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Building Materials



Since viscosity decreases with increase in temperature. • Adhesives should have high tensile strength. called thixotropy of adhesives and paints helps to prevent a sag or run when these coatings are applied on vertical surfaces. This reduces galvanic action between two disimilar joints and is able to bind extremely thin sheets.Disadvantages are they loose stability at high temperatures and take a lot of time to bind. The fluid thickens as soon as stirring is stopped. They should have more cohesive strength than either of the surfaces being held together. moisture. • Types: Organic solvent thinned Adhesives. To hold two surfaces together they should form a strong bond at each of the interfaces between the surface and the adhesive. This property.ADHESIVES • Adhesives are natural or synthetic bindes used for surface coatings. Latex Adhesives(natural or synthetic rubber or vinyl copolymers).The advantages of adhesives over rivets and bolts are that they distribute the stress over a larger area of the joint. It must be able to flow into the surface crevices displacing dirt. High load bearing adhesives have been developed for engineering applications. an adhesive should be applied while hot. Water-dispersed Adhesives(depend on natural materials for bonding). they become temporarily more fluid because of alignment of their tiny crystals.When liquids are stirred. Structural adhesives are based on specially cured rubber-toughened epoxies. acrylics and silanes.Adhesive must wet the surface thoroughly as it spreads. and trapped air. Two package Adhesives(adhesive solvent is not required) .

expanded blast furnance slag. . aluminium foil. surface insulation or internal insulation. cork boards. gypsum boards. glass wool. though costly. resists insect attacks. chip boards. The commonly used heat insulating materials work on principle of either air spaces formed between structural components. fibre boards. • Well known products are aerated concrete.HEAT INSULATING MATERIALS • The purpose of thermal insulation is to restrict the heat transfer from warmer to cooler areas. Since a g ood heat insulating material has porous structure the strength is lowered affecting its stability. Cavity wall.0228 kCals–cm/m2°C). etc. asbestos cement boards. fire proof. foam plastic. provides good insulation. • Heat insulating material should be impermeable to water. reflecting paints. have low thermal conductivity (0. fibre glass. vermiculite.

SOUND INSULATING MATERIALS • A well designed building should incorporate sound insulation to restrain noise level. glass wool. cane fibre and porous tiles. It should be incombustible. termite and dry hot. rock wool. resistant to attacks of vermins. • The commonly used sound insulating materials are cellular concrete. . resistance to moisture and pleasing look. mental strain. glass silk. porous texture. insects. Adequate insulation can be achieved by using sound absorbing or sound repellent materials. • A good sound insulator should have low density. High noise conditions results in uncomfortable living conditions. mineral wool boards. Acoustic plastics such as gypsum plaster is very effective in sound insulation. asbestos. light in weight and easy to handle and fix. fatigue and may even lead to nervous break down or temporary deafness.

They can be good replacement for scarce and costly conventional construction materials like cement and steel for several types of applications. They are useful in environment protection works. 4. • The success and increasing popularity of geosynthetics application in civil engineering works are due a to a number of advantages. . Some of the popular usages are for reinforcement. 2. at poor site conditions. perhaps the only alternative. They can be used and installed rapidly. 3. They may be useful. filtration and moisture barrier. drainage. seepage control.GEOSYNTHETICS • Geosynthetics are made of polypropylene. steel) they are better resistant to atmospheric weathering action. like: 1. These are being used for a variety of innovating usage in civil engineering construction works. Compared to other reinforcing materials (e. nylon. foundations and pavements. separation. PVC and other synthetic materials. 5.g.

• Geogrids are relatively stiff materials with large apertures of sufficient size (10 to 50 mm) to allow interlocking with surrounding soil. They can be used in road pavements. • Geotextiles are any permeable textile material used with foundation. rock. geogrids. polymeric or a combination There of materials with sufficiently low permeability so as to control fluid migration in a geotechnical engineering-related man made project. Geogrids. rock. structure or system. structure or system. earth or any geotechnical engineering related material. improvement of bearing capacity. as an integral part of man-made project. • Geocomposites consist of combinations of geotexites.CLASSIFICATION OF GEOSYNTHETICS • Geosynthetics are classified as Geotextiles. drainage. earth or any other geotechnical material. they cannot be used in filtration and as moisture barriers but are quite useful for the purpose of separation and reinforcement. soil. geomembranes and/or other materials which are incorporated to provide optimal performance in a particular situation.Because of the large openings. These are generally synthetic polymeric materials and consist of either woven or nonwoven fabrics and used for separation. . filtration and reinforcement. Geomembranes and Geocomposites. • Geomembranes are a continuous membrane type linen and barrier composed of asphaltic.

e. superior surface finish. • Gypsum items have a number of valuable properties like relatively small bulk density. Pure gypsum is a white translucent crystalline mineral and is so soft that it can be scratched by a finger nail.3 to 2. resistance to insects and rodents and low energy input during burning to produce gypsum plaster.GYPSUM • Gypsum is a non-hydraulic binder occurring naturally as a soft crystalline rock or sand. and hard finish plaster are extensively used in wall construction. incombustibility.g.wall plaster stucco. good sound absorbing capacity.95 due to the loss of water of crystallization. • Gypsum plaster. Gypsum has a unique property of moulding. made by calcining gypsum at a high temperature. Plaster of Paris. When water is added the gypsum forms interlocking crystals. Flooring plaster. When heated it gives up combined water and easily turns into powder. . • When heated to 205°C. rapid drying and hardening with negligible shrinkage. On adding water to the powder it can easily be shaped and moulded. pure gypsum loses its luster and its spe cific gravity is increased from 2. The major shortcomings are its poor strength in wet state and high creep under load. and in a short time it hardens again and becomes similar to what it was in its natural state. As the gypsum hardens it is this crystallisation that makes it such an effective fire resisting material.. good fire resistance.

PLASTER OF PARIS (STUCCO) • It is produced by incompletely dehydrating pure finely ground gypsum at a temperature some what lower than 185°C. Being unstable in water it should be used for indoor works only. . The latter property makes the material suitable for making casts. • Its properties are 1. White in colour 2. In hardening. The setting of plaster of paris is attr ibuted to the formation of gypsum crystals from a supersaturated aqueous solution. • When substances of colloidal nature (for example glue) are mixed with the plaster the formation of crystals is hindered and the time of set retarded. • Owing to the rapidity of set and difficulty in working. holes in the plastered surfaces and also on the wooden surfaces before painting/polishing. its use in structures is limited to ornamental works. Setting time is 5 to 10 minutes 3.57. Specific gravity is 2. Plaster of Paris first shrinks then expands. since a sharp impression of the mould can be secured. For the same reason it forms an excellent material for filling cracks.

while those of 1:2 proportion generally possess one-half to two-third of the neat strength. to 3600 mm in steps of 100 mm and. The boards may be strengthened by incorporating fibres as fibrous gypsum plaster boards. They are very light weight and have high fire resisting properties. Plaster and sand mortars of 1:1 proportions may be expected to develop 80 per cent of the neat strength at corresponding ages.5 to 8 hours when mixed with wood fibres. used for lining walls and ceiling of buildings. in thickness 9. 800.GYPSUM WALLPLASTERS & GYPSUM PLASTER BOARDS • Gypsum wall plasters gain one-half of their one-month strength in a day. Sissal or coconut fibres are generally used. The weight of plaster in the later variety is 10 kg/m2 of board and that of fibre is 250 g/m2 of board. 900. The dry set density of gypsum wall plaster is 850–1040 kg/m3. in length 1200. • Gypsum Plaster Board is a gypsum product of recent origin made of thin layers of card board or wood cemented together with wall plaster. They are available in widths 400. . 1200 mm. 600. and compressive strength of 1:2 gypsum wall plaster is 6 to 15 N/mm2.5 to 15 mm. Gypsum plaster boards can be sawn to desired size and shape. 1500. The gypsum to sand neat plaster in proportion of 1:3 should set in 2 to 32 hours and in 1. 1800.