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104 STRUCTURAL STEELWORI( DESIGN TO BS 5950

3. Column bases

(1980) Holding Do,in Systems for Steel Stanchions.


coicrete Society/B C&USteel Construction Institute

4. Weld capacity

(1987) Strength of fillet welds, Steelivork Design vol.


Section properties, member capacities p. 205. Steel

lot

Construction Institute

COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS

The term
can be used of any structural medium in which two
or more matenals mteract to provide the required strength and stiffness. In
steelwork constrUction the term refers to cross-sections which combine
steel sections with concrete in such a way that the Iwo act togcther,
Typical cross-sections of beams and slabs are shown in Fig. 9.i.

In situ concrete

Profited steel sltoettng

stud

unj

Fig. 9.1 Composite


sections

The performance of composite beams is similar to that of reinforced


but there are two main differences. Firstly, the steel
section has a significant depth and its second moment of area may not be
ignored, unlike that of the steel bar reinforcement. Secondly, the concrete
to reinforcement bond, which is essential for reinforced concrete action, is
absent in composite beams generally and must be provided by shear
connection. Design methods for composite beams therefore follow those
methods for reinforced concrete with modifications as indicated. Owing to
the presence of the concrete slab, problems of steel compression flange
instability-and local buckling of the steel member are not usually relevant
in simply supported members except dunng erection.
Recommendations for design in composite construction are not included
m Part I of BS 5950 but are included in:
concrete

Part 3.!:

Design of composite beants (1990)

Part 4:

Design ofJloors wit/i profiled steel sheeting (1982)

The basts of design used in this chapter is given in Section 9.7.

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106 STRUCTURAL STEELWORI< DESIGN TO OS 5950

9.!

COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS 107

COMPOSITE BEAMS

B,

The advantages of composite beams compared with normal steelwork


beams are the increased moment capacity and stiffness, or alternatively the
reduced steel stzes for the same moment capacity. Apart from.a saving in
matenal, the reduced construction depth can be worthwhile in multi-storey
frames. The main disadvantage of composite construciton is the need to
provide shear connectors to ensure interaction of the parts.
As in all beam design, shear capacity and moment capacity of a
composite section must be shown to be adequate. But in addition, the
strength of the shear connection must be shown to be satisfactory, with
regard to both connector failure and also local shear failure of the
surrounding concrete (see Section 9.4). For full interaction of the steel and
concrete, sufficient shear connection must be provided to ensure that the
ultimate moment capacity of the section can be reached. Lower levels of
connection will result in partial interaction which is not covered in this
Composite beams are essentially T beams with wide concrete flanges.
The non-uniform distribution of longitudinal bending stress must be
allowed for and this is usually achieved by use of an effective breadth for
the concrete flange. For buildings the effective breadth
may be taken as
one-quarter of the span (simply supported). Continuous beams and
cantilevers are treated differently (see ES 5950: Part 3.1).

9.2

SHEAR AND MOMENT CAPACITY OF COMPOSITE BEAMS


The shear capacity of a composite beam is based on thc resistance of the

web of the steel section alone. Calculation of the shear capacity P. is


given tn Section 3.7(d):

P,=O.flpy .4,
Moment capacity is based on asstimed ultimate stress conditions shown
tn Figs. 9.2 and 9,3. When the neutral axis lies in the concrete slab (Fig.

9.2) the valuc of

may be found by equilibrium of the tension and


compression forces. The moment capacity
is given by:

= Ap,

0.45

x0=Ap1Jlo.45 (,.,B,l
Fig. 9.2 Moment capacity
(NA in slab)
a,

Fig. 9.3 Moment capacity


(NA in steel

Stoat

Aw:A/2_o.225
IA -

beam)

9.3

SHEAR CONNECTORS
Many forms of shear connector have been used, of which two are shown
in Fig. 9.4, but the preferred type is the headed stud. TIns combines ease
of fixing with economy. Shear connectors must perform the pnmaty
function of transfernog shear at the steel/concrete interface (eqtuvalent to
bond) and hence control slip between the two parts. ln'addition, they have
the secondary fl.inction of carrying tension between the parts and
controlling separation.
The relattonslup between shear force and slip for a given connector is
important in design where partial interaction is expected. For the design in
this section. where full interaction is assumed, a knowledge of only the
maximum shear force which the connector can sustain is required. The
strengths of standard headed studs embedded in different normal weight
concretes are given in Table 9.1.
The strength of alternative shear connectors can be found by use of a
standard push-out test (ES 5400: Part 5). The performance of all shear
connectors is affected by latent restraint of the surrounding concrete, the

+ D /2 x,, /2)
Table 9,1 Shear strength of headed studs

V/ben the neutral axis lies in the steel section (Fig. 9.3) the value
may be found by equilibnum. The centroid of the compression steel
must be located, and moment capacity a\i. is given by:

= 4/4 (D/2 + D)2) 24,,

(d,, D.12)

Alternatively, formulae given to OS 5950: Part 3.1 may be used.

Diameter
(mm)

Height
(mm)

22

Shear strength Q0 (kN)


for concreteJ,, (N/mm1)
25

30

35

40

119

126
100
74

132
104
78

139

19

100

95

16

75

70

t09
82

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106 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO OS 5950

COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS 109

where A,. is either


or
depending on the shear path
is design strength of the reinforcement
is the concrete cube strength
Is either (twicc slab depth)
or
(connector tvidth+twice stud hetght)
is the contribution of the profiled steel sheeting, if present
Fig. 9.4 Shear connectors
Connecior

presence of tension in the concrete, and the type of concrete used, i.e.
normal concrete or lightweight. For design of composite beams in these
cases further referencestu) should be consulted.
The shear connection in buildings may be designed on the assumption
that at the ultimate limit state the shear force transmitted across the
interface is distributed evenly between the connectors. The shear force is
based on the moment capacity of the section and connector force
is
shown In Fig. 9.5.

where
or

4,5

widih

1/

Shear failure
planes tengiti L,

Fig. 9.6 Shear io concrele

flI
An and AIi are
re,ntorcement areas/un,i lerigih

B. x, (when HA in concrete)
BED.
NA in steel)

The connector force

9.5

must he checked:

DEFLECTIONS
As in steel beam design, deflection must be calculated at the serviceability

limit state, I.e. with unfactored loads. The presence of concrete in the
section means that the two different elastic moduli (steel and concrete)
must be included, which is usually achieved by use of the iransfonned tor
equivalent)
lie elastic modulus for concrete is usually
modified to allow for creep. Under sustained loadiiig the elastic modulus is
about one-third that under short term loading. The modular ratio a ( if,!
Er) is taken as 6 for short term loading, and I S for tong term loading. An
equivalent ratio
may be used, based on the proportion of loading
considered to be long term, and is a linear interpolation between these

Load
I

N,,, conneciors

conneciors

IIIT

1 1 1 1 1 1 ii

IT

ITT
A in

0p1 =

concrete

pz = RrINpz

values.

The values of neutral axis depth


and equivalent second moment of
are shown in Fig. 9.7. This allows deflections to be calculated using
normal elastic formulae with a value for if, for 205 kN/mm2

Fig. 9.5 Connector force

area

9.4

LOCAL SHEAR IN CONCRETE


The total shear connection depends not only on the shear connector

(headed stud, etc.) hut also on the ability of the surrounding concrete to
transmit the shear stresses. Longitudinal shear failure is possible on the
planes shnwn in Fig. 9.6. Transverse reinforcement combined with the
cuncrete should give a strength greater than the applied shear per unit
length v, such that:

r=AIl8,Dj
Fig. 9.7 Transformed

and

section

Strain
Xe

+ cr1012 +

ad

I, + AID 0,12/4(1 + ad + 8,0!112a

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110 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 05 5950


96

COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS

COMPOSITE SLABS

Cc)

Composite slabs are constnicted from profiled steel sheeting with two

typical sections, as shown in Fig. 9.8. The sheeting alone resists the
moments due to the wet concrete and other constnjction loads. When the
concrete has hardened the composite section resists moments due to
finishes and imposed loads. Composite actton is achieved by bond as well
as web tndentations, and in some cases by end anchorage where the
connectors for composite beams are welded through the sheeting.

BM and SF
Ultimate moment
Ultimate shear force F,

(d)

Assume the beam to be 406 x 140 x 46 US.

Fig. 9.8 Profited sheeting

(a)

Moment
Use effective breadth B, as L 14, i.e. 1.85 m.
For neutral axis tn the concrete stab, see Fig. 9.2.

The destgn foltows that given in Section 3.7 for a non-composite beam.
The notation follows that of 55 5950: Part 3.1.
(a)

x,=Ap, I(0.4B,j,,,)
= 5900 x 2751(0.45 x 1850 x 30)=65mm
Th slab 250mm thick, see Fig. 9.9.
Moment capacity lvi, =Ap, /(EJ, +D/2
=5900 x

i.asm

=679kNm
AI,/Ai, =0.84

250F4___.
EXAMPLE lB. COMPOSITE BEAM IN BUILDING

201

Section is satisfactory.
Fig. 9.9

U)

Shear connectors
Force

Dimensions
-

in concrete at mid-span:

R, =0.45L. B,
x

Span 7.5m simply supported


Beams ai 6.0 m centres
Concrete stab 250mm thick
directions
Finishing screed 40 mm thick

soanmag in two

Loading
As Section 3.7b allowing the same self weight of beam.

=l8OkN
Imposed load iF, = 135 'd4
Dead load IV,,

x 1850 x 55 x 10'=1623kN

Use 19mm diameter by 100 mm high beaded stud connectors.


Table 9.J
t

= 100 kN

=16201(100

L,= 240

0.8)=21 studs

These
dia. stud
100 high
at 175 mm
Spacing
19

(b)

O.6p,. A,.

=0.6 x 0.275 x 402.3 x &9=458kN


=0.52

capac:

9.7

592 kNm
242 kN

Shear capacity

Shear capacity F,

In most cases design is controlled by the construction condition ruttier


than by the performance as a composite section. In general, the failure of
ihe slab as a composite section takes place owing to incomplete
interaction, i.e. slip on the steel/concrete interface. For these reasons,
design of composite stabs with profiled sheeting has evolved from testing.
Details of the test information are available from manufacturers and
The effects of the sheeting profile on connector performance and on beam
behaviour are also given tn the SC!

111

A,,
1,,

to die. HT bars
at 200 cr5.

are distributed evenly in each half span.

Spacmg=3700121

= 175mm

(See Figs. 9.6 and 9.10.)

0.785 mm'Imm
N/mm2

FIg. 9.10

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112 STRUCTURAL STEELWORi( DESIGN TOSS 5950

Length of shear path 4,


Shear per unit length v

=40+2 x 100240mm
/(1/2)
1620)3700=438N/mm

hot

Longitudinal shear

=0.8 x 240 x ]30= 1050 N/mm

and

=0.03 x 240 x 30+0.7 x 0.785 x 410

BRACING

=441 N/mm
Local shear is satisfactory.

(g)

Deflection
Using unfactored imposed loads as in Section 3.7f W= l32kN.
The properties of the transformed sectionstti are:
10.1

Pig. 93

=59001(1850 x 250)=0.0128
= 10
x,=[250/2+ ID x 0.0128(20! +250)]/(l + lOx 0.0128)
= 176mm
4= 79 700 cm'

Section 9.7

Bracing members, or braced bay frames, consist usually of simple steel

sections such as fiats. angles, channels or hollow sections arranged to form a


truss (Section 6.1). The members are often arranged, using cross-bracing, so
that design may be on a tension only basis.
A bracing will catty loading which is usually horizontal, derived from a
number of sources:

Deflection

= IVL3I6OEJg

= 132 x
x 205 x 79700 x l0')=S.S mm
Deflection limit =700/36O=2O,6msn

H.

Companng the section used (406 x 140 x 46 UB) with that required in
non-composite (533 x 210 x 92 UB) gives a clear indication of the weight
saving achieved in composite construction. However, as discussed in
Section 9.1, some other costs must be taken into account in any cost

construction.
Reference

Kong KR. & Evans RH. (1987) Reinforced concrete


beams the ultimate limit state, Reinforced and
Preslressed Concrete, pp. 85155. Van Nostrand

10.2

Reinhold

2. Composite
cnnstnjction

Johnson RI'. (1982) Simply supported composite

3. Transformed

Kong KR. & Evans RH. (1987) Elashc theory,

cross-section

SWAY STABILITY
It is important that all structures should have adequate stiffness against sway.

beams and slab, Composite Structures of Steel and


Concrete, pp. 40100. Granada Publishing-

1,-

Reinforced and Fresrressed Concrete, pp. 15767. Van

Nostrand Reinhold
4. Composite slabs

loads present dunng the temporary construction stage.

In addition, bracing, whether permanent or temporary, is usually necessary


for steelwork erectors to line and level properly the steel framework dunng

STUDY REFERENCES

I. Reinforced concrctc

wind, crane and machinery loath acting horizontally on a structure;


earthquake loads denved as art equivalent static honzontai load;
notional loads to ensure sway stability;
beam or column bracing forces as a proportion of the longitudinal
force;

companson,

Topic

LOADING RESISTED BY BRACING

Lawson RISI. (1989) Design of Composite Slabs and


Beans wit/i Steel Decking. Steel Consiruction institute

Such stifThess is generally present where the frame is designed to resist


honzontai forces due to the wind loading. To ensure a minimum sway
provision, notational forces are suggested in clause 2.4.2.3 applied
honzontally:

1.0% ofyj I
or
0.5% of (JVd+ IV,) if greater
acting in conjunction with i.4IVo-l- 1.6W, vertically.
This requirement is in place of the honzontal wind or other loads atsd in
practice forms a minimum provision.

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