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# CHAPTER 11

RESISTANCE IN OPEN CHANNELS
11.1. Water is flowing in a trapezoidal earthen channel width 2 m and side slopes 1.5 H/1
V. The channel is carrying a discharge of 50 m3/s and is running on a slope of 0.0025
m/m. If the roughness coefficient is 0.030, what is the normal depth in the channel?
Solution:

⎡ 2 y + 1.5 y 2
o
o
(2 y o + 1.5 y o2 ) ⎢
⎢⎣ 2 + 2 y o 1 + t 2
⎡ 2 y + 1.5 y o2 ⎤
( 2 y o + 1 .5 y ) ⎢ o

⎣ 2 + 3.605 y o ⎦

⎥⎦

2/3

=

0.03(50)
(0.0025) 0.5

2/3

= 30

2
o

Therefore, yo = 3.207 m
11.2. A 3-m wide rectangular irrigation channel carries a discharge of 25.3 m3/s at a
uniform depth of 1.2 m. Determine the slope of the channel with n = 0.02. If the
discharge is increased to 40 m3/s, what is the normal depth of flow?
Solution:

A = b y = 3 x 1.20 = 3.6 m2, and P = b + 2y = 3 + 2 x 1.20 = 5.4 m
A 3.6
R= =
= 0.667 m
p 5.4
2

⎛Qxn⎞
S = ⎜ 2 / 3 ⎟ = 0.041
⎝ R A⎠
A = b yo = 3yo, and P = b + 2yo = 3 + 2yo
3 yo
A
R= =
p (3 + 2 y o )
1 ⎛⎜ 3 y o
Q=
0.022 ⎜ 3 + 2 y
o

2/3

(0.041)1 / 2 (3 y o )

Hence yo = 1.69 m
11.3. A trapezoidal earthen channel with bottom width 5 ft and 2 H on 1 V side slope is
carrying a discharge of 200 ft3/s at a normal depth. If the channel is running a slope of
0.001 ft / ft and has a Manning n value of 0.025, find the normal depth.
Solution:

⎡ 5y + 2y2
o
o
(5 y o + 2 y ) ⎢
⎢⎣ 5 + 2 y o 1 + 2 2
2
o

⎥⎦

2/3

=

0.025(200)
1.49(0.0001)1 / 2

If the slope of the canal is 0.03(6) (0.76 25y + 1.00088.1) ⎡ 1.405 m 11.5 y o ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1.47 y o ⎦ yo = 7.5 + 2 y o ⎦ 2/3 = 0.017 x 1510 25 y + 1.6.25 (0.47 y o ⎦ 2 o ⎤ ⎥ ⎥⎦ 2/3 = 0. n = 0.49 5 / 3 2 / 3 1 / 2 R s A= A p s n n 0.49 2 / 3 1 / 2 1.00039 m/m. bottom width of 25 ft.57 2 o 11.4. what is the normal depth? Solution: So = 0.11 yo = 1.39 m/km. if the discharge is 1510 ft3/s and n = 0. Q= 11. and n = 0.5:1. 2/3 = 335. what would be the normal depth? Solution: For concrete. and channel bed slope of 0.00088)1/2 yo = 6.01 m /m. Determine the normal depth in a trapezoidal channel with side slope of 1.5y 2 2 / 3 2 = 580.5 y o ⎤ 1.015 (from Table 10.49 x (0.01)1 / 2 yo = 2. An earthen canal in good condition having a bottom width of 4 m and side slopes of 2 H on IV is designed to carry a discharge of 6 m3/s. A rectangular concrete lined 1. If the channel is laid on a slope of 0.Elementary Hydraulics ⎡ 5 y o + 2 y o2 ⎤ (5 y o + 2 y ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 5 + 4.39 m/km = 0.209 m 188 .5. Solution: 1.03 ⎡ 4y + 2y2 o o (4 y o + 2 y o2 ) ⎢ ⎢⎣ 4 + 2 y o 1 + t 2 ⎡ 4 y o + 2 y o2 ⎤ (4 y o + 2 y ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 4 + 4.183 ft.017.00039)1 / 2 2/3 = 9.015(15) = 2.2 ft.6y 1.5y x ( ) = 25 + 3.5 m wide is carrying 15 m3/s at a normal depth.

478) (0. P = 2.94 ⎛ 1.18 11.478 ft p 18.625 ⎤ (3.03.261 m 3 / s 0. Resistance in Open Channels 11.5(b) + 2.011.31) 2 / 3 (0.84 ⎦ b = 4.0001) = 49.025 b) The channel slope 5 cm / km and n = 0.025 c) The channel slope 25 cm / km and n = 0.5) 2 (3. The channel is running on a slope of 0.3 m 1 Q = 0.5) 1 + 2.31) 2 / 3 (0.5)2) ⎢ ⎢⎣ b + 2(3. determine the discharge. What is the minimum bottom width to affect the required normal depth? Solution: ⎡ 3. By using Manning Equation Q A 189 .00025)1 / 2 = 0.7. a) The channel slope 25 cm / km and n = 0. Solution: A = by + ty2 = 10 x 2 + 2 (2)2 = 28 ft2 P = b + 2y 1 + t 2 = 10 + 2 x 2 (1 + 2) 2 = 18.21 ft /s 0 .31) 2 / 3 (0. discus the result for the following cases.Chapter 11.5(3. Water flows uniformly in a 2-m-wide rectangular channel at a depth of 45 cm. Find the flow rate in m3/s.005)1 / 2 2/3 = 71.9 m2 .206 ft.5(3.025 1 ) (0. A trapezoidal channel is to be designed to carry a discharge of 250 ft3/s at a normal depth of 3.00005)1 / 2 = 0.13 m 3 / s c) Q = 0. A trapezoidal channel has a bed width of 10 ft and a side slope 2:1.001 and carries a uniform flow of depth 2 ft.025 1 b) Q = 0.94 ft 28 A R= = = 1.9 m and R = A/P = 0.9( ) (0.9. ⎤ ⎥ ⎥⎦ 2/3 = 0.8.05 Solution: 1 2 / 3 1/ 2 R S n a) A = 0.49(0.5(b) + 2. The channel is earthen and will have an estimated Manning n value of 0.5 ft. 011 ⎝ ⎠ 11.1166 m 3 / s 0.5b + 30.5 H on IV.00025)1 / 2 = 0. If the channel is laid on a slope of 0.005 ft/ft and the side slopes can be no steeper than 2.5 2 ⎡ 3.5(b) + 30.9( 0.03(250) 1. the discharge is directly proportional to the bed slope and inversely proportional to Manning Coefficient.05 Therefore. The channel is paved with smooth cement surface of n = 0.49 ⎞ 2/3 1/ 2 3 Q = 28 ⎜ ⎟ (1.625) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ b + 18.9( ) (0.

2866 m . 2 r2 r2 (θ-sinθ) r . then 2 d dθ Then. or V= n For uniform flow So = Sf 190 . P = 15 + 2 x 6 = 27 ft2 . or 3 θ cosθ .4681 m3/s n 11. A rectangular channel 15 ft wide flow at a normal depth of 6 ft.37 rad). calculate the maximum flow that can run through this pipe (n = 0. The maximum velocity is satisfied when the value of (A3/P) is maximum.3r θ (1.sinθ . differentiating with respect to θ.89 ft / s 90 1.016). A r – 3r θ (1.Elementary Hydraulics 11. A particularly filled pipe 1. r2 So. R = 3. ⎛ A3 ⎜ ⎜ P ⎝ ⎞ ⎟= 0 ⎟ ⎠ θ dA ⎞ ⎛ 3 dP − P 3A2 ⎜A ⎟ dθ dθ ⎟ = 0 ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ P2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ r2 Or. The discharge is 530 ft3/s and the Manning n value is 0.cosθ) = 0. ⎜1 − ⎟ = 0. Then: θ ⎠ 2⎝ 1 Q = A R 2 / 3 S 1 / 2 = 0.sinθ − 2θ = 0 Solving the above equation we get θ = 308o (5. Therefore. C and So will be constant. Solution: Q = AC R So = C A3 So P For a given channel cross section.49 2 / 3 1 / 2 R So . Using Chezy equation. hence 2 2 θ .3 θ + 3 θ cosθ = 0. which can be written as.11.10. and knowing that r2 A= (θ-sinθ).0-m in diameter laid on a uniform slope 1:2000. A = (θ-sinθ) = 0.7705 m2 2 r ⎛ sin θ ⎞ R = .33 ft 530 V= = 5.025. What is the rate of energy dissipation feet per feet channel length in this channel? Solution: A = 15 x 6 = 90 ft2.cosθ) = 0. and P = r θ.

22 Q=A 1 2 / 3 1/ 2 R S n 1 Hence.89) ⎞ ⎛ nV ⎞ ⎟ = 0.Chapter 11. 2r (θ − sin θ ) − 2 θ (1 − cos θ ) 4θ 2 =0 Which can be written as.2 N/m2 860 = 11.13. or ⎨ ⎬=0 dθ ⎪ rθ dθ ⎩ 2θ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ Then. Solution: A = b x y = 100 x 6 = 600 m2. and the coefficient of friction. C = 69. θ cos θ = sinθ.49 R ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 11.025 x 5. differentiating with respect to θ.00196 ft/ft ⎜⎜ Sf = ⎜ = ⎟ 2/3 2/3 ⎟ 1 .36 m P 112 Q = AC RS Hence. The maximum velocity is satisfied when the value of (A/P) is maximum. f = 0. ⎧r2 ⎫ ( θ − sin θ ) ⎪ ⎪ d ⎪ 2 d ⎧ r (θ − sin θ ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 0 . Resistance in Open Channels 2 2 ⎛ (0. find the Manning’s roughness. Therefore. If at a depth of 6 m. θ .016 C= f τo = γRS = 9810 x 5. the canal carries a discharge of 860 m3/s.019 (600)5/3 (112)2/3 (0. 33 ) ⎝ 1. 49 x ( 3 . C. Hence. Hence. P = b + 2y = 100 + 2 x 6 = 112 m A 600 R= = = 5. or θ = tan θ Solving the above equation we get θ = 257o (4. A rectangular canal with a bed slope 8 cm/km ad a bed width of 100 m. Chezy coefficient.00008)1/2 n 8g Hence. n = 0. Solution: Using Chezy equation.81 D. f. C and So will be constant.12. Q = C R So = C A So P For a given channel cross section.485 rad). n. Show that for a circular culvert of diameter D the velocity of flow will be the maximum when the depth of flow y at the center is 0. 191 . Also find the average shear stress on bed. Use the Chezy formula.36 x 8 x 10-5 = 4.sinθ − θ + θ cos θ = 0.

09) (So) = 62. It is desired to design a trapezoidal channel with a bottom width of 15 ft and 2 H on 1 V side slopes.49 (3. θ = 257o (4.5 = γ R(So) = γ(3. and then 2 D y− 2 = cos α .3 ft.14. What is the possible maximum velocity of flow in this pipe? What is the discharge ay this velocity? Take C = 55.5 lb/ft2 and a Manning n value of 0.09) 2 / 3 (0.00259)1 / 2 = 536. y = 0. It is desired to design a trapezoidal channel with a bottom width of 10 ft and 2 H on 1 V side slope.00259 ft/ft Q = 100 1.81 D D 2 α= 11.75 lb/ft2. A sewer of diameter D = 0. what will be the resulting discharge? Solution: A = 10(5) + 2(5)2 = 100 ft2.03.183 m . P = 15 + 2(7) 1 + (2) 2 = 46. as shown in Problem 11. a) At what slope should the channel be laid? b) What is the Manning n value for this channel? Solution: A = 15(7) + 2(7)2 = 203 ft2. τo = 0.13.4 (3. The channel must be designed to carry a discharge of 1000 ft3/s at a normal depth of 7 ft. 192 .03 11.485 rad) .6 ft 3 / s 0. If the channel is to be designed to run at normal depth of 5 ft. Then: θ ⎠ 2⎝ V = C RS = 1. and R = A/P = 3.15. hence So = 0. Sieve analysis has revealed a grain size distribution that results in maximum allowable bed shear stress of 0. Sieve analysis revealed a grain size distribution. P = 10 + 2(5) 1 + (2) 2 = 32.6 m has a bed slope of 1:200.38 ft.09) (So).246 m 2 A= 2 r ⎛ sin θ ⎞ R = ⎜1 − ⎟ = 0.662 m/s and Q = AV = 0.16.36 ft.5 o .409 m3/s 11.Elementary Hydraulics (360 − 257) = 51. which result in an allowable bed shear stress of 0. r2 (θ − sin θ ) = 0. and R = A/P = 4.09 ft. Hence. Solution: For maximum velocity.

4 lbs/ft3 (5) (0.0424 11.0001897 ft/ft So = ⎜⎜ 2/3 ⎟ 2/3 ⎟ ⎝ 1.8 m and y = 3.49( R ) ⎠ ⎝ 1.8 = = 54.6 τ= = 0.025.75 = 62.0 m b) For maximum allowable boundary shear stress τo = 0. hence So = 0.0001897) = 0. 200 = 5 ft .64 Solution: a) For maximum allowable velocity being 0.7 (1) A = by + ty2 = 54 m2 1 2 / 3 1/ 2 V = 0. V = 400/200 = 2 ft/s.17.315 m and then P = 23.05 Ib/ft2 0.33 m n (2) b + 2 y 1 + 12 = b + 2.926) ⎞ nV ⎟ = 0.828 y = 23. A 20 ft wide rectangular channel carries a discharge of 400 ft3/s at a normal depth of 10 ft. Design a channel (assuming a rigid boundaries) to irrigate 54.7 m/s Q 37.430 hectares at a rate of 60 m3/ha/day. n = 0.7 m/s b) The maximum allowable boundary shear stress = 0. If the roughness coefficient is 0. and the bed slope is 10 cm/km.7 = R s So.0591 lbs/ft2 11.38) ⎠ 2 n = 0.18.49 R ⎠ τo = 62.4(4.Chapter 11. R = 2.926 ft/s 203 τo = γ RSf = 0.00274 ft/ft V = Q/A = 2 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ n(4.05 x 453.05 lb/ft2 c) V = 0.00274 = ⎜⎜ ⎟ So = ⎜⎜ 2/3 ⎟ 2/3 ⎟ ⎝ 1.4 N/m2 2 (30. The soil allows side slope of 1:1.024 gm / cm 2 = 2.33 m From (1) and (2) get b = 14. P = 20 + 2(10) = 40 ft.48) 193 .03(2) ⎞ ⎟ = ⎜⎜ ⎟ = 0. what shear stress in lb/ft2 is imparted to the channel boundary by this flow? Solution: A = 200 ft2 . Find the channel dimensions for each of the following cases: a) The maximum allowable velocity being 0.49(5) ⎠ ⎝ 1.49(4.36 y0.03. τo = γRS R= 40 2 2 ⎛ nV ⎞ ⎛ 0.0 m 2 A= V 0. Resistance in Open Channels 1000 = 4.38) (So).

64 v = 0.0 m 11.72 m2 Then.4 = 9810 x R x 10-4 ∴ R = 240 cm = 2.4 R 2 / 3 n So.25 So.5 ft.Elementary Hydraulics τ = γRs So.8 m3/s 1 2 / 3 1/ 2 v= R s = 0. 22 300 = 5 ft/s V1 = 60 (5) 2 = 6. A = 52.2 ft.19 ft.5 + = 5.4) 2 / 3 (10 − 4 ) 0.37 ft.19.39 ft.19 1. 2g 194 .5 (10) = 45 ft2 P2 = 9 + 10 = 19 ft 45 R2 = = 2. Water is flowing in rectangular channel with a bed slope of 0.30 and y = 3. Estimate the value of Manning coefficient n of this channel.36y0.39 – 5.4 m Q= 1 2 / 3 1/ 2 1 R s A= (2.67 ft/s 45 (6. suppose that the depth at a given place in the channel is observed at a spot 1000 ft downstream is observed to be 4. Solution: A1 = 6 (10) = 60 ft2 P1 = 12 + 10 = 22 ft 60 R1 = = 2.73 ft.36y0.2 Sf = = 0. 0.5 A n 0. E1 = 6 + 2g ∆E = 6.67) 2 E2 = 4. y = 3.005 ft/ft. The channel width is 10 ft and the discharge is 300 ft3/s.36y ⎛ by + y 2 ⎞ ⎟ = 0.96 A = by + ty2 = 52.64 x (by + y2) = 37.4 ⎜⎜ ⎟ b + 2 y 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2/3 Q = A x v 0. 1.64 and Q = 37.8 (1) (2) From (1) and (2) get b = 14.96 (2) by the quadratic formula.72 m2 (1) b + 2 y 2 = 21. 2. 19 300 V2 = = 6.56 m c) For v = 0.32 m. b = 12. Now.0012 ft/ft 1000 A2 = 4. P = 21.

33 .33 m P P A − ty 2 16.67 Vavg = = 5. V = 1.67 + 2.33 ± 3.835 ft/s 2 1.25 m V= A 16.25 m = P = b + 2y 1 + t 2 = b + 2 y 5 = b + 4.47 y2 = 13.Chapter 11.5 m/s .47 y2 = 13.99 13. In order to meet these requirements.0015)1 / 2 0.47 y2 – 13.67 m2 1.67) = 2a 2(2.43 m.47 y .97 m.03 n 1.20.33) − 4(2. If we let y = 1. Hence n = 0. therefore 16.33 y + 16. what flow depth and bottom width should be used? Solutions: Q = 25 m3/s.67 − 2(1.67 = 0 y= 2 − b ± b 2 − 4ac 13.94 4.55 ft/s 2 5 + 6.33 ± 12.47) (16.94 y = 3. The side slope must be no steeper than 2 H on 1 V and the Manning n value is 0.29 R2/3.6 = 4.835 = . A trapezoidal channel is designed to carry 25 m3/s on a slope of 0.43 m or 1.67 = ⇒ P =13.49 2 / 3 1 / 2 1.67 − 2 y 2 + 4.5 1 2 / 3 1/ 2 1 R S =1.37 = 2. then R = 1. or 2.47 y = 13.5 = 1. and A = Q/V = 25 = 16.0015 m/m.33 y.09646 5.5 = ( R 2 / 3 ) (0.03.47) y= 13.835 = (2.67 − ty 2 = A = by + ty 2 ⇒ b = y y R = 1.49 V= R S = 5.5 m/s.97) 2 = 4.97 m 16.33 y y 16. or 16.73 + 2.67-2y2 + 4.0165 n Ravg = 11. the maximum allowable velocity is 1. then b = 195 .33 ± (13.555) 2 / 3 (0.52 m 1. Resistance in Open Channels 2. and in order to prevent erosion.0012)1 / 2 n n 0.97 If y = 3. The channel is unlined. then b is negative and hence not possible.

t + 1 + t ) 2 2 = y 2 11. what should be its dimensions to minimize the cost of the material? Solution: A = by = 2y2 P = b + 2y = 2y + 2y = 4y R = A/P = 2y2/4y = 0.001)1 / 2 0.Elementary Hydraulics 11.3745 y8/3 50. Then 2ty 1+ t 2 ⎞ ∂ ⎛A ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ − ty + 2 y 1 + t 2 ⎠ ∂t ⎝ y ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ =y 1 3 11. b = y 2 A = by + ty P = b + 2y 1 + t 2 ∂P ∂ ⎛ A − ty 2 = 0 = ⎜⎜ + 2y 1+ t2 ∂t ∂t ⎝ y 1 = − y + 2 y ( 1 + t 2 ) −1 / 2 (2t ) 2 = − y+ t= 2ty 1+ t 2 = 0. If the flume is constructed of corrugated metal. 11. 196 . Show that the most efficient trapezoidal channel section will have a hydraulic radius equal to one-half the depth.49 2 / 3 1 / 2 1.7 ft.t) y + ty 2 2 y ( 1 + t 2 .5y) 2 / 3 (0.23.001 ft/ft.5369 = y8/3 y = 4.49 Q=A R S o = 2y 2 (0.5 y 1. the side slope must be equal to 1/ 3 .20: b = 2y ( 1 + t 2 − t ) R= R= = A by + ty 2 = P b + 2y 1+ t2 2 y 2 ( 1 + t 2 .21.22.025 n 120 = 2. Show that for the most coefficient trapezoidal channel.t) + 2y 1 + t 2 y 2 (2 1 + t 2 . Solution: Eq. b = 2y = 8. A rectangular flume is to be built to carry a discharge of 120 ft3/s on a slope of 0.2t + t) 2 y( 1 + t . Solution: A − ty 2 hence.35 ft.

P = 11. y = 2.25 m And then from equation (2) we can get S = 7.014 ⎜⎝ b + 3.45 = 12 9. Solution: Q = 14.715 = (2) 0. Solution: For the best hydraulic section dP/dy = 0 A A = by.715 m/s.2 m and R = 1.9 m One may also check the result through the following table. A = by P = b + 2y 6 x 2 = 12 10 3 x 4 = 12 11 1 x 12 = 12 25 12 x 1 = 12 14 4. A concrete lined canal having one side vertical and other side is sloping at 2:1 carries a discharge of 10 m3/s with velocity of 0.44 cm/km 197 . Find the best hydraulic section for a rectangular section with cross-sectional area of 12 m2.24 y ⎟⎠ Cost = A x 125 + P x 750 per meter length of the canal = y(b+y) x 125 + 750 x (b+3.45 m and b = 4.5 m and b = 3.0 m 2 V y(b+y) = 14.0 \$/m2(n = 0.0 m2 1 v = R 2 / 3 s1 / 2 n A= (1) 2/3 1 ⎛ (b + y ) y ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ s1 / 2 0.24. A = 14m2.0 \$/m3 and the cost of lining is 6. and P = b + 2y = + 2 y y dp A =− 2 +2=0 dy y A 12 So. y2 = = =6 2 2 ∴y = 2. Resistance in Open Channels 11.8 11. Determine the dimensions of the canal and the bed slope for the minimum cost of construction if the cost of excavation is 2.9 x 2.014).Chapter 11.24y) 14 −y But from (1) b = y 14 14 Cost = y ( − y + y ) x125 + 750 x ( − y + 3.24 y ) y y d (cos t ) = zero For minimum cost dy Hence.1 m Therefore.25.

5 H/1 V and the Manning n value is 0.5) 2 = 4.2 ft. Determine whether the construction of the tunnel instead of the channel will reduce or increase the total cost of the project.605y2 + 1.035 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 8/3 1425.5 ) = 0.5 y2 = 2.26.49 ⎞ ⎛ y ⎞ 1/ 2 1800 = 2. y = 15. a 2-km-long circular water tunnel is proposed to replace 20 km-long escape channel of trapezoidal section.605 y P = b + 2y 1 + t 2 = 0.605 y + 2y 1 + (1.828 y 2 A= 2 Discharge of trapezoidal section QT. Due to the topography of the ground surface.574 r 2⎝ θ ⎠ = 1.293 y2.0005 ft/ft.105 y ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ (0. side slope 1:1.21 y A = by + ty2 = 0.27.828 y2 x C 198 (1) . 2 11. B = 2 2 y .5 x C S For circular channel r2 (θ − sin θ ) = 3.082 r 2 A = 2 r ⎛ sin θ ⎞ R = ⎜1 − ⎟ = 0. Solution: For trapezoidal channel of best cross section: The top width is equal to twice the side length Therefore. A trapezoidal channel is designed to carry a discharge of 1800 ft3/s at a normal depth on a slope of 0.035.0005) ⎝ 0. b = 2 2 y -2y B+b y = 1.Elementary Hydraulics 11.5) 2 − 1.95 = y Therefore. The side slopes of the channel must be 1.23 ft and b = 9.105 y2 y R= 2 ⎛ 1. The tunnel section is best discharging section (θ = 308o) and the trapezoidal section is best hydraulic section (R = y/2) and both have the same roughness and bed slope. QT = A x C RS y S 2 = 1. and Bottom width.49 ⎞ 2 / 3 1 / 2 Q=A ⎜ ⎟ R So ⎝ n ⎠ 2/3 ⎛ 1. If the channel is to be a regular earthen canal in good condition. what should be its dimensions for maximum hydraulic efficiency? Solution: For the best hydraulic section b = 2y ( 1 + t 2 − t ) = 2y ( 1 + (1.

7896y)2 x 2 x 1000 = 3917.472 y by + ty2 = 0.315 S 01 / 2 0.225 r 2.00104 m/m 1.29.16) 1 + 2 2 m = 20.4y2 m3 Cost of excavation of the trapezoidal channel = 36560y2 x 4 = 146240y2 Cost of excavation of the circular tunnel = 3917. The side slope of the channel is 2 H/1 V and the Manning n value is 0.75 = 0.336 4.857 = 2.293 y 2. Determine the dimensions of the most efficient section.030.Chapter 11.08) 2 / 3 S o1 / 2 1.16 m and b = 0.472 y2 42.96 m P = R = V = b + 2y 1 + t 2 = 1. a) If the maximum allowable velocity in the channel is 1.472 y2 + 2y2 = 2.082 r2.96 + 2(4.08 m 20.28. A trapezoidal channel is to design to carry a discharge of 75 m3/s at maximum hydraulic efficiency. Resistance in Open Channels Q = AxV QC = 3.857 m 2 1. t = 1/(3)0.75 m/s.5 x C S = = 1 (same discharge) QC 2.472 y = 1.85 A/P = = 2.5 x C S Then: r = 0.75 b A A y2 y = = = = = 2y ( 1 + t 2 − t ) = 0.155 y.7896 y Total volume For trapezoidal channel: (Vol)h = AT x LT = 1. Solution: For the most efficient trapezoidal section. what should be the dimensions of the channel? b) What should be the slope of the channel? Solution: A = Q/V = a) 75 = 42.75 = So = 11.5. Then. and R = y/2.03 54.56 m 42.4y2 x 20 = 78347y2 Reduction in the cost = 146240y2 – 78347y2 = 67893 y2 11.472 y2 17.56 1 (2. Take Chezy’s C as 40 (metric). b = 1. 199 .828y2 x 20 x 1000 = 36560y2 m3 For circular channel: (Vol)C = AC x LC = p(0. A trapezoidal channel is designed to convey a discharge of 30 m3/s and runs on a slope of 10 cm /km.5 x C S QT 1.

30.155 y2 + 0.49 2 / 3 1 / 2 1 y 2/3 R S o = y 2( ) ( ) (0.0001)1 / 2 n n 2 2 ⎛ 1.5 ⎞ = (1.155 y = 6.67 = 1.001.016 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ 2 2/3 (0.5) ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎝ 0.016) with a cross section of a most efficient triangular section conveys water at a depth of 1.0 m 30 = (by + ty2) 40 ( 11.5 ft under uniform conditions.577 y2) ( )1 / 2 2 5/2 106. P = 2y 1 + t 2 = 2 2 y .34 ft3/s 200 . b = 1.24)2/5 = 5. The channel has a bed slope of 0.0001)1/2 2 y 75 = (1.Elementary Hydraulics Q = ACR1/2 S 1o/ 2 y 1/2 ) (0. Calculate the discharge.732 y y = (61. A rough timber flume (n = 0. R = Q=A y 2 2 1.001)1 / 2 = 5.186 m . Solution: A = y2 .49 ⎞ ⎛ 1.