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# CHAPTER 15

COMPUTATION OF WATER SURFACE PROFILES
15.1. A wide rectangular river with a bed slope of 14 × 10-4 carries a discharge of 3.6
m3/s/m`. A dam is built across the river at which the afflux is found to be 1.0 m. Using
the numerical integration method, estimate the water depth at a distance of 500 m
upstream of the dam. Take Manning roughness coefficient, n, as 0.025.
Solution:

⎛ q2n2
y 0 = ⎜⎜
⎝ S0

⎟⎟

0.3

⎧ (3.6) 2 (0.025) 2 ⎫
=⎨

−4
⎩ 14 ×10

0.3

= 1.69 m

q 2 3 (3.6) 2
=
= 1 .1 m
g
9.81
Therefore, M1 curve will be formed ahead of the dam. The depth of water at the dam =
1.69 + 1.0 ≈ 2.7 m. Let yi = 2.7 m and take dl1 = -500 m. Then,
yc =

3

(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2
0.000988
(2.7)10 / 3
y`i =
=
= 0.0012
2
0.81878
(3.6)
1−
9.81× (2.7) 3
Assume y`i+1 = y`i
yi+1 = 2.7-0.0012 × 500 = 2.1 m
0.0014 −

(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2
0.000525
(2.1)10 / 3
=
= 0.000612 . Then,
2
0.857
(3.6)
1−
9.81× (2.1) 3

0.0014 −
y i +1 =

⎛ 0.0012 + 0.000612 ⎞
y i +1 = 2.7 − ⎜
⎟ × 500 = 2.247 m
2

Using the new value of yi+1, y`i+1 is evaluated again,
(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2
0.000686
(2.247)10 / 3
y i +1 =
=
= 0.000776 , and
2
0.883
(3.6)
1−
9.81× (2.247) 3
⎛ 0.0012 + 0.000923 ⎞
y i +1 = 2.7 − ⎜
⎟ × 500 = 2.175 m
2

Using the new value of yi+1, y`i+1 is evaluated again,
0.0014 −

Elementary Hydraulics

(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2
0.0014 −
0.000645
(2.175)10 / 3
y`i +1 =
=
= 0.000736 . Then,
2
0.8769
(3.6)
1−
9.81× (2.206) 3
⎛ 0.0012 + 0.000906 ⎞
y i +1 = 2.7 − ⎜
⎟ × 500 = 2.2174 m
2

Using the new value of y is reevaluated:
(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2
0.0006556
(2.174)10 / 3
=
= 0.000746 . Then,
2
0.8785
(3.6)
1−
9.81× (2.216) 3

0.0014 −
y`i +1 =

⎛ 0.0012 + 0.000746 ⎞
y i +1 = 2.7 − ⎜
⎟ × 500 = 2.214 m
2

The depth of water at a distance of 500 m upstream of the dam is 2.174 m. As it can be
seen, this method involves iteration procedure. The use of a computer code is therefore
recommended.
15.2. A wide channel, having a bed slope of 0.01, carries a specific discharge of 5.0 m2/s.
A gate is located in the midway of the channel where the depth of water at the venacontracted section is 0.4 m. Draw the water surface profile and estimate the length of the
rising curve formed after the gate using the numerical integration method. Take n =
0.025.
Solution:

⎛ q 2n2
y 0 = ⎜⎜
⎝ S0

⎟⎟

0.3

⎧ (5.0) 2 (0.025) 2 ⎫
=⎨

0.01

0.3

⎧ 0.015625 ⎫
=⎨

⎩ 0.01 ⎭

0.3

=1.14 m

q2
(5.0) 2
= 3
=1.366 m
g
9.81
Therefore, the channel has a steep bed slope. The water surface profile is shown in the
Figure below. S3 profile will be formed after the gate. It is now required to calculate the
length of S3 curve between y = 0.4 m and y = 1.14 m. Let yi = 0.4 m and take dl1 = 50 m.
yc = 3

262

Chapter 15. Computation of Water Surface Profiles

0.015625
(0.4)10 / 3 − 0.32135
yi ` =
=
= 0.00828
− 38.82
(5) 2
1−
9.81× (0.4) 3
Assume y`i+1 = y`i.
yi+1 = 0.4 + 0.00828 × 50 = 0.814 m
0.01 −

0.015625
(0.814)10 / 3 − 0.02103
y `i +1 =
=
= 0.005646 . Then,
− 3.725
(5) 2
1−
9.81× (0.814) 3
0.01 −

⎧ 0.00828 + 0.005646 ⎫
yi+1 = 0.4 + ⎨
⎬ × 50 = 0.612 m
2

Another iteration:
0.015625
0.01 −
(0.612)10 / 3 − 0.0703
y`i +1 =
=
= 0.0069 . Then,
− 10.18
(5) 2
1−
9.81× (0.612) 3
⎧ 0.00828 + 0.0069 ⎫
yi+1 = 0.4 + ⎨
⎬ x 50 = 0.78 m
2

Again,
0.015625
(0.78)10 / 3 − 0.02577
y `i +1 =
=
= 0.0059 . Then,
− 4.37
(5) 2
1−
9.81 x (0.78) 3
0.01 −

⎧ 0.00828 + 0.0059 ⎫
yi+1 = 0.4 + ⎨
⎬ × 50 = 0.755 m
2

Another iteration:
0.015625
0.01 −
(0.755)10 / 3 − 0.02987
y i +1 =
=
= 0.00607 . Then,
− 4.9215
(5) 2
1−
9.81× (0.755) 3
⎧ 0.00828 + 0.00607 ⎫
yi+1 = 0.4 + ⎨
⎬ × 50 = 0.759 m
2

Now, we consider that the correct value of yi+1 is 0.76 which is the depth of water after
50 m from the vena-contracted section. Let yi = yi+1 and take dl2 = 70 m.

263

01 − (0.015625 0.Elementary Hydraulics 0.973)10 / 3 − 0.76 + ⎨ ⎬ × 70 = 0. Then.901) 3 ⎧ 0.81× (1.183)10 / 3 − 0.484 (5) 2 1− 9.76 + ⎨ ⎬ × 70 = 1. − 4.01212 y`i +1 = = = − 0.142 m 2 ⎩ ⎭ Another iteration: 0.01 − 0.01 − (1.001076 y`i +1 = = = − 0. − 0.0048 ⎫ yi+1 = 0.901 m 2 ⎩ ⎭ Another iteration: 0.7665 (5) 2 1− 9. Then. − 2.81 x (0.00402 . Then.76 + ⎨ ⎬ x 70 = 0.805 (5) 2 1− 9.42)10 / 3 − 0.81× (0.112m 2 ⎩ ⎭ 264 .973 m 2 ⎩ ⎭ Another iteration: 0.539 (5) 2 1− 9. − 0.76 + 0.76 + ⎨ ⎬ × 70 = 1.76)10 / 3 − 0. Then.76) 3 yi+1 = 0.029 y`i = = = 0.00402 ⎫ yi+1 = 0.01 − ⎧ 0.00604 .015625 0.000052 .973) 3 ⎧ 0. Then.0071 y`i +1 = = = − 0.81× (0.00488 .000037 y `i +1 = = = − 0.002 ⎫ yi+1 = 0.00604 − 0.711 (5) 2 1− 9.00604 × 70 = 1.901)10 / 3 − 0.015625 (1.002 .015625 (0.00604 − 0.01 − (0.42) 3 ⎧ 0.183 m Another iteration: 0.000052 ⎫ yi+1 = 0.00604 − 0. − 1.015625 0.183) 3 0.00604 − 0.81× (1.

7 m ≈ 140m.149 ⎫ = ⎨ −4 ⎬ ⎩12 ×10 ⎭ 0.168 ft g 32.00347 ⎫ yi+1 = 0.06 m at a distance of 120 m from the venacontracted section.2 Therefore.81× (1.8 0. Then. A length of 70 m gives a water rise of 0.76 + ⎨ ⎬ × 70 =1.5) 3 yc = 3 265 . we can get the exact length by extrapolation. Let yi = 1. The channel terminates into a free over fall at which the depth of flow is equal to 1.015625 (1. The channel has a Manning roughness coefficient of 0.018) 2 ⎫ = ⎨ −4 ⎬ ⎩ 2.76 + ⎨ ⎬ × 70 =1. − 1.3 = 4.149 0. 0. Determine the depth of flow 400 ft upstream of the fall using the numerical integration method.00097 y`i +1 = = = − 0.01) 3 0.3 m (1.00422 31.258 1− (3.005115 y`i +1 = = = − 0.00604 − 0.01 m 2 ⎩ ⎭ Again.3 ⎧ 0. − 0.5 ft and take dl1 = -50 ft.00109 y`i = = = − 0. yc = 3.49) S 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. Now.0012 − (3.3. 15.112)10 / 3 − 0.4735 (5) 2 1− 9.76). the channel has a mild bed slope and M2 curve will be formed before the fall. 0.06 – 0.112) 3 0.00114 .01 − ⎧ 0. A wide channel carrying a discharge of 32 ft3/s/ft` is laid at a slope of 12 × 10-4.3 The total length of S3 curve = 50 + 88.09 m 2 ⎩ ⎭ Repeating the iteration.1 yc.00114 ⎫ yi+1 = 0.81× (1.015625 (1. Then.22 ×12 ×10 ⎭ 0.5)10 / 3 − 0.3 ⎧ (32) 2 (0. Then.25 ft q 2 3 (32) 2 = = 3. 70 x 0.7 m 0.00604 − 0.01)10 / 3 − 0.00347 .01 − ⎧ 0. Computation of Water Surface Profiles Another iteration: 0. we get yi+1 = 1.018.38 dl 2 = = 88. Solution: ⎛ q 2n2 y o = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎝ (1.Chapter 15.1.8533 (5) 2 1− 9.7 = 138.

5 − ⎨ ⎬(−50) = 3.00422 + 0. Then. 31.00228 + 0.83 ft and take dl3 = -200 ft.0089 .000513 = = − 0.818 ft 2 ⎩ ⎭ Another iteration: 0.00228 . Then.65 ft 2 ⎩ ⎭ Another iteration: 0. 31. 31.5 − ⎨ ⎬(−50) = 3.89 ft 0.71) 3 ⎧ 0. Then.71)10 / 3 − 0.000409 y= = = − 0.66 ft na d take dl2 = -100 ft.Elementary Hydraulics Assume y`i+1 = y`i.346 1− (3.001197 (-200) = 4.8 0.8 0.0012 − (3.0012 − (3.0012 − y`i +1 = ⎧ 0. yi+1 = 3.00422 + 0. let yi = yi+1 = 3.00089 ⎫ y`i +1 = 3.149 0. Then.00182 ⎫ y i +1 = 3.000685 y`i +1 = = = − 0. yi+1 = 3.00228 + 0.0.66-0.0012 − (3.149 0.00182 .89) 3 ⎧ 0.149 0.65) 3 ⎧ 0.001197 .37726 1− (3.83 ft 2 ⎩ ⎭ This is the correct value for y at a distance of 150 ft upstream the fall.4286 1− (3.8 0.71 ft 0.00228 (-100) = 3.00079 y`i +1 = = = − 0.89)10 / 3 − 0.07 ft.66 ft 2 ⎩ ⎭ The last value of y is very close to the previous one.00422 × (-50) = 3. 266 . 31.83-0. let yi = yi+1 = 3.65)10 / 3 − 0. Then this is the correct value.001197 ⎫ y i +1 = 3.149 (3.818)10 / 3 − 0.66 − ⎨ ⎬(−100) = 3.8 0. Now. then yi+1 = 3.459 1− (3.818) 3 0. Now.66 − ⎨ ⎬(−100) = 3.5 .00228 ⎫ y i +1 = 3.

7 m.0 ft. A wide rectangular channel under a bed slope of 14 x10-4 carries a discharge of 3.3 0.69 m −4 ⎭ ⎩ 14 ×10 ⎝ S0 ⎠ Therefore.00068 ⎫ y i +1 = 3.69 + 1.83 − ⎨ ⎬ (−200) = 3. Then.6 m2/s. The depth of water at the dam = 1.4.00024484 y `i +1 = = = − 0.07)10 / 3 − 0.0012 − (4.83 − ⎨ ⎬ (−200) = 4.6) 2 (0.149 0.000184 = = − 0.025) 2 ⎫ ⎟⎟ = ⎨ y o = ⎜⎜ ⎬ = 1.4. ⎧ 0. An afflux of 1. Use the direct step method and take 1/n = 40. Determine the distance upstream of the dam where the water depth is 2.0 ft 2 ⎩ ⎭ Therefore.0 m is measured at a dam located downstream of the river.5098 1− (4.3 ⎛ q 2n2 ⎞ ⎧ (3.0012 − (3. yc = 3 Sf = q2 = g 3 (3.528 1− (4.2 m.149 0.6) 2 = 1 . M1 curve will be formed ahead of the dam.0012 − y`i +1 = ⎧ 0.83 − ⎨ ⎬ (−200) = 4. Computation of Water Surface Profiles 0.98 ft 2 ⎩ ⎭ Another iteration: 0.1 m 9. the depth of water at a distance of 350 ft upstream the fall is 4.81 q2n2 y 10 / 3 267 .00068 31.001197 + 0. Solution: 0.00048 ⎫ y i +1 = 3.000048 31.0003294 y`i +1 = = = − 0.8 0.8 0.149 (4.0 ≈ 2.07) 3 0.95)10 / 3 − 0.95) 3 Then. 15.Chapter 15.8 0.018) 3 Then. ⎧ 0.0003483 .0003483 ⎫ y i +1 = 3. 31.001197 + 0.018)10 / 3 − 0. The calculation for the required distance is given in Table P15.018 ft 2 ⎩ ⎭ Another iteration: 0.001197 + 0.484 1− (3.

46 + 1.494 5.196 2.46 m C 2 S0 (45) 2 × 20 × 10− 5 yc = 3 q2 =1.556 2. Find the length of the backwater curve using the direct step method.447 8.96 5468 7. A wide river having a bed slope of 20 cm/km conveys a specific discharge of 4. 15.043 -0.098 2.5.552 -114.55 m.55 = 5.S f ) × 10-5 12.682 dl 3.568 -204.0 1.5 0.322 0.198 0.11 0. A dam is built across the river where the afflux at the dam site is 1. The Chezy roughness coefficient is 45 (metric).2 (So.034 dl 16.2 m and y = 2. q2 Sf = 2 3 C y Table P15.97 0. the length of the M1 curve is 22.5.05 ∆E Sf × 10-5 19.911 4.82 -0.1 m2/s.397 10. Calculations for M1 profile.0 (S0.955 -0.7 4.23 m g The channel has a mild bed slope and M1 curve will be formed before the dam.58 L = 506 m Therefore. y V E 3.125 4074 9.2 m and y = 2.3 S f × 10-4 2.603 -186.875 12.7 m. Solution: y0 = 3 (4.57 4.224 5.058 m 268 .17 3.7 m is 506 m.0 m.6 5.64 L = 22058 km Therefore. The depth of water at the dam = 3.518 ∆E Sf × 10-4 2.165 3.716 2.835 12516 11.49 4.6 2.04 8.48 0.025 4.Elementary Hydraulics Table P15.5 Sf × 10-4 6.4: Calculations for the distance between y = 2.7 0. y V E 2.S f ) × 10-4 3.36 0.1) 2 q2 = 3 = 3.652 2.8 5.82 5.5 1.432 9.54 0. the length of M1 curve between y = 2.

424 4.528 0. yc = 3 Sf = q2 = g 3 (3) 2 = 0.894 4. The calculations of the length of the backwater curve for this case are presented in Table P15.911 4. 269 . A weir is constructed across a wide channel to elevate the water level.30 m (50) 2 × 5 The channel has a mild.5 m.523 0.929 0.099 4.81 q2 C 2 y3 (a) The bed slope is 5 cm/km.6a: Length of M1 profile (So = 5 cm/km).4 0.Chapter 15.667 4. y 02 = 3 q2 = C 2 S 01 3 (3) 2 ×10 5 = 3. Solution: The critical depth does not depend on the channel slope and hence will be constant for the two cases.16 m (50) 2 × 5 3 The channel has a mild bed slope and M1 profile will be formed.18 0.714 4.S f ) × 10-5 4.377 0.206 ∆E Sf × 10-5 4.694 0. estimate the length of the backwater curve using the direct step method for the following two cases: (a) The bed slope = 5 cm/km. Computation of Water Surface Profiles 15.3 Sf × 10-5 10867 3.099 0.623 4.226 0.099 4. Assuming that the water depth at the weir remains constant at 4.106 4. q2 Sf = 2 3 C y Table 15. and (b) The bed slope = 10 cm/km.682 4.697 4. y 01 = 3 q2 = C 2 S 01 (3) 2 ×10 5 = 4. The channel conveys a specific discharge of 3 m2/s and has a Chezy roughness coefficient of 50 (metric).226 0.6a.859 0.02 4.972 m 9.306 dl 18868 32353 15891 4.2 0.5 (So .6.325 4. M1 profile will be formed.6b. y V E 4.951 L = 77.979 m (b) The bed slope is 10 cm/km.089 0. The calculations of the length of the backwater curve are presented in Table P15.718 4.

396 3.732 4.2 0.884 19796 7. and y4 = 2.951 L = 45595 m Therefore. Take the Chezy coefficient as 40 (metric).396 0.81 (40) 2 × 8 The channel has mild bed slope and M2 will be formed before the free fall.60 2.Elementary Hydraulics Table 15. Determine the length of the water profile.265 km.523 dl 9. y V E 0.127 4.587 5.837 0.7 m The total length of M2 profile is 15.6b: Length of M1 profile (So = 10 cm/km).5 0.08 L = -15265.281 3.S f ) × 10-5 8.6 m.5 m3/s/m`. the length of the curve decreased when the slope increased.175 0. 15.0 m.8 S f × 10-5 5.667 4.612 m and yo = y5 = 2.56 0.216 -2222.0 1.5 1.40 2.635 -3.5) 2 3 = 2 .892 4.03 0.555 -63. A wide rectangular channel has a bed slope of 8 cm/km and carries a discharge of 1.7: Calculation of the length of M2 profile.2 0. It is required to evaluate the length of the M2 profile between yc = y1 = 0. assuming a critical depth at the sudden fall.48 0.0 S f × 10-3 0.108 7522 4.75 (So.0 m.32 0.537 Sf × 104 9.309 4. Solution: y0 = 3 q2 = C 2 So 3 (1. 270 .612 m c g 9.0 1.048 -12500 0.416 0.1 (So .55 ∆E Sf × 10-5 6.116 0.41 0.296 -0.23 2. 6 m and y = = = 0. ∆E y V E 3.63 3. Table P15.6 dl 0.15 1. y3 = 1.904 3.5) 2 ×10 5 q 2 3 (1.223 0. The channel terminates into a sudden fall.362 3.7 is developed to calculate the required length.13 0.S f × 10-3) 1.5 1.413 7135 6.3 0. Shorter profiles are generally encountered as the bed slope increases.577 2.612 2.92 1.833 -480.478 2.128 -0.522 11142 5.176 0.913 -0.818 0. Table P15.5 0.857 3. Consider three other depths y2 = 1.45 0. The length of the profile stretches when the flow approaches the normal depth.789 3.7.5 m.

S f) × 10-3 dl 2. A triangular channel with a bed slope of 20 cm/km and a side slope of 1:1 carries a discharge of 0.6 = The critical depth is calculated from the equation of critical flow condition. The slope of the total energy line.742 0. y A V E 0.153 1.6 9. The channel has a mild bed slope and the M2 profile will be formed. Q g y c2 y5/ 2 = c 2 yc 2 = y c2 0 .49 1.01 ∆E Sf × 10-3 5.44 0.776 1.40 -1.427. 15.83 ⎠ 5/2 (yo) = 1. and y4 = 1.4 0.451 (So. Determine whether a hydraulic jump will be formed after the gate or not.8: Calculations of the length of the M2 profile in the triangular section.20 L = -1689. A wide channel having a bed slope of 20 cm/km carries a specific discharge of 2. Hence.103 -1485.689 km. 271 .27)2/5 = 0.70 0.153 m. y3 = 1.7 0. Sf.33 S f × 10-3 0.85 -8.Chapter 15. Computation of Water Surface Profiles 15. Table P15.8. Determine the normal and the critical depths.60 1.27 m The total length of M2 profile is 1.234 1. A gate is located along the channel where the depth of flow at the vena-contracted section is 0.0.7.7) 2 y Table P15. in the above table is calculated from the Chezy equation which.407 0.153 m 0.59.6 m3/s.0 0. At what distance will the jump be formed downstream the gate? Take the Manning roughness coefficient as 0.1 m. or yo = 1.034 1.303 -0.724 0.05 -3.59 m. y2 = 0. Hence.83 1.02 (metric).9. for this case.59 0.8 is developed to estimate the length of M2.20 -195. The Chezy coefficient is 50 (metric) and the channel ends with a sudden fall. find the length of the water profile if the flow has a critical depth at the fall.22 0. Solution: Q = AC RS o ⎛ y ⎞ y 02 x 50 ⎜ 0 ⎟ × ( 20 × 10 −5 )1 / 2 ⎝ 2.163 4. yc = (0.153 0.348 1.00 0. Let y1 = 0.81 = y c5 / 2 2 .00 1. can be expressed as V2 Sf = (29.2 m2/s.

8 Sf × 10-4 4.38 0. The Chezy coefficient is 40 (metric).9728 5.4228 7. Let y1 = 0.66 0. y3 = 0.S f) × 10-4 1. Solution: Q = AC RS o 12. y2 = 0.3 ⎛ (2.5 = (6yo + 2 y o2 ) (6 y o + 2 y o2 ) 6 + 2 yo 1 + 4 × (15 ×10 −5 )1 / 2 (6 y o + 2 y 02 6 + 4. A hydraulic jump will be formed if the conjugate depth to the normal depth is greater than the vena-contracted depth (0.11 0. and y4 = 0.07 0.586 -3.36 0.23 m.1 0.1 m to 0.18.3 = 1.18 S f × 10-4 4.2 7.23 m. Table P15.1 m).14.93 0.14 15.2) 2 (0.Elementary Hydraulics Solution: ⎛ q2n2 y 0 = ⎜⎜ ⎝ So ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0.7 12.23 m ⎪⎭ M3 profile will be formed through which the depth of flow increases from 0. the low stage depth is calculated as 3 y1 = y2 2 ⎧⎪ 8q 2 1 1 − + + ⎨ 3 gy 2 ⎪⎩ ⎫⎪ 1.0 m3/s.98 m).17 -12. 15.81 The channel has a mild bed slope.56 dl 2.47 y o 272 .10.98 m q 2 3 ( 2 .9 is developed to calculate the length of M3. A dam is built across the channel at which the water depth is 3.02) 2 = ⎜⎜ −5 ⎝ 20 ×10 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0.23 (So.0 m and a side slope of 2:1.423 -0.2) 2 1 1 = − + + ⎨ ⎬ 9.259 L = 16.765 -2.36 -4. Sketch the water surface profile and estimate its length. y 0.81 m The length of M3 is 16. A trapezoidal channel having a bed slope of 15 cm/km conveys water at a rate of 12.973 -0.2 ) 2 yc = = = 0.1 V 22 ∆E E 24.2 m.8 m after which the jump will be located. The channel has a bed width of 6. Table P15.7 12.98 ⎧⎪ 8(2.1.0 = (6yo + 2 y o2 )40 24.98) 3 ⎪⎭ 2 ⎪⎩ ⎫⎪ ⎬ = 0.7648 4.79 m g 9.81(1. Knowing the high stage depth of the jump (y = 1.77 9.9: Calculations of the length of M3.

122 km. The student is advised to resolve this problem with either different or more depth intervals and compare the results.265 4.2.09 9. at a distance of 1714 + 3996 = 5710 m the depth of flow is 2. calculate the depth of flow at a distance of 8.10 is then developed.493 2.333 3.65 0.609 21.6.396 29.92 -0. y3 = 2.0 19.10.83 = (6 y c + 2 y c2 ) (6 y 9.81 g Solving by trial and error. Table P15. + 2 y c2 ) 6 + 4 yc c The normal depth. is greater than the critical depth.1 m.39 1. let y1 = 3.8.005 ∆E Sf x 10-5 17.205 3.735 -10412 6.4 m. One may also assume that the depth at the required point is 2.62 1.42 15. Therefore. B 12. y A P R V E 3.0 36. This means that we need to assume a depth interval that would result in a distance of 8000 –5710 = 2290 m. and y4 = 2.6 m and y = 2.10.0 km upstream of the dam.065 m. 273 . Table P15.39 0.12 (So. Solution: Referring to Table P14.6 S f-10-5 2.412 2. we get yc = 0.1 L = -16122 m The total length of M1 profile is 16. the channel has a mild bed slope and M1 profile will be formed before the dam.20 2.0.Chapter 15.11. Computation of Water Surface Profiles Solving by trial and error.10. The critical depth is obtained from the critical flow condition as follows: Q =A A .41 1. Hence.S f) x 10-5 2. In Problem 15.75 -0.1 dl 3.11 in which the first two steps are acquired from Table P15. yc.6 m. yo. The profile is presented below. The calculations are given in Table P15.43 -0.335 11.95 0.685 m.116 14.2 39.3 1.0 = 3.4 m and calculate the length of the profile between y = 2.560 3.68 20. 15. To calculate the length of the profile. y2 = 3. we get yo = 2. Calculations of the length of M1 profile.302 3.85 0.665 -1714 5.91 -3996 10.

12.20 2.6 m.005 ∆E Sf x 10-5 17.465 -2652 6. Draw the water surface profile and estimate the distance between the dam and the high stage depth of the formed hydraulic jump.4 m is located at a distance of 8.025 carries a discharge of 2.42 ⎧⎪ 8(2) 2 y2 = 1 1 − + + ⎬ = 1.6 S f x 10-5 1.0 19.92 -0.S f)x 10-5 2.412 2.045 ⎩ ⎭ 0.42 m q2 3 4 = = 0.2 m to 1.81(0. y2.74 m g 9.09 9. This means that at a distance of 8. then a hydraulic jump will be formed.173 m 2652 The required depth = 2.6 – 0.Elementary Hydraulics Table P15. A wide channel having a bed slope of 0.3 1.463 2.665 -1714 5.43 m.73 3.335 11.12 (So.2 39.205 3. One may also interpolate to get the required depth as follows: 0. ⎫⎪ 0.045 and the Manning roughness coefficient of 0. the water depth will be slightly bigger than 2.11.333 3.95 0.2 m ⎨ 2 ⎪⎩ 9. ⎛ q2n2 y 0 ⎜⎜ ⎝ So yc = 3 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0.0 36.3 ⎧ (2.85 0.302 3.64 L = -8362 m Therefore.6 m.42) 3 ⎪⎭ S1 profile will be formed after the jump.3 = 0.173 ≈ 2.62 1. dy 4 = 15.411 8.92 16.91 -3996 7.362 km upstream of the dam.75 -0. Calculations for the depth at a distance of 8 km from the dam. the depth of 2. A dam is built across the channel at which the depth of water is 1.0) 2 (0.0025) 2 ⎫ =⎨ ⎬ 0. Solution: The normal and critical depths are calculated first. through which the water depth will increase from 1.41 1. can be calculated as follow. Since the water depth at the dam is 1.609 25.55 0.12 is developed to calculate the length of S1.4 dl 3.198 2.535 7.0 km.0 m3/s.4 m. 274 .81 The channel has a steep bed slope. Table P15. y A P R V E 3.2 x 2290 = 0.65 0.43 -0. The high stage depth of the jump.396 29.68 20.6 m as shown in the Figure.

81 m .421 1. An S2 curve will form in the second reach as shown in the Figure below. where the entire profile is located.68 m The total length of the S1 profile (distance between the dam and the high stage depth of the hydraulic jump) is 7.342 (So.465m q 2 3 (2. This length is relatively short as the channel has a very steep bed slope.47 -0.25 E 1. 15.68 m.3 = 0. ⎧ (2. Sketch the water surface and estimate the length of the water profile.09 1. A wide rectangular channel carries a discharge of 2.59 1.13. the second reach is steeper than the first.58 43. The bed slope of the second reach (0.67 1.68 ∆E Sf x 10-5 52.03 73.S f)x 10-3 dl 58.8 64.008 ⎩ ⎭ 0.33 1.6 V 1.083 104.81 Therefore.43 1. At a certain point the bed slope changes to become 0.5) 2 (0.4 S fx10-5 81.504 1.94 93.5 m3/s has a bed slope of 0.5) 2 (0.69 L = -7.5) 2 = = 0.05 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ 0. One may always note that the steeper the bed slope the shorter the length of the water surface profile.88 120.54 1.0 44.4 -2.27 -1.079 136.285 44.Chapter 15.13.39 -0.05.2 1.07 -1.18 -0.5 1. 3 = 0.04 44. will be considered in the calculations of the length of S2 as shown in Table P15.86 m g 9. Solution: The normal depths for the two reaches and the critical depth are calculated. the channel has a steep bed slope. Computation of Water Surface Profiles Table P15. yc = 3 275 .3 1.025) 2 ⎫ y 01 = ⎨ ⎬ 0. and y 02 ⎧⎪ ( 2.12: Calculations of the length of S1 profile.025) 2 ⎫⎪ =⎨ ⎬ 0.86 1.008 and a Manning roughness coefficient of 0.79 -1.05).025.61 -0. y 1.

442 = by 02 + ty 02 )⎨ ⎪⎩ b + 2 y 02 1 + t 2 ⎫⎪ ⎬ ⎪⎭ 2/3 Solving by trial and error.81 3.855 4.5 5.17 1.57 39.136 0.774 1.0 m and a side slope of 3:2 carries a discharge of 300.145 32.00 1.Elementary Hydraulics Table P15.053 0.472 = (by 01 + ty 01 ) ⎨ 0.S f) x 10-3 50.34 17.1085 = (2 y c + 1.71 44.76 m The length of S2 profile is about 33 m. Solution: Q= 300000 = 3. 15.018.14 30.465 dl 4.5 y c2 2 + 3 yc 9.39 m. At a certain point the bed slope increases to 20 x 10-3.17 0. A trapezoidal channel with a bed width of 2.37 0. The normal depth in the second reach is calculated as follows: ⎧ by + ty 2 2 ⎪ 02 02 0. The critical depth can be calculated as Q A =A B g 2 y c + 1.205 12.57 1.81 Solving by trial and error.5 m.81 0.515 14.297 ∆E Sf x 10-3 S f x 10-3 3.13: Calculations for the length of the S2 profile.35 0.58 m.14.795 13.467 21.48 0.355 12.472 m 3 / s 24 x 60 x 60 1 1 ⎧⎪ by 0 + ty 02 Q = A R 2 / 3 S 01 / 2 = (by 0 + ty 02 ) ⎨ n n ⎪⎩ b + 2 y 1 + t 2 2 1 ⎧⎪ by 01 + ty 01 2 3. get yc = 0.000 m3/d.288 5.7 (So.486 0. The channel has a bed slope of 12 x 10–5 and a Manning roughness coefficient of 0.5 y c2 ) 276 .38 10.472 = 1.09 1. y V E 0.425 19.94 39.22 L = 32. Draw the water surface profile and determine the length of the water profiles in the two reaches. we get yo2 = 0.6 4.018 ⎪⎩ b + 2 y 01 1 + t 2 ⎫⎪ ⎬ ⎪⎭ ⎫⎪ ⎬ ⎪⎭ 2/3 S 01 / 2 2/3 (12 x 10 −5 )1 / 2 Solving by trial and error. we get y01 = 1. 3.166 1.

084 3.1 .53 0.35 m or about 4730 m. The M2 and S2 falling profiles will be formed in the first and second reaches. To calculate the length of the M2 and S2 profiles. ∆E y A P R V E 0.862 1.25 -3760. ∆E y A P R V E 0.8 -174.803 Sf x 10-5 2.50 6.8 -107.5 -313.00 3.14a and P15.040 1528 L = 12.71 .58 1.230 24. 277 .717 1.14 presents the water surface profile along the channel length.S f) x 10-5 dl 325.872 0.7 .58 1.1 .41 .62 . The total length of the two profiles is 4728.88 0.40 42.54 1346 6.333 2.75 S f-10-5 180 . Calculations of the length of M2 profile.545 1.8 L = -4716.25 4.624 0.41 .665 4.85 18.50 S f-10-5 807 0.375 7.25 -6.14a.12 471 0.5 -18.39 1.69 986 10.361 2. the first reach has a mild bed slope while the second one has a steep bed slope.28 1.82 119. respectively.61 .Chapter 15.99 1.515 (So.81 .744 0.50 5.059 0.497 1.09 0.20 0.318 3.54 6.860 0.05 1.406 2.0 471 . One may note that S type profiles are generally much shorter than M type profiles.6 .07 m Table P15.14b are developed.35 m.844 6.34 4.204 3.15 -762.188 59. Computation of Water Surface Profiles Therefore.406 2.45 1.046 1164 0.61 1.826 0.14b.51 .15 -30.09 0.S f) x 10-5 dl 639 13. Calculations of the length of S2 profile. Tables P15.023 0.803 Sf x 10-5 1. Table P15. Figure P15.48 0.912 (So.235 11.665 4.14 4.375 3.35 m The length of M2 profile is about 4716 m and the length of the S2 profile is 12.

0 m above the channel bed. Table P15.0 m yc = 3 q2 .0 m.63 5.28 7. Therefore. 3 278 .86 2.87 5.8 m.2 S f x 10-3 10 414. q = 25. The water surface profile is presented here.8 m The total length of S2 profile is 414.0 3.06 m2/s.766 m 9.1) 2 3 yo = = 1.8 4.S f) x 10-3 2. q2 = g yc3. Water is issued into a wide rectangular channel from a large reservoir where the water level is 6.0212 0. 0. Hence. y V E 4.01 and a Manning roughness coefficient of 0. yc = 4.77 6. Solution: For wide channels.021 (metric).81 (40) 2 8 x 10 − 4 The low stage depth of the jump is given as.16.53 0. A specific discharge of 2. 15. Hence.01 yo is less than yc. E = 3/2 yc = 6.3 ) = 2.15.1 m2/s is issued into a wide channel through a sluice gate where the depth of flow at the vena-contracted section is 0.1) 2 (2. The channel has a bed slope of 0.04 3.37 54 7.7 6.0 6. and y c = = 0.7 m. The channel has a bed slope of 8 x 10-4 and a Chezy coefficient of 40 (metric).15: Calculations for the length of the S2 profile. Determine whether a hydraulic jump will be formed or not? What is the minimum length of the concrete apron required after the gate to contain the jump assuming that the length of the jump is seven times its height? Solution: (2. Table P15.27 6.13 6. To calculate the length of S2 profile.06 2 x 0. Draw the water surface profile and estimate the length of the water profile formed after the channel inlet.29 7.83 (So.76 2.15 is developed.14 355 5.73 0.73 0.09 3.51 m . The channel has a steep bed slope.Elementary Hydraulics 15.04 ∆E Sf x 10-3 6.2 m.7 dl 3. g yo = ( 25.33 9.

05 0.39 dl 434. 15. 279 . a hydraulic jump with a height of 1.25 -215.5) 2 = 0 .51) 3 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ Therefore.85 x 10-3 carries a discharge of 2.8 m. The minimum length of the concrete apron = 12.S f) x 10-3 589 -1.97 0.33 6.45 4. Solution: The normal and the critical depths are calculated first.54 m The length of the M3 profile is 12.1) 2 ⎫⎪ ⎬ = 0.82 Sf x 10-3 8.33 = 1. A dam is built across the channel at which the depth of water is measured as 1.51 y 01 = 2 Table P15.17.5) 2 3 = = 0.0.30 (So.85 3.65 130. y0 = 3 q2 (2.33 m ⎨− 1 + 9.87 131.41 110.85 x 10 −3 yc = 3 q2 = g 3 ( 2 .16 is developed to calculate the length of M3. then the gate will be submerged and no jump will be formed.8 L = 12.54 216.86 m 9.13 280 -1.5 5.5 -0.0 m.18 will be formed and an M3 profile will be encountered before the jump.0 2.8 m ≈ 21. The water surface profile is presented below.5 m3/s.Chapter 15.25 S f x 10-3 152.54 + 7 x 1. Computation of Water Surface Profiles ⎧⎪ 8(2.81 The channel has a critical bed slope and C1 profile will be formed before the dam.36 2.17.5 -433. Draw the water surface profile and estimate the length of the backwater curve. The Chezy roughness coefficient is 45 (metric). A wide rectangular channel having a bed slope of 4.4 3.16: Calculations for the length of M3 profile.81(1.80 0. Table P15.20 10.7 4.18 = 20.85 7. The calculations for the length of C1 are given in Table P15.54 m. It should be noted that if yo1 is found less than the depth of flow at the vena contracted section.51 . 1.86 m C 2 S0 (45) 2 4. ∆E y V E 0.

5 m The total length of the C1 profile (backwater curve) is about 211 m. y V E 1. M1 curve will be formed in the first reach as shown in the figure below.17: Calculations for the length of C1 profile.08 (So.86 dl 91.5 1.18 provides the calculations for the length of M1 curve. Solution: 1.42 2.1 -62.0 ft conveys a discharge of 30 ft3/s.8 1.0 ft and a water depth of 4.Elementary Hydraulics Table P15.2 S f x 10-5 1. Sf. Determine the bed slope assuming the Manning roughness coefficient n = 0.4 x 10-5.0 ft. The slope of the total energy line.29 485 L = -210. At a certain point along the channel. A rectangular channel with a bed width of 6. the bed slope is mild.49 ⎛ 24 ⎞ 1/ 2 30 = 24 x ⎜ ⎟ S 01 0.2 Since the critical depth is less than the normal depth.39 1.025 ⎝ 14 ⎠ Therefore.8 331.4 412.92 ft 32.49 2 / 3 1 / 2 R S 01 n 2/3 1.0 134.5 153. 15.22 2. Draw the water surface profile and estimate the distance through which the depth of flow varies.26 1.9 1.7 178 -0.8 -0.91 72.18.13 0.6 -63. in that Table is given as V2 Sf = 3552. S01 = 21. Table P15.025.67 1.S f) x 10-5 53 -0.16 R 4 / 3 280 .64 ∆E Sf x 10-5 1. the bed slope is reduced such that the normal depth is increased to 6. The critical depth can be calculated as Q= A yc = 3 q2 = g 3 (5) 2 = 0.9 350.5 -84.

496 21.8 L = -44125.78 ft.82 -4204.25 4. the normal depth is bigger than the critical depth and the channel has a mild bed slope.18 -0.0 0. we get yc = 1.021.49 ⎛⎜ 4 y 0 + 2 y 02 ⎞⎟ 90 = (4 y 0 + 2 y ) 0.49 -7642.85 ft.0 ft.S f) x 10-5 7.83 9.86 = (4 y c + 2 y c2 ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1/ 2 4 y c + 2 y c2 4 + 4 yc Solving by trial and error. Hence.5 18.016 12.0 S f x 10-5 5.0 36 18 2.11 4. the length of the gradually varied flow reach is 44125 ft. The channel carries a discharge of 90 ft3/s and its Manning roughness coefficient. The critical depth is obtained from the critical flow condition: 2 A 2 ⎛ 4 yc + 2 yc =A . A dam is built across the channel where the heading up (afflux) is 2. M1 curve will be formed before the dam.19.67 1.22 ft. n.021 ⎜⎝ 4 + 2 y o 5 ⎟⎠ 2/3 1/ 2 S 01 2/3 2 0 (12 x 10 − 4 )1 / 2 Solving by trial and error.01 5. Therefore. Table P15.024 -0.5 27 15 1.19 is developed.94 0.496 4.5 27103.01 6.68 11.75 -0. A trapezoidal channel has a bed width of 4.78 + 2.617 = (4 y c + 2 y c )⎜⎜ B g ⎝ 4 + 4 yc Q 90 32.4 14.80 1.18: Calculations for the length of M1 curve.4 ft Therefore.833 6. Determine the depth of flow 1500 ft upstream of the dam.61 -0.0 ft.513 Sf x 10-5 16 1.00 dl 8. To calculate the depth at a distance of 2500 ft upstream of the dam. is 0. 15.909 5. we get yo = 2.84 4.2 = 15. 36. a side slope of 2:1 and a bed slope of 12 x 10-4.0 24 14 1. ∆E y A P R V E 6. What is the total length of the profile? Solution: 1. The depth of flow at the dam is: y1 = 2. Computation of Water Surface Profiles Table P15.71 1.497 5.497 30 (So.5 33 17 1.49 ⎛⎜ by 0 + ty 02 Q = (by 0 + ty 02 ) n ⎜⎝ b + 2 y 0 1 + t 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1.7 10.22 = 5.875 1.895 9. 281 .Chapter 15.605 -5174.52 15.

345) 2 2/ s 3 3 = = 0.141 -451.4 1.0 17.035 1.39 108.8 166 -1090.5 19.673 2.5 0.482 48.0 30.20 -0. A dam is built across the channel at which the water depth is 2.586 3.3 443.54 4.50 2.3 867. y A P 2.89 2.0 R V E 1.68 3.0 km upstream the dam.2 -0.48 -366.20 is developed.0 km upstream a dam using the step by step method.88 4.0 m rectangular channel.0 S f x 10-6 2.445 2.00 1.S f) x 10-4 0.58 16.96 2.636 15.72 3.841 1.0 km upstream of the dam using the step by step method.29 5.42 1.4 14.52 2.96 1200 L = -3387.6 1.281 1.345 m .9 100.6 ft measured upstream of the dam.5 ft.17 -0.0 m. Hence.0 (So.0 70.0(0.43 1. y A P 5.19 1.82 L = -2154.81 b 12.12 -939. Table P15.2 15. Therefore.6 85. having a bed slope of 50 cm/km and a Manning roughness coefficient of 0.091 2.015.31 -848.78 26.264 dl 0.6 S f x 10-4 2.2 14.65 1. The total length of the M1 profile is 3388 ft.14 q2 (1.857) 2 / 3 (50 x 10 −5 )1 / 2 = 16.12 1. conveys water at a normal depth of 1.14 m 3 / s 0. Calculate the depth of flow 2.20.1 m 282 .5 58.25 1.35 1. 15.62 116.5 -479.026 24.43 1. y c = g 9.5 -0.0 m. Table P15.055 38.015 Q 16.5 R V E 26.00 3.0 Therefore. Solution: Q= 1 x 12.0 24.57 m q= = = 1.88 4.6 14.0 4.S f) x 10-6 89.387 1.355 1.9 ft The first three steps give a distance of 1479.5 194.34 3.5 dl 144.4 -818.95 245.5 655.537 ∆E Sf x 10-6 21.06 1.6 -0.66 1. the channel has a mild bed slope and M1 curve will be formed before the dam.12 2.0 1033.181 3.489 4. A 12. the depth at a distance of 1500 ft from the dam is about 3.5 -548.20: Calculations for the depth of flow 2.19: Calculations for the water surface profile.3 (So.Elementary Hydraulics Table P15.6 -0.469 3.7 -0.023 ∆E Sf x 10-4 19.26 0.36 2.6 54.0 16.2 1.6 344.59 -0. To calculate the depth of flow at a distance of 2.

21.26 m 283 .0 y c + 1.78 28 -18 -8. Solution: 1 ⎧ 7 y 0 + 1.09 1. If the Manning roughness coefficient is 0. The channel terminates to a free fall at which the depth is reduced to the critical depth.69 0. the depth of flow at a distance of 2. dy = 15. compute and plot the flow profile upstream from the over fall to a section where the water depth is 0.50) = 0.21: Calculations for the length of M2 profile using the step be step method.6056 y 0 ) 2 / 3 Solving by trial and error.132 m.35 1.016 26 0.35 m.932 2. The critical depth is calculated from the equation of the critical flow: Q2B (30) 2 (7.51 0.71 m.20 10.9 yo = 1.84 1.33 12. Computation of Water Surface Profiles From the last depth interval in the above table we deduce that dy of 0.0 m3/s.142 2.63 38 -28 -1.5 y 02 ) 5 / 3 18.13 A 9.06 = 1.9 yo.02.33 0.604 Sf x 10--4 10.995 2.0 + 3.21 presents the calculations for the length of the M2 profile using the step by step method.05 E ∆E 1.1 m gives a length of 366.964 2.15 S f x 10-4 (So.54 14.001)1 / 2 (7.606 1.539 m.5 -7.057 2. The channel has a mild bed slope and an M2 falling profile will be formed before the sudden fall. then the required value of dy for the last interval can be calculated as: 0.29 17.845 P 11. Use the step by step method.041 20 0.5 y ) ⎨ ⎬ n ⎩ 7.30 11.99 1.56 11.06 m 366.35 Therefore.973 = (7 + 3.5 y 02 ⎫ Q = 30. Then 0. =1 2 gA3 9.058 m ≅ 0.0 + 3 y ) = 1 .24 m.5 y c ) 3 Solving by trial and error.78 32.74 12.81(7.Chapter 15.0 m and a side slope of 3:2 is laid on a slope of 0.55 1.5 -113.001 and carries a discharge of 30.S f) x dl 42 -32 -0.889 V 3.6056 y 0 ⎭ 2 0 2/3 (0.25 11.611 1.1 x (200 − 939.900 2.640 1. Assuming a linear relationship between the values of dy and dl. A trapezoidal channel of a bed width of 7.681 1.58 1.71 1.89 41 0.05 1.07 R 0.763 10-4 43 0.03 11.09 11.25 − 848. we get yc = 1.3 – 0.0 y 0 + 1. Hence.64 11.005 35 0.013 30 0.0 = (7 y 0 + 1. y 1. we get yo = 1. Table P15.082 15 L = -160.5 -5.40 12.002 1.5 -22.89 24 -14 -29.624 1. Table P15.15 0.0 km upstream the dam = 1.

86. A broad-crested weir is located in a 40 m wide rectangular channel.22.025 and use the step by step method. The weir discharge is given as: Q = 1. A better accuracy can be achieved if smaller dy intervals are taken as the flow approaches the normal depth rather than as the flow approaches the sudden fall (or the critical depth).582 m are given in Table P15.67 times the normal depth = 2.07 0.P9.90 1.23. Table P15. 1 1 ⎛ 40 y 0 ⎜ q = y 0 R 2 / 3 S 01 / 2 . The flow in a very wide channel tends to a free fall at which the depth is reduced to 0. The sill height of the weir is 2.22: Calculations for the length of M2 profile. Hence.00 3. y V E 2.3 0.667 m.032 ⎜⎝ 40 + 2 y 0 284 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (1.782 2.88 0. 15.218 3.8x10-3.9 the normal depth. n.8 0.3 m The length of the M2 profile between the two given depths is about 7775 m.117 (So.45 -1931 1.0 m. Cd is the discharge coefficient = 0. The channel conveys a specific discharge of 4 m3/s and has a bed slope of 10 cm/km. n. as shown in Figure 14.81 10 −5 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ S0 ⎠ The channel has a mild bed slope and an M2 profile will be formed.667 1.5 = y 0 n 0. The channel conveys a discharge of 500 m3/s under a bed slope of 1.34 -931. Take Manning coefficient.22. is 0.5 2. 15.Elementary Hydraulics The total length of the profile is about 160 m.745 -4912.025) 2 ⎞ q2 (4) 2 3 3 y = = = 1.745 -0. Determine the length of the backwater curve using the step-by-step method.032.582 S f x 10-4 1.9 yo = 3. The calculations for the profile length between y = 2.34 -2.25 3. Solution: The normal and the critical depths are evaluated first.67 times the normal depth. The depth at the fall is 0.379 3. 981 m and c ⎟ g 9. The Manning roughness coefficient.280 1.366 3.42 L = -7775.646 dl 2.20 1.475 -1.177 m ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ ⎟ y 0 = ⎜⎜ = 3 .6 2. Solution: The normal and critical depths are calculated first as follows: 0. Estimate the distance upstream of the fall where the water depth is 0. as 0.3 ⎛ q2n2 ⎞ ⎛ (4) 2 (0. 12.8 x 10 −3 )1 / 2 .667 m and y = 0.705 CdBh3/2 Where B is the weir width.7 2.28 ∆E Sf x 10--4 3.S f) x 10-4 3. and h is the water head above the weir.

61 (So.23.38 ∆E Sf x 10--4 220 51.00 200 50.Chapter 15.314 2.07 -1352. Solution: It is required to calculate the length of the M2 profile between y = 4.02 5.89 4.62 5.25 ft and y = 3.5 m. Table P15. 285 . 15.7 5.42 11.89 L = -3085.01 4.81 Therefore. the channel has a mild bed slope and an M1 curve will be formed.15 166 48.705 x 0.50 180 49.17 m The depth of flow at the weir = 2.0 + 4.2 -478. get yo = 4.28 17.98 -719.1 15. 12.705 Cd h3/2.50 S f x 10-4 7.0 4.3 12. V 2n2 Sf = 2.0 4. estimate the length of M2 profile using the step-by-step method. The total length of M2 curve is 2190 ft.51 -0.50 5.5248)2/3 = 4.S f) x 10-4 dl 6.78 4.27 5.23: Calculations for the backwater curve. The water head over the weir is deduced from: yc = 3 q = 1.428 = y 0 ⎜⎜ + y 40 2 0 ⎠ ⎝ Solving by trial and error. Then. The slope of the total energy line is estimated from.86 h3/2 h = (8.24.76 5.32 4.5 m The total length of the backwater curve is 3085.22 y 4 / 3 The calculations are presented in Table P15.03 6.33 -0.4 8.32 4.5 ft.43 13.717 2.80 9.14 m q 2 3 (12. y A P R V E 6.00 2.8 52.437 3.5) 2 = = 2.96 -0.44 10.0 3. Considering the data given in Problem 15.08 -0.17 m M1 profile will therefore be formed before the weir.24. Computation of Water Surface Profiles 2/3 ⎛ 40 y 0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ 9.5 = 1.516 m g 9.17 246.3 3.58 -535.17 = 6. The calculations for the profile length are tabulated in Table P15.673 2.3.93 2.

2 7. Then the channel has a mild bed slope and an M2 profile will be formed as the flow approaches the free over fall.1 1.608 -4.08 -245.8 3.25 7. Take the Manning roughness coefficient as 0.472y. Also R = y/2 1 Q = A R 2 / 3 S 01 / 2 n 1.S f) x 10-4 2.0 (So.3 1.025 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 0 2/3 (18 x 10 −5 )1 / 2 2/3 ⎛y ⎞ 750.605 -623. and b = 4.9 ∆E Sf x 10-3 dl 2.1 4.79 y c + 2 y c2 ) (4.42 4.79 y + 2 y c2 ) =105.25 is developed. b + 2ty Solution: For the best hydraulic section. The depth of water at a distance of 2750 ft is around 8.1 1.0 1.Elementary Hydraulics Table P15.79 ft Q A =A The critical depth is calculated from: B g 2 0 (4. we get yc = 4.14 4.0175 -8.225 -0. y V E 3.0 S f x 10-3 5.03 1.2 ft.49 ⎛ y 0 ⎞ 600 = (by 0 + ty ) ⎜ ⎟ 0.471 0.29 0.85) = 10.13 0.62 5. or b = 0. The channel has a best hydraulic section and terminates into a free over fall.3605 -1.025 and assume a critical depth at the fall. A trapezoidal channel with a bed slope of 18x10-5 and a side slope of 2:1 carries a discharge of 600 ft3/s.57 m.736 4.5 9.2 L = -2190.0 1.24: Calculations for the length of M2 profile.745 0.472y.175 -122.25 4.36 = 2.79 + 4 y c c Solving by trial and error. To determine the water depth at a distance of 2750 ft upstream of the fall Table P15.25 -1200 1.1 8.53 5.1 4.25.8 8. Determine the water depth 2750ft upstream of the fall using the step-by-step method. = y 1+ t 2 2 b + 4y = 4. 286 .14 ft.472 y ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3/8 yo = (481.4 ft 15.

131 -49. then the channel has a critical bed slope.62 3.43 5. Table P15.4 m.94 6. y A P R V E 1.64 4.0 3.58 9.0 6.18 5.85 4.69 25.64 -173.845 1.05 1.02 -6. as 45 (metric).489 1.04 8.S f) x 10-3 Dl L 0.61 0.4 m.32 1.25: Computations for the water depth at a distance of 2750 ft upstream of the fall. Take the Chezy roughness coefficient.496 5.92 3.26: Calculations for the length of C1 profile.439 2.669 0.06 -5.7 66.214 0.7 -2660 -3 7. A trapezoidal channel of 2.19 m 3 / s The length of the curve will be calculated between y = 0.0045 = 7.50 6.62 1.44 5.96 5.45 0.159 -0.0 100. Determine the length of the backwater curve using the step-by-step method.7 0.619 -1421.2 173. Solution: Since the depth of flow under the normal conditions is equal to the critical depth.09 3.33 .32 -159.87 6.15 2.Chapter 15.9 m. A gate is located in the midway of the channel length.0 73.0 131.799 8.52 V 9.06 x 45 0.719 -0.334 1.56 1.617 2.46 6.96 0.46 .38 15.018 -0. which is 0.06 m2.4 5.028 4.2 4. y 4.19 3.061 -58.146 5.47 -10. A Q = AC RS 0 .72 8. Computation of Water Surface Profiles Table P15.0045.4 m 287 .95 27.179 L = -141.18 -0.32 0.155 1.60647 m P Q = 3.5 2.28 5.186 ∆E Sf x 10-3 S f x 10-3 (So.92 m and y = 1.5 36.5 A 63.7 1.46 4.527 8.S f) x 10-3 dl 1.42 Sf x 10-3 Sf x E 10 ∆E (So.57 4.7 31.89 0.13 7.95 2.6 -2141.65 6. C.120 3.285 1.369 3.831 -33.3 40.66 P R 25. R = = 0.754 1.2 3.1 -719.81 2.26.3 0.55 1. A = 3.20 0.41 -546.26.0 166.11 4. Under the normal conditions the depth of flow is equal to the critical depth.96 -13.67 -3 -3 0.7 41.657 2.347 -518.59 7.10 3. The calculations are presented in Table P15.10 .558 8.02 3.5 m bed width and 1:1 side slope has a bed slope of 0.88 -0.22 2.53 -3.77 -1. The depth of water just upstream of the gate is 1.6 0. C1 rising curve will be formed before the gate.60647 x 0.5 5.

8 8.20 2.69 4.898 0.233 27. respectively.104 -1682.Elementary Hydraulics 15.513 583 15.2 S f x 10-3 2.02 4.656 1.163 0.927 1.13 = 2445.435 6.735 1.58 m Table P15.09 1.06 24.898 2.898 -1.142 0. The lengths of the two profiles are calculated as given in Tables P15. 828 b y + 0 ⎠ ⎝ Substituting for So by 0. Table P14.S f)x 10-3 dl 3.96 0.927 1.0m3/s.104 1. So = 0.35 1.15 45. The gradually varied flow reach comprises M2 and S2 profiles.697 0. 12 = (3 y 0 + y 02 ) x 55 x ⎜⎜ 2 .56 1.525 0. y A P R V E 1.02 4.41 L = -2354.55m. So = 0. get yc = 1.504 -0.1 5.389 1.0004 and 0.02 m The first reach has a mild bed slope while the second one has a steep bed slope.24 4.831 = (3 y c + y c2 ) g Solving by trial and error.498 -69.63 1.948 1.594 0.0 m is comprised of two reaches with bed slopes of 0.885 1. Determine the length of the gradually varied flow reach in this channel.60 2.52 L = 91.155 1.71 m 288 .460 5. y A P R V E 1.063 0.04 5.26 0.457 ∆E Sf x 10-3 3.36 7.04 6. A trapezoidal channel with a side slope of 1:1 and a bed width of 3.406 (So.978 1.22 -2.S f) x 10-3 dl 6.1 5.13 m The total length of the gradually varied flow reach is L = 2354.556 2.347 -469.17 -121.173 0.27.697 2.03.068 1.157 -1.578 3.82 -11.579 22.597 0.747 -0.03. The critical depth is calculated as Q 3 y c + y c2 3 + 2 yc 3.85 5.27a and P15.74 0.063 0.455 40.487 23.032 1. we get yo1 = 2.073 (So.885 0.0 8. respectively.03.4 6. respectively.91 0.885 0.16 6.489 1.27b.947 1.457 ∆E Sf x 10-3 5.788 2.0 10.6 7.697 2.02 m and yo2 = 0.16 4.137 0.27b: Calculations for the length of the S2 profile. Solution: The normal depths in the two reaches of the channel are determined from the discharge equation: ⎛ 3 y 0 + y o2 ⎞ ⎟⎟ x ( S 0 )1 / 2 Q = AC RS 0 .0004 and 0.593 1.584 0.37 0.80 S f x 10-3 8.381 1.545 14.64 8.394 0.0004.018 2.378 0.18 0.175 0.994 4.58 + 91. Hence. and solving by trial and error.417 0.27a: Calculations for the length of the M2 profile. The channel has a Chezy roughness coefficient of 55 (metric) and coveys a discharge of 12.43 1.

Hence.279 5. n.78 14. An S1 rising profile will then be formed after the jump as shown the Figure.62 19.S f) x 10-3 dl 9.28 staring from y = 7.28.467 3.2 x (2.28.64 ft. A triangular channel with a side slope of 1:1 and a bed slope of 0.175 ft.24 L = 86. y A P R V E 5.73 5.97 2.450 5.712 + 53. determine the length of the rising curve before the gate.98)3/10 = 2. 289 .02 and use the step-by-step method.24 11.785 19.64 1.587 7.83 3.829 3 y 22 Solving by trial and error.475 2.2 = y c2 y c2 .28: Calculations for the length of S1 profile.0 ft to y = 5.49 2 / 3 1 / 2 1. The total length of S1 curve is about 87 ft.02 ⎜⎝ 2.37 6.175 26.0 ft.02)1 / 2 y 23 (2. Computation of Water Surface Profiles 15.25 18.2 x y 22 32.478 2. Solution: The critical depth is calculated as follows: 100 32.418) 3 (100) 2 (100) 2 + = + 3 3 32.48 23.12 2. as 0.065 (So.945 3.49 ⎛ y 02 ⎜ Q= A R S o . The calculations are presented in Table P15.67 6. we get y2 = 5.66 6.175 ft.27 5.418 ft Q2 Q2 A1 h1 + = A2 h 2 + gA1 gA2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1/ 2 (0.175 ft will be formed.Chapter 15.30 2.34 23. Take Manning roughness coefficient.391 ∆E Sf x 10-4 30.12 6.00 16.828 y 0 n yo = (18. Then. 100 = y 02 x 0.02 carries a discharge of 100 ft3/s.5 42.2 0.00 19.56 1.0 36.22 19. yc = (24.31 5.033 14.418) 2 y 23 310.38 2.418 ft and a high stage depth of 5.559 + = 4. The same answer should be obtained but with a negative sign. One may also proceed in Table P15.97 2.665 19.117 = 57.78 6.5 S f x 10-4 8.04 7. A gate is located at the end of the channel at which the water depth is 7.33 0.25 15.922)2/5 = 3.11 0.8 2.62 ft 2 yc 1.0 49.72 24.13 0. A hydraulic jump with a low stage depth of 2. Table P15.

The water depth at the dam is 2.0 m .47 0.3 m q 2 3 (4. Solution: 2/3 ⎫⎪ 1 ⎧⎪ 7 y 0 + 1.0 1.2) 2 = = 1.29 26. y V E 1.22 3.2 m3/s/m` and has a bed slope of 16 cm/km.3 = 3.2) 2 (0.635 -163 6. Also.193 0. A trapezoidal channel with a bed width of 7.078 km. 7 + 3 yc 9. The calculations for the profile length are presented in Table P15.225 1.335 -26.29: Calculations of the length of M2.001.81 The channel has a mild bed slope and an M2 curve will be formed before the fall.44 1.132 m.578 = = . find the length of the water surface profile ahead of the fall.Elementary Hydraulics 15. A dam is constructed to elevate the water level. the length of M2 calculated between y = 1.5 y c2 ) 2 30 Q A2 = 9.4 3.11 -1. Find the distance upstream the dam where the water depth is 2.25 m is 11.713 m.248 -4. (7 y c + 1.5 y 02 ) ⎨ ⎬ (0.25 dl 8.02.419 2. yc = 3 Table 15. 15.435 1.5) 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Solving by trial error we get yo = 1.644 3.1 2.30.235 4. we get yc = 1.679 L = 11078 m Therefore.022.22 m and y = 3. Hence.29.001) 0.51 -3020 1.0 m and a side slope of 3:2 has a bed slope of 0. The channel conveys a discharge of 30 m3/s and has the Manning roughness coefficient of 0.5 y 02 1/ 2 30 = (7 y 0 + 1. Solution: ⎧ (4.648 -901 3.936 -0.336 -6994 2.1 3.S f)x 10-4 44 0. The channel has a mild bed slope and M1 curve will be formed before the dam.5 m. The channel conveys a discharge of 4.402 2.68 2.022) 2 ⎫ y0 = ⎨ ⎬ −5 ⎩ 16 x 10 ⎭ 0. Assume that the depth of flow at the fall is equal to the critical depth and Manning roughness coefficient is 0.30.0 S f x 10-4 1.5 (So.02 ⎪ 7 + 2 y 0 1 + (1.026 0.22 m g 9.81 g B Solving by trial and error.456 3. The calculations are given in Table P15.823 ∆E Sf x 10-4 2. 290 .29 A wide channel terminates into a sudden fall.

59 ft The required length of the apron = 209.236 4.38 Sf x 10-4 14.902 -305.0 x 10-4 3.43 ⎧⎪ 8(25) 2 y= ⎨− 1 + 1 + 2 ⎪⎩ 32.5 16. Solution: q = y0 1.781 -0.0 5.01 1.2 m 15.3 = 3. A wide channel with a bed slope of 15x10-4 conveys a specific discharge of 25 ft2/s.5 26.43) 3 ⎫⎪ ⎬ = 2.2 m Therefore.115 5.43-2.46 1.22 y y 10 / 3 Length of the jump = 7(3.687 ft 32. y A B P R V ∆E E 2.59 = 219. the apron should have a length of not less than 250 ft 291 .8 + 9.098 5.414 -0.2 13.31.31. and y c = 3 (25) 2 = 2.30: Calculations for the length of M1 between y = 2.1 21.116 2.248 2.2 Then a hydraulic jump must be formed after the gate if the conjugate depth to the normal depth is greater than 1 ft.091216 = Sf = 10 / 3 2.06) = 9.21 1.563 2.5 4.046 -259.29 1. Computation of Water Surface Profiles Table P15.49 2 / 3 1 / 2 R S0 n ⎛ q 2n2 y 0 = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎝ (1.S f) dl 2.57 1.39 ft For safety considerations.9 15.57 1.3 10-4 2.018 and assume the length of the jump to be 7 times its height.762 -178.0 14. the required length is 743.06 m ⎪⎭ M3 curve will be formed between y = 1.Chapter 15.43 ft .5 m and y = 2.085 2.5 2. Determine the length of the concrete apron to be constructed after the gate to contain the jump.692 L = 743.18 13.035 13. 3.0 20.875 14. The calculations are presented in Table P15.494 -0. Take the Manning roughness coefficient as 0.0 m. A gate is located at the channel inlet where the depth of water at the vena contracted section is 1 ft.49) S 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.315 S f x (So.41 1.407 2.0 m and y = 2.3 24.06 m.954 7.7 4.183 2.68 1. noting that q2n2 0.2(3.

06745)2 = 4.676) (3.06 12.32.28 4.9 1. The calculations for the length of C3 are presented in Table P15.676) 2 / 3 ( S 0 )1 / 2 0.5 51.5 59..92 2. A wide rectangular channel has a critical bed slope carries a specific discharge of 40 ft2/s. The length of C3 is 351 ft.022 yc = y0 = 3 So = (0.1 236 -0.5 -657.9 111.5 ft.S f) x 10-4 912 -3.57 82 L=209.82 14. yo = yc (40) 2 = 3.e.676 ft 32.31.5 -173.35 672. Calculations of M3 curve.022.55 x 10-3 C3 curve will be formed after the gate. i.8ft 15.5 -319.5 -96.67 (So.14 4.4 334.5 49. The depth of water at the vena-contracted section after the gate is 1.71 1. Solution: The channel has a critical bed slope.46 ∆E Sf x 10-4 5. y V E 1. A gate is placed in midway of the channel.49 40 = (3. Determine the bed slope knowing that the Manning roughness coefficient is 0.Elementary Hydraulics Table P15.25 1.5 S f x 10-4 141 -0.32. Draw the water surface profile and determine the length of the gradually varied flow reach after the gate. The water surface profile is shown below.2 1.5 49. 292 .75 dl 433 -2.18 16.4 188.0 25 10.25 20 7.

S f 0.87 ft.0 10.54 2.29 ft.28 17. The channel has a bed slope of 20 cm/km and a Manning roughness coefficient of 0.0 9.05 -81. So we must compute the profile between depths of 17. A barrage is constructed across a wide river with a bed slope of 16x10-4. ∆E y V E 1.1 14.2 164. Calculations of the length of M1 profile between y = 14. M1 profile will be encountered before the barrage. g qxn 150 x 0. A sharp crested weir is constructed across a wide rectangular channel that carries a specific discharge of 6.29 ft and 14.74 16.5 -579.0016) 1.34. yn = ( ) 3 / 5 = 12.34.24 46.29 8. The specific discharge of the river is 150 ft2/s.000857 945 0.33.0 74.0 (So.5 m2/s as shown in Figure P15. 2 3 Table 15:33.1 68.000743 0.9 127.0 ___ Sf 0. Find the distance upstream of the dam where the depth of flow is 14.0 ft as given in Table 15.67 12.000588 0.0 ft.S f)x 10-4 903 -4.33.21 Sf x 10-4 6.6 106.75 82.0 ft and 17.5 26. yc = = 8.55 ∆E (ft) Sf 0.25 -209.71 3.96 5.55 87.0 m and the discharge per unit width over the weir is given as 2 q = C d 2g h 3/2 3 293 .65 10.47 13.71 ___ So .026 )3/ 5 = ( For wide channels. Take the Manning roughness coefficient as 0.49 x S o So for an afflux of 5 ft.29 + 5 = 17.00104 Total 3185 ft 15.6 -0. The weir has a sill height of 3.0 16.32: Calculations for the length of C3 profile.026.76 3.000512 1.81 10.6 L = 351 ft 15.026.67 16.33 5.33 2.49 x (0.29 ft y (ft) V(ft/s) E (ft) 17.5 S f x 10-4 89.000664 0.8 255.000823 0. 1/ 2 1/ 2 1. Computation of Water Surface Profiles Table P15.0 8.46 16. The afflux at the barrage is 5.77 15.36 15.00101 1089 0. 150 2 Solution: q = 150 ft /s.29 ft.000931 0.52 624.0 ft.5 -0. y1 = 12.0 dl 346 -1.1 -22.000669 1151 0.0 20.Chapter 15.78 dl (ft) 0.

294 .35. The calculations are presented in Table 15. So.75 ___ Sf 4. and then on to normal depth of 1. while the total length of the profile to 1.22 4.26 5. C xy The total length out to a depth of 1.000121 0.14 m 3 Then. Then. Vn = q/yn = 2. A dam is built across a wide rectangular river with a bed slope of 10-4. Calculations for the length of water surface profile y (m) V (m/s) E (m) 5. we must compute the water surface profile between the depths of 5.18 m. h = 2. y1 = 3 + 2.75 m. we must compute the M1 profile from an initial depth of 3.44 m. q = C y3/2 So1/2 Solution: q = 2.44 m.37 ___ So .33 4.14 1. Then Vn – 0. yc = 3 2.4 m/s. If the depth of flow just upstream of the dam is 3. g For wide channels.Elementary Hydraulics Where Cd = 0. yc = = 1.75 m.67 x 0. estimate the length of the backwater curve.2 m (approximately normal depth) is 2933 m. Determine the normal and critical depths.000068 3382 0.5 m /s.833 = 70 x y3/2 x (0.97 = 1.14 m and 4.43 m.62 m. using the Chezy equation.000049 3061 0.5 x 0.833/1. (0. The river conveys a specific discharge of 2.34.84 0.4 m (approximately the 18% point) is 2365 m.18 Vn = 1.34. 6.026 3 / 5 yn = ( ) = 4.5 m. Estimate the distance upstream of the weir where the depth of flow is 4. How far upstream of the dam will the backwater curve cause a velocity reduction of 18% as compared to the velocity under normal flow conditions? Take Chezy’s roughness coefficient as 70 (metric).18 m. So.15 1. whence yn = 1.000132 0. 2 3 Table 15.90 1.000159 Total L= 6443 m 15.7 is the discharge coefficient and h is the water head over the weir.43 h3/2.99 ∆E (m) Sf dl (m) 0.5 2 Solution: q = 6.0002)1 / 2 2 q = C d 2g h 3/2 = 0.001)1/2. Use the Chezy equation for Sf: V2 Sf = 2 for wide channels.S f 0.5 m.97 m/s.7 x 4.14 = 5. to the intermediate depth of 1.833 m2/s.000151 0.14 m.000144 0.833 m2/s.23 4. g 6.8332 = 0. y at that point would be 2.935 m. 2.

000595 0.032.6 1.02 1.29 2. WS = 55 m.352 m. Computation of Water Surface Profiles Table 15.769 m/s. q = 10 m2/s.0001 m/m.38 1.769) 2 0.0000438 0. y = 14 m.09 2.000830 337 0.0 m.000920 0.29 3.29 2. y = 14 m.000730 356 0.61 1.000134 0.88 3.28 2.67 1. Then.0000176 2 x 20.5 m.0000494 0.000270 0.000535 430 0.10 1.032 x 0. conveys a specific discharge of 10 m2/s. 2g (13) 2 / 3 ___ S + Sf2 S f = f1 = 0. Sf = ( E = 13+ ) = 0.36 0. respectively.53 ∆E (m) Sf 0. 20 km upstream.000886 316 0.95 2.0000804 0. estimate another y at Section 2.03 m. ET = 56.000229 568 0.98 2.000941 0. WS = 56 m.35: Calculations of the length of M1 profile.0000198 m/m.000465 0.0000 = 0.032 x 0.0000176 m/m. Solution: At the dam.03 – 55. with a bed slope of 10 cm/km and a Manning roughness coefficient of 0.7 0.81 3. 295 . (14) 2 / 3 At Section 2.0000585 0. A dam is constructed across the river so that the water depth behind it becomes 14.000335 0.0 measured from an arbitrary datum.0000676 0.23 1. Sf = ( ) = 0.03 m.000114 0. assume y = 13 m. Then hlobs = 56.0 m with a water surface elevation of 55.42 2.000170 0. E = y+ = 14. V = 10/13 = 0. Since the two estimates do not match.4 2.13 2. (0.23 0.714 m/s.24 0.26 1.28 1. and hcal = 0. the channel invert 20 km upstream is 43 m and the invert 45 km upstream is 45.000947 Total L = 2933 m 15.714) 2 At the dam.000956 0.769 2 = 13. with a channel slope of 0.66 2.Chapter 15.2 308 0. for wide channels where R = y. A very wide river.9 ___ So .36.S f 0.48 315 0.0 303 0.5 0.03 = 1 m.03 m. Find the respective land elevation (relative to the datum) of the two villages so that they are not to be drowned. V = q/y = 0.0000932 0.3 dl (m) 0.2 ___ Sf 0.714 2 ET = 55.0000155 m/m. so the channel invert is 41.03 or 2g 0.000206 0.0000382 0. y (m) V (m/s) E (m) 3. (0. Two villages A and B are to be built 20 km and 45 km upstream of the dam.84 1. Use the standard step method.000771 0.

652) 2 / 3 ___ 0.03+0. whence WS2 = 55.390 m.373.403 + 0. Sf = ( S ) f = 2/3 2 (12. hlobs = 55.0000155 + 0.152 m.352.372 m. 296 .403 = 0. = 55.032 x 0.83 + 56.829 = WS3+0.403+0.81 m/s.03 = 0. since this difference is only 0. 0. it is considered close enough.0000428 m/m. Find new WS3.95 m/s. E = 10. Move on to Section 3. or WS2 = 55. Sf = 2 hcal = 0.95 2 0.184 m.0000318 m/m.553 m.794 m.017 m.000 = 0. V = 0.000 = 0.707 – 55.97 m/s.0000235 + 0.878 m.03 = 0. hcal = 0.0000195 x 20. ET = 56.676 m.79 m/s.5 = 10. ___ 0.403 = 0. 55+0.697 m.032 x 0. the two estimates do not match sufficiently.37.0000155 + 0.707 m.000 = 0.37 m. hlobs = 55.83 m.97 2 0.0000216 m/m.053 – 55.79 2 = 0.0000186 m/m. Since these estimates do not match sufficiently.Elementary Hydraulics (V1 ) 2 (V2 ) 2 WS1+ + hcal = WS2+ 2g 2g 55. 2 y = 56.032 x 0.0000332 m/m.197.0000235 = 0.795 m.507. y = 55.007 – 45. Assume y3 = 10.0000428 = 0.378.878 – 55.032 x 0. Since this difference is only 0. ___ 0. y = 55.403 = 0.0000195 m/m. this is considered close enough.197 – 55.000 = 0.046.352 = WS2+0.0000216 0.475 m.184 =56. Sf = 2 hlobs = 56. V = 0. new WS2 = Again.352 + 56 = 55.676 – 43 = 12.000 = 0.03.007 m. E = 12.829 m. V = 0.94 2 V = 0.0000386 m/m. located 25000 m upstream of Section 2. Sf = ( ) = 0. ET = 55. ET = 56.032.048. Sf = ( ) = 0.795 = WS3+0. E = 10. hcal = 0. Sf = ( ) S f = 2/3 2 (10.0000311 m/m. hcal = 0.0000332 x 25. ) S f = 2/3 2 (10. (10.37-43 = 12.0000311 x 25.372 = WS2+0. 55.81 2 E = 12.03+0.65 m.94 m/s.676 2 m.507 ) 55. or WS3 = 55. y = 56. we must estimate a new stage at 3.0000186 x 20.677 m.17 m.403 or ET = 55.5 = 10.053 m.032 x 0.152 – 45. V = 0.0000235 + 0. = 0. 0.676) 0. E = 10. WS3 = hlobs = 56.0000235 + 0. Then at Section 2.0000402 = 0. . WS3 = 56. Sf = ( 55.777 m. or WS3 = 56. hcal = 0.37) 2 / 3 ___ 0.708 or ET = ___ 0.403.403-55.0000318 x 25.652 m.33 m. so 55+0.0000235 (12.0000386 = 0.33) hlobs = 55.0000402. = 0.