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Agriculture

AGRICULTURE
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination syllabus in Agriculture is to prepare the
candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives,
which are to:
1.
2.
3.
4.

stimulate and sustain their interest in Agriculture;
acquire basic knowledge and practical skills in Agriculture;
acquire the knowledge of interpretation and the use of data;
stimulate their ability to make deductions using the acquired knowledge in Agriculture

The syllabus is divided into five sections as given below:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

General Agriculture
Agronomy
Animal Production
Agricultural Economics and Extension
Agricultural Technology
DETAILED SYLLABUS
SECTION A: General Agriculture
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1.

2.

OBJECTIVES

Meaning and Scope of Agriculture

Candidates should be able to:

a.

Definition of Agriculture

use the definition of Agriculture in modern terms as
it relates to production, processing and marketing.

b.

Branches of Agriculture

differentiate between the various branches of
Agriculture.

c.

Types of Agriculture i.e subsistence and
commercial

Differentiate
Agriculture

Importance of Agriculture
i. Provision of raw materials for agroallied industries
ii. Provision of employment
iii. Development of rural areas, etc

between

the

various

types

of

Candidates should be able to:
relate agro-allied industries to their respective raw
materials
relate the various contributions of Agriculture to
economic development in West Africa.

3.

Agricultural Ecology

Candidates should be able to:

a.

Ecological zones of West Africa

differentiate between the features of the ecological
zones in West Africa.

b.

Agricultural products of each ecological

classify agricultural products according to each

1

. shifting cultivation. ii.g.g genotype. Establishment of national research institutes e. e. FADAMA etc.c. b. NCRI. 6. NARP. classify different types of farm inputs and their uses. NAFPP. ICRISAT.t.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES c. ILRI. c. NRCRI.t. 5. Agricultural systems e. i. CRIN. inadequate infrastructures. NCRPs. d. History of Agricultural Development in West Africa Candidates should be able to: a. i. Problems of Agricultural development e. assess their role in the development of agriculture. Cell division differentiate between the types of cell division. Genetics Candidates should be able to: a. 2 . finance for agriculture. pollution etc.g. e. RTEP. b. Environmental factors and their effects on crop and livestock production differentiate abiotic from biotic factors affecting agricultural production. agrochemicals.g land tenure systems. IAR&T. dominance locus. IITA.t. and international research institutes e. give reasons for the establishment of ADPs. OBJECTIVES zone ecological zone. 4. First and second laws of Mendel apply the first and second laws of Mendel to genetics. Terminologies e. WARDA e.t. identify the problems and proffer solutions c.g. Farm Inputs Candidates should be able to: e. Green Revolution. trace the history of research institutes from past to present. NIFOR. RRI.c compare various agricultural systems. alleles. LCRI. Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) e. determine the outcome of genetic crossing involving homozygous and heterozygous traits.g.c.c evaluate the contributions of national agricultural programmes.t. leading to increased application of science to the development of agriculture. bush fallowing e. Project Coordinating Unit (PCU) e. NALDA. ii. NIHORT.c. National agricultural programmes such as OFN. e.g. IAR. compute simple probability ratios. planting materials. FRIN.

determine the soil pH.c. i. 2. movement.g.c. facilities Agronomy OBJECTIVES Rocks and Soil formation Candidates should be able to: a. differentiate between the components of soil.g.t. management and conservation. compare capillary. d. factors and processes of soil formation. ii. Government programmes aimed at agricultural development e. b. communication systems. e. Chemical properties of soil i. compare the various infrastructural provided by government and their uses.c. identify agricultural laws and their effect on agricultural production c. analyse soil into its constituents parts. Soil Water and Soil Conservation Candidates should be able to: a.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 7. Soil profile ii. SECTION B: TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 1.g silicate i. determine the water-holding capacity of soil. Contribution of NGOs to agricultural development examine the roles of NGOs in the development of agriculture. 3 . assess their effects on agricultural development. ii.t. i. Agricultural laws and reforms e. Chemical component of soil e. wilting points and plant available/unavailable water. Soil acidity and alkalinity ii. sources. gravitational and hygroscopic water. b. transport systems. Physical properties of soil differentiate between the horizons in a soil profile. iv. credit facilities. ban on importation. identify the various agricultural incentives provided by the government.t. e. import duties. compute the proportion of soil constituents. determine water-holding capacity. Soil water: its importance. Development of fiscal policies favourable to agricultural production e. Soil texture and structure c. i. Factors affecting rock weathering and soil formation identify major types and properties of rocks and soils. subsidies.g Land Use Act. e. ii. OBJECTIVES Roles of Government and NGOs in Agricultural Development Candidates should be able to: a. evaluate the effects of government policies on agricultural development.g. Provision of infrastructures e. e. iii.

identify the deficiency symptoms and their causes. apical necrosis e. use of cover crops.c. Nutrient deficiency symptoms e.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 3. give reasons for the advantages and the disadvantages of land preparation and soil tillage.g. continuous cropping. and their methods of application. chlorosis. Maintenance of soil fertility: Methods of maintaining soil fertility e. 4. Irrigation and drainage methods i. determine control methods. The anatomy and morphology of the storage organs of common crop plants differentiate the various storage organs of crop plants 4 .c. ii. c. Plant Forms and functions Candidates should be able to: a. e. d. differentiate between organic and inorganic fertilizer. i. The living population of the soil (flora and fauna). compare the different methods of maintaining soil fertility. c. identify factors affecting their availability. ii. examine the importance and challenges of irrigation and drainage. distinguish between monocot and dicot crop plants b.g. ii. identify crop plant parts and their functions.t.t. water and nitrogen cycles i. i. determine common fertilizer ratios. ii. i. i. Macro and micro-nutrients and their roles in plant nutrition: carbon. application of organic manures. and their roles in soil fertility examine the roles of soil flora and fauna in maintaining soil fertility. minimum tillage. give reasons for the choice of tillage methods. sickle leaves. compare the different methods of land preparation and soil tillage in relation to different groups of crops. erosion. 5. iii. ii. stunting. classify irrigation and drainage systems. b. causes. prevention and control of leaching. classify plant nutrients. OBJECTIVES b. ii. burning and oxidation of organic matter. effects. Principles and practices of land preparation and soil tillage ii. e. Land Preparation and Soil Tillage Candidates should be able to: a.t. identify the causes of erosion and leaching. Factors affecting choice of tillage methods: Zero tillage. Soil conservation: meaning and importance. Soil Fertility Candidates should be able to: a. Parts of monocot and dicot crop plants and their functions i.c. b. suggest remedies.

differentiate between types of seed germination.g maize.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 6. determine seed viability and seed rate. anatomy of storage organs. b. Asexual (vegetative propagation) e. economic importance of the following groups of crops. mixed-. c. processing and storage for each crop. Embryo formation and development trace the process of embryo formation and development to the formation of seeds and fruits. relay-. 7. e. iii. husbandry practices. examine the conditions for seed germination. Gametogenesis examine the process of gamete formation. common diseases and pests. classify crops into different vegetative propagation methods. 8. Sexual: the use of seeds. grafting. Pollination give reasons for different types of pollination. iv. gross morphology. Development Reproduction OBJECTIVES and Candidates should be able to: a. Planting patterns: Broadcasting. seed viability. compute plant density per hectare. Group 1: Cereals e. husbandry. harvesting. Crop Husbandry Candidates should be able to: Common and scientific names. Cropping Systems. types.t. identify common diseases and pests and their effects on crop yield. Nursery and nursery management i. methods of propagation. d. 5 . double and multiple stands i. b. c. ii. Fertilization analyse the process of fertilization. iii. multiple-. row drilling compare cropping systems. apply the techniques of transplanting seedlings Candidates should be able to: a. ii. i. determine the economic importance of each of the crops. examine the various types of plant densities and their effects on crop yield. spacing and Plant densities: single. their advantages and disadvantages. cutting. and rotational cropping b. viability test.ii. apply the different methods of crop propagation. classify crops propagated by sexual methods. harvesting. apply different cropping systems to solve problems in agriculture. differentiate between the various planting patterns. strip. inter-. Plant Propagation Methods Candidates should be able to: a. i.c. guinea corn. c. budding. Growth. Planting Patterns and Plant Densities Cropping systems: Monocropping. ii. processing and storage. determine appropriate nursery sites. layering. 9. seed rate and seed germination i.g. ii.

relate their importance to national economic development. cabbage. b. Floriculture Candidates should be able to: Identification. Study of gross morphology. conservation and uses of pastures and forage crops. shearbutter Group 8: Latex e. ii.g sugarcane. Group 3: Tubers e. i.and silagemaking. cotton.g.g citrus. establishment. shrubs and flowers. distinguish between the various methods of conserving pastures e. Group 5: Fruits e.g oil palm. pepper. Study of natural grasslands and their distribution in West Africa relate different vegetational zones to their dominant pasture species. pawpaw Group 6: Beverages e. pineapple. egg plant. Pasture and Forage Crops Candidates should be able to: a.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES rice Group 2: Legumes e.g cocoa.g tomatoes.g yam. sisal hemp Group 10: Sugars e. distinguish between common ornamental trees. amaranthus sp. 6 . soyabean cowpea. c. gum arabic Group 9: Fibres e. Establishment. maintenance. maintenance and uses of ornamental trees. 11. shrubs and flowers i. iii. cassava. kola. ii. Range management determine range types and utilization of range resources in Nigeria classify common grasses and legumes used as pastures and forage differentiate between pasture and forage crops by their common and scientific names.g jute. iv. determine their uses and maintenance. hay. coffee Group 7: Oils e.g para rubber. onion. okro. methods of propagation and husbandry of common pasture grasses and legumes. sweet potatoes Group 4: Vegetables and Spices e. beet 10. coconut.g groundnut.

b. afforestation. Gross morphology. Life cycles of: biting insects e. poisoning and distribution of ecosystem. assess their economic importance. b. classify weeds according to their mode of dispersal. A simple account of diseases caused by fungi. i. Side effects of application of preventive and control methods e. the nature of the damage. Identification of disease–causing organisms both in store and in the field. compare different forest conservation methods.g pollution. cover cropping. differentiate between common pesticides. methods of i. fibre and other forest products relate various forest products to their uses. ii. ii. Weed control methods – weeding. c. b. 7 . apply appropriate control methods. grasshopper.g. pulp. reproduction. Common pesticides and their side effects i. apply the various methods appropriately. boring insects e. exploitation. relate various prevention and control methods to different pests. symptoms and their mode of spread. examine their mode of action on pests. nematodes and viruses. methods of transmission and common methods of control. identify the various field and store pests. herbicides and trap cropping apply various weed control methods. regeneration. Crop Diseases Candidates should be able to: a. sucking insects e. relate each control method to its side effect. 13. apply the knowledge of the life cycles of insect pests to their prevention and control. iii. Conservation: regulation. Importance: Source of wood. 14. describe the life cycles of various insects. Candidates should be able to: a. c.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 12. distinguish between common store and field disease – causing organisms.g. OBJECTIVES relate various disease-causing organisms to the damage caused. b. aphids and cotton strainer. principles and methods of prevention and control i. Crop pests Candidates should be able to: a. Forest management (Silviculture) Candidates should be able to: a. mulching. i. tillage. importance. weevils. ii. ii. identify weeds with their common and scientific names.g. ii. their types. General account of pests of agricultural plants both in the field and in the store. dispersal and effect of weeds ii. agro-forestry and taungya system i. Weeds 15. bacteria.

goat. quarantine e. secondary sexual characters. Animal body systems e. i.g. General terminology production in animal classify various breeds of farm animals. 8 . breeds and distribution i. SECTION C: Animal Production TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 1. ii. External features of cattle. 4. oestrus cycle.c. mutton. 2.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 16. give reasons for crop improvement. Gametogenesis.g climate change determine the effects of climate change on farm animals Reproduction in farm animals Candidates should be able to: a.g. 3. veal. selection. Effect of environmental changes on physiological development of farm animals e. introduction. give an account of the process of reproduction in farm animals. digestive (ruminants and non-ruminants). rabbits and poultry identify their characteristic features. distinguish between various methods of crop improvement. respiratory. OBJECTIVES Crop improvement Candidates should be able to: Methods of crop improvement e. Anatomy animals Candidates should be able to: and physiology of farm a. determine the role of hormones in reproduction. use various terms in animal husbandry. locate where they are found. Species. capon. ii. castrate.c. Functions of tissues and organs of farm animals distinguish between various functions of tissues and organs of farm animals. parturition and the role of hormones in reproduction. kidding. calving. e. ii. compare different body systems in farm animals. e. sheep. Candidates should be able to: Common terms used in animal husbandry. OBJECTIVES Forms and classification of major farm animals in West Africa Candidates should be able to: a. urinary (excretory) and nervous systems. signs of heat and heat periods.g. i.t. b. gestation periods. c.t. b. reproductive. crossing. pigs.

apply the different management practices for farm animals. giant star grass. Andropogon sp. bacteria. and trace the process of egg formation and incubation in poultry. guinea grass. Feed nutrients and functions identify the various feed nutrients. i. ii. feeding. OBJECTIVES differentiate between the types of animal feeds and their formulation. symptoms. ii. Nutrient deficiencies: Causes and symptoms of malnutrition and their correction in farm animals. Parasites (parasitology) i. Development. Animal nutrition Candidates should be able to: a. semiintensive and extensive systems of management from birth to slaughter. iii. their sources and functions. common pasture/forage crops e. elephant grass. namely maintenance ration and production ration. rabbits and poultry under intensive. c. identify diseases of farm animals and causative agents. 7. apply appropriate corrective measures to nutrient deficiencies in farm animals.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES b.g. incubation hatching in poultry. b. i. Feeds and feeding: Simple ration formulation – balanced ration. c. Life cycles and economic importance of livestock parasites e. ii. Animal diseases (pathology) i. determine their role in disease transmission. i.g. apply appropriate preventive and curative measures against diseases caused by these pathogens. different types of rations. ii. trace the development in farm animals from fertilization to birth and care of the young. Preventive and curative methods for diseases caused by viruses. nourishment and birth of the young. pigs. transmission and effects. Livestock management Candidates should be able to: Housing. 6. 5. classify livestock diseases based on symptoms and mode of transmission. b. ectoparasites and disease vectors. trace symptoms to nutrient deficiencies in farm animals. Mammary glands and lactation in farm animals. Animal Health Candidates should be able to: a. Hay and silage preparation. Calopogonium sp. sanitation and veterinary care of ruminants. Egg formation. ii. endoparasites. i. 9 . classify livestock parasites. trace life cycles of parasites from egg to adult stage. causal organisms. iii. fungi and protozoa. relate the various types of rations to different classes of livestock. Environmental factors predisposing animals to diseases.

Fish harvesting and processing methods i. 8. apply common wildlife regulations. liming and desilting. Prevention and control .g. ii. identify animals found in West African game reserves. processing and wildlife regulations. g Tilapia. harvesting. i. hook and line. ii. Habitat conservation. c.sanitation Fisheries and Wildlife a. lakes and rivers. OBJECTIVES apply appropriate prevention and control methods against livestock parasites. apply fishery regulations in Nigeria. give reasons for the establishment of game reserves. Bee-keeping (Apiculture) a. iii.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES ii. etc. Candidates should be able to: Fish culture systems.g traditional and modern bee-keeping classify methods of bee-keeping d. differentiate between various systems of fish farming in West Africa. apply the various methods of fish preservation. assess the advantages and disadvantages of different fish harvesting and processing methods. Wildlife management ii. Methods of bee-keeping e. etc. Meaning and importance of apiculture Candidates should be able to: relate bee-keeping to economic development b. identify the common types of fishes in West Africa. Common types of fishes e. 9. Curing.dipping . b. Extensive systems: inland and deep sea fishing. Fishery regulations i. ii. domestication. Equipment and safety measures in beekeeping identify bee-keeping equipment and their uses 10 .g exotic and indigenous bees differentiate between various types of bees c. feeding. Catfish. Intensive systems: fish ponds – Factors to consider in ponds establishment and pond management e. Types of bees e. ii. Use of drag nets. i. Semi-intensive systems: dams iii. sun-drying and smoking. use the various methods of catching fish. determine the factors to be considered in intensive fish farming.deworming . iii. pond fertilization. i.spraying . iii. iii.

SECTION D: Agriculture Economics and Extension TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 1. OBJECTIVES Factors of agricultural production Candidates should be able to: a. ii. 2. artificial insemination i. differentiate between the various features of land and their effects on land use. b. Basic Economic Principles Candidates should be able to: a. stages of production. relate input to output. deduce economic concepts from graphic representation. examine their effects of land ownership on agriculture. Types of land ownership in West Africa understand the meaning of land and state its uses identify the various forms of land ownership.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 10. iv. i. i. differentiate between the various methods of animal improvement. quarantine and selection: Breeding systems – inbreeding. ii. interpret geographical representation of demand and supply. breeding. Capital compare the sources of capital and associated problems. g. Labour differentiate between the types and sources of labour and their effects on agricultural production. c. b. Demand and supply Production function: Input/input. Management determine the function of a farm manager in an agricultural enterprise. OBJECTIVES Animal Improvement Candidates should be able to: Methods of animals improvement e. relate demand to supply in agricultural production. ii. line-breeding. i. concepts of diminishing returns. introduction. 11 . cross-breeding. scale of preference and choice. iii. d. ii. Land i. Output/output Input/output relationships. give reasons for animal improvement.

Types of labour: Permanent labour etc. distinguish between the common features of agricultural production and produce. ii. determine the various ways in which marketing channels pose problems in agricultural production. c. Records and record-keeping: Types and importance of record-keeping – livestock records. Labour Management Candidates should be able to: a. gross and net profits in farm management. b. classify marketing agents and their functions. examine the relevance of agricultural insurance ii. apply national labour laws and regulations. identify the various ways of achieving labour efficiency. 5. ii. appreciation. differentiate between the types of farm records. Importance of Marketing. Agricultural insurance: i. depreciation and salvage value 3. evaluate the importance of agricultural marketing b. b. give reasons for keeping farm records. identify the qualities. Marketing channels.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES Characteristic Features of Agricultural Production Candidates should be able to: Smallness of farm holdings: biological limits of farm production and susceptibility of farm production to climate. i. Labour relations: Supervision. i. determine the appropriate agricultural insurance scheme ii. c. 4. i. seasonality of farm productions. functions and problems of farm manager. 6. depreciation and savage value d. Stock evaluation: determine gross and net margins. etc. ii. differentiate between the various types and sources of labour. Meaning. price elasticity in demand and supply of agricultural produce. compute elasticity of demand and supply. 12 . Problems of agricultural insurance determine the problems associated with agricultural insurance. Farm Management Candidates should be able to: a. Qualities. Appreciation. functions and problems of a farm manager. Marketing of Agricultural Produce Candidates should be able to: a. profit and loss account book. ii. importance and types of agricultural insurance i. i. National labour laws and regulations.

Meaning and importance examine the relevance of farm surveying to agriculture. 7.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES c.g tractor. compare the advantages and disadvantages of simple farm tools. their uses and care classify common surveying equipment. mass media. use of visual aids. Simple farm tools Candidates should be able to: i. Farm surveying and farmstead planning OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: a. c. Meaning and importance. ii. Machinery e. identify simple farm tools. universities. identify the importance of agricultural extension. d. SECTION E: Agricultural Technology TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 1. Common surveying equipment. Common survey methods differentiate between the common survey methods. b. 2. apply survey principles to farmstead outlay. classify farm machinery according to their uses. 3. i. d. ii. The role of Agricultural Development programmes. determine the characteristics of agricultural products affecting their marketing. a. Farm machinery and implements Candidates should be able to: Types i. OBJECTIVES Characteristic features of agricultural product affecting their marketing. Extension methods including demonstration plots. Agricultural Extension Candidates should be able to: a. etc. research institutes and farmers’ organizations (Cooperative societies). their uses and care. identify common farm machinery and implements. Principles of farmstead outlay. provide possible solutions. analyse the roles of government and nongovernmental organizations in agricultural extension education. examine the problems of agricultural extension in West Africa. c. apply appropriate maintenance routines on ii. differentiate between the various extension methods. ii. milking machine etc Implements i. iii. use and maintain farm tools. b. 13 . Problems of agricultural extension in West Africa and possible solutions.

apply different storage methods.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES b. database and simulation studies. c. 6. Uses of computers in agriculture: disease and weather forecasting. 5. use communication gadgets to enhance agricultural production. i.g. Advantages and disadvantages of agricultural mechanization 4. animal and machines compare the advantages and disadvantages of various sources of farm power and their application. Processing: traditional and modern methods of food processing e. Storage i. Introduction to biotechnology Candidates should be able to: Basic terms. compare different storage methods. etc. tissue and anther culture in vitro fertilization and genetic engineering i.differentiate between the various methods of processing agricultural produce. c. 14 . b. use the computer to enhance agricultural practices. iii. etc. ii. Use of communication gadgets e. use basic terms in biotechnology. Application of ICT in agriculture Candidates should be able to: a. Candidates should be able to: a. internet. 7. identify the importance of agricultural processing. gari. Features of computers identify the various components of a computer. Uses and maintenance of farm machinery and implements OBJECTIVES farm machines and implements. provide reasons for the importance and application of biotechnology. Problems and prospects of mechanized agriculture in West Africa Processing and storage distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of mechanization. rice and groundnut processing.g. b. b. ration formulation. ii. ii. operate farm machines and implements. Mechanization and sources of farm power Candidates should be able to: a. g. Sources of farm power e. e. etc.g mobile phone. assess the problems and prospects of mechanized agriculture in West Africa.

treatment and control. compute simple measures of central tendency.g.g hypothesis. e. ii. draw inferences from experimental results. 8. b. Interpretation of results. etc use basic concepts in agricultural experiments.Agriculture TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES Introduction to agricultural research and statistics Candidates should be able to: a. 15 . i. Basic concepts in planning agricultural experiments e. measures of central tendency and experimental errors.

A. University Press Plc. (1986) Agricultural Notebook. (2000) Senior Secondary Agricultural Science. K. A. Ibadan: Evans Akinsanmi. (2003) A Dictionary of Agriculture. Uk: Longman. (2000) Junior Secondary Agricultural Science. T. and Adeleye. I. A. and Ashaye. A. A. (1999) General Agriculture for West Africa. 2 and 3..Agriculture RECOMMENDED TEXTS Adeniyi. A. Adegbola. A (2000) Agricultural Science for Junior Secondary Schools Books 1.3. Egbuna. et al (1999) Countdown to Senior Secondary Certificate Examination Agricultural Science. O. Anthonio. Akinsanmi. Uk: Longman. et al (2010) Comprehensive Certificate Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary School.. O. Extension Publication Emmanuel C. Ibadan: University Press Ltd. A. Ibadan: Onibonoje Komolafe. O. L. F. O. et al (2014) Extension Modern Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools (2010). A. M. L. Lagos: Longman STAN (1999) Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools. O. (2004) Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools 1. Benue: Agitab Publisher Makurdi Falusi. A. Lagos: Longman 16 . O. Philips T. C. M. London: George Allen Are. Are. Q. I. B.