AN INTRODUCTION TO VIBRATION
ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2
VIBRATION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
INTRODUCTION
The overall objective of this part of the course is to introduce vibration as a
tool for machinery condition monitoring. However, we need to begin by
revising a few basic ideas. We will begin by discussing the basic principles of
vibration and vibration measurement. The material covered should remove
uncertainties about units of measurement and the meaning of some of the
terminology used. The use of spectrum analysis is central to much of
machinery vibration monitoring, so we need to spend some time discussing
this topic.
At the end of this session, we should be fully equipped to start discussing the
main features of the machinery vibration characteristics used in condition
monitoring.
2
ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2
DESCRIBING VIBRATION
Consider a block suspended from a spring as illustrated in the above diagram.
If this is disturbed, it will oscillate around its mean position, in other words it
will vibrate. This simple example is analogous to the motion of a bearing
housing on a machine which is vibrating, although the frequency of vibration
is much lower and the magnitude greater. However, it is helpful to us in
defining the terms used to describe vibration.
If a graph showing the position of the block as a function of time were drawn,
it could appear as a sine wave as illustrated. In order to fully describe the
vibration, we need to refer to its:
Amplitude 
Amount it moves.
Period
Time taken to complete one cycle of vibration.

In practice, it is more usual to speak of the frequency of vibration rather than
the period, where:
3
Acceleration is formally defined as the rate of change of velocity.s or mils (mil is American usage for thou). vibration amplitude is sometimes expressed as Acceleration. Within DEI Hz is the most common. Finally. Multiplying this by 60 gives 600 cpm There are three ways in which the motion can be described. Acceleration is usually quoted in m/sec2 or "g" where 1g is the acceleration of an object falling freely under the earth's gravity and 1g = 9. 4 . The displacement of the block is straightforward to visualise ranging from a positive (upward value) to a negative (downward value). This could be expressed in mm/sec.81 m/sec2.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 Frequency  number of cycles completed in a given period of time. This can be expressed in cycles per second (Hertz) or cycles per minute (cpm). In the example above if the period is 0. Its velocity similarly varies from a maximum as the block moves upward through its rest position to zero as the block stops instantaneously at the maximum deflection to a maximum negative value as it moves downward. The Displacement is the distance through which the vibrating component moves. although in practical machinery vibration it is more typically expressed in thou. Alternatively the vibration Velocity is the speed at which the vibrating component moves.1 or 10 Hz. The main reason that acceleration is used to describe machinery vibration is that accelerometers (which measure acceleration) are very convenient and widely used. This could be measured in mm.1 s then the frequency would be 1/0. It is perhaps harder to form a mental picture of Acceleration but it can be represented by a similar type of wave. inch/sec etc.
being a measure of the total movement from one extreme to the other. Similarly. the peak to peak amplitude is twice the peak amplitude. This is often a source of confusion and we will return to this later in this section. The relationship between peak and RMS is quite different in more complex vibration patterns. the rms and peak values are related by: Peak = = PkPk = √2 x RMS 1. In a pure sine wave vibration.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 The amplitude can be presented in a number of ways as illustrated in the above diagram.414 x RMS 2 x Peak = 2√2 x RMS This formula only applies to sinusoidal motion. probably because most vibration instruments actually measure RMS. 5 . The Root Mean Square (RMS) amplitude is the most commonly used form. The peak amplitude is self explanatory . It is a measure of the energy involved in the vibration.the maximum amplitude of vibration during the cycle.
sinusoidal vibration it can be shown that: Velocity = For displacement x 2 πf where f is the frequency of vibration.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VELOCITY. Mathematically: Velocity = Acceleration = rate of change of displacement rate of change of velocity These relationships are quite exact and always apply. This section is concluded with a few examples to illustrate the application of these formulas. 6 . a common way of obtaining vibration velocity measurements is to use an accelerometer and process the signal electronically to obtain velocity. so these formulas are less useful than they appear at first sight. acceleration and displacement which is frequently useful. ACCELERATION AND DISPLACEMENT There is a relationship between velocity. Real machinery vibration signals are rarely sinusoidal (as we shall see shortly). Further relationships can be used sometimes in hand calculations. For this reason. and: Acceleration = velocity x 2 πf Combining these: Acceleration = displacement x (2 πf)2 It should be emphasised that these formulas only apply to pure sinusoidal vibration.
88 thou RMS A shaft undergoes vibration at 30 Hz.0986 mm RMS 3. can we calculate the peak to peak or rms velocity? Change Units 3 mils pp = = 3 x 25.36 mm/sec pp Integrate to Velocity Velocity = = Change to RMS RMS = = 7 14.81 m/sec2 RMS = 0.0762 mm pp 0.031 m/sec RMS at a frequency of 50 Hz: Velocity = 9. assuming the vibration to be sinusoidal? If the vibration is in the form of a sharp spike.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 EXAMPLES (1) Vibration is measured as being 1g RMS at 50Hz.81 2π x 50 change units to mm/sec gives: Velocity = Displacement = (2) 31 mm/sec RMS 31 2π x 50 = = 0. If the amplitude is quoted 3 mils peak to peak. equivalent velocity and displacement? Acceleration of 1g RMS What is the = 9.0762 x 2π x 30 14.07 mm/sec RMS .4 1000 0. what is the peaktopeak and rms velocity of the shaft.36 2 √2 5.
5 8 . Note that in this graph the pkpk value is not twice the peak. but are composed of vibration at various frequencies superimposed. We would therefore expect to get a graph similar to the one above.5 Series1 0 0 0. However. 1. we can gain a better insight into the behaviour of the machine by examining how the vibration signal is built up from components at different frequencies.5 1 1.5 1 0. We could of course examine a vibration signal simply by viewing it on an oscilloscope or storing it on a chart recording.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 THE VIBRATION SPECTRUM Real machinery vibration signals are rarely sinusoidal. Alternatively we could trend an overall measurement such as peak height over a period of time to detect deterioration. Similarly the peak height is not √2* RMS. Consider the two graphs below and over page.
plus the sign wave at 30 Hz with a peak amplitude of 0.5 1 1.. 1. 9 .5 1 0.5 40 0 Series1 1 1.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 1.5 By examining the two graphs looking in particular at the peak level we can easily see that the amplitude is higher in the second graph. What we cannot tell is why the amplitude has gone higher.5 0 80 12 0 16 0 20 0 24 0 28 0 32 0 36 0 40 0 44 0 48 0 52 0 56 0 60 0 64 0 68 0 0.5 1 0.33 and the sign wave at 50 Hz with a peak amplitude of 0.5 Any point on the waveform is the arithmetic sum of The Sign wave at 10Hz with a maximum peak amplitude of 1.5 0 0. Adding together a number of sign waves as shown below produces the square waveform. Lets look at the first waveform in more detail.25 give the original wave form.
Now though the sine wave at 30hz has twice the amplitude of before. Often the vibration of a machine comprises components at the running speed and multiples of the running speed. and the vibration amplitude at that frequency. Each can then be considered separately. The second waveform is also the arithmetic sum of sine waves as shown overpage.2 96 92 88 84 80 76 72 68 64 60 56 52 48 44 36 40 32 28 24 20 16 8 12 4 0 0 This is normally presented as a vibration spectrum as illustrated in the example above.2 1 0. We still have 3 sine waves adding together to produce the waveform. What it shows is that the complex vibration waveform can be broken down into 5 components as illustrated. which is present. Thus. at 2x running speed the 2nd Harmonic. vibration at running speed is referred to the fundamental component. The running speed is sometimes referred to as the Fundamental component and exact multiples of the running speeds are known as Harmonics. at 3x running speed the 3rd harmonic etc.8 0.4 0.6 0. The vibration spectrum of a machine contains a great deal of information in a single plot. It shows each frequency. 10 .ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 1.
722222222 10.6 0. 11 .9 0.8 0. It is by comparing the changes in the spectra in terms of amplitude and frequency that we can relate to the geometry of the machine to determine the cause of the vibration and hence the solution.977777778 8.5 0 0 1.3 0.46666667 12.2 0. 1 0. The diagram overleaf shows a number of important vibration signals and their corresponding spectrum.1 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 A more complex vibration pattern containing several frequencies would give several spikes as illustrated.488888889 5.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 1. In the example shown for example if this was from a 3 bladed fan running at 10hz(600 rpm) then the 30Hz could be a blade pass component and an aerodynamic fault in the fan might be suspected.5 By comparing the spectra for this below with the earlier one we can easily see that not only has the vibration got worse but also that it has increased at 30hz.21111111 0.5 0.5 1 0.233333333 6.4 0.744444444 3.7 0.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1 1.
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r eq f h hig FFT Spectrum Analysis ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 . fre f re q n ue fr equency cy .y SKF S erv ice c show s component e n vibration u q signals at their f re respective frequencies F FT Spectrum t im e 13 amplitude low q.
ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 14 .
the choice of Fmax along with the number of lines of resolution and the number of spectral averages have not been covered and are discussed in the sections to follow. and perhaps most important decision that must be made in obtaining an FFT is the Fmax or maximum range of frequencies that will be analysed and displayed. it is necessary to define or specify the FFT spectral parameters. and shows only two vibration peaks on the far left side of the frequency scale. velocity or acceleration for measurement. Number of spectral averages: how many FFT’s are taken and amplitudeaveraged to minimise random and transient events The choice of selecting vibration displacement. the higher the Fmax. These parameters include: 1. velocity or acceleration 2. Frequency units: CPM or Hz 4.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 DEFINING FFT SPECTRAL PARAMETERS Anytime an FFT is to be taken. as well as the selection of frequency units (CPM versus Hz) have already been covered. Figure 1 shows a comparison of FFT’s taken on a 1740 RPM motor driving a reciprocating compressor. based on the vibration frequencies anticipated. Of course. 15 . Fmax: the range of vibration frequencies to be analysed 3. Amplitude units: displacement.000 CPM. the lower the accuracy or clarity of measured frequencies. However. Number of lines of resolution: the accuracy of displayed vibration frequencies 5. Selecting Fmax The first.000 CPM Fmax and clearly shows that there are considerably more than two significant frequencies of vibration present. The second FFT was taken with a much lower 024. however. the selected Fmax must be high enough to include all significant. Therefore. One FFT was taken with an Fmax of 0600. problemrelated frequencies. whether for a detailed analysis or for routine predictive maintenance checks. the Fmax selected should be no higher than needed to detect problemrelated vibration frequencies.
While it would not be possible to provide exact guidelines for each and every type of machine to be analysed. Most FFT analysers and data collectors provide a very wide range of Fmax choices. A comparison of FFT’s with high and low Fmax. typically ranging from 0600 CPM up to several million CPM with numerous selections in between.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 Figure 1. the following paragraphs offer some general guidelines. 16 .
400. For example. 1600 and 3200 lines of resolution. most FFT frequency analysers and data collectors offer a much larger choice of lines of resolution. Most FFT’s taken for predictive maintenance checks and general machinery analysis are taken using 400 or more lines of resolution. The concept of ‘lines of resolution’ can be compared to the sweptfilter of an analogue frequency analyser. sometimes called frequency ‘cells’ or ‘bins’. an Fmax of 20.120.000 CPM. This is similar to selecting the ‘broad’ or ‘sharp’ filter used in analogue or sweptfilter frequency analysers. the selected frequency range will then be divided into the selected number of lines. assume that 400 lines of resolution was chosen for an FFT with an Fmax of 120. 50.800 lines. in the example given above. 100. 800. Typical FFT analysers may offer 25. The significance of the number of lines of resolution selected. but will also determine the amount of time required to perform the analysis as well as the amount of instrument and computer storage required to store the data. each with a certain frequency (CPM or Hz) width to cover the selected Fmax. there would effectively be 400 individual filters. When the choice of Fmax and lines of resolution has been made. 200.000 CPM will be divided into 400 lines. The frequency width of each 17 . To illustrate. Unlike sweptfilter analysers that may offer a choice of only two or three filter bandwidths. Each vibration frequency would then be placed within the line of resolution that included that particular frequency. is that it along with the selected Fmax. determines the accuracy or ‘resolution’ of the frequency data presented in the FFT.000 CPM was chosen along with 400 lines of resolution. the FFT analyser uses many filters (lines) ‘stacked’ sidebyside to cover the selected frequency range. Where the analogue sweptfilter analyser has one filter that can be moved or tuned over the frequency range.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 SELECTING THE NUMBER OF LINES OF RESOLUTION The next important decision that must be made when taking an FFT is selecting the number of lines of resolution. Future designs will likely include 6400 and possibly 12. In the example above. This means that the entire frequency range from 0 . The decision will not only determine the accuracy of frequency data presented. Figure 2 illustrates the concept of lines of resolution.
In this case: Fmax Frequency Resolution = ___________________ Lines of Resolution = = 120. In this case. will result in vibration frequencies that are exactly 1 x and 2 x RPM or 3550 CPM and 7100 CPM in this case.000 ___________________ 400 Lines 300 CPM Figure 2. since the motor is a 2pole motor. it is quite possible that more than one vibration frequency could be present within a single line.000 CPM taken with 400 lines of resolution would not be able to distinguish between or separate these two problemrelated frequencies since they would most likely fall within the same (300 CPM wide) line of resolution. such as this 2pole induction motor. on the FFT display it would appear as a single peak or as a single vibration frequency. These and other electrical problems will result in vibration frequencies that are exactly related to the AC electrical frequency powering the motor. the rotating speed of the magnetic field in the stator will be 1 x line frequency or exactly 3600 CPM (assuming AC line frequency is 60 Hz or 3600 CPM).3550 CPM = 50 CPM). it is possible to have a mechanical and/or electrical problem and the representative vibration frequencies are separated by only 50 CPM (3600 CPM . motors. may also have ‘electrical’ problems such as open or shorted windings. FFT lines or resolution. Assume that a motor driving a pump is operating at 3550 RPM. lines of resolution and frequency accuracy can best be illustrated by a practical example. Of course. However. each of the 400 lines of resolution would be 300 CPM wide. unequal air gap or broken rotor bars that cause vibration because of unbalanced magnetic forces between the motor armature and field (stator). The importance of understanding the relationship between Fmax. since each line of resolution is 300 CPM wide. In other words. An FFT with an Fmax of 120. In addition. mechanical problems such as unbalance. And. looseness etc. In this case. in this example.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 line of resolution can easily be determined by simply dividing the Fmax by the number of lines of resolution. misalignment. 18 .
the normal procedure is to collect and average the data from more than one data set. the instrument must first collect a sample of the analogue vibration waveform called a ‘data set’ (a collection of related records). Unfortunately. Each line of resolution of this FFT will be slightly smaller than 4 CPM and this will clearly separate and individually display mechanical and electrical vibration frequencies. From the induction motor example given above. which do not represent the machine’s actual vibration characteristics. when an FFT is performed. it should be apparent that close attention must be paid to the specific machine being analysed and the possibility of problems that can cause very close vibration frequencies when selecting t he FFT parameters of Fmax and lines of resolution. In the above example. Here the difference between the mechanical frequency (7100 CPM) and the electrical frequency (7200 CPM) is only 100 CPM. which hopefully represents the true vibration behavior of the machine. using an Fmax of 12. this would be 7100 CPM (2 x 3550 RPM = 7100 CPM). This is called ‘spectral averaging’ and is done to minimise the influence of transient conditions such as bumping the machine. SELECTING THE NUMBER OF SPECTRAL AVERAGES As mentioned previously. For this reason. In fact. However. 19 . whenever FFT’s are obtained for predictive maintenance or analysis applications. Figure 3 shows comparative FFT’s taken on a motor direct coupled to a reciprocating compressor. start up or shut down of nearby machines and other sources that may ‘confuse’ the analysis data. transient conditions can occur during the time the data is being collected. These two problemrelated frequencies could not be distinguished or separated where each line of FFT resolution is 300 CPM wide. because the electrical and mechanical vibration frequencies found on induction motors are so close. 2 x AC line frequency or 7200 CPM is also a very common frequency caused by electrical problems.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 Many times misalignment will result in a vibration with a frequency of 2 x RPM.000 CPM and using 3200 lines of resolution. it is recommended that at least one additional FFT be taken on induction motors.
the frequency component is virtually nonexistent in the FFT displayed after averaging 64 samples of data. However. Obviously. The obvious question is: ‘How many samples (data sets) of data are needed for a spectral average? While no absolute answer can be given to this question. It should be obvious that it will take more time to perform an 8 average FFT than a 4 average FFT. Considerable differences can be seen in the comparative data. First. but the actual frequencies displayed. The second FFT was taken using 64 data sets and averaging the frequency and amplitude characteristics from the 64 samples taken.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 Figure 3 Limiting the effects of transients One FFT was taken using a single data set or a ‘one sample average’. some reasonable guidelines can be offered based on experience. a significant vibration component can be seen at a frequency of approximately 5 x RPM. The component at 5 x RPM that appeared in the single sample average was apparently a ‘transient’ vibration and only there during the time the data set was collected. For example. the number of spectral averages is a compromise between the accuracy and validity of analysis data and data collection time. the 20 . in the FFT from the single sample. this vibration component is not representative of the machine’s normal vibration characteristics and could confuse the analysis process. not only in the amplitudes of certain frequencies. Fortunately.
motors etc. Once the possibility of a developing problem has been detected. blowers. Where the appropriate number of spectral averages is not known. If the 4 and 8 sample averages are nearly the same in appearance. a thorough followup analysis should be carried out to verify and identify the problem. there is no significant increase in data collection time using a slightly higher number of spectral averages. a detailed analysis will so indicate. When performing a detailed analysis of a machine’s vibration. The following are some general guidelines that may be helpful in selecting the number of spectral averages for FFTs obtained for predictive maintenance and detailed machinery analysis: 1. which is actually the result of a momentary or transient condition. a minimum of 4 to 8 averages are recommended for general types of machines. When dealing with high frequencies of vibration. Since higher Fmax FFTs take less time. Although there may be some affects from transient conditions. pumps. 3. Therefore. when performing a detailed analysis. taken an FFT with 8 averages and compare it to the one taken with 4 averages. In other words. FFT’s using 2 to 4 sample averages are normally adequate. 2. If periodic checks reveal a potential problem. Sources of high frequency vibration tend to be somewhat more erratic and variable than problems that cause lower frequencies such as unbalance and misalignment. 4. typically 4 to 8 is usually recommended. such as fans. a simple comparison can be performed to determine the number best suited for data collection and analysis on a specific machine. a higher number of spectral averages.. the ultimate goal of routine vibration checks in a predictive maintenance programme is to detect potential problems. When dealing with very high frequencies of vibration such as gearmesh frequencies and those from defective rolling element bearings. If the 2 and 4 average FFTs appear different.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 number of averages does not affect the amount of instrument and computer storage required. whether it takes 5 minutes or 10 minutes to collect the detailed data needed to analyse the problem is of little concern. Simply take and observe an FFT taken with 2 averages and compare it to an FFT taken with 4 averages. This is governed only by the number of lines of resolution selected for the FFT. For general machines included in a predictive maintenance programme. analysis time is rarely a major concern. then a 4 sample 21 . such as gearmesh frequencies a minimum of 8 averages is recommended.
and then divided by the number of records. The amplitudes of the signals are proportional to the output voltages of the transducers. This technique is often used for studies of transient vibration in which the amplitudes are exponentially decreasing. are eliminated. 22 . amplifiers. DYNAMIC RANGE The dynamic range is the ratio between the largest and smallest amplitude signals that a particular analyser can accommodate simultaneously.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 SYNCHRONOUS TIME AVERAGING The capability to perform Synchronous Time Averaging with the end result being that all frequencies. but any inaccuracies will reduce the dynamic range. Note that each peak is the average amplitude within its own time record. In digital systems. which are not exact multiples of a designated frequency. all add to the noise level and the result may be surprisingly high. etc. This is usually not a concern with respect to the transducer itself. The dynamic range in analogue systems is usually limited by electrical noise. (Weighting. the dynamic range is dependant on the sampling accuracy and the sampling rate shall be adequate for the frequencies of concern. A factor by which some quantity is multiplied in order to make it comparable with others) PEAK HOLD This finds the maximum amplitude during a given time period of all the FFT’s in each of the frequency bins and displays those peaks. The relationship between the number of bits used to sample an analogue signal and the dynamic range (if one bit is used for the sign) is as follows: 6 x (number of bits – 1) = dynamic range (db) Therefore. but filters. thereby weighting the signal in favour of the most recently recorded data. EXPONENTIAL AVERAGING The capability to weight the FFT’s with an exponentially increasing function. a dynamic signal analyser (DSA) with 16 bits of resolution will have a dynamic range of 90 db. Amplitudes of the corresponding time domain samples are algebraically added for each record. usually in millivolts. recorders.
ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 TYPES OF VIBRATION ALARMS • • • • Overall vibration limits Spectrum enveloping Spectrum bands Percentage change. • Baseline Comparison • Vibration Comparison with Similar Machinery Measure several machines of a similar type under the same conditions and judge the results by mutual comparison. more systemic screening techniques develop. As the successful predictive maintenance program matures. Use the SKF Vibcard (Figure 22) for this comparison. which indicate specific mechanical events of interest. analysis software provides trending features for automatic trend plotting. 23 . and forecast alarms Alarm methods and settings must be consistent to detect key events. ISO Guidelines Evaluating the Vibration Measurement Four general principles are commonly used to evaluate overall vibration measurement values: • ISO 108161 Standard Comparison Compare values to the limits established in the ISO 2372 Standard. statistical. yet be forgiving enough to permit normal operating transients associated with normal machinery operation. allowing more selective data screening and alarm settings. • Trend Comparison Compare current values with values obtained over a period of time.
or connected through gears. Some of these machines can be coupled rigidly or flexibly. steam and gas turbines. direct coupled. Trend comparisons should always be used. 24 . The axis of the rotating shaft may be horizontal. medium motors. electric motors and pumps. turbo compressors. production motors. This trend comparison between present and past readings is easier to analyze when the values are plotted in a “trend plot". vertical or inclined at any angle. allowing you to see how the vibration values are "trending" over time. generators. The ISO 108161Standards provide guidance for evaluating vibration severity in machines operating in the 10 to 200 Hz (600 to 12. Examples of these types of machines are small.000 RPM) frequency range. turbo pumps and fans.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 If possible. ASSESSING OVERALL VIBRATION SEVERITY Trend Comparison One of the most efficient and reliable methods of evaluating vibration severity is to compare the most recent reading against previous readings for the same measurement point. ISO 108161 Standard Comparison The SKF Vibcard provides quick reference for ISO 108161 Standard comparisons. use all four comparisons to evaluate your machinery's condition.
mechanical looseness. Where there is no previous machine history or machine type knowledge acceptance should be base upon the relevant standards for that class / type of machinery. “Machinery Analysis and Monitoring”. Statistical analysis is very effective on mature databases.C. Baselines are usually recorded in velocity (in/sec or mm/sec) typically using a 100 mV/g accelerometer electronically integrated to produce a velocity measurement. such as imbalance. misalignment. as outlined in Table 1. Shaft speed Set Velocity in RPM fmax (Hz) < or = 1200 100 1200 . Note that other standards and guidelines may be more appropriate to industry specific 25 . John Mitchell. Subsequent measurements are compared to the baseline to determine machinery changes. Penwell Publishing Company. Comparison with Other Machinery When several identical machines are used under the same operating conditions. Shaft Speed and Velocity Settings. 1981). Note that velocity best quantifies low ordered mechanical anomalies. and/or critical when the data is four times the standard deviation of its historical trend.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 Baseline Comparison & Acceptance Testing Measurement records should include a baseline (known good) reading. Simplified. Machinery baseline measurements are usually established on applicable machines during acceptance testing following construction or machine overhaul.2400 200 > 2400 500 Table 1. evaluation can be carried out by comparing amplitudes from readings taken at the same location and direction on each machine. to a maximum frequency of interest. Rathbone. depending upon machine rotating speed. any trended parameter characteristic may be considered abnormal when it is two times the standard deviation of its historical trend. The baseline value may be acquired after an overhaul or when other indicators show that the machine is running well. and bearing defects in final stages of failure. over a minimum frequency range 120 CPM. The above general severity chart provides general velocity and acceleration measurement guidelines for determining machinery condition on typical machinery with casing/rotor weight ratios around 5:1 (T.
alert levels are difficult to determine when setting up a new database due to variations in machine characteristics. etc.). as this is considered the best range for judging rotational and structural problems like unbalance. a higher than normal overall value provides a quick indication that "something" is causing the machine or component to vibrate more. military applications use military standards. There are two areas of consideration in applying these guidelines: • Guidelines may be frequency dependent. the predictive maintenance analyst often elects to use industry guidelines. mounting. Typically. The frequency range for which the overall vibration reading is performed is determined by the monitoring equipment. Overall vibration is the total vibration energy measured within a specific frequency range. misalignment. etc. When comparing overall values. it is important that both overall values be obtained from the same frequency range. looseness. petrochemical processes typically specifications. as opposed to designed for overall applications 26 . utilize API OVERALL VIBRATION Overall measurements are the mainstay of inexpensive handheld vibration monitoring tools (vibration pens. and stress applied to components (by far the most common causes of excessive machinery vibration). Some data collectors have their own predefined frequency range for performing overall vibration measurements. portable data collectors). Other data collectors allow the user to select the overall measurement's frequency range. Measured numerically. Therefore. Most portable instruments (with a fixed monitoring frequency band) measure velocity over a frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 kHz. loading.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 applications (for example.
If a measurement’s overall value increases. the measurement is considered in exception.. the mean (average) is calculated along with the standard deviation from the mean. 3). For example.e. a vibration pen might allow you to monitor overall velocity between 10 Hz and 1 kHz. Note however that some machinery (i. Exception criteria can also provide these additional alarms: Alarm Forecast . Statistic Alarm .. and overall acceleration between 10 kHz and 30 kHz.For a specified range of recent overall values for a measurement. Most database software offers several variants of triggering an alarm using “exception criteria”. monitoring overall vibration is a good detection tool for components generating signals within the monitoring instrument’s frequency range. rolling element bearing or gearmesh vibrations). This allows you to focus on either low frequency rotational and structural vibrations. In summary. The standard deviation value is then multiplied a specified number of times (i. note that detection is not analysis. Percent Change Alarm . velocity and displacement. More advanced fixed band monitoring instruments provide multiple overall measurement types. or on vibrations occurring at higher frequencies (for example.An alarm may be configured for exception if a projected overall value crosses the measurement’s overall alarm setpoints within a specified time period. The sum of the mean value plus the multiplied standard deviation value is considered the statistic alarm setpoint.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 • Guidelines are applied for specific classifications of machinery It is most desirable to specify an alert threshold high enough to minimize extraneous alarms. each monitoring a specific frequency range. It must be stressed that one must exercise caution when using overall vibration measurements for machinery as the speed of the machine can adversely affect the values for acceleration. or if the most recent overall value is in excess of the specified percentage of the measurement’s full scale value. low speed heavily loaded equipment like paper machine bearings) requires additional information to adequately monitor (information that is frequency specific). yet conservative enough to not miss a critical excursion in machine condition.A percent change alarm may be configured for exception if the percentage of change between the last two overall values for a measurement is in excess of a specified percentage. Also. If the current overall value crosses this setpoint.e. more extensive monitoring and analysis are typically 27 .
SPECTRUM ENVELOPING Another method of screening involves spectral enveloping (this should not be confused with acceleration enveloping). This particular method requires a reasonably mature machine historical database. and a present amplitude allowance. which permits a small percentage of frequency drift due to speed and loading variations. and a 3% gain in the amplitude of a discrete Frequency before a component from the spectrum pierces the established envelope. This alarming method is easily assigned to measurement points with a minimum of time and effort and does not rely on "generic" alarm methods such as Spectrum Bands. An example would be an envelope assigned which allows a 5% speed (frequency) variation. In this method. and relies heavily on the experience of the operator. and to determine the best time for repair actions.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 performed to determine the cause of the increased vibration. a representative spectrum is identified. and an alert condition is printed. 28 . and a "formfitting" envelope is attached to that spectrum.
Spectrum band alarms allow you to isolate specific frequencies for detection of expected faults. This is essential for monitoring specific frequency ranges of interest (for example. There are two types of spectrum alarm bands: Absolute Threshold . Power Bands .) on 29 . One advantage of spectrum banding is that this technique has been tried and proven for many years the world over. bearing defect frequencies. gear mesh frequencies. 1xRPM to 5xRPM). Minimum and maximum frequencies that define each band are set within the predictive maintenance software.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 SPECTRUM BANDS Spectrum band analysis (banding) is used in applications such as quality assurance screening. A plant with no prior experience can establish banding alarms prior to taking baseline measurements thus implementing a vibration program with a minimum of machinery history information. proportional to changes in machine speed. the resulting spectrum alarm band shifts up or down on the frequency scale proportional to changes in machine speed.Calculate the total energy (or "power") within each band generated by all of the peaks within the band (using the same calculation base as calculating the overall level of an entire spectrum). etc.Enables you to specify the maximum allowable amplitude of any peak within each designated band (if any peak equals or exceeds this threshold. or the band can be defined as a function of rotational speed (for example.) on variable speed machinery. This is essential for monitoring specific frequency ranges of interest (for example. or condition monitoring of variable speed machinery. etc. gear mesh frequencies. If minimum and maximum frequencies are set as multiples of rotational speed. the band alarms). bearing defect frequencies.
resonance. it will undergo a decaying oscillation as illustrated.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 variable speed machinery. If the block is displaced and released. The frequency of this oscillation is known as the natural frequency and its value depends on the stiffness of the spring and the magnitude of the mass. Consider again the simple blockspring arrangement. RESONANCE Although there is no need to discuss vibration theory at length. 30 . A plant with no prior experience can establish banding alarms prior to taking baseline measurements thus implementing a vibration program with a minimum of machinery history information. it is worth spending a little time on a topic which affects almost every aspect of vibration measurement and analysis . One advantage of spectrum banding is that this technique has been tried and proven for many years the world over.
its amplitude will be controlled by the inertia of the block. if the block is driven with a very high frequency force. Provided that the frequency is sufficiently low.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 If a sinusoidal force is now applied to the block at a low frequency. It is the basis of design of machinery isolation mounts. As noted earlier. 31 . In between these two extremes there exists a critical frequency where the amplitude of vibration is magnified by a factor which can be anything between 50 and 1000. In other words the displacement will be equal to the compression and extension of the spring caused by the applied force. At the opposite extreme. and the effect of the spring will be negligible. This phenomenon is known as "resonance" and occurs if the frequency of a fluctuating force is equal to the natural frequency of the structure. It accounts for the critical speeds of a machine. this phenomenon is fundamental to all aspects of vibration analysis. It can introduce major errors in vibration measurement (for example if an accelerometer is fitted to a resonant bracket). the block itself will have little effect on the amplitude of vibration. which will be controlled simply by the presence of the spring. the block will move in response to the force.
ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 We will return to the subject of resonance on a number of occasions during the course. 32 .
there are preferred combinations and units which tend to crop up most often: Displacement is usually quoted either in mils (thou) or microns.ISO18436 Level 1 Module 2 MACHINERY VIBRATION . However. Acceleration is almost always quoted in "g" rms. 33 . velocity or acceleration. peak to peak or rms. (1 micron = 103 mm = 0. In this course. we will use Hz.UNITS OF MEASUREMENT UNITS OF MEASUREMENT • DISPLACEMENT mils (Thou) or microns pk to pk • VELOCITY mm/sec rms • ACCELERATION “g” rms To conclude this session we will summarise the important features..04 mils) Velocity the preferred unit is mm/sec rms. in peak. although equipment of American origin may quote inch/sec rms or inch/sec peak. Vibration can be measured in displacement. Scaling will be either peak to peak or peak. but paying particular attention to the common practice in machinery vibration measurement. Frequencies can be quoted in Hz or Cycles/minute.