated condition. 24 .

the overall business objective of cost effective operation. these factors do not influence the basic discipline of identifying and managing risk. which is the central purpose of the maintenance strategy analysis. It is an important part of the link between the global business objective and targeting maintenance resources. However.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 MAINTENANCE AND STRATEGY ANALYSIS Maintenance and Strategy Analysis BUSINESS OBJECTIVE COST EFFECTIVE OPERATION STRATEGY ANALYSIS IDENTIFY AND MANAGE RISK CONDITION MONITORING PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE HUMAN FACTORS SCOPE AND QUALITY OF MAINTENANCE Page 21 The slide illustrates the role of a maintenance strategy analysis. The strategy analysis takes as its input. together with other business level decisions such as: Value of Lost Production/Sales value (cash driven operation) or cost of operation deferral. 25 . Human factors and maintenance contractual arrangements are important in their own right. Cost of Safety Related and Environmental Incidents Life of asset/Write off of investment.

26 . this can come from the maintenance history. On new plant. together with the experience of operating personnel. together with OREDA or the manufacturers reliability data.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 Plant and equipment reliability statistics are the second important input to the strategy analysis. On existing installations. the corresponding information comes from in-house field experience of generic equipment.

the impact on the appropriate level of maintenance and priorities within the maintenance programme will be revealed. The financial penalty can be compared with the cost of preventative measures to develop a fully optimised and targeted maintenance strategy. When planning maintenance. As the operating constraints on the business change . Two further benefits arise from using a financial measure of criticality: 1. There is only one common basis on which these factors can be compared . as shown in the slide.their Financial Impact on the Company' s business. In this way maintenance can be modulated appropriately throughout the life of the plant. which is appropriate to the present objective of targeting maintenance resources. criticality defined in this way is a measure of the significance of the equipment item and therefore of how much effort it is appropriate to expend in planning and executing maintenance. 2.due to changes in the oil price or reservoir depletion . 27 . At least four factors can contribute to the criticality.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 CRITICALITY ANALYSIS Criticality Analysis CRITICALITY The probable impact of an equipment item or failure mode on the business if protective measures are not taken PRODUCTION SAFETY ENVIRONMENT CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGE £ "# # " $ %# $ & £ Page 23 The slide shows a definition of criticality.

and to have his performance assessed against these targets. It is part of the responsibility of a condition monitoring engineer to generate these figures. With regard to condition monitoring. from reliability theory. failure characteristic and overhaul interval. The success probability of preventative maintenance can be evaluated.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 STRATEGY ANALYSIS Strategy Analysis EQUIPMENT TAG CM/PM Success Probability Potential penalty FM 1 FM1 Probable penalty FM 1 Potential penalty FM 2 FM2 Probable penalty FM 2 Etc Total potential penalty BENEFIT OF CONDITION MONITORING AND PM Total probable penalty Page 24 Criticality analysis highlights the equipment items where protective measures are most appropriate. a success probability must be attached to each of the systems proposed against each failure mode. The next step is to put these protective measures in place and assess the benefit. In this way the benefit arising from a particular combination of preventative maintenance and condition monitoring can be evaluated and the optimum maintenance plan identified. knowing the MTBF. 28 . Armed with this information the probable penalty can now be calculated based on the probability that each failure will occur despite the preventative measures taken.

A PdM system will include activities such as: • • • Vibration analysis and bearing monitoring Thermography Lubrication analysis 29 . when carried out and repeated. Step 1: Establish a predictive system The first step is to design a Predictive Maintenance (PdM) system specifically for your plant. Each of the following four ‘steps’ builds on one another to prevent repetitive failures or problems from recurring. This enables you to understand the parameters that affect your plant’s equipment life. or by you. the SKF Service Proactive Reliability Maintenance (PRMTM) process forms a continuous improvement loop.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 PROACTIVE RELIABILITY MAINTENANCE Reliability and Maintenance Feedback Page 25 PRM is a risk-management process including steps that. enable you to continuously improve maintenance strategies and machine performance. While most forms of Predictive Maintenance (PdM) form a sustained maintenance loop. based on information provided from an external audit.

Step 3: Key Performance Indicators to measure improvement Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are performance improvement targets established jointly between SKF and you. such as machine realignment.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 The Proactive Reliability Maintenance process may also highlight the need for additional activities during maintenance. implement and manage the process for you. This can apply to your entire plant or any sector of it. They may cover a wide range of factors. Results are documented and presented at performance review meetings. such as rotating equipment geometric alignment. Step 2: Diagnostics and root cause analysis Reliability Engineers diagnose the root cause of problems and determine corrective maintenance actions. changing the lubricant or replacing a damaged component. software and the technical resources needed to provide measurable improvements. a new target is set to facilitate continuous improvement. and lubrication and filtration control. How your plant will benefit Implementation of well-managed Proactive Reliability Maintenance process will ensure the best possible return on plant assets by managing potential risk. Physical analysis on the damaged components may also be required to determine the root cause of the failure. Step 4: Management review process Periodic review of the improvement programme is important to monitor KPI achievement. Operational review meetings are held to continually refine the PRM process to achieve the best balance of plant asset performance with the PRM process activity cost. SKF can guide you in establishing your own PRM process – or design. Detailed machine and component diagnostics can be conducted on site or at a centralised Reliability Maintenance Centre. Full management includes hardware. from bearing performance to staff availability. precision balancing. once a KPI is achieved. 30 . Where possible. This information is used to prevent the same type of failure from recurring.

On close examination of the bogies on the inner track. With the doors requiring to be opened.338 double-decker buses.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 SKF ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS – AN OPEN & SHUT CASE SKF ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS AN OPEN & SHUT CASE When engineers started to have problems opening one of the giant-sized sliding doors of the world famous Cardington Airship Hangar. once a day. Such is the size of the hangar that it could easily house both Nelson’s Column for height. Although the hangar was subjected to a major refurbishment programme in 1993. One bearing was 31 . in Bedfordshire. The hangar doors run on a twin track system using four. housed the Barnes Wallis-designed R100 airship. engineers from BRE recently experienced difficulties sliding aside the southern hangar door. four-wheeled bogies mounted on each track. the Cardington Airship Hangar. as well as the aircraft carrier Ark Royal. It has a floor area twice the size of Wembley football pitch and a volume equal to 8. the problem had to be rectified quite urgently. The hangar is a Grade II listed building and is currently used by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) to house the largest enclosed laboratory in the world. the bearing refurbishment programme required to solve the problem turned into a major engineering exercise. BRE engineers detected that the bearings were in a state of collapse and obviously the reason for the difficulty to move the door. In the late 1920s. due to skidding instead of rotating. it was SKF’s spherical roller bearings that provided the solution. on average. As each hangar door measures a massive 55 metres high by 24 metres wide and weighs some 470 tons. This problem had also created flats on some of the 760mm diameter wheels.

Most of the rollers were in bad shape and the side plates were almost worn right through. 32 . stripped for examination and found to be a ‘home-made’ needle roller bearing design which had disintegrated.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 removed.

Throughout. the SKF solution ensured that all loads were held within the wheeled units. This contained the high static loads and particularly. At the end of the project. housing and wheel re-machining. in order to accommodate the massive loads involved. plus shaft. 33 . the existing shafts and wheels were used. Track measurements also revealed that the side plate wear was caused by a difference of 20mm in the height level of the inner and outer rail tracks. After tests on site. using heavy duty spherical roller bearings along with adaptation and re-use of existing bogie components where possible. The SKF refurbishment included detailed redesign. it was concerned about the degree of wear on the side plates and contacted SKF. which equated to a load of some 33 tons on each of the wheels. and complete assembly of wheel units.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 1 While BRE could have tried to simply replace the bearing arrangement with a similar system. this load could almost double. SKF and BRE engineers determined that the inner bogies were carrying three quarters of the door’s weight. and how the wear problem could be overcome. SKF had refurbished all 16 wheels on four bogies on one door and fitted a total of 32 new bearings. to give the best all round solution. the lateral forces. The result is that the application of SKF’s modern bearing technology will ensure that the door will open and close for at least another 50 years. As well as being costeffective. to see what benefits modern bearing arrangements could provide. avoiding the original wear problems. SKF and BRE worked closely together to co-ordinate the progressive removal and re-machining of individual wheel sets so that the door still remained fully operational. Where possible. In high winds. SKF took a positive approach to the problem and proposed new designs. along with other bearing manufacturers.