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SH1612
Rational Function
I. Polynomial Functions
A polynomial function is a function in the form :
...
as its leading term, with the degree .
It has
Polynomial functions are essential in making up rational functions.
Rational Functions
A rational function is written in quotient or fractional form. It is described as the ratio of two
(2) polynomial functions. It can also be said to be a ratio of two rational expressions. It is
written in the form:
...
...
Domain of a rational function – is the set of all real numbers for x except those that cause the
denominator to have a value of 0.
Example 1
Find the domain of the function below:
Equate both
4 0
4
4 and
7
8
1
2
4
6 to zero.
6 0
6
6
This means that, the domain of this function
is all real numbers except 4 and 6 because
these values would make the denominator 0.
Substitute and check:
1
2
4
6
2 4
1
4 4 6
7 2 17
4
8 0
2
238
4
0
7
8
7 4
8 4
4
7
8
7 6
8 6
2
1
4
6
1
2 6
4 6 6
7 4 37
6
8 2 0
1036
6
0
6
Evaluating a Rational Function
Example: Find f(3), f(–1), and f(2) for the rational function by substituting
values.
3
Solution:
3
∙
∙
1
3
1
3
1
1
with the given
1
4
∙
∙
2
∙
∙
2
2
1
02 Handout 1
*Property of STI
Page 1 of 4
SH1612
II. Graphing a Rational Function
Asymptote is the line that a graph (or curve) gets close to as their distance approaches zero.
Example:
.
0
Therefore, the domain of
is the set of all
real numbers except 4 and -4. This means that
the value of can never be 4 or -4.
16
16
√16
4
√
Solve for f(3.9), f(3.99), f(3.999), and f(3.9999).
.
.
.
3.9
3.99
.
.
.
.
.
19.25
Solve for
10 ,
3.999
.
.
.
.
.
.
199.25
100 ,
.
3.9999
.
.
.
1999.25
Solve for
.
4.1 =
.
4.01 ,
.
=
.
.
=
.
= 20.753
1.00000016
1.001602564
4.1 ,
4.001 ,
4.01 =
4.0001
.
=
.
19999.25
1000 , and 10000
1.000016
1.1947619
.
.
.
.
=
.
=200.7503
.
=
4.0001 =
=
4.001 =
.
.
.
=
.
= 2000.75003
.
.
.
=
.
=20000.75
The graph shows the
function
16
and how it
approaches the
graphs of
1and
4. Lines
1and
4 are its
asymptotes.
02 Handout 1
*Property of STI
Page 2 of 4
SH1612
Intercepts are the points at which a graph crosses either the x or y-axis. A function can have
no intercept, just one (1), or two (2) intercepts.
To solve for the −
, we should just set the numerator to zero.
2
4
9 0
2 0
5 0
9
Therefore, this function has
5
√
√9
no x-intercept.
Therefore, the graph crosses
3
the x-axis at
5.
Therefore, the x-intercepts
are 3, -3.
To find y-intercept, we must set all x to zero.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Therefore, the yintercept of this
function is .
9
5
The y-intercept of
this function is .
0
or
0
The graph of the
function crosses the
y-axis at .
‘Zero’ of a rational function is the value that will equate the function to zero.
How to Get the Zeros of a Function:
• Equate the function to 0
• Multiply the whole function to the quantity in the denominator to cancel it out
• Equate the numerator to 0
• Solve for
• The values you get are the zeros of the function
Example:
Since the other side is equal to zero, the
numerator will be equated to 0.
To find its zeroes, we must equate the
0
9
14
function to 0:
9
14 0
Then, factor the said polynomial.
2
9
0
0
For us to continue, we must separate
9
14
these two factors and equate them both
4 0
4
to 0.
4
2 0
9 0
Multiply both sides by 4 to cancel out
2
9
the denominator.
Therefore, the zeroes of function
4
4 0
are 2 and 9
02 Handout 1
*Property of STI
Page 3 of 4
SH1612
III. Rational Equations and Inequalities
Rational equation is an equation that contains at least one (1) rational expression.
Examples:
1 6
1
1
6
0
6
3
3 0
3
Checking:
1
6
0
2
5
5
6
2
2
4
0
2
6
6
5
5
0
2
1
Checking:
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
Inequality is the direct opposite of equality, or in the mathematical concept, an equation. In
rational expressions, we also have inequalities, which are expressed between symbols of
inequality such as , , ,
. These inequalities are solved in a similar way with
equations.
0 First, let us try to find the values which cannot be accepted in this inequality. To find
those values, we must equate both numerator and denominator to 0.
6 0
2 0
6
2
Check:
0
0
0
0
False.
Therefore, test point 1 is not part of the
solution.
02 Handout 1
0
0
0
0
9
0
*Property of STI
Page 4 of 4

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