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TEACHING SPEAKING

BY USING COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH
(Correlational Study at The Fifth Grade Students of
Primary Student SDN 2 Pamoyanan)

A RESEARCH PAPER
Submitted into English Education Programme
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
By:
________________________________

ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAMME
SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU KEPENDIDIKAN

STKIP SUBANG
2009

TEACHING SPEAKING
BY USING COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH
(Correlational Study at The Fifth Grade Students of
Primary Student SDN 2 Pamoyanan)

By:
_______________________

Supervisor I

Supervisor II

_______________________

_______________________

Approved by:

Chief of
STKIP - Subang

Head of
English Education Study Programme

_______________________

_______________________

To my parent who taught me to be more patient

“Being Careful In Judging An Opinion
Is A Sign Of Wisdom”

PREFACE

Alhamdulillahi rabbil ‘alamin, by the grace of Allah SWT who has given
his most generous motivation to the writer to complete this paper entitled
“Teaching Speaking By Using Communicative Approach to the fifth grade
students of primary student SD Negeri 2 Pamoyanan.”
In his study, the writer has tried to focus on using the communicative
approach, to help students easy to choose the dialy English expression correctly.
The aims of writing this paper are: firstly, to fulfill one of the requirements for the
Sarjana Pendidikan examination; secondly, to offer some of the possible teaching
techniques of teaching speaking.
The writer is aware of her weakness that paper is far from perfect,
therefore, she would greatly appreciate all comment, criticism and meaningful and
helpful suggestion.
Finally the writer hopes that her writing will be useful particularly to the
writer helpself and generally to the readers who are interested in this field of
study.

Purwakarta, March 2009
The Writer

i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Alhamdulillah, I have succedded in finishing this study, which has been
greatly improved by comments, corrections, guidance and ideas of many peoples.
It is hard to even begin to acknowledge personally all those who have had an
impact on my life and study during the making of this paper. In this occasion, the
writer would like to express her sincerest thanks to the following person:
1. Her beloved father, mother and brother sister for their prayer, support
and encouragement to her to finish her study.
2. _______________________. Her supervisor who has given the writer
his valuable guidance, advice and help during the process of writing
this paper.
3. _______________________. Her supervisor who has given the writer
his valuable guidance, advice and help during the process of writing
this paper.
4. _______________________. Dean of STKIP – Subang.
5. Head of the English Departement of STKIP – Subang.
6. _______________________. Headmaster of SDN 2 Pamoyanan, for
allowing her to do the research there.
7. The fifth grade students of SDN 2 Pamoyanan.
8. My best friend, for attention and support.
All in all, her greatest and deepst debt is to Allah SWT, whose guidance
has enabled her to complete her study.
May Allah SWT bless you all. Amin yaa robbal „alamin.

Purwakarta, March 2009
The Writer

ii

and 2)To discover whether teaching speaking by using communicative approach is effective to overcome the students‟ problems in speaking. this fact support the claim that students who were taught speaking by using Communicative approach get better scores than those were taught conventionally. The writer calculating the mark of t-value and at least gives the interpretation of the calculation. because using communicative approach is one type of speaking experience that is interesting.ABSTRACT The title of the research is “Teaching Speaking by Using Communicative Approach”. This t-observation greater than t-critical (1. The test is used to identify the students‟ achievement. while control group can improve the students‟ speaking skill more than the experimental group (154. In order to achieve the aim of research. 1995:140) + N1 N2 The writer used two groups as the sample. In the term multiple-choice items consist of 10 items.37%) from that what they got in the pretest. and the degree of freedom (df) is 19 and 16 for each group. makes English lesson live. iii .966> 1. It means that the two groups have different scores on the post-test. In this study. The test is objective test. The data needed was taken from a test. that is the score of pre-test and post test. Since the two groups were chosen as representative subjects. each group consists of 20 and 17 students. the writer took the students of SD Negeri 2 Pamoyanan as population. the writer used Correlational method. the formula used was: M1 – M2 t = Sd12 Sd22 (Burns. Analysing Data : The writer count the value of t.966.684). There was one classes and the writer took twenty students randomly from them as the sample by lottere. So. The samples would be the fifth grade students. Consequently.56%). helps the students feedback has been very positive and they are enjoying the benefit of communicative approach. Data : The scores of pre-test and post test. The experimental teaching program can improve the students‟ speaking skill effectively (24. so speaking practice becomes more effective. The study is oriented towards: 1)To identify the students‟ problem s in speaking English. The total df {(Ne-1)+Nc-1)} is 35. The conclusion of this research is using communicative approach contributes the improvement of students‟ speaking skill. make change from the of teacher and text book. and the difference is statistically significant. The t-observation is 1. The aims of the research is to know whether listening to the English movies can improve students‟ listening skill. Correlational design are not really considered model experiments because they do not account for extraneous variable which may have influenced the results. it is quite safe to reject the null hypothesis. The writer would like propose her suggestion that teachers should try to use communicative approach in speaking lesson. After observing the data.

......................................................................... 1 1............ 4 1.....................9 ORGANIZATION OF THE PAPER .......... 4 1....3 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY ....................................8 METHOD AND PROCEDURE OF THE RESEARCH 6 1...............6 AIM OF THE STUDY .................7 POPULATION AND SAMPLES OF RESEARCH ................................. 1 1...1 DEFINITION OF TEACHING ................................... 9 2.....................................................................................................................................4 RESEARCH PROBLEM ....... iv CHAPTER I CHAPTER II INTRODUCTION .................................. i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ..................................3 COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH ......................... 5 1.4 CURRICULUM ..................................................5 HYPOTHESIS . 9 2.................. 16 3...................1 KIND OF RESEARCH ............ 5 1...............TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE .........................................................................................................................2 REASON FOR CHOOSING TOPIC ................................1 BACKGROUND ........... 11 2.............................. 15 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .......................................................... 6 1........... ii ABSTRACT ...... 5 1..........2 SPEAKING SKILL ..............................................................................10 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS ........................ 16 iv ...... 4 1......................... iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................... 7 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION ..................... 10 2......................................

................................................. 20 CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ...................4 RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCHER ......1......1 SUMMARY ...................... 33 5........................ 33 REFERENCES APPENDICES CURRICULUM VITAE v ................5 RESEARCH PROCEDURE .....4 STUDENTS‟ SCORE IMPROVEMENT .. 29 5...................................3 DATA COLLECTING INSTRUMENT ..2 ANSWER OF THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTESIS .....2 STUDENTS‟ SCORE OF PRE-TEST ....................... 16 3............ 22 4...............................4 DATA PROCESSING ...3 STUDENTS‟ SCORE OF POST-TEST ........................ 22 CHAPTER V 4.....1 Reliability Analisys ..............................3........1....................................................2 Validity Analisys ........................................... 21 4.......................................... 25 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS .......................................... 21 4...... 17 3...... 17 3... 24 4......2 SUBJECT OF RESEARCH ........................................5 DISCUSSION ...........1 STUDENTS SCORE OF TRYOUT .................. 23 4..3 IMPLICATION AND SUGGESTION FOR LANGUAGE TEACHER .............. 29 5................................................................................... 21 4........................ 32 5..........

especially English which is obviously more difficult to do since we have a limitation of knowledge about foreign language. we are demanded to be able to communicate not only by using our mother tongue but also by using a foreign language.1 BACKGROUND Everybody has learned their language since they were children. students of primary beginning from the fourth class have an opportunity to learn English at school. Thus. Moreover. English becomes a compulsory subject. Through communication by using language. In line with the more sophisticated world. a smooth interaction between people can take place. On the other hand as an international language. taught to the students from primary school to 1 . With regard to the new curriculum. we can share our ideas and thought with other people. The process occurs naturally and properly with a view to communicate in society environment. especially their mother tongue. English has been the first foreign language taught formally in Indonesia for years. chiefly in science and technology.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. Communication is a part of human‟s daily activities. English is used to communicate information. In that way. English is also very important for us. especially in the world of education and working world we should use English to communicate with other people. although we have limitation of knowledge about foreign language.

students must be able to give orders to a person or some persons who is or are near with them. In School Base Curriculum 2006. or the other ones. Speaking. In the competention standards of the fifth grade of elementary school. As we all know that mostly Indonesian students have some difficulties to improve their skills in English nevertheles as the demand of this competitive era. and to read English. English teaching learning process at school must be able to give experience for students to have a chance to win a competitive competition. listen to. as one of the linguistic skills. School as formal institution not only has a role to expand academic ability. their teachers. they have to use right expressions there. dan memberi petunjuk”. Here. for speaking skill. The basic competention is “Bercakap-cakap untuk menyertai tindakan secara berterima yang melibatkan tindak tutur: memberi contoh melakukan sesuatu. write. but also other ability such as social skill and emotion.2 university. the students must be able to “Mengungkapkan instruksi dan informasi sangat sederhana dalam konteks sekolah”. Of course. we have to be able to speak. . is often perceived to be a task that comes naturally to an individual. such as their friends. Culture plays a very significant role in determining how a language is spoken. The main material for descriptive text is Giving Order. memberi aba-aba. there are some competention standards and basic competentions which have to be reached by students in learning English.

give orders. 2. The “communicative method to the teaching of foreign languages” emphasizes learning a language through genuine communication. There are various approaches and methods used for teaching language skills: one of them is Communicative Approach. show how to do something. It can best be defined with a list of general principles.3 The indicators of the learning process of these competention standards and basic competency that the students are supposed to be able to: 1. . Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) also known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) or the “communicative approach” is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. This approach aims to enable student to read and appreciate foreign language. The writer hopes by using this approach in teaching speaking can improve students‟ capability in their speaking skills. In learning English sometimes the students are bored with certain teaching atmosphere. Learning a new language is easier and more enjoyable when it is truly meaningful. Communicative Approach assumes that students are able to acquire written or oral language when they are motivated and are not nervous. give instructions to do something. and 3. The communicative approach is a flexible method rather than a rigorously defined set of teaching practices.

especially in speaking skill. writer takes “TEACHING SPEAKING BY USING COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH (Correlational Study on The Fifth Grade Students of SDN 2 Pamoyanan)” as the title of this paper. 1. The students will not have a courage to speak without enough knowledge and bravery.4 1. 1. there are many aspects that discourage the students to speak. moreover if the students do not use English in their daily as well.2 REASONS FOR CHOOSING TOPIC Teaching speaking is not easy. What are the students‟ problems in speaking English? 2. So that. Is teaching speaking by using communicative approach effective to overcome the students‟ problems in speaking? .4 RESEARCH PROBLEM The problems that the writer would like to observe in his study are: 1. The appropriate method in teaching speaking to the students is really important especially for the fifth grade students in SDN 2 Pamoyanan whose speaking skill still belong to the pre elementary level. Besides. that the students can improve their ability to master English. In this case the writer hopes.3 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY The writer has limited the paper to the teaching speaking by using Communicative Approach to the Fifth Grade Students of SDN 2 Pamoyanan.

in this research the writer‟s assumptions are as follows: 1.5 HYPOTHESIS Assumption or basic of opinion is the heart of thinking that correlations acceptance by investigator.6 AIMS OF THE STUDY Based on the formulation of problems above. To discover whether teaching speaking by using communicative approach is effective to overcome the students‟ problems in speaking.5 1. Teaching speaking by using communicative approach will be effective to overcome the students‟ problems in speaking 1. This is appropriate with Suharsimi Arikunto‟s opinion (1996 : 190). 1. The students have some problems in speaking English 2. Furthermore. then the sample will be taken between 10-15% or 20-25% or more. 2.7 POPULATION AND SAMPLES OF RESEARCH The samples of the research are twenty students which are choosen randomly from thirty seven students at the fifth grade of primary students SD Negeri 2 Pamoyanan in academic year 2008/2009. much better we take it all so the research make up population. that is “just for estimating so if the subject less than a hundred or more. if there are many subjects.” . the writer investigated this study to meet the following purposes: 1. To identify the students‟ problems in speaking English.

giving pre-test to the students 4. “Metode merupakan cara utama yang dipergunakan untuk mencapai suatu tujuan dan dipergunakan setelah penyelidik mempertimbangkan kewajarannya ditinjau dari tujuan penyelidikan serta dari situasi penyelidikan”. It will guide us in the investigation.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE PAPER The primary contents of the paper are as follows: Chapter I is introduction. The procedure of the research are: 1. 1. 7. effectively and effeciently as possible.8 METHOD AND PROCEDURE OF THE RESEARCH Methodology is absolutely needed in any research in order to find the result of the research as accuretely. calculating and analysing the test scores 6. Finding and discussing the result of the research. giving post-test to the students 5. .6 1. selecting the sample from the population 3. Making the conclusion of the research. The writer conducted an observation at SDN 2 Pamoyanan and he chooses descriptive method as it is commonly used to investigate problems that occur at present time. because it deals with the ways we conduct the research. developing the research instrument 2.

Method and procedure of the research. Hypotesis. Population and samples of research. Chapter II is theoretical foundation. and Clarification of terms. Chapter V is conclusion and sugestion. . Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary). Teaching: To show somebody how to do something how so that they will be able to do it themselves (A S Hornby. Those are: 1. Subject of research. It consists of: Background of the problem. Chapter IV is data analysis. This chapter deals with Kind of research. Data collecting instrument.10 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS To avoid misunderstanding and to make the discussions run appropriately. Reason for choosing topic. In this chapter the writer gives the conclusion and sugestion of the research. In this part the writer has tried to review some related literatures and theories proposed by some experts to support the research. Limitation of the study. This chapter deals with data analysis and interpretation. 1. Aim of the study. there are several terms that need to clarify. Chapter III is research methodology.7 The writer has tried to introduce the problem as clearly as possible. and Data processing. Research problem. Organization of the paper.

organization or subject (A S Hornby. Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary). Speaking: The language or Jargon or a particular group. Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary). 3.8 2. Communicative: Read and willing to talk and give information (A S Hornby. .

1 DEFINITION OF TEACHING Here are some definitions of teaching. attitudes. knowledge is fact. Those are: 1. Teaching is telling. (Christensen: 1992) 3. (Carr: 1996) 2. A highly qualified teacher is defined as one who holds a bachelor‟s degree. (CERI: 2000) 5. and learning is recall. Teaching is one of the means by which education is often achieved (if it is) and education is a common purpose of teaching. (Sanders: 2004) 9 . has full state certification and has demonstrated subject area competence in each subject taught. A teacher is defined as a person whose proffesional activity involves the transmission of knowledges. and skills that are stipulated in a formal curriculum to students enrolled in an educational programme. in a variety of contexts … (Wrigley and Guth: 1992) 4.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FOUNDATION 2. Teaching is supporting adults with little English and little formal education in their efforts to understand and use English in its many forms.

such as when giving a speech to a live audience. communicating the feelings we have. choosing the right words from our vocabulary. in which we are alternately speaking and speaking. or slower speech from our conversation partner. such as when recording a speech for a radio broadcast. . and so on. putting the words in the proper grammatical framework.10 2. It. Interactive. and the mouth. Non-interactive. Partially interactive. is more complicated than it seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words. b. repetition. Anne. like the other skills. The speaker nevertheless can see the audience and judge from the expressions on their faces and body language whether or not he or she is being understood. (Smith. It is thinking of what one wishes to say. include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls. speaking is producing movements: movements of the rib cage.2 SPEAKING SKILL Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification. the vocal cords. c. 2009) There are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find ourselves: a. where the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech.

changes in the tense. and intonation patterns of the language clearly enough so that people can understand what is said. verb. by whatever means the language uses. make the discourse hang together so that people can follow what you are saying. This includes making tonal distinctions. 2. make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents. use the correct forms of words. or gender. The “communicative method to the teaching of foreign languages” also known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) or the “communicative approach” . object. It aims to enable student to read and appreciate foreign language. use the register or language variety that is appropriate to the situation and the relationship to the conversation partner. h. for example. such as subject.3 COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH The writer tries to teach speaking by using Communicative Approach. case. i. make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or information. d.11 Some of the micro-skills involved in speaking. b. put words together in correct word order. e. this may mean. use vocabulary appropriately. use stress and rhythmic patterns. f. c. The speaker has to: a. g. pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough so that people can distinguish them.

3. 3. 5. It can best be defined with a list of general principles. In Communicative Language Teaching expert Nunan (1991). lists these five basic characteristics: 1. The communicative approach is a flexible method rather than a rigorously defined set of teaching practices. Learning a new language is easier and more enjoyable when it is truly meaningful. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. An enhancement of the learner‟s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning. . There are some important cases in using Communicative Method: 1. New syllabuses based on communicative method offered some communicative ability from early stage. The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation. not only on language but also on the learning process itself. Communication embraces a whole spectrum of functions. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.12 emphasizes learning a language through genuine communication. 2. 4. Focuses on language as a medium of communication. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus. 2. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom.

13 4. including pairwork and group-work. Communicative approach seeks to personalise and localise language and adapt it to interests of pupils. Language analysis and grammar explanation may help some learners. 14. 8. 16. Classroom should provide opportunities for rehearsal of real-life situations and provide opportunity for real communication. 15. 10. 7. Primacy of oral work. Classroom activities maximise opportunities for learners to use target language in a communicative way for meaningful activities. Avoid age-old texts. Make use of topical items with which pupils are already familiar in their own language. because dictated by pupils' needs and interests. but extensive experience of target language helps everyone. Communicative approach is not just limited to oral skills. 18. 5. Communicative approach is much more pupil-orientated. More emphasis on active modes of learning. 11. Use of target language as normal medium for classroom management and instruction . Errors are a natural part of learning language. Grammar can still be taught. 12. 6. often not exploited enough by teachers fearful of noisy class. Accent is on functional/usable language. 9. . but less systematically.reflects naturalistic language acquisition. 13. Use of idiomatic/everyday language. 17.

or prepare at home using noncommunicative drills. . Some courses will have the students take occasional grammar quizzes. 22. Use of visual stimuli.14 19. Communicative approach seeks to use authentic resources. Language Exchanges 6. for instance. Games 5. Role Play 2. Spontaneous and improvised practice helps to make minds more flexible and inspire confidence in coping with unforeseen. 21. The writer also may choose to try some of the techniques of the Communicative Method from the review that follows: 1. Interviews 3. Pair Work 8. not all courses that utilize the Communicative Language approach will restrict their activities solely to these. can be structured but also spontaneous and incidental. Surveys 7. 23. unanticipated situations. Information Gap 4. Most students like games in their class. 20. Learning by teaching The writer focuses to use games technique in this research. Language need not be laboriously monotonous and 'medium' orientated. Important not to be restricted to textbook. However.

20/2003 pasal 1 ayat 9) The fact is not only the subject matter will be discussed during the course that must be planned but first of all. dan bahan pelajaran serta cara yang digunakan sebagai pedoman penyelenggaraan kegiatan pembelajaran untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan tertentu. The language needed for different types of situations. Grammatical items and vocabulary. or national level. local. Very often curriculum is seen a list subject – matters to be taught by the teacher and to be learned by the student within certain period of time (a semester of a year). “Kurikulum adalah seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan mengenai tujuan. Language-teaching syllabus may be based on: 1.” (UU RI No. 3. 2. . Therefore.15 2. the behavior one expect the students to show after the completion of the course. which can be prescribed at a school. isi. in the end the teacher must have a set of ideas.: 1992:368). Syllabus is a description of contents of a course of instruction and the order in which they are to be taught (Jack C. The meanings and communicative functions which the learner needs to express in the target language.4 CURRICULUM Curriculum is defined as the study areas and their time commitments.

3. (Lanthier: 2002) 3. The writer choose Correlational method because he wanted to find out wether there any correlation between teaching speaking by using communicative approach or without using communicative approach. The purpose of doing correlations is to allow us to make a prediction about one variable based on what we know about another variable. The researcher looks at things that already exist and determines if and in what way those things are related to each other. data collecting instrument and research procedure. It is related as Suahrsimi Arikunto (1999:120) that the sample was taken 25% of population or more.”. subject of research.CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter deals with research method. “The correlation is a way to measure how associated or related two variables are. the writer took the students of SD Negeri 2 Pamoyanan as population.2 RESEARCH SUBJECT In this study. There were one class and the writer took twenty students randomly from them as the sample by lottere.1 RESEARCH METHOD In order to achieve the aim of the research. The samples would be the fifth grade students. 16 . the writer used Correlational method.

please! d.Turn off the lamp. Close the door. please! a. Sit down! b. . Wake up! a.3 DATA COLLECTING INSTRUMENT The data needed was taken from a test. Lay down! d. 4. Turn on the TV. Sit down! d. Open the window. Turn off the TV. Stand up! c. please! a. please! b. Turn on the lamp. Wake up! c. Post-test was given to the students to find out their ability of speaking after teaching and learning activities. 3. please! b. Open the door. Stand up! b. a.17 3. Here are the pe-test and post test instrument which was given to the students: Choose the most suitable instruction for the pictures! 1. please! c. please! d. The test is used to identify the students‟ achievement. 3.Close the window. please! c.4 DATA PROCESSING The writer gave the students pre-test to find out their skill of speaking without teaching and learning activities. The test is objective tests in the term of mutiple choice items consist of ten items. Lay down! 2.

The data gathered from the experiment was analyzed using the t-test. Go left! d. please! d. Put them into your bag! b. Get me a glass of milk! c. Get me a glass of milk! c. Get me a cup of coffee! d. Use your ruler! a. 9. Go straight! b. Go right! a. 8. a. please! c. please! a. please! d. Go right! c. Get me a plate of rice! 6. Go back! a. Go straight! c. Read the book. Get me a bowl of noodle! d. or: M = ∑X n Where (Burns. Use the pen. Go back! d. 1995:33) . Use your ruler! c. Put them into your bag! b.18 5. Get me a cup of coffee! b. Read the book. Get me a bowl of noodle! b. 7. Get me a plate of rice! a. Go left! b. The steps of the data analysis process are as follows: Find out the mean (M) of each group. the mean (M) is simply the sum of all the scores (∑X) devided by the number of scores (n). 10.Use the pen. According to Burns (1995:33) that for the most common measure of central tendency in educational research is the arithmatic mean.

The standard deviation is device from the variance. According to Burns (1995:39) that standard deviation reflects the amount of spread that the scores exhibit around some central tendency measure. This ratio is called the ratio. 1995:39) Where Sd is standard deviation ∑X2 is the sum of the squared raw scores (∑X)2 is the sum of the raw scores squared N is number of the students According to Burns (1995:140) that as with the standard error of the mean. 1995:140) .19 M is the means of the sample ∑X is the total amount of all the individual observation n is the samples Find out standard deviation (Sd) of each group. a critical ratio is formed to find the deviation in standard error unit teams of the difference between the means. usually the mean. The formula for obtaining the standard deviation is: (∑X)2 ∑X2 N N–1 Sd = (Burns. In this research the writer took the formula as follows: t= M1 – M2 Sd12 Sd22 + N1 N2 (Burns.

Calculating and analysing the test scores 7.20 Where M1 is mean of experimental group M2 is mean of control group Sd1 is standard deviation of experimental group Sd2 is standard deviation of control group N1 is number of students of experimental group N2 is number of students of control group 3. Giving post test 6. Treatment - Pre-speaking - While speaking - Post-speaking 5. Giving pre test 4.5 RESEARCH PROCEDURE The prosedures of the research are: 1. Selecting the sample from the population 3. Developing the research instrument 2. The result of the test .

and the figure 0. 4) students‟ scores of improvement. the instrument was tried out to another class before enrolling the program and pretest. 21 . The coefficient reliability (r11) is 0. 4. 3) students‟ scores of post-test. 2) students‟ scores of pre-test. Those analysis and interpretations relate to: 1) students‟ scores of try out .943 was obtained.CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION This chapter displays the analysis and interpretations of the data which has been collected through direct observation in the experimental activities.971. The class consisted of 17 students. 4.1 Reliability Analysis The result of the calculation of the test instrument reliability is as follows: Subject ∑N Judge 1 ∑X Judge 2 ∑Y ∑ X2 ∑ Y2 ∑ XY 17 88 43 45 127 141 The data above were computed through the Pearson‟s Product Moment fomula to get the correlation coefficient.1. and a discussion of the findings. Then this result calculated by using Spearman-Brown formula to find its coefficient reliability.1 STUDENTS SCORE OF TRY OUT In order to measure the reliability and validity of the test instrument.

4.950 S 1.684 t-obs.05 1.684). The result of pre-test data analysis can be seen in table below. It is very crucial as a starting point to ensure that the experimental group and the control group have an equal level in speaking. According to the result of the try out. Before constructing the test. However.1. Students‟ Score of Pre-test Group E N 20 M 5. this instrument is reasonable to be used in measuring students‟ speaking skill.703 35 0.782<1. The t-test.588 2. the particular test had been made based on the KTSP English curriculum for Elementary School. (t-value) 4.22 The t-table value for 17 with error standard 5% according to Product Moment R Value Table is 0. describes that the two groups are similar in the terms of subject‟s knowledge background. Validity Analysis Since the test was designed to measure students‟ achievement.717 0. content validity analysis was chosen.099 S(Xe-Xc) Df pt-critical level (t-table) Group C 17 2. t-obs of pretest is more than t-critical (4.2 STUDENTS’ SCORES OF PRE-TEST Students‟ Speaking level at the beginning of the research is one of possible intervening variables. 4.2. So t-count is higher than t-table. It means that the null hypothesis of no different is . Moreover. however.782 The table shows that there is a difference in means (M) or standard deviation (S).482. it can be summarized that the reliability of the test is reliable enough.

The writer used two groups as the sample.552 35 0.684 t-obs. The total df {(Ne-1)+(Nc-1)} is 35. (t-value) 1. the t-value can be determined. Students‟ Score of Post-test Group E N 20 Group C 17 M 7. Table below presents the results of post-test.029 S(Xe-Xc) Df pt-critical level (t-table) 0.966.684). it is quite safe to reject the null hypothesis. The t-observation is 1.188 6. .4 S 1. this fact support the claim that students who were taught speaking by using communicative approach get better scores than those were taught conventionally. and the degree of freedom (df) is 19 and 16 for each group.05 1.3 STUDENTS’ SCORES OF POST-TEST The post-test was carried out to both groups at the end of the program to find out whether there are any differences between the experimental group and the control groups‟ achievement. Therefore.966> 1.966 This table indicates that the standard error of difference between means is low Hence.23 rejected. So. it indicates that both groups have no similarity in speaking level. and the difference is statistically significant. Since the two groups were chosen as representative subjects. each group consists of 20 and 17 students. This t-observation greater than t-critical (1. 4. It means that the two groups have different scores on the post-test. Consequently.588 2.

55 130. The experimental teaching program can improve the students‟ speaking skill effectively (24.56%).37 Group C 4 154.19 For the data above. it presents that the total mean difference of students‟ speaking skill of the experimental group and the control group is 2.37 6.588 4 154. It indicates that teaching speaking by using communicative approach is unable to improve the students‟ speaking skill.37%) from that what they got in the pre-test.56 Differences 2.56 The table above shows that the experimental group improvement is lower than the control group. while control group can improve the students‟ speaking skill more than the experimental group (154. the students scores of post-test were subtracted into the students‟ score of pretest. This table .45 24.588 Post-test mean Improvement mean Total improvement (%) 7. Students‟ Score Improvement Improvement % Group E 1.55. The result of computation is as follow: Pre-test mean Group E 5.24 4.95 Group C 2.45 24.4 1.4 STUDENTS’ SCORES IMPROVEMENT To gain students‟ scores improvement.

25 shows that the differences between the experimental group and the control group is 130. It can be concluded that the experimental teaching makes the students‟ speaking skill is not better than the control group. It means that it doesn‟t support the hypothesis of this research. that teaching speaking by using communicative approach facilitates the students to improve their speaking skill. The experimental group was observed directly by the writer to know their progress in the program. the result of the investigation answer the research question stated in chapter I. The calculation of improvement shows that the experimental group is lower than the control group. at the beginning of the research. had similar background. After carrying out the program and calculating the result of test.5 DISCUSSION The experimental and the control groups. and this was considered as a potential intervening variable. . The use of communicative approach as media can increase students‟ understanding of English. 4. It means that the experimental group couldn‟t improve their speaking skill better than the control group.19%. The experimental and the control groups were analyzed differently. The conclusions are as follow: 1. The students‟ score of post-test and pre-test were compared to gain the students‟ achievement on the speaking skill.

students expected to be able to . Because by using communicative approach we can know and understand about the message from the text directly. English is a language that is hard to learn.26 2. In the meaning of English word Some factors that make some words more difficult than others are: Pronunciation “the word that is difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn”. 3. Communicative approach can improve the students‟ mastery of English vocabularies. Unfamiliar concepts many make a word difficult to learn”. In speaking 2. either of pronunciation or spelling. that familiarize students with vocabularies related to animals. Picture can be used to explain the meaning of vocabulary items. In treasury of vocabulary 3. As was mentioned before that communicative approach is one of the English teaching approach where it is the most effective in use. Meaning “when two words overlap in meaning. Moreover. learners are likely confuse them. Using Communicative approach in improving students‟ speaking skill is not significant. To find out that problem the writer interviewed students. Spelling “spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors. and can contribute to a word‟s difficult”. In introducing vocabulary on the names of animal. there are some problem that students faced in learning English: 1.

b. e. it can be concluded that good teacher at this level used to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourage their students to get information from a variety of sources. . learning from everything around them rather then only focusing on the precise topic they are being thought. and response well to learning that uses themselves and their own lives as main topics in the classroom. c. Teaching speaking by using communicative approach. They need to arrange of activities for a given period.27 memorize and pronounce and write each vocabulary correctly. They response the meaning even if they do not understand individual word. They need to work with their students individually and in group developing relationship. In the light of these activities. especially those up to age of nine or ten. Young children. They learn to talk about themselves. They often learn indirectly rather than directly-that is-they take-in information from all side. unless activities are extremely engaging. losing interest after ten minutes or so. and try to perform a word to the picture that seen by the teacher. They generally display an enthusiasm for learning and a curiosity about the world around them. and the flexible enough to move on to the next exercise when they see their students getting bored. they can easily get bored. especially for children can be the one way to help them in learning process. learn differently from older children in the following ways: a. They have a limited attention. d.

learning is human activity which is least needs manipulation by other. they still difficult to understand the meaning of English words. especially in learning at secondary it is a big challenge. It is rather the result of unhampered participation in a meaningful setting. Based on the findings. and when words get confused with each other. because in their ages. Moreover. when they face compound word. teacher must translating word by word until could be understood by students. when they need to produce language try to find the right word to fit the intended meaning is frustating when the teacher‟s stored of words is limited. . Most learning is not the result of instruction.28 In fact. There needs teacher‟s patiently in learning process.

Teaching speaking is one of the duties that has to be conducted by teachers of English to improve the students‟ speaking ability in English. 2) answer to research questions and hypothesis. 5. It is also necessary to mention that speaking is one of the items on some language tests is reasonable enough to be taught beside the enjoyable activities a learner may indulge in the target language demand that the learner exercise this skill. communication is a part of human‟s daily activities. Through communication by using language. In that way. a smooth interaction between people can take place. As the foreign language in our country. The teaching at the level aims to give knowledge of the basic English to students and it will be developed when they are in the junior and senior high school.CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter presents 1) the summary of the research. 3) implication and suggestion. we can share our ideas and througt with other people. and 4) recommendation for further research.1 SUMMARY As we all know. English is widely taught for the first time at elementary school. 29 .

In this some. There was one class and the writer took twenty students randomly from them as the sample by lottere. This integration of these perception skills.30 Rost (1991:4) says. Teaching method is something designed to give help in teaching principally. In this study. Successful speaking requires making effective „real time‟ decisions about these questions. the writer used Correlational method. Correlational design is not really considered model experiments because they do not account for extraneous variable which may have influenced the results. The way in which the speaker makes these decisions is what we will call a speaking strategy. speaking is a coordination of the component skills. successful speaking involves an integration of these component skills. analysis skills and synthesis skills is what we will call a person‟s speaking ability. not the individual skills themselves. We believe that these will be helpful for both the teachers and students in the teaching and learning process to achieve the instructional objectives. Methods are thing that help. The samples would be the fifth grade students. not the individual skills themselves. the important component in the Instructional Design or Lesson planning. speaking is primarily a thinking process-thingking about meaning as they speak. In this sense. Teaching methods is something designed to do in teaching. The techniques used in teaching speaking by using communicative approach are expressions discrimination test. . This integration of the component skills. the writer took the students of SDN 2 Pamoyanan as population. in teaching and learning process. In order to achieve the aim of research.

The total df {(Ne-1)+Nc-1)} is 35. so speaking practice becomes more effective. It means that the two groups have different scores on the post-test. helps the students feedback has been very positive and they are enjoying the benefit of communicative approach.684).966> 1.37%) from that what they got in the pre-test.31 The data needed was taken from a test. The test is used to identify the students‟ achievement. this fact support the claim that students who were taught speaking by using Communicative approach get better scores than those were taught conventionally. The test is objective test. The writer would like . each group consists of 20 and 17 students. So. The experimental teaching program can improve the students‟ speaking skill effectively (24. The conclusion of this research is teaching by communicative approach contributes the improvement of students‟ speaking skill. In the term multiple-choice items consist of 10 items.56%). The t-observation is 1. make change from the of teacher and text book. while control group can improve the students‟ speaking skill more than the experimental group (154. and the difference is statistically significant.966. and the degree of freedom (df) is 19 and 16 for each group. Since the two groups were chosen as representative subjects. Consequently. This t-observation greater than t-critical (1. makes English lesson live. that is the score of pre-test and post test. The writer used two groups as the sample. it is quite safe to reject the null hypothesis. After observing the data. The writer calculating the mark of t-value and at least gives the interpretation of the calculation.

the result of the investigation answer the research question as follow: 1.2 ANSWER TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTESIS After carrying out the program and calculating the result of test. Using Communicative approach in improving students‟ speaking skill is not significant.32 propose her suggestion that teachers should try to use communicative approach in speaking lesson. Relating to Hatch and Fahradi in research and statistic design for applied liguistics. because watching communicative approach is one type of speaking experience that is interesting. And after carrying out the program and calculating the result of test. 5. . Communicative approach can improve the students‟ mastery of English vocabularies. the writer gets that the hypotesis is accepted. hypotesis is a tentative statement about the outcome of research. The use of communicative approach as media can increase students‟ understanding of English. 2. 3. Based on the problem stated the writer puts forward the hypothesis is watching Communicative approach can improve the students‟ speaking skill.

So. Are there any advantages that can be found out by using this method? 4. Will the same result be obtained by replication this research at other school or other grade? 2.4 RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCHER Honesty. there are still many questions come to the writer‟s mind which may valuable to be answered among other are as follow: 1. 3. because using communicative approach is one types of speaking experience that is interesting. Will the method appropriate to be used at the higher level? 3. since the teacher is the fundamental classroom aid to language learning.3 IMPLICATION AND SUGGETION FOR LANGUAGE TEACHER From the finding. Teachers also should be smart and creative in using communicative approach in the classroom because successful language learning depends on the teacher‟s technique to use the communicative approach. Will the instrument still be suitable used at higher level? . the writer thinks now is the time for teachers and students to learn using them. the use of approaches in the teaching of language such as communicative approach is likely to increase not diminish. Nowadays. Teachers should try to use communicative approach in speaking lesson.33 5. 5. the writer would like propose her suggestion as follows: 1. 2.

Tim Penyusun Kamus Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa (1988). Harmer. 1995. Unpublished Sarjana paper. Richards. Jean Brewster and Gail Allis. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Bruce and Mary N. David. Zainal Abdul Loga Mahesa Baskara. Erly. Yanto. Jakarta: Depdikbud: Balai Pustaka. Harlow: Penguin English Majid. (2002). 2002. Native Speaker Rule of Speaking and Foreign Language Learning. 2001. Bruder. . (2008). Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. (2003). Elih S. Educational Uses of On-line Chat. Speaking Naturally. Research Design and Statistic Bowley. Subang: STKIP Subang. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia.REFERENCES Arikunto. Jeremy. Tillit. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications. Evelyn and Hossein Farhady. The Primary English Teacher’s Guide. TOKYO: Newbury House Publisher. Dasar-Dasar Metodologi Penelitian Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris. New York: Cambridge University Press. (1982). Harlow: Longman Hatch. Bandung: UPI. The Practise of English Language Teaching. LONDON. 1993. Jack C. 1997. New York: Cambridge University Press. Hayes. ROWLEY. Rules of Speaking. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Inc.. Suharsimi. Yarhamnia.

APPENDICES .

etc. . memberi aba-aba. 3. dan memberi petunjuk.. etc. Indikator Siswa dapat bercakap-cakap dengan tindak tutur:  Memberi contoh melakukan sesuatu  Memberi aba-aba  Memberi petunjuk 4.. 5...  Menyampaikan petunjuk tentang keadaan seseorang/sesuatu: One of my pen is blue. Materi Pembelajaran My School  I am tall  Clean up our classroom!  One of . Metode/teknik Communicative Approach .. Tujuan pembelajaran Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa dapat :  Menyampaikan dan mencontohkan sifat-sifat manusia/benda: I am tall .Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran (RPP) (Penelitian Skripsi) Sekolah Mata Pelajaran Kelas / Semester Alokasi Waktu Tema Aspek/Skill : SD NEGERI 2 PAMOYANAN : Bahasa Inggris :V/2 : 4 x 40 menit : My School : Speaking (Berbicara) 1. 2.  Memberikan aba-aba yang berhubungan dengan kegiatan sehari-hari: Clean up the classroom. Standar Kompetensi Mengungkapkan instruksi dan informasi sangat sederhana dalam konteks sekolah. Kompetensi Dasar Bercakap-cakap untuk menyertai tindakan secara berterima yang melibatkan tindak tutur: memberi contoh melakukan sesuatu. please! …etc. 6.. .

please! c. Sit down! b. Wake up! b. Penilaian  Teknik  Bentuk  Instrument : Lisan : Dialog dua arah : Choose the most suitable instruction for the pictures! 11. c. please! d. please! c. Open the door. Sit down! d. Stand up! c. Wake up! b. please! c. Stand up! 12. please! b.Close the window. Lay down! d. Turn on the TV.7. please! d. 14. Open the window.Turn off the lamp. Turn on the lamp. Sumber Belajar  Buku teks yang relevan  Bahan rekaman 9. please! d. please! b. Close the door. Lay down! . 13. Turn off the TV. b. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan  Kegiatan Pendahuluan (2 x 10 menit)  Percakapan pembuka  Memeriksa kehadiran siswa  Prolog dan membahas tujuan pembelajaran  Kegiatan Inti (2 x 60 menit)  Membahas kosakata dan struktur terkait dengan materi  Menghapal kosakata terkait  Latihan mengucapkan ungkapan-ungkapan terkait  Latihan percakapan dalam bentuk dialog  Simulasi penggunaan ungkapan terkait  Kegiatan Penutup (2 x 10 menit)  Menyimpulkan materi  Penugasan 8.

20. Get me a plate of rice! 16.Use the pen. Get me a glass of milk! c. Go straight! b.Pd.a Mengetahui. 17. Use your ruler! c.15. Put them into your bag! d. Get me a plate of rice! c. 19. Read the book. Go right! a. Go straight! c. please! c. S. Put them into your bag! d. M. Go left! d. Get me a glass of milk! c. please! c. b. Answer: 1-d 2-c 3-a 4-b 5-a 6-b 7-d 8-b 9-b 10. Get me a cup of coffee! d. Get me a bowl of noodle! d. please! d. Maret 2009 Peneliti Endang Zaenal Aripin.Pd. Go right! c. please! d. Read the book. NIP. Go back! d. Use your ruler! c. Go back! c. 1963 1214 10 1001 Fahmi Nurhakim NIM: 0518210058 . Get me a cup of coffee! d.. Kepala SD Negeri 2 Pamoyanan Purwakarta. Use the pen. Go left! b. 18. Get me a bowl of noodle! d.

Validity Analisys Num 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Jumlah Items Number (x) Students' Name Adi Saputra Atu Cucu Khotimah Dewi Didah Nurhasanah Eni Hilman Iis Ipah A. Linda Mamad Nopi Rini Irnia Tia Ujang Suryana Wiwi Score (y) Items Number (x2) Items Number (xy) y2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 25 5 0 5 5 0 5 5 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 5 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 25 5 5 0 5 5 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 7 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 49 0 7 7 0 7 7 7 0 7 7 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 7 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 49 7 7 0 7 0 7 0 7 7 7 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 16 0 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 16 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 4 4 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 16 0 4 4 0 0 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 5 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 25 0 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 5 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 25 5 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 6 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 36 0 0 6 6 6 6 0 0 6 6 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 5 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 25 5 5 0 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 16 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 4 4 4 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 5 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 25 5 0 5 5 0 0 5 0 0 5 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 5 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 25 5 5 0 0 5 5 0 5 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 6 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 36 0 6 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 6 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 5 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 25 5 0 0 5 0 5 0 5 5 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 6 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 36 0 6 6 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 9 9 9 9 8 9 8 9 9 9 88 9 9 9 9 8 9 8 9 9 9 470 46 50 48 48 43 49 42 45 49 50 . Ipah B.

254 0.997 0.180 0.086 0.436 0.203 0.308 0.873 0.086 0.rXY = N.810 0.086 0.006 0.482 Valid 7 17 15 3.436 3 17 9 88 48 9 470 816 153 7990 792 81 7744 24 17712 133.873 0.482 Valid 6 17 15 3.203 0.190 0.802 0.873 0.873 0.951 1.203 9 17 9 88 49 9 470 833 153 7990 792 81 7744 41 17712 133.873 0.979 0.436 0.254 0.900 1.033 0.875 0.994 0.075 2 17 9 88 50 9 470 850 153 7990 792 81 7744 58 17712 133.967 0.967 0.N Y2-( Y)2 r-count = rXY n-2 1-n2 Items Number N ∑x ∑y ∑xy ∑x2 ∑y2 N∑xy N∑x2 N∑y2 ∑x∑y (∑x)2 (∑y)2 N(∑xy)(∑x)(∑y) (N∑x2-(∑x)2) (N∑y2-(∑y)2) (N∑x2-(∑x)2) (N∑y2-(∑y)2) rxy 1 17 9 88 46 9 470 782 153 7990 792 81 7744 10 17712 133.095 0.086 0.710 0.873 0.180 5 17 8 88 43 8 470 731 136 7990 704 64 7744 27 17712 133.( Y) N X2-( X)2.075 0.292 0.900 1.086 0.873 0.802 0.033 0.086 0.180 4 17 9 88 48 9 470 816 153 7990 792 81 7744 24 17712 133.482 Valid .873 0.710 0.180 0.203 6 17 9 88 49 9 470 833 153 7990 792 81 7744 41 17712 133.308 10 17 9 88 50 9 470 850 153 7990 792 81 7744 58 17712 133.086 0.979 0.436 Number N N-2 N-2 r r2 1-r2 1-r2 r-count r-table Validity 1 17 15 3.482 Valid 3 17 15 3.308 0.075 8 17 9 88 45 9 470 765 153 7990 792 81 7744 -27 17712 133.482 Valid 10 17 15 3.994 0.873 0.875 0.086 0.951 1.006 0.959 0.905 0.482 Valid 4 17 15 3.086 0.873 0.041 0.041 0.292 0.482 Invalid 8 17 15 3.997 0.190 0. XY-( X).984 0.482 Invalid 2 17 15 3.905 0.308 7 17 8 88 42 8 470 714 136 7990 704 64 7744 10 17712 133.086 0.984 0.810 0.095 0.482 Valid 5 17 15 3.959 0.482 Invalid 9 17 15 3.075 0.

127-432 = 2397-3784 765-7744.881 = 0.17.( Y) N X2-( X)2.141-88.N Y2-( Y)2 = 17.43 17.2159-1849 = 1387 6979.310 = 1387 2163490 = 1387 1470. Ipah B.45-882. XY-( X).Reliability Analisys Nu m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Students' Name Adi Saputra Atu Cucu Khotimah Dewi Didah Nurhasanah Eni Hilman Iis Ipah A. Linda Mamad Nopi Rini Irnia Tia Ujang Suryana Wiwi Items Y X2 Y2 X Y 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 5 3 2 9 4 6 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 5 2 3 4 9 6 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 7 4 3 16 9 12 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 7 2 5 4 25 10 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 4 3 1 9 1 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 4 2 2 4 4 4 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 1 3 1 9 3 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 5 4 1 16 1 4 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 2 3 4 9 6 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 6 3 3 9 9 9 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 5 4 1 16 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 4 1 3 1 9 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 5 3 2 9 4 6 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 5 2 3 4 9 6 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 6 4 2 16 4 8 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 5 2 3 4 9 6 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 6 1 5 1 25 5 9 9 9 9 8 9 8 9 9 9 88 43 45 127 141 N.943 X 1 Jumlah rXY = Score .

208 = 1.099 .971 > 0.886 1.t-count = 2rXY 1+rXY = 1.05 19 = 22.95 Standard Deviation of Pre-Test of Experimental Group Sd1 = = (∑X)2 ∑X2 N N–1 1192 20 20 – 1 731 - = 14161 731 20 19 = 731 – 708.514 So tcount is reliable Mean of Pre-Test of Experimental Group M1 = ∑X n = 119 20 = 5.95 19 = 1.971 tcount > ttable 0.943 = 0.

188 .8 19 = 1.2 19 = 26.4 Standard Deviation of Post-Test of Experimental Group Sd1 = (∑Y)2 ∑Y2 N N–1 = 1482 1122 20 20 – 1 = 21904 1122 20 19 = 1122 – 1095.Mean of Post-Test of Experimental Group M1 = ∑Y n = 148 20 = 7.411 = 1.

882 16 = 118.382 = 2.717 .588 Standard Deviation of Pre-Test of Control Group Sd2 = = = (∑X)2 ∑X2 N N–1 442 17 17 – 1 232 - 1936 232 17 16 = 232 – 113.118 16 = 7.Mean of Pre-Test of Control Group M 2= ∑X n = 44 17 = 2.

588 Standard Deviation of Post-Test of Control Group Sd1 = = = (∑Y)2 N N–1 ∑Y2 - 1122 17 17 – 1 672 - 12544 17 16 672 - = 672 – 737.118 = 2.882 16 = 4.Mean of Post-Test of Control Group M1 = ∑Y n = 112 17 = 6.882 16 = 65.029 .

0992 2.494 3.362 = 0.117 + 20 17 = 0.t Value of Pre-Test t= M 1 – M2 Sd12 Sd22 + N1 N2 = 5.434 = 3.588 1.382 + 20 17 = 3.0292 + 20 17 = 0.588 1.703 = 4.242 0.400 – 6.060 + 0.7172 + 20 17 = 3.208 7.812 1.812 .782 t Value of Post-Test t= M 1 – M2 Sd12 Sd22 + N1 N2 = 7.362 0.362 0.411 4.071 + 0.1882 2.812 0.950 – 2.362 1.

188 Control Group M of pre-test 2.812 = 0.782 t of post-test 1.= 0.95 M of post-test 7.717 Sd of post-test 2.966 Degree of freedom (df) = (N1 + N2) – 2 = (20 + 17) – 2 = 37 – 2 .966 Data Gathered from The Experiment Experimental Group M of pre-test 5.029 Calculate the t t of pre-test 4.099 Sd of post-test 1.413 = 1.588 M of post-test 6.171 0.588 Sd of pre-test 2.4 Sd of pre-test 1.

894 tt = 1.= 35 P = 0.684 Pre-test to = 0.060 + 0.05 tt = 1.684 Standard Error Pre-Test S(Xe-Xc) = Se 2 + Ne Sc Nc 2 = 0.063 + 0.242 2 = 1.434 = 1.431 Post-test to = 5.1182 20 = 0.0292 17 = 0.703 Post-Test S(Xe-Xc) = Se 2 + Ne Sc Nc = 0.552 .0992 20 + 2.7172 17 + 2.

CURRICULUM VITAE Name : FAHMI NURHAKIM Place. SDN Cibogohilir I in 1997 2. February 24th 1984 Gender : Male Religion : Islam Address : Kp.Plered) Graduation : 1. 02/01 Desa Cibogohilir Kecamatan Plered Kabupaten Purwakarta 41162 West Java Father‟s Name : U. Krajan RT. SLTPN 2 Darangdan in 2000 3. Sobana Mother‟s Name : Yayah Juariah Profession : Teacher of Elementary School (SD Negeri 2 Pamoyanan . Date of Birth : Purwakarta. SMU Al-Muthohhar in 2003 4. Continued to English Education Study Program of STKIP – Subang Writer FAHMI NURHAKIM 0518210058 .