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Navigating the Test

Requirements for Weld
Procedure Qualifications
by Franco du Plessis

OVERVIEW
• Welding codes and standards
• Procedure documentation
• Qualification process flow
• Types of testing
• Test requirements
• Conclusion

WELDING CODES AND STANDARDS .

• WPS – Welding Procedure Specification.PROCEDURE DOCUMENTATION Qualification requires the formulation of three universally recognized documents: • pWPS – Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification. • WPQR – Welding Procedure Qualification Record. .

. • Dimensions • Joint configuration • Consumable type • Current • Voltage • Travel speed • Based on knowledge and / or past experience.OVERVIEW OF THE pWPS pWPS – Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification. • A reference document used by the welder to complete the welding procedure qualification test piece. • Produced by the companies welding engineer or responsible welding coordinator. • Containing key variables of the welding procedure to be qualified.

pWPS EXAMPLE .

• Is a set of documents comprising the WPS detailing: • The actual welding parameters recorded during the qualification testing as noted on the pWPS. • Material certification for the test piece. . • Essentially the WPQR is a documentary evidence to prove that the welding parameters used in the qualification test piece do not adversely effect the mechanical properties of the material. • The range of the qualification if all tests are satisfactory.OVERVIEW OF THE WPQR WPQR – Welding Procedure Qualification Record. • Results of any non-destructive and destructive tests. • Based on the range of qualification a single WPQR may be used to qualify a various number of WPS’.

WPQR EXAMPLE .

the final WPS gives a allowable range of welding parameters. • The WPS must be readily available at the welder’s workplace to be put in practice. • A single sheet document. • Unlike the WPS accompanying the WPQR the which contains the actual welding parameters recorded during the qualification test weld. . • It requires all the information required by the qualified welder to complete a welded joint. WPS is the final link in the chain of documents required to demonstrate welding process control.OVERVIEW OF THE WPS WPS – Welding Procedure Specification.

THE QUALIFICATION PROCESS FLOW Develop a preliminary welding procedure specification (pWPS) Testing based on specification requirements Complete a welding test procedure Complete a welding procedure qualification record (WPQR) Prepare a welding procedure specification (WPS) based on the WPQR .

TYPES OF TESTING • Destructive testing: • Fillet Weld tests • CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement) .

STRESS – STRAIN CURVE .

continued • Non-destructive testing (NDT): • Visual and optical testing (VT) • Penetrant testing (PT) • Magnetic particle testing (PT) • Radiographic testing (RT) • Ultrasonic testing (UT) .TYPES OF TESTING .

• AWS D1. .TESTING REQUIRMENTS FOR CODES • ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code • Section IX – Qualification Standard for Welding and Brazing Procedures. • EEMUA 158 • Construction Specification for Fixed Offshore Structures in the North Sea.1 – American Welding Society • Structural Welding Code – Steel.

BS 709 & BS EN 895 refers. EEMUA 158 (Section 4.18 ASTM A370 refers. 4. Tensile strength not less than: • the minimum strength of base metal.8.1M (Section 4.4 a & b) BS 709 & BS EN 895 refers. the test shall be accepted.Pipe (4.8.4).4) ASME Section IX AWS D1.3) Full-Section Specimens for Pipe (QW-151.6) .14 Reduced Section . Fig.8) Reduced Section . 4.14 Fig.Plate (QW-151.Pipe (QW-151.4).3. • if the specimen breaks in the base metal outside of the weld metal.3.2 Turned Specimens (QW-151.Plate (4.1/D1.4. 7 in EEMUA.1) Reduced Section .18 – Turned – All-Weld All-Weld Tension Specimen (4. 4. .8. 4. Fig.3. Fig.TENSILE TESTING TEST TENSION TESTS ASME SECTION IX: PART QW WELDING (QW 150) Reduced Section . / Fig.

6 & QW-161.GUIDED BEND TESTING TEST GUIDED BEND TESTS ASME SECTION IX: PART QW WELDING AWS D1. 4.8.3) Sub-size Face & Root Bends (QW-161.7) Longitudinal Bend Tests: Longitudinal Bend Specimen (4.8.1). Fig.1/D1. Root & Side Bends (4. EEMUA 158 Not applicable.1M (QW 160) Transverse Bend Tests: Side Bend (QW-161.2 & QW-161. Fig.13 Longitudinal Bend Tests: Longitudinal Bend Tests (QW 161.3.8) Transverse Bend Tests: Face.3. . slag inclusions or internal discontinuities. 4.5) Face & Root Bends (QW-161.12 and Fig. Failure due to slag deposit in weld metal / fusion line.4) (Section 4.1) Face & Root Bends (QW-161. 4.2). • No evidence of lack of fusion.12 Requirement: • No open discontinuity in the weld or heat affected zone exceeding 3mm.

Plunger and Die Jig.GUIDED BEND TESTING JIGS Wrap around bend jig. .

1/D1. Charpy V-Notch: General (III1) Test Locations (III2) CVN Tests (III3) Requirements (III4) Fig.TOUGHNESS TESTING TEST NOTCH TOUGHNESS TESTS ASME SECTION IX: PART QW WELDING (QW 170) “When required by other sections”. Charpy V-Notch (QW-171.4 e Fig.1) EEMUA 158 (Section 4.4.4 e) Section 4.1M (Annex III) Based on contract drawings and specifications. Drop Weight (QW-172.4. 9a to 9c .1) Requirement: SA-370 referred. III-1 Specimen locations. (See III2.Specimen locations ASTM E23 & ASTM A370 refers EEMUA 158 • Notch toughness requirement • HAZ notch locations • Specimen locations • Locations in weld Brittle fracture Ductile fracture . AWS D1.1) Requirements: ASTM E208 referred.

11. Requirements – 7.4. 4.FILLET WELD TESTING TEST ASME SECTION IX: PART QW WELDING (QW 180) FILLET WELD QW-181 Procedure and Performance TESTS / Qualification Specimens MACRO Procedure (QW-181.4 Macroetch Test – Section 4. 4.11) Fillet Weld Test – Section 4.4.1) EXAMINATION Performance (QW-181.4 c Preparation with 600 grit paper.4 c) Section 4.4(d) Fillet welds Fracture Tests Performance QW-182 Macro Examination – Procedure (QW-183) Macro Examination – Procedure (QW-184) AWS D1.2 Fillet welded T-joint for plate – Fig.2) / FRACTURE Fillet welds in plate – Procedure QW-462.4 Macro etch Sample .4(a) TESTS Fillet welds in plate– Performance QW-462.4(b) Fillet welds in pipe – Performance QW-462.4(c) Fillet welds in pipe – Procedure QW-462.8.19 Fillet welded T-joint for pipe – Fig.5.1M (Section 4.1/D1.20 EEMUA 158 (Section 4.

11.4(b) Fillet welds in pipe – Performance QW-462.5.4.1) EXAMINATION Performance (QW-181.4 c Preparation with 600 grit paper.19 Fillet welded T-joint for pipe – Fig.11) Fillet Weld Test – Section 4.20 EEMUA 158 (Section 4. 4.1/D1.4 .1M (Section 4.4(d) Macro Examination – Procedure (QW-183) Macro Examination – Procedure (QW-184) AWS D1.8.4 c) Section 4.4(c) Fillet welds in pipe – Procedure QW-462.4(a) Fillet welds in plate– Performance QW-462. 4.4. Requirements – 7.2) Fillet welds in plate – Procedure QW-462.2 Fillet welded T-joint for plate – Fig.HARDNESS SURVEY TESTING TEST ASME SECTION IX: PART QW WELDING (QW 180) FILLET WELD QW-181 Procedure and Performance TESTS / Qualification Specimens MACRO Procedure (QW-181.4 Macroetch Test – Section 4.

HARDNESS SURVEY EXAMPLES Fillet weld Plate – Single Bevel .

.CONCLUSION • Test requirements vary based on standards and application. • Laboratory – conduct the testing according to specified standards. • COMMUNICATION. • Welding engineers are responsible for testing requirements.