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SH1612 Rational Function I. Polynomial Functions A polynomial function is a function in the form : ... as its leading term, with the degree . It has Polynomial functions are essential in making up rational functions. Rational Functions A rational function is written in quotient or fractional form. It is described as the ratio of two (2) polynomial functions. It can also be said to be a ratio of two rational expressions. It is written in the form: ... ... Domain of a rational function – is the set of all real numbers for x except those that cause the denominator to have a value of 0. Example 1 Find the domain of the function below: Equate both 4 0 4 4 and 7 8 1 2 4 6 to zero. 6 0 6 6 This means that, the domain of this function is all real numbers except 4 and 6 because these values would make the denominator 0. Substitute and check: 1 2 4 6 2 4 1 4 4 6 7 2 17 4 8 0 2 238 4 0 7 8 7 4 8 4 4 7 8 7 6 8 6 2 1 4 6 1 2 6 4 6 6 7 4 37 6 8 2 0 1036 6 0 6 Evaluating a Rational Function Example: Find f(3), f(–1), and f(2) for the rational function by substituting values. 3 Solution: 3 ∙ ∙ 1 3 1 3 1 1 with the given 1 4 ∙ ∙ 2 ∙ ∙ 2 2 1 02 Handout 1 *Property of STI Page 1 of 4 SH1612 II. Graphing a Rational Function Asymptote is the line that a graph (or curve) gets close to as their distance approaches zero. Example: . 0 Therefore, the domain of is the set of all real numbers except 4 and -4. This means that the value of can never be 4 or -4. 16 16 √16 4 √ Solve for f(3.9), f(3.99), f(3.999), and f(3.9999). . . . 3.9 3.99 . . . . . 19.25 Solve for 10 , 3.999 . . . . . . 199.25 100 , . 3.9999 . . . 1999.25 Solve for . 4.1 = . 4.01 , . = . . = . = 20.753 1.00000016    1.001602564 4.1 , 4.001 , 4.01 = 4.0001 . = . 19999.25 1000 , and 10000 1.000016 1.1947619 . . . . = . =200.7503 . = 4.0001 = = 4.001 = . . . = . = 2000.75003 . . . = . =20000.75 The graph shows the  function 16 and how it  approaches the  graphs of  1and  4. Lines  1and  4 are its  asymptotes. 02 Handout 1 *Property of STI Page 2 of 4 SH1612 Intercepts are the points at which a graph crosses either the x or y-axis. A function can have no intercept, just one (1), or two (2) intercepts. To solve for the − , we should just set the numerator to zero. 2 4 9 0 2 0 5 0 9 Therefore, this function has 5 √ √9 no x-intercept. Therefore, the graph crosses 3 the x-axis at 5. Therefore, the x-intercepts are 3, -3. To find y-intercept, we must set all x to zero. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Therefore, the yintercept of this function is . 9 5 The y-intercept of this function is . 0 or 0 The graph of the function crosses the y-axis at . ‘Zero’ of a rational function is the value that will equate the function to zero. How to Get the Zeros of a Function: • Equate the function to 0 • Multiply the whole function to the quantity in the denominator to cancel it out • Equate the numerator to 0 • Solve for • The values you get are the zeros of the function Example: Since the other side is equal to zero, the numerator will be equated to 0. To find its zeroes, we must equate the 0 9 14 function to 0: 9 14 0 Then, factor the said polynomial. 2 9 0 0 For us to continue, we must separate 9 14 these two factors and equate them both 4 0 4 to 0. 4 2 0 9 0 Multiply both sides by 4 to cancel out 2 9 the denominator. Therefore, the zeroes of function 4 4 0 are 2 and 9 02 Handout 1 *Property of STI Page 3 of 4 SH1612 III. Rational Equations and Inequalities Rational equation is an equation that contains at least one (1) rational expression. Examples: 1 6 1 1 6 0 6 3 3 0 3 Checking: 1 6 0 2 5 5 6 2 2 4 0 2 6 6 5 5 0 2 1 Checking: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1  Inequality is the direct opposite of equality, or in the mathematical concept, an equation. In rational expressions, we also have inequalities, which are expressed between symbols of inequality such as , , , . These inequalities are solved in a similar way with equations. 0 First, let us try to find the values which cannot be accepted in this inequality. To find those values, we must equate both numerator and denominator to 0. 6 0 2 0 6 2 Check: 0 0   0 0 False. Therefore, test point 1 is not part of the solution.    02 Handout 1 0     0  0   0   9 0      *Property of STI Page 4 of 4