3. Column bases
4. Weld capacity
lot
Construction Institute
The term
can be used of any structural medium in which two
or more matenals mteract to provide the required strength and stiffness. In
steelwork constrUction the term refers to crosssections which combine
steel sections with concrete in such a way that the Iwo act togcther,
Typical crosssections of beams and slabs are shown in Fig. 9.i.
In situ concrete
stud
unj
Part 3.!:
Part 4:
I
HT..

9.!
COMPOSITE BEAMS
B,
9.2
P,=O.flpy .4,
Moment capacity is based on asstimed ultimate stress conditions shown
tn Figs. 9.2 and 9,3. When the neutral axis lies in the concrete slab (Fig.
= Ap,
0.45
x0=Ap1Jlo.45 (,.,B,l
Fig. 9.2 Moment capacity
(NA in slab)
a,
Stoat
Aw:A/2_o.225
IA 
beam)
9.3
SHEAR CONNECTORS
Many forms of shear connector have been used, of which two are shown
in Fig. 9.4, but the preferred type is the headed stud. TIns combines ease
of fixing with economy. Shear connectors must perform the pnmaty
function of transfernog shear at the steel/concrete interface (eqtuvalent to
bond) and hence control slip between the two parts. ln'addition, they have
the secondary fl.inction of carrying tension between the parts and
controlling separation.
The relattonslup between shear force and slip for a given connector is
important in design where partial interaction is expected. For the design in
this section. where full interaction is assumed, a knowledge of only the
maximum shear force which the connector can sustain is required. The
strengths of standard headed studs embedded in different normal weight
concretes are given in Table 9.1.
The strength of alternative shear connectors can be found by use of a
standard pushout test (ES 5400: Part 5). The performance of all shear
connectors is affected by latent restraint of the surrounding concrete, the
+ D /2 x,, /2)
Table 9,1 Shear strength of headed studs
V/ben the neutral axis lies in the steel section (Fig. 9.3) the value
may be found by equilibnum. The centroid of the compression steel
must be located, and moment capacity a\i. is given by:
(d,, D.12)
Diameter
(mm)
Height
(mm)
22
30
35
40
119
126
100
74
132
104
78
139
19
100
95
16
75
70
t09
82
4!
presence of tension in the concrete, and the type of concrete used, i.e.
normal concrete or lightweight. For design of composite beams in these
cases further referencestu) should be consulted.
The shear connection in buildings may be designed on the assumption
that at the ultimate limit state the shear force transmitted across the
interface is distributed evenly between the connectors. The shear force is
based on the moment capacity of the section and connector force
is
shown In Fig. 9.5.
where
or
4,5
widih
1/
Shear failure
planes tengiti L,
flI
An and AIi are
re,ntorcement areas/un,i lerigih
B. x, (when HA in concrete)
BED.
NA in steel)
9.5
must he checked:
DEFLECTIONS
As in steel beam design, deflection must be calculated at the serviceability
limit state, I.e. with unfactored loads. The presence of concrete in the
section means that the two different elastic moduli (steel and concrete)
must be included, which is usually achieved by use of the iransfonned tor
equivalent)
lie elastic modulus for concrete is usually
modified to allow for creep. Under sustained loadiiig the elastic modulus is
about onethird that under short term loading. The modular ratio a ( if,!
Er) is taken as 6 for short term loading, and I S for tong term loading. An
equivalent ratio
may be used, based on the proportion of loading
considered to be long term, and is a linear interpolation between these
Load
I
N,,, conneciors
conneciors
IIIT
1 1 1 1 1 1 ii
IT
ITT
A in
0p1 =
concrete
pz = RrINpz
values.
area
9.4
(headed stud, etc.) hut also on the ability of the surrounding concrete to
transmit the shear stresses. Longitudinal shear failure is possible on the
planes shnwn in Fig. 9.6. Transverse reinforcement combined with the
cuncrete should give a strength greater than the applied shear per unit
length v, such that:
r=AIl8,Dj
Fig. 9.7 Transformed
and
section
Strain
Xe
+ cr1012 +
ad
COMPOSITE SLABS
Cc)
Composite slabs are constnicted from profiled steel sheeting with two
typical sections, as shown in Fig. 9.8. The sheeting alone resists the
moments due to the wet concrete and other constnjction loads. When the
concrete has hardened the composite section resists moments due to
finishes and imposed loads. Composite actton is achieved by bond as well
as web tndentations, and in some cases by end anchorage where the
connectors for composite beams are welded through the sheeting.
BM and SF
Ultimate moment
Ultimate shear force F,
(d)
(a)
Moment
Use effective breadth B, as L 14, i.e. 1.85 m.
For neutral axis tn the concrete stab, see Fig. 9.2.
The destgn foltows that given in Section 3.7 for a noncomposite beam.
The notation follows that of 55 5950: Part 3.1.
(a)
x,=Ap, I(0.4B,j,,,)
= 5900 x 2751(0.45 x 1850 x 30)=65mm
Th slab 250mm thick, see Fig. 9.9.
Moment capacity lvi, =Ap, /(EJ, +D/2
=5900 x
i.asm
=679kNm
AI,/Ai, =0.84
250F4___.
EXAMPLE lB. COMPOSITE BEAM IN BUILDING
201
Section is satisfactory.
Fig. 9.9
U)
Shear connectors
Force
Dimensions

in concrete at midspan:
R, =0.45L. B,
x
soanmag in two
Loading
As Section 3.7b allowing the same self weight of beam.
=l8OkN
Imposed load iF, = 135 'd4
Dead load IV,,
x 1850 x 55 x 10'=1623kN
= 100 kN
=16201(100
L,= 240
0.8)=21 studs
These
dia. stud
100 high
at 175 mm
Spacing
19
(b)
O.6p,. A,.
capac:
9.7
592 kNm
242 kN
Shear capacity
Shear capacity F,
111
A,,
1,,
to die. HT bars
at 200 cr5.
Spacmg=3700121
= 175mm
0.785 mm'Imm
N/mm2
FIg. 9.10
=40+2 x 100240mm
/(1/2)
1620)3700=438N/mm
hot
Longitudinal shear
and
BRACING
=441 N/mm
Local shear is satisfactory.
(g)
Deflection
Using unfactored imposed loads as in Section 3.7f W= l32kN.
The properties of the transformed sectionstti are:
10.1
Pig. 93
=59001(1850 x 250)=0.0128
= 10
x,=[250/2+ ID x 0.0128(20! +250)]/(l + lOx 0.0128)
= 176mm
4= 79 700 cm'
Section 9.7
Deflection
= IVL3I6OEJg
= 132 x
x 205 x 79700 x l0')=S.S mm
Deflection limit =700/36O=2O,6msn
H.
Companng the section used (406 x 140 x 46 UB) with that required in
noncomposite (533 x 210 x 92 UB) gives a clear indication of the weight
saving achieved in composite construction. However, as discussed in
Section 9.1, some other costs must be taken into account in any cost
construction.
Reference
10.2
Reinhold
2. Composite
cnnstnjction
3. Transformed
crosssection
SWAY STABILITY
It is important that all structures should have adequate stiffness against sway.
1,
Nostrand Reinhold
4. Composite slabs
STUDY REFERENCES
I. Reinforced concrctc
companson,
Topic
1.0% ofyj I
or
0.5% of (JVd+ IV,) if greater
acting in conjunction with i.4IVol 1.6W, vertically.
This requirement is in place of the honzontal wind or other loads atsd in
practice forms a minimum provision.
5.