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Building Materials

CE-306

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PAINTS ENAMELS &
VARNISHES
Introduction
Composition of Oil Paint
Composition - pigments
composition - driers &
adulterants
Characteristics of an
ideal paint
Manufacture of Paint
Covering Power
Painting New Plastered

PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES

Surfaces
Painting Old Plastered
Suface
Painting Wood Surfaces
Painting Metal Surfaces
Paints for Structural
Steel Work
Defects
contd.
Effects of Weather
Enamels
Distemper
Water Wash and Colour
Wash
Varnish
French and Wax Polish
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bituminous paints and special paints such as fire proof paints. ■ The functions of the paints are: to protect the coated surface against possible stresses—mechanical or chemical. water paints. which are unhygienic and give ugly look to the walls.pigments composition . chlorinated rubber paints (for protecting objects against acid fumes).C. check penetration of water through R.On drying it forms a thin film (60–150 micron) on the painted surface. Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition .Introduction PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES ■ Paint is a liquid surface coating. luminous paints. check the formation of bacteria and fungus. etc. check the corrosion of the metal structures.C.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. decorate the structure by giving smooth and colourful finish. ■ Paints are classified as oil paints. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 3 . cement paints. deterioration—physical or environmental. check the decay of wood work and to varnish the surface to display it to better advantage.

Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 4 . ■ Vehicle(binder): Vehicle is an oil to which the base is mixed. poppy oil. Common thinning agents used are petroleum. usually a metallic oxide. Some examples of base are white lead. excellent flattening properties and ideal rate of evaporation. red lead. increase spread. Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . possesses binding properties which reduce shrinkage cracks in film on drying. spirit. naptha and turpentine oil. examples are natural drying oils such as linseed oil. Lead based paints are in general affected by atmosphere and not recommended for final coats. Zinc white is weather resistant. etc. ■ Solvents(thinner) are oils used to thin paints. Turpentine is used extensively because of high solvent power. It holds the constituents of paint in suspension and helps spread it over the surface to be painted. iron oxide.pigments composition . imparts durability. It makes the paint film opaque. They make paint of workable consistency and evaporate during drying of the film. aluminium powder.Aluminium powder is used as base for all aluminium paints. is the principal constituent of paint. toughness and water proofness to the paint film and resistance to weathering and gloss to the painted surface and forms the body of the paint.Composition of Oil Paint PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES ■ Base: The base.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. nut oil. zinc white.

Natural pigments used for preparing limestone and glue paints.copper sulphate (Green). metal powders (aluminium powder.pigments PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . chrome yellow. Artificial mineral pigments. chemical stability and weather resistance. dry yellow ochre. burnt siena (Brown).Their properties are covering power. obtained by chemical processing of raw minerals.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. Pigments are finely ground mineral.1-5. gold dust?). lead white. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish ■ Pigments are used to hide surface imperfections and impart the desired colour. zinc white. affect flow characteristics making it possible to paint vertical and uneven surfaces smoothly. colouring capacity. include titanium dioxide. Examples: lamp black. yellow orchre (yellow). organic substances or metal powders ( size in coatings 0. ivory black (Black). Prussian blue. possessing high dyeing capacity.0 micron dia). grey graphite. etc. which acts as catalytic agent for destructive oxidation of the film.Composition . lithophone chrome oxide. include ground natural white chalk.They protect paint film by reflecting the destructive UV light. fire resistance. red lead. putties and coloured building mortars. synthetic substances of organic origin.They improve impermeability of paint film and enhance its resistance to weathering.pigments composition . vermilion. indigo (Blue). fineness. 5 . burnt umber. red lead (Red). gas black soot. The fine particles of pigments have reinforcing effect on the paint film.

magnesium silicate and silica are but a few examples. adheres firmly to the metal and is extremely effective in protecting steel from corrosion. it produces an extremely hard and tough film.pigments composition . Polymerisation and condensation of the vehicle in paint. Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . Silica is used only in the undercoats so as to take the advantage of its roughness in development of bond with the next coat. Red lead is the best for primary coat over steel and metal work. excess of it affects the elasticity of paint leading to flaking failure. are chemicals added to paint for specific purposes.driers & adulterants PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES ■ Driers also known as plasticizers. The cost of zinc and lead chromates is high. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 6 . PbO).driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. ■ Adulterants bring down the overall cost. as catalyst (accelerate the drying of the vehicle) for the oxidation. Adultrants also help to reduce cracking of dry paint and sometimes help to keep the pigment in suspension.composition . manganese dioxide and cobalt. reduce the weight and increase the durability. The quantity of drier is limited to 8 per cent. red lead (Pb3 O4 ).g. almost impervious to air and moisture.. calcium carbonate. lead acetate. e. zinc and lead chromate. The best adultrant is barium sulphate. Some of the examples of driers are letharge (oxidized lead. Barium sulphate.

driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd.pigments composition .Characteristics of an ideal paint PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES Introduction The requirements are ■ uniform spread as a thin film ■ high coverage ■ good workability ■ durability ■ sufficient elasticity to remain unaffected by expansion or contraction of the surface to be painted or by weathering action of atmosphere. ■ The paints should also be impervious to air and water ■ cheap and economical to form a hard surface. Composition of Oil Paint Composition . Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 7 .

Manufacture of Paint PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 8 .driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd.pigments composition .

type of surface to be painted. to cover the extent of area.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an The covering power is the capacity. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 9 . The covering power. and number of coats to be applied. also known as spreading capacity of paints and varnish depends upon the type of paint and its constituents. of a given quantity of the paint of the suitable consistency for application.pigments composition . ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd.Covering Power PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition .

After drying it is rubbed with emery paper. Before applying the paint it is ensured that the surface is free from dust.pigments composition . if any. Dents and cracks. If the required thickness is large.Painting New Plastered Surfaces PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . grease etc. are filled with putty using a knife applicator. the whole surface is rubbed down well in order to smoothen the putty and provide a mechanical key to the finished coats. loose matter. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 10 .The primer (first coat) is applied with brush or spray on the prepared surface. to provide a mechanical key between surface and paint for satisfactory adhesion. Each coat is allowed to dry before the application of next coat. ■ Painting a new surface: Paint cannot take care of construction defects. it should be applied in two coats. It should be thinned with water or thinner in the recommended manner and proportion before application. Two or three finish coats are applied.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. dirt. Putty should not be applied thick. and is rubbed with an emery paper. After the putty has dried.

blistering.cracking. rub with an emery paper so that the chalk is removed. Glossy Surface-Remove all gloss by rubbing with emery paper and then apply the finish coats. If no further growth of fungus is observed apply the desired paint. flaking-Scrap off the old paint from affected areas. Composition of Oil Paint Composition .pigments composition . Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Efflorecence. Fungus Growth-Remove the fungus. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 11 . Apply one or two finish coats.Painting Old Plastered Suface PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES Introduction ■ Painting old Surface: Chalking -Clean the surface. Apply fungicidal solution liberally and observe for further growth. Rub the entire surface and apply the finish coats. Touch up with primer and apply one or two finish coats on effected areas.

sand paper. selected paint is applied with brushes to bring smoothness and uniformity in colour. Knotting is done so that resin cannot exude from knots. Then two coats of paints are applied in a similar way.After knotting priming coat is applied over the entire surface to fill all the pores.The knot is treated with a coat of hot red lead ground with a strong glue in water. paint remover or with a blow lamp. dried. water and dried completely. Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . After painting in one direction. Knots in wood excrete resin which causes defects such as cracking. the brush is worked in perpendicular direction to eliminate brush marks. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 12 . The surface is washed with soap.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. A second priming coat is applied after first has dried. All successive coats are applied after drying and slight rubbing of previous coats for proper bond. Colouring pigment is added to match the shade of finished coat. Any smoky or greasy substance should be washed with lime and rubbed with pumice stone.Painting Wood Surfaces PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES ■ New Wood Work: Wood should be well-seasoned.pigments composition .Then a coat of red lead ground in boiled linseed oil is applied. ■ Old Wood Work: The old paint is removed with a sharp glass piece. On drying. This is known as crossing. cleaned and made smooth with emery paper. Then putty is applied to fill pores of the surface and rubbed smooth. peeling and brown discolouration.

A priming coat of red lead with barytes and raw linseed oil is then applied over the prepared surface. The old paint may be burned with a blow lamp or by suitable solvents. one or more undercoats with desired paint are applied. The finishing coat is applied carefully to produce a smooth fine surface. After this the surface is brushed with hot linseed oil and painted as for new iron work. Scales and rust are cleaned by hard wire brush. Grease is removed by using petroleum or by hot alkaline solution of Na2 CO3 or NaOH. rust and grease. and lime water. The greasy substances are removed with lime water.pigments composition . Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 13 .driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. After drying of the priming coat. ■ Old Iron Work: The surface is prepared by scraping properly all the scales and rust with emery paper.Painting Metal Surfaces PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES ■ New Iron Work: The surface should be free from scales. benzene. Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . The second coat is given only after the first coat has dried.

driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . ■ Red lead is considered to be the best priming coat. Aluminium paint is also gaining popularity because of its shining and contrast properties and heat and chemical resistance. The linseed oil film is rendered more impervious by the use of spar varnish. piles. ■ Graphite paint used for black colour. it produces a tough elastic film. Bituminous paints may be very well adopted to paint inside of pipes. ammonia or chlorine gases.Paints for Structural Steel Work PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES ■ The major problem to overcome in painting iron and steel is corrosion due to electrolysis caused by the presence of air and moisture.pigments composition . Pure linseed oil priming coat is detrimental in that it stimulates corrosion. Lead or zinc paint should never be applied directly over the iron surface as it encourages galvanic action destroying the paint. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 14 . is very durable and is not affected by sulphur films. they do not crack and blister in course of time. Silica-graphite paints are best. they are unsatisfactory when exposed to sunlight. iron under waters. ships and boats. impervious to air and moisture.

Caused when paint film lacks in tensile strength. Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition .driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. occurs when paint is applied during very cold weather. Causes: Cracks in plaster or masonry do not let paint to remain intact. due to moisturepeeling.oily surface.imprisoned gases between surface and paint film. premature application of top coat before previous coat has completely dried.pigments composition .Occurs due to moist air. ■ Cracking: The cracks extend throughout the entire paint system extending right down to original surface. insufficient drying of undercoat. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 15 . ■ Checking: Mild form of cracking.Special heat-resisting paint should be used for hot surfaces eg. If enclosed area is large-crocodiling.Defects PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES ■ Blistering/Peeling: Swelling of paint film due to localized loss of adhesion between coatings or between primer and parent surface. painting improperly seasoned wood. top coating is flattened with emery paper and a fresh coat of paint applied. enamels.crazing. If hair cracks produced enclose small area . Occurs in nonporous coatings eg. oil based paints. Emulsion paints provide porous coating & allow moisture to pass. which expand under heat.radiators. paint applied on glossy surface. When cracks are very small and do not enlarge with time. Swelling due to oil/grease on surface-blistering.

polished or painted surface due to defect in the quality of paint or poor ventilation. This is known as running and sagging. The reasons attributed to this defect are weathering actions. therefore. ■ Flashing: is characterized by the appearance of certain glossy patches on the painted surface. The lower portion of the paint does not dry due to greater thickness of the paint film which shrinks due to drying in course of time. be rubbed with an emery paper before painting.contd.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. The moisture penetrates through the cracks on the coatings and the bond between surface and paint film is lost. use of cheap paint. PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES ■ Flaking: is detachment of paint film from the surface. ■ Chalking: Paint film becomes powder due to insufficient oil in primer. Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . ■ Wrinkling or crawling appears when the paint film is quite thick or the oil in the paint is more than required. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 16 . ■ Bloom: is identified as dull patches on the finished. ■ Running and Sagging: Paints applied over smooth and glossy surface do not stick and flow back or towards the unpainted area. The surface to-be painted should.pigments composition . and poor workmanship.

In addition the fierce heat of sun may breakdown the paint film because of the disintegration of the material itself and also because of the thermal movement. sunlight and heat. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 17 .driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint The paint film is subjected to chemical attack of atmosphere. all deteriorating it.Effects of Weather PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . Special chemical resistant paints should be applied in industrial areas. Blue and green colours tend to fade when exposed to bright light.pigments composition . Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. Alkali resistant paints weather well in coastal areas.

gases and. Theses are acid resistant. not affected by alkalis. Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd.Enamels PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . A primer coat consisting of titanium white in pale linseed oil is followed by two to three coats of enamel paint. The surface of the wood is rubbed with a sand paper and cleaned. Enamel can be used for internal as well as external works and are generally recommended for application on wood work. etc. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 18 .pigments composition . are waterproof.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Enamels consists of bases like zinc oxide. ground in varnish. If desired colouring pigments may be added. They dry quickly and furnish a hard glossy surface.

A priming coat as recommended by the manufacturer is applied on the prepared surface. If an existing (old) distempered surface is to be redone. Cracks.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Distempers are applied in the following manner: The surface is thoroughly rubbed and cleaned.Distemper PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 19 . etc. for drying before the application of distemper. Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. In case of a new plastered surface. The efflorescence and patches. surface is cleaned with profuse watering.pigments composition . if any. Two or three coats of distemper are applied. Each coat should be applied only after the previous coat has dried. to weather. the surface is kept exposed. should be wiped out by a clean cloth. if any should be filled with putty.

clean cloth. 1. dissolved in water. 2. A bright surface is provided at a very low cost. Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. ceilings are white washed and walls are generally colour washed. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 20 .pigments composition .driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Fresh lime slaked with water is mixed thoroughly with water in a tub and then screened through a fine.Water Wash and Colour Wash PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . They are generally recommended for low and medium class houses. is added to it. Thereafter glue. The surface is cleaned and the white wash is applied with jute brushes. for which white wash is good from hygiene considerations. Lime is toxic for germs. A white wash when mixed with colouring pigment such as yellow earth is called colour wash.

■ Varnishes provide a protected coating and gloss to the surface and intensify the wood grains. Render brilliancy to the painted surface. Protect painted surface from atmospheric actions.Varnish PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES ■ Varnish is a nearly homogeneous solution of resin in oil. hard and durable.pigments composition . driers such as letharage. 2. It should not shrink or show cracks after drying. 3.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. etc. Brighten the appearance of the grain in wood. 4. 3. are used. The oil dries with time and the other solvents evaporate leaving behind a solid transparent resin film over the surface. Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . alcohol or turpentine. It should dry rapidly and present a finished surface which is uniform in nature and pleasing in appearance. ■ Characteristics of an ideal varnish: 1. It should render the surface glossy. 5. The protecting film developed by varnish should be tough. ■ The objects of varnishing a surface are to: 1. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 21 . For rapid drying. The colour of varnish should not fade away when the surface is exposed to atmospheric actions. lead accetate. 2. The type of solvent depends upon the type of resin used.

etc.French and Wax Polish PAINTS ENAMELS & VARNISHES ■ French Polish:It is a type of spirit varnish. Generally two coats are applied. linseed oil. pores. Two coats of polish are then applied. The polish is rubbed over the surface with rag until a bright appearance is obtained. The surface is made smooth by rubbing. Effects of Weather Enamels Distemper Water Wash and Colour Wash Varnish French and Wax Polish 22 . The filler material is prepared by mixing 2 kg of whiting in 1. turpentine oil and varnish in the ratio 2 : 1. ■ Wax Polish: It consists of bees wax dissolved in turpentine and is used for highlighting the grain over wooden surfaces.5 litres of methylated spirit or by mixing Plaster of Paris. It may also be used over marble with 1 part of was dissolved in 4 parts of hot turpentine or by mixing wax. A filler mixed with desired colour is prepared to the consistency of a paste applied to the cracks.driers & adulterants Characteristics of an ideal paint Manufacture of Paint Covering Power Painting New Plastered Surfaces Painting Old Plastered Suface Painting Wood Surfaces Painting Metal Surfaces Paints for Structural Steel Work Defects contd. red ochre and linseed oil. by weight.pigments composition . Introduction Composition of Oil Paint Composition . prepared by dissolving resin in methylated spirit at room temperature for use on hardwood substances to hide the grain defects. The surface is rubbed after drying and dusted off.5 : 1 : 05.