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cos 2 ( x) + sin 2 ( x) = 1

1 + tan 2 ( x) = sec 2 ( x)

sin( x y ) = sin( x) cos( y ) cos( x) sin( y )

cot 2 ( x) + 1 = csc 2 ( x)

tan( x y ) =

tan( x) tan( y )

1 tan( x) tan( y )

cos 2 ( x) sin 2 ( x)

cos(2 x) = 2 cos 2 ( x) 1

1 2 sin 2 ( x)

2 tan( x)

tan(2 x) =

1 tan 2 ( x)

1 cos(2 x)

2

+

1

cos(

2 x)

cos 2 ( x) =

2

1

cos(

2 x)

tan 2 ( x) =

1 + cos(2 x)

sin 2 ( x) =

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos(C )

sin( A) sin( B ) sin(C )

=

=

a

b

c

1 + cos( x)

x

cos =

2

2

1 cos( x)

x

sin =

2

2

1 cos( x)

x

tan =

1 + cos( x)

2

cos( x) cos( y ) = 12 [cos( x y ) + cos( x + y )]

sin( x) cos( y ) = 12 [sin ( x + y ) + sin( x y )]

cos( x) sin( y ) = 12 [sin ( x + y ) sin( x y )]

x+ y x y

sin( x) + sin( y ) = 2 sin

cos

2 2

x y x+ y

sin( x) sin( y ) = 2 sin

cos

2 2

x+ y x y

cos( x) + cos( y ) = 2 cos

cos

2 2

x+ y x y

cos( x) cos( y ) = 2 sin

sin

2 2

For two vectors A and B, AB = ||A||||B||cos()

soh: s stands for sine, o stands for opposite and h stands for hypotenuse, sin x =

cah: c stands for cosine, a stands for adjacent h stands for hypotenuse, cos x =

toa: t stands for tan, o stands for opposite and a stands for adjacent, tan x =

o

h

a

h

o

a

o

a

Other three trigonometric functions have the following relations:

1

h

1

h

1

a

csc x =

= , sec x =

= and cot x =

=

sin x o

cos x a

tan x o

Important values:

0

sin

0

cos

300 =

1

2

450 =

600 =

900 =

2

2

2

2

3

2

1

2

undefined

3

2

1

3

undefined

3

2

3

2

3

undefined

1

3

1

tan

csc

sec

cot

undefined

sin(n x) = [ ? ]sin x, cos(n x) = [ ? ]cos x, tan(n x) = [ ? ]tan x , the sign ? is for plus or minus

depending on the position of the terminal side. One may remember the four-quadrant rule: (All

Students Take Calculus: A = all, S = sine, T = tan, C = cosine)

sine

all

tan

cosine

Example: Find the value of sin 3000 . We may write sin 3000 = sin(2 1800 600 ) = []sin 600 = -

3

,

2

in this case the terminal side is in quadrant four where sine is negative.

In the following diagram, each point on the unit circle is labeled first with its coordinates (exact

values), then with the angle in degrees, then with the angle in radians. Points in the lower hemisphere

have both positive and negative angles marked.

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