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104 STRUCTURAL STEELWORI( DESIGN TO BS 5950

3. Column bases

(1980) Holding Do,in Systems for Steel Stanchions.
coicrete Society/B C&USteel Construction Institute

4. Weld capacity

(1987) Strength of fillet welds, Steelivork Design vol.
Section properties, member capacities p. 205. Steel

lot

Construction Institute

COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS

The term
can be used of any structural medium in which two
or more matenals mteract to provide the required strength and stiffness. In
steelwork constrUction the term refers to cross-sections which combine
steel sections with concrete in such a way that the Iwo act togcther,
Typical cross-sections of beams and slabs are shown in Fig. 9.i.

In situ concrete

Profited steel sltoettng

stud

unj

Fig. 9.1 Composite
sections

The performance of composite beams is similar to that of reinforced
but there are two main differences. Firstly, the steel
section has a significant depth and its second moment of area may not be
ignored, unlike that of the steel bar reinforcement. Secondly, the concrete
to reinforcement bond, which is essential for reinforced concrete action, is
absent in composite beams generally and must be provided by shear
connection. Design methods for composite beams therefore follow those
methods for reinforced concrete with modifications as indicated. Owing to
the presence of the concrete slab, problems of steel compression flange
instability-and local buckling of the steel member are not usually relevant
in simply supported members except dunng erection.
Recommendations for design in composite construction are not included
m Part I of BS 5950 but are included in:
concrete

Part 3.!:

Design of composite beants (1990)

Part 4:

Design ofJloors wit/i profiled steel sheeting (1982)

The basts of design used in this chapter is given in Section 9.7.

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PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor
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The moment capacity is given by: = Ap. The performance of all shear connectors is affected by latent restraint of the surrounding concrete. Fig. formulae given to OS 5950: Part 3. For buildings the effective breadth may be taken as one-quarter of the span (simply supported).! COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS 107 COMPOSITE BEAMS B. they have the secondary fl.45 (.inction of carrying tension between the parts and controlling separation. 9.. of which two are shown in Fig. is given tn Section 3.3. 9. The relattonslup between shear force and slip for a given connector is important in design where partial interaction is expected.1). or alternatively the reduced steel stzes for the same moment capacity. For the design in this section. a knowledge of only the maximum shear force which the connector can sustain is required.3 Moment capacity (NA in steel Stoat Aw:A/2_o. As in all beam design.. the + D /2 —x. OCR. is given by: = 4/4 (D/2 + D)2) —24.=O. . The strengths of standard headed studs embedded in different normal weight concretes are given in Table 9. and moment capacity a\i..2 Moment capacity (NA in slab) a. sufficient shear connection must be provided to ensure that the ultimate moment capacity of the section can be reached. When the neutral axis lies in the concrete slab (Fig.3 SHEAR CONNECTORS Many forms of shear connector have been used.225 IA - beam) 9. Shear connectors must perform the pnmaty function of transfernog shear at the steel/concrete interface (eqtuvalent to bond) and hence control slip between the two parts. Continuous beams and cantilevers are treated differently (see ES 5950: Part 3. But in addition.1 may be used. where full interaction is assumed.106 STRUCTURAL STEELWORI< DESIGN TO OS 5950 9. the reduced construction depth can be worthwhile in multi-storey frames. Diameter (mm) Height (mm) 22 Shear strength Q0 (kN) for concreteJ.4. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . 9. —D. For full interaction of the steel and concrete. with regard to both connector failure and also local shear failure of the surrounding concrete (see Section 9. /2) Table 9. 0.12) Alternatively.l Fig. 9. 9. Apart from. The main disadvantage of composite construciton is the need to provide shear connectors to ensure interaction of the parts. ln'addition.4).. Lower levels of connection will result in partial interaction which is not covered in this Composite beams are essentially T beams with wide concrete flanges.3) the value may be found by equilibnum. 9. the strength of the shear connection must be shown to be satisfactory. TIns combines ease of fixing with economy. (N/mm1) 25 30 35 40 119 126 100 74 132 104 78 139 19 100 95 16 75 70 t09 82 PDF compression.2 and 9.flpy . shear capacity and moment capacity of a composite section must be shown to be adequate.45 x0=Ap1Jlo. Calculation of the shear capacity P.4.7(d): P. 9.2 SHEAR AND MOMENT CAPACITY OF COMPOSITE BEAMS The shear capacity of a composite beam is based on thc resistance of the web of the steel section alone. but the preferred type is the headed stud..B. The non-uniform distribution of longitudinal bending stress must be allowed for and this is usually achieved by use of an effective breadth for the concrete flange. Moment capacity is based on asstimed ultimate stress conditions shown tn Figs. The centroid of the compression steel must be located.1.. (d.2) the valuc of may be found by equilibrium of the tension and compression forces.a saving in matenal.1 — Shear strength of headed studs V/ben the neutral axis lies in the steel section (Fig. The strength of alternative shear connectors can be found by use of a standard push-out test (ES 5400: Part 5). The advantages of composite beams compared with normal steelwork beams are the increased moment capacity and stiffness.

9. The shear force is based on the moment capacity of the section and connector force is shown In Fig.i lerigih B. i. normal concrete or lightweight. The presence of concrete in the section means that the two different elastic moduli (steel and concrete) must be included. (when HA in concrete) BED.4 Shear connectors Connecior presence of tension in the concrete.6.7 Transformed and section Strain Xe + cr1012 + 1 + ad I.4 LOCAL SHEAR IN CONCRETE The total shear connection depends not only on the shear connector (headed stud. and I S for tong term loading. The values of neutral axis depth and equivalent second moment of are shown in Fig..) hut also on the ability of the surrounding concrete to transmit the shear stresses. where or 4. NA in steel) The connector force 9. Transverse reinforcement combined with the cuncrete should give a strength greater than the applied shear per unit length v. + AID÷ 0.. 9. Longitudinal shear failure is possible on the planes shnwn in Fig. An equivalent ratio may be used. This allows deflections to be calculated using normal elastic formulae with a value for if. with unfactored loads. based on the proportion of loading considered to be long term.e.! Er) is taken as 6 for short term loading. For design of composite beams in these cases further referencestu) should be consulted. I. OCR.ntorcement areas/un. Under sustained loadiiig the elastic modulus is about one-third that under short term loading. deflection must be calculated at the serviceability limit state. x.6 Shear io concrele flI An and AIi are re. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .Dj Fig. 9. conneciors conneciors IIIT 1 1 1 1 1 1 ii IT ITT A in 0p1 = concrete °pz = RrINpz values. which is usually achieved by use of the iransfonned tor equivalent) lie elastic modulus for concrete is usually modified to allow for creep. and the type of concrete used. 9.5. and is a linear interpolation between these Load I r N. Fig. 9.5 Connector force area 9. 9. if present Fig. is either or depending on the shear path is design strength of the reinforcement is the concrete cube strength Is either (twicc slab depth) or (connector tvidth+twice stud hetght) is the contribution of the profiled steel sheeting.e. The shear connection in buildings may be designed on the assumption that at the ultimate limit state the shear force transmitted across the interface is distributed evenly between the connectors. such that: r=AIl8. 9..0!112a PDF compression. for 205 kN/mm2 Fig. The modular ratio a ( if.4! 106 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO OS 5950 COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS 109 where A.7.5 widih 1/ Shear failure planes tengiti L.5 must he checked: DEFLECTIONS As in steel beam design.12/4(1 + ad + 8. etc.

.84 250F4___. /(EJ. For these reasons. Fig.785 mm'Imm N/mm2 FIg.asm =679kNm AI. 9. as shown in Fig. =0. as L 14. to die.6p.. 9. see Fig. BM and SF Ultimate moment Ultimate shear force F. the failure of ihe slab as a composite section takes place owing to incomplete interaction. stud 100 high at 175 mm Spacing 19 (b) O. i. design of composite stabs with profiled sheeting has evolved from testing.8)=21 studs - These dia.7 592 kNm 242 kN Shear capacity Shear capacity F.J t = 100 kN =16201(100 L.9.5m simply supported Beams ai 6. The notation follows that of 55 5950: Part 3. COMPOSITE BEAM IN BUILDING 201 Section is satisfactory.=Ap.2. - The destgn foltows that given in Section 3. 9.e. and in some cases by end anchorage where the connectors for composite beams are welded through the sheeting. =Ap.45 x 1850 x 30)=65mm Th slab 250mm thick. - (d) Assume the beam to be 406 x 140 x 46 US.= 240 0. = 135 'd4 Dead load IV. A.) 0.6 and 9. Moment capacity lvi.) = 5900 x 2751(0. are distributed evenly in each half span. For neutral axis tn the concrete stab.. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .4B.45L.9 U) Shear connectors Force Dimensions - in concrete at mid-span: R..10 PDF compression. 1. =0. HT bars at 200 cr5. =l8OkN Imposed load iF.0 m centres Concrete stab 250mm thick directions Finishing screed 40 mm thick soanmag in two Loading As Section 3.e. Details of the test information are available from manufacturers and The effects of the sheeting profile on connector performance and on beam behaviour are also given tn the SC! 111 A.1. B.. I(0. OCR. When the concrete has hardened the composite section resists moments due to finishes and imposed loads. In general. 1.j. The sheeting alone resists the moments due to the wet concrete and other constnjction loads. slip on the steel/concrete interface. 9. =0. Table 9.6 x 0. EXAMPLE lB. i. Spacmg=3700121 = 175mm (See Figs.7 for a non-composite beam.3 x &9=458kN =0. x 1850 x 55 x 10'=1623kN Use 19mm diameter by 100 mm high beaded stud connectors. x Span 7. In most cases design is controlled by the construction condition ruttier than by the performance as a composite section.. see Fig. +D/2 =5900 x i. Composite actton is achieved by bond as well as web tndentations.110 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 05 5950 96 COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS COMPOSITE SLABS Cc) Composite slabs are constnicted from profiled steel sheeting with two typical sections./Ai. 9.85 m.52 capac: 9. 9.8. Fig.8 Profited sheeting (a) Moment Use effective breadth B.275 x 402. 9. (a) - - x..7b allowing the same self weight of beam.10.

S mm Deflection limit =700/36O=2O.1. beam or column bracing forces as a proportion of the longitudinal force. Composite slabs loads present dunng the temporary construction stage. I PDF compression.2. earthquake loads denved as art equivalent static honzontai load.3 applied honzontally: 1.5% of (JVd+ IV. • • • • Companng the section used (406 x 140 x 46 UB) with that required in non-composite (533 x 210 x 92 UB) gives a clear indication of the weight saving achieved in composite construction.6msn H. Granada Publishing- 1. channels or hollow sections arranged to form a truss (Section 6.8 x 240 x ]30= 1050 N/mm S and =0. OCR. • companson. pp. Steel Consiruction institute Such stifThess is generally present where the frame is designed to resist honzontai forces due to the wind loading.0128) = 176mm 4= 79 700 cm' Section 9.7 x 0.0% ofyj I or 0. Transformed Kong KR. Reinforced and Preslressed Concrete. (1989) Design of Composite Slabs and Beans wit/i Steel Decking. consist usually of simple steel sections such as fiats. (1987) Reinforced concrete beams — the ultimate limit state. notional loads to ensure sway stability. Composite Structures of Steel and Concrete.1.785 x 410 BRACING =441 N/mm Local shear is satisfactory. pp. Shear per unit length v =40+2 x 100240mm /(1/2) 1620)3700=438N/mm hot Longitudinal shear =0.0128 = 10 x. bracing. derived from a number of sources: - Deflection = IVL3I6OEJg = 132 x x 205 x 79700 x l0')=S. 85—155. as discussed in Section 9. 40—100. is usually necessary for steelwork erectors to line and level properly the steel framework dunng STUDY REFERENCES I.7 Bracing members. vertically. (1982) Simply supported composite 3.1 Pig. However. using cross-bracing. Van Nostrand 10.4. cross-section SWAY STABILITY It is important that all structures should have adequate stiffness against sway.6W. Reinforced concrctc wind. or braced bay frames.2 Reinhold 2.7f W= l32kN.03 x 240 x 30+0. 93 =59001(1850 x 250)=0. -5. The members are often arranged. crane and machinery loath acting horizontally on a structure. whether permanent or temporary.- Reinforced and Fresrressed Concrete. Composite cnnstnjction Johnson RI'. pp.0128(20! +250)]/(l + lOx 0. A bracing will catty loading which is usually horizontal.112 STRUCTURAL STEELWORi( DESIGN TOSS 5950 Length of shear path 4. Reference Kong KR.4IVo-l. 157—67. Van Nostrand Reinhold 4. To ensure a minimum sway provision. & Evans RH. The properties of the transformed sectionstti are: 10. beams and slab.) if greater acting in conjunction with i. some other costs must be taken into account in any cost construction. notational forces are suggested in clause 2. This requirement is in place of the honzontal wind or other loads atsd in practice forms a minimum provision. & Evans RH. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . angles. so that design may be on a tension only basis. In addition.=[250/2+ ID x 0. Topic LOADING RESISTED BY BRACING U Lawson RISI.1). (g) Deflection Using unfactored imposed loads as in Section 3. (1987) Elashc theory.