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AREA CLASSIFICATION

GAS:
ZONE 0 :- Flammable atmosphere present continuously > 1000hrs/annum.
ZONE 1:- Flammable atmosphere present intermittently > 10<1000
Hrs / annum
ZONE 2:- Flammable atmosphere present abnormally < 10 hrs/annum
CERTIFICATION CODE
E

Ex

ia

IIC

T4

Temperature Classification
Apparatus group (gas group)
Protection concept (IS)
Explosion protected
Certified to the CENELEC standard
GROUP II ELECTRICAL APPARATUS for gas atmospheres
Category 1G
Code Permitted zone
0
1
2
Oil immersion
o
Protection by gas exclusion

transformers
Pressurized
p
Protection by gas exclusion

analyzers
Powder filled
q
Protection by gas exclusion

weighing machines
Flame proof
d
Prevention of propagation of internal

explosion dc motors
Increased Safety e
Prevention by design induction

motors
Intrinsic Safety ia ia
Low energy. Safe with two faults-level

measurement
Intrinsic safety ib ib
Low energy. Safe with one fault

displays

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Intrinsically Safe device Exi:


An Intrinsically safe device is on that is inherently incapable of producing energy
levels sufficient to ignite a flammable gas.
As an example, Hydrogen requires 20 Micro-joules of energy for ignition. The
intrinsically safe device is incapable of generating 20 micro-joules of energy.
Intrinsically safe devices can be certified of Exia or Exib. The difference between the
two is ia is safe even with two faults in the device, while ib is safe with one fault.
An Explosion Proof equipment (Exd) also known as Flame proof equipment is one in
which if an explosion takes place inside the equipment (say a junction box) the hot
gas that comes out of the enclosure gets sufficiently cooled by the time the flue gas
reaches the atmosphere so that the hot gas (flue gas) is incapable of igniting the
flammable gas in the atmosphere.
Oil Immersion Exo The sparking contacts are immersed in Oil so that gas cannot
be present near the sparking contacts, not so much used in instrumentation.
Pressurization Technique Exp: This system of protection is used typically in large
volume equipment, control rooms located in hazardous areas. The equipment / the
room is kept under pressure so that the room is at a higher pressure (by a few
inches of water) so that hazardous gas cannot enter the room or the equipment from
outside since inside pressure is more than the outside. The air to pressurize is
usually taken not from near the gas atmosphere. Further a pressure switch senses
the room pressure and in case the pressure drops will give an alarm in the CCR
besides tripping the power for equipment in the room.
Powdered filled Exq: Not so much used in instrumentation, the principle is the same
as Oil immersion.
Increased Safety Exe: Typical examples is Exe junction boxes we normally
encounter. The safety is built in the inherent design and manufacture.
ONLY INTRINSICALLY SAFE DEVICES Exia can be used in Zone 0. No Electrical /
electronic instruments can be used in Zone 0 except Exia. Please see the table
above for details of which type of protection can be used for the different zones.
All other techniques including Exib can be used in Zone 1 and Zone 2.
INGRESS PROTECTION (IP) CODES
The IP code consists of 2 digits XY. The first numeral X stands for protection against
solid bodies and the second numeral Y stands for protection against liquid bodies.
This IP code is intended for electronic enclosures, junction boxes, panels and so on.
Example: IP65 stands for equipment is dust-tight and protected against water jets.
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NO PROTECTION

NO PROTECTION

OBJECTS GREATER THAN 50 mm

VERTICALLY DRIPPING WATER

OBJECTS GREATER THAN 12 mm

ANGLED DRIPPING WATER-75 0 TO 90 0

OBJECTS GREATER THAN 2.5 mm

OBJECTS GREATER THAN 1.0 mm

DUST PROTECTED

WATER JETS

DUST- TIGHT

HEAVY SEAS

SPRAYED WATER

SPLASHED WATER

EFFECTS OF IMMERSION

INDEFINITE IMMERSION

Calibration of various field instruments.


Different Type of Transmitters:
Pressure transmitters, Temperature transmitters, Differential pressure transmitters, Level
Transmitters and so on. The ISA letter that denotes a Transmitter is T so that TT stands for
Temperature Transmitter and so on.
The output of an Electronic transmitter is 4-20mA for 0 100% measurement.
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%

4 mA
8 mA
12 mA
16 mA
20 mA

So mA Reading = (%age reading X 16) + 4


So 10% of the transmitter value is = (10/100) X 16 + 4 = 0.1X 16 + 4 = 5.6
So 25% of the transmitter value is = (25/100) X 16 + 4 = 0.25X 16 + 4 = 8
In case the Full scale is = 20 Bar and the reading of the transmitter is 1.5 Bar
Then 1.5 Bar forms 1.5 / 20 (Reading / Full scale reading) = 0.08 or 8%
So the reading of the transmitter is 0.08 X 16 + 4 = 1.28 + 4 = 5.28
OR GENERALLY
Reading = 4 + (Instrument Reading X 16)
Instrument Span
Transmitter output for a Reading of 3 Bar for a full scale reading 50 Bar
mA Reading of the transmitter = 4 + (3 X 16) = 4 + 0.06 X 16 = 4.96
50

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Pt100 stands for Platinum Resistance whose Resistance at 0 deg C is 100 Ohms. Its resistance
at 100 deg C is 138.5 Ohms.
Pt10 stands for Platinum Resistance whose Resistance at 0 deg C is 10 Ohms
Auto motor start stop circuit
ACRONYM / ABBREVIATIONS:
AC

Alternating Current

AFC

Approved for Construction

ANSI

American National Standard Institution

API

American petroleum Institute

DCS

Distributed Control system

HIPPS

High Integrity Pressure Protection System

HVAC

Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning

ISA

Instrument Society of America

ISO

International Standards Institution

LSZH

Low Smoke Zero halogen (Normally used for cable specifications)


particularly for cables used in confined rooms so that toxic fumes will not be
released from the cable in case of fire. Chlorine, Bromine, Fluorine and Iodine
belong to the Halogen family.

NACE

National Association of Corrosion Engineers

PVC

Polyvinyl Chloride

P&ID

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram

PID

Proportional Integral Derivative (control)

PLC

Programmable Logic Controller

Psig

Pounds Per Square Inch Gauge

Psia

Pounds Per Square Inch Absolute

SIL

Safety Integrity Level

SWA

Steel Wire Armour

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SS

Stainless Steel

TMR

Triple Modular Redundancy (Triconex and HIMA PLCs employ in their


control schematics)

XLPE

Cross-Linked Polyethylene (used in cable specifications)

Basic information on control valves


AND GATE The Out put is a One when Input A AND Input B are ONE.
I/P

OR GATE

O/P
C

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

0
0
0
1

The Out put is a One when Input A OR Input B is ONE.


I/P
A

O/P
C

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

0
1
1
1

NOT (INVERSION) (If A is ONE then B is Zero and If B is ONE then A is Zero)
A

1
0

0
1

N AND (Output of AND is inverted i.e. NOT AND)


I/P

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O/P
C

1
0
1

0
1
1

1
1
0

O/P
C

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

1
0
0
0

O/P
C

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

0
1
1
0

O/P
C

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

1
0
0
1

NOR (Output of OR is inverted i.e. NOT OR)


I/P

XOR
I/P

(Please note when I/Ps are


different O/P = 1)

X NOR (Output is Inverted XOR i.e. NOT XOR)


I/P

Accuracy in any loop is the sum of the accuracies of all the instruments in that loop.
Example:
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If there is a transmitter whose accuracy is + 0.1% (FSD) and a recorder with an accuracy of +
0.5% the total accuracy of the loop = + 0.6% ( cumulative accuracy of all the instruments in
the loop)
RESISTORS IN SERIES

RESISTORS IN PARALLEL

CAPACITORS IN SERIES

CAPACITORS IN PARALLEL

VARIOUS FIRE AND GAS DEVICES AND SYSTEMS:


Various Types of Fire, Gas Detectors and Fire Fighting Systems:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
R.

Combustible Gas Detectors


Flame Detectors
Low Temperature Detectors
Open Path Gas Detectors
Smoke Detectors
H2S Gas Detectors
Pull Handle / Call Points
Fire Control Panels & CO2 panels
Heat Detectors
SO2 Gas Detectors
Fire and Gas Safety Logic and Monitoring System
Deluge Skid Inst. Systems
High Expansion Inst. Systems
Dry chemical powder instruments
Rim Seal Agent Instruments
CO2 System Instruments
Water Monitor Tower
ITM Programs

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FIELD DEVICES:
1. SMOKE DETECTORS:
IONIZATION TYPE
OPTICAL TYPE
Ionization Type Smoke Detectors: Referring to the adjacent diagram Electrode A is treated
with a Very level of Radiation material and a potential is applied between Electrodes A and B.
On account of Radiation the air between the Electrodes A and B is ionized and ionization
current flows between the Electrodes. In the presence of smoke Between the electrodes the
ionization current varies (due to the smoke particles) and thus the smoke is sensed. The
Output from the electrodes is fed to an Electronics amplifier and a schmmit Trigger which
will give an ON / OFF output for the Presence / Absence of smoke.
The smoke Detector is tested periodically (once in 6 months or as the case may be depending
on the policy of the organization) by an Aerosol spray from a smoke canister. (NOT BY
CREATING A SMOKE)
The Optical type of smoke detector is based on the principle that when smoke passes
through a source of Light (LED) and a photodiode / photocell the current through the
Photocell / Photodiode varies. The arrangement is a source of light (say LED) is mounted in
front of a Photodiode or a Photocell or may be a photo-resistor, under No Smoke condition
the light falls on the photocell and a quiescent current flows in the circuit. When smoke
passes through (between) the Light and the photocell the current in the circuit varies sensing
the smoke. The signal is further processed (amplified and fed to a schimmt trigger) and a
switch action is generated for the presence or absence of smoke.
The smoke Detector is tested periodically (once in 6 months or as the case may be depending
on the policy of the organization) by an Aerosol spray from a smoke canister.
(NOT BY CREATING A SMOKE)
Usually one smoke detector will be located for each 3 Square meters of area. There is a NFPA
(National Fire Protection Agency / Association, USA) regulation for the number of detectors
for a given area.
Normally a number of smoke detectors will be associated with one zone. Due to atmospheric
humidity many times smoke detectors may give rise to false alarms. As a result whenever
there is a trip connected with smoke detectors it will never be based on one smoke detector
sensing the smoke. Normally a given area will be divided into two zones and when one
smoke detector from each zone in the same area simultaneously sense smoke then only the
control action will be initiated. Consequently while testing the smoke detectors ensure that
the smoke detector under test is (alarm acknowledged) reset before testing another smoke
detector in the same area (look at the cause & Effect Sheet).
Each F & G system has a Zone Module to which the field devices are connected. Each
Zone module gives an output depending on the alarm generated by the field devices. Each
zone module has the following indications:
1. Power On Indication
2. smoke / Fire Alarm indication
3. Card / Device Inhibit indication
Each zone module has the following controls:

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1. Alarm Accept / Acknowledge


2. Alarm Reset
3. Output Action Inhibit
Normally there will be a facilities module in the Panel (may be in each row) to which all the
Alarms and control actions are wired in the row.
The power to the field devices is usually provided from the zone module. So, whenever a
field device is to be replaced, if we pull out the zone module the power to the field will be
last. However before pulling out the module check the cause & effect sheet.
HSSD / VESDA:
High Sensitivity Smoke Detection system / Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus works
similar to Optical smoke detector except that a high sensitive detection system (LASER) is
used for detection. Further an Aspirator / pump is installed in the detection system that sucks
the air sample and the same is passed through the detection system. This arrangement
combined with the high sensitive detection system gives a high sensitive detection / Very
Early Detection of smoke.
The principle difference between a normal smoke detector and HSSD / VESDA is that in the
latter the smoke is detected very early even when the smoke is in incipient stage (beginning
to from) so that corrective action can be taken at a very early stage of smoke.
THERE IS NO FIRE WITHOUT SMOKE. So the objective is to tackle the situation before it
can get out control! The smoke is detected very early before it is too late.
There is a special test jig for testing the VESDA. A wire provided by the manufacturer is
connected to a transformer (provided by the manufacturer) and the transformer is powered.
The wire is located where the air will be sucked by the pump, this will be sensed by the
VESDA and alarm is generated in the device.
HEAT DETECTORS ( BI-METALLIC SWITCHES)
Heat Detectors are used mainly in kitchens and turbine compartments. Those used in turbine
compartments are color coded for various temperatures (at which the detector gives alarm/trip
signal)
These are Bi-Metallic Switches and function based on temperature rise in the surrounding.
They are preferred to smoke detectors in Kitchen as Kitchens produce smoke during cooking
and used in Turbine compartments since the ambient temperature in Turbine compartments
are very high and smoke detectors cannot function at theses high temperatures.
The Heat Detectors used in Kitchen are usually Rate of Rise detectors and operate at about 85
deg. C (my figure may not be accurate). The Heat Detectors used in the kitchen very similar
to conventional smoke detectors except that there is no opening for the passage for smoke (as
it functions based on heat and not on smoke).
The Heat Detectors employed in Turbine enclosures carry a color code, to specify the
temperature at which the detectors change state (change of state of switch). Currently I do not
have the information on the color code corresponding to the temperature at which the detector
changes state. The Heat detector for each area in the turbine is selected based on the ambient
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temperature in which the detector is to be installed. As for example close to the Burner
compartment the heat detector selected may be as high as one to operate at 350 deg C (as for
example) and the near auxiliary compartment may operate at 120 deg C (as for example).
While replacing the detector, if the color is not clear in the detector refer to the drawing to
find out the temperature class of the detector to be mounted.
The Heat Detector is tested using a Hot Air Blower which can generate sufficient heat for the
detector to change state.
The number of Heat Detectors may also be connected to each zone just like smoke detectors
and all the precautions and explanations provided above regarding the zone modules apply
for heat detectors as well.
The power to the field devices is usually provided from the zone module. So, whenever a
field device is to be replaced, if we pull out the zone module the power to the field will be
last. However before pulling out the module check the cause & effect sheet.
MANUAL ALARM CONTACTS / BREAK GLASS
Manual Alarm Contact or Break Glass is a device that is intended to manually generate an
alarm in case of an emergency. Usually this device will be located at the Exit / Entrance of a
room, so that in case of an emergency in the room those who run out of the room can initiate
the alarm at the exit. The Break Glass basically consists of a Spring operated Push Button
switch (N/O or N/C) kept pushed under pressure by a glass. The glass is mounted on a bezel
and screwed to the cabinet. Whenever someone breaks the glass with a hammer tied to the
cabinet the switch pops out resulting in a change of state for the switch which is used for the
Fire alarm. In order to test the device we need to loosen the screws of the glass so that the
switch pops out giving the alarm. Once the device is tested the glass may be screwed back in
place and the alarm accepted and reset in the zone module.
Usually a MAC / break glass will not be associated with any trip but alarm only, however it is
always good to see the cause & effect sheet prior to working on any device.
FLAME DETECTORS
There is light emanating out of any fire and the frequency spectrum of the fire ranges from
Ultra-violet to Infra-red. The Flame Detector contains a Photo-tube / Geiger Muller Tube and
when the light falls on the Detector the Tube gives an output that is a function of the UV-IR
coming out of the fire.
These devices operate using dual detectors in a single unit, UV and I/R are continuously
monitored and both detectors have to respond to initiate an alarm condition.
The Photo-tube / Geiger Muller Tube may require high voltage for the tube to perform,
normally 24 VDC supplied to the Flame Detector. There may be an inverter inside the Flame
detector to produce high voltage required for the Photo-tube / Geiger Muller Tube.

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An UV/IR Torch is used to test the Flame detectors. CAUTION DO NOT SEE THE
LIGHT COMING OUT OF THE UV-IR TORCH AS THE UV IS DANGEROUS TO THE
EYES.
Each flame Detector has a cone of Vision usually 90 deg.
Each flame detector will be associated with one zone assigned to one zone module.
The power to the field devices is usually provided from the zone module. So, whenever a
field device is to be replaced, if we pull out the zone module the power to the field will be
last. However before pulling out the module check the cause & effect sheet.
A flame Detector (Detronics) has an Optical Integrity Ring known as Oi. This checks the
integrity of the optics for any dirt on the glass. An optical pulse is sent periodically which
gets reflected from the ring, the circuitry checks if the return of the pulse and decides whether
the optical path for the flame is clean or not.
Manufacturers: Detronics, Omniguard
FUSIBLE PLUGS
Fusible plugs are basically quartz bulbs with (low) melting metal plugging a hole in the bulb.
A tube carrying a number of such fusible plugs may be run along the path where the fire is to
be detected. The tube may be charged with air under pressure with a pressure switch sensing
the pressure. The heat generated from any Fire will melt the low melting metal as a result
the air in the tubing will leak, now the pressure in the tubing will fall, consequently the
pressure switch will activate. The signal from the pressure switch is taken as Fire alarm and
the control action may now be initiated based on the signal from the pressure switch.
GAS DETEECTORS
COMBUSTIBLE GAS DETECTORS:
Combustible gas detectors use Pellistor to sense combustible gas.
A Pellistor is made of P1 and P2 Platinum Resistors. The difference between P1 and P2 being
one of them say P1 is coated with a Catalytic Reagent while the other one P2 is not treated.
P1 and P2 form one arm of a bridge as shown in the diagram. Since both resistors are
identical, the resistance values of both resistors track each other due to any variation in the
ambient temperature. These two resistors are connected to a Wheastone Bridge circuit. Since
P1 is coated with a catalytic re-agent, the resistance of P1 will increase in the presence of a
combustible gas P1. This causes an imbalance in the bridge circuit; this signal is a measure of
the %age LEL of the combustible gas. The process is reversible, i.e. the variation in
resistance bears a definite relationship to the %age LEL of the gas and will revert to the zero
quiescent value at 0% LEL in the absence of combustible gas.
LEL stands for Lower Explosive Limit, this is the limit of the mixture of the Combustible
and Air can be ignited. The combustible cannot be ignited below the LEL, because there is
not sufficient gas to support ignition and above the UEL (Upper explosive limit due to lack
of sufficient oxygen to support ignition).

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The LEL of Methane is 5% of gas in air. Now Combustible Gas detectors are calibrated in
terms of %age of LEL i.e. 0 to 100% LEL. ANY COMBUSTIBLE GAS CAN BE IGNITED
ONLY AT 100% LEL BELOW 100% LEL THE GAS CANNOT BE IGNITED AS
EXPLAINED ABOVE.
5% of Methane in air i.e. 5 units of Methane and 95 units of air in a mixture of 100 units form
LEL for Methane (for other gases Ethane, propane and so on the LEL may be different).
Test Gases are used to calibrate Combustible Gas Detectors (0 to 100% LEL). 5% of Methane
forms 100% LEL, if a test gas is marked (on the outside of the test cylinder) 2.5% of Methane
by Volume it forms 50% LEL, similarly if a test gas is marked (on the outside of the test
cylinder) 2% of Methane by Volume it forms 40% LEL.
In order to calibrate a combustible gas detector first we have to adjust zero (ideally in
Nitrogen or any inert atmosphere or in the atmosphere where the gas detector is situated well
ventilated by air devoid of any combustible gas). Then feed the Test gas 2.5% or 2% of
Methane by volume, adjust span potentiometer so that the LEL meter reads 50% or 40% of
LEL (as the case may be 2.5% or 2% of Methane by volume). Repeat adjusting zero and span
until no further adjustment is required.
Generally Methane is taken as the test gas for the calibration of Combustible Gas Detectors.
However some organizations believe that if the combustible gas encountered in their plant is
other than Methane such as Ethane or Propane then we may have to use that gas to calibrate
the combustible gas detector. In this case we need to know the LEL of that gas (such as 5% of
Methane is 100% LEL, may be 4% of Ethane is 100% LEL, in this case if you feed 2% by
volume of Ethane then adjust LEL for 50% in this case).
PRIOR TO ANY CALIBRATION OR TESTING OF ANY FIRE & GAS DEVICE /
SYSTEM ALWAYS STUDY THE CAUSE AND EFFECT SHEETS AND TAKE
APPROPRIATE ACTION SO THAT THERE WILL NOT BE ANY UNWANTED TRIPS.
ALWAYS MAKE PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENTS IN THE PLANT SO THAT ALL THE
PERSONNEL ARE AWARE THAT IT IS A TEST AND THE ALARM MAY BE IGNORED
AND NO NEED TO TAKE ANY ACTION (SUCH AS GOING TO THE ASSEMBLY
POINTS). AFTER THE TEST IS CONCLUDED ALWAYS PUT THE SYSTEM BACK TO
NORMAL REMOVING ANY BYPASS OF CONTROL ACTION, FURTHER ANOTHER
ANNOUNCEMENT MUST BE MADE IN THE PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM THAT THE
TESTING IS COMPLETE AND ANY FURTHER ALARM MUST BE TAKEN AS
GENUINE.
TOXIC GAS DETECTION SYSTEM:
A Toxic gas is one that is poisonous when inhaled. Usually these gases affect our Breathing
system and inhaled in excess can have adverse effect on our health and may even lead to
instant death.
Typical Toxic gases are H2S, Chlorine, Carbon Monoxide and so on. We shall now deal with
the detection of Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S).

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H2S is highly toxic gas and is quantified in PPM. Usually the alarm levels set are 10 PPM for
Low level Alarm and 20 PPM for High Level alarm.
The test gas is available in Ampoules of 10 PPM or 20 PPM and these ampoules are put in
a beaker and the beaker is inserted in the sensor such that when the ampoule is broken in the
beaker the sensor will sense the test gas. As usual the zero of the instrument is adjusted in
inert or clean air atmosphere while the full scale is adjusted with appropriate PPM of
ampoules broken in the beaker for the detector to sense the test gas.
Some organizations instead of Ampoules may use Test Gas cylinder while the principle of
operations as well as method of calibration remains the same. The sensor is exposed to test
gas with specific PPM value and the instrument is calibrated for the given PPM.
The Detector / Sensor may be an Electro-Chemical sensor or may be a semi-conductor
sensor. In the case of Electro-Chemical sensor, an electrolyte is used whose contact potential
will vary depending on the PPM value of H2S (process being reversible, i.e. in the presence
of H2S the potential will bear a definite relationship to the PPM value of the H2S and in the
absence of H2S the potential will revert to the zero quiescent value).
In the case of Semi-conductor type of sensor the characteristics of the Semi-conductor varies
in contact with H2S, this is taken as a measure of the H2S. The process is reversible, i.e. the
semiconductor characteristics bear a definite relationship to the PPM value of the H2Sfrom 0
PPM to the full scale. The calibration procedure is the same whether the sensor is ElectroChemical type of semiconductor type.
Aims of Fire & Gas system
The Fire & Gas system in any plant is a Safety System in order to safeguard the personnel
and plant and Equipment. The system protects personnel from toxic gases as well as possible
fire hazard. The system protects the plant from possible fire and consequent damage.
The system provides alarms in the event of potential hazard from toxic environment or fire
hazard. Further the system shuts down plants in the event of impending disaster such as
possible Fire (due to high level of combustible gases). The system is always associated with
control actions such as Trip of devices / plants.
Since it is a safety system it should never be run with the control action bypassed, except
when the device / system is under test.
Different Makes of Fire & Gas system:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

General Monitors
Sieger
Draeger
Detronics
Crowcon
Detection Instruments

Deluge system

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In the above diagram air at a given pressure is given to the tubing through a Restrictor and
fed to Fusible plugs. The whole loop is known as Fusible Loop. The inlet pressure charges the
line to the inlet pressure. In case of any small leak in the Fusible plugs (loop) the air from the
source through the restrictor makes up for the same. Because of the Restrictor only a small
quantity of air loss can be made up. In case of a Fire the low melting point metal in the
fusible plug will melt and there will be a large leak of air and this cannot be made up from the
inlet due to the Restrictor. The large leak will result in drop in pressure in the Fusible
Loop, the Pressure switch will sense the loss in pressure and give a signal to the system that
may start a Deluge System i.e. spraying water (literally submerging the equipment in water
Deluge in English means a flood, a downpour of rain, great quantity of anything that
comes pouring in, to cover in water)
Usually the system is used for saving equipment from Fire.
Sprinkler system:
Generally this is used in offices or accommodation. Once again a quartz glass with a low
melting point metal (typically lead) plugs the hole in the bulb. Water is filled in the pipe to
which the quartz glass is mounted and kept under pressure with a pressure switch monitoring
the pressure of the line. If there is a fire the lead melts and water starts spraying on the source
of fire. As a result the line pressure of the line will fall; the pressure switch senses the drop in
pressure of the line and initiates the Sprinkler Pump.
How do we check the sprinkler periodically?
There will be a bypass valve in the pipeline connected to the drain, so when we open the
bypass valve it will simulate the spray of sprinkler and the line pressure will fall activating
the sprinkler pump. If there are more than one line (may be in each floor), each line will have
a bypass valve. The above test must be conducted for each valve one at a time. In other words
open the bypass valve 1, the sprinkler pump will come ON; wait for the pressure to come to
normal. STOP THE PUMP, then test the second valve until all the sprinkler lines are tested.
In any safety device the START is automatic the STOP will have to be manually
initiated. So once the sprinkler line pressure is reached the pump will have to be stopped
Manually.
In real life we do not wait for the sprinkler pump pressure to attain the final value. We wait
for the pressure to drop the pump will start. Once the line pressure is sufficient we stop the
pump. Once all the lines are tested then the sprinkler pump is allowed to run until the normal
line pressure is attained. This is in order to save time (cheating the system!)
Sprinkler generally uses sweet (Potable water) as against the Fire water uses Not-Potable may
even be saline water.
Fire Water System:
In the Plant we always have a network for Fire Water with associated hose. The valves can
be manually opened. As mentioned above the Fire water uses Non-Potable or even saline
water as opposed to Sprinkler which uses Potable water.

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Normally the Fire water pipeline will be under pressure say 8 Bar. This pipe is at the outlet of
a Fire Pump. The Fire pump will have an associated Jockey pump (a very small capacity
pump) intended to make up for any small leak in pipelines.
Under healthy conditions the fire water line will be under design pressure. If there is leak the
line pressure will fall; say 7.5 bar, the drop in pressure will be sensed by a pressure switch
which will start the Jockey pump will make up for the drop in pressure bringing back the line
pressure to the intended design pressure of 8 Bar.
Now under real fire condition or while testing the integrity of the system, the operator opens
a Fire Hydrant. Now the line pressure will fall, first to 7.5 bar when the Jockey pump will
come ON trying to make up for the drop in pressure as sensed by the pressure switch. Since
the Fire Hydrants are open, it is not a leak and the jockey pump will not be able to make up
for the loss of pressure and line pressure will continue to fall. Now another pressure switch in
the line will sense the drop in pressure, say set at 6.5 Bar will start the Fire pump that will
supply the water through the Hydrant opened by the operator. The Fire pump will keep
running until manually stopped.
Precautions while Meggaring
The purpose and intent of Meggaring is to check the quality of insulation. Actually the
process is called Insulation Resistance Checking. But because a company called Meggar
came out with the first insulation Resistor tester the process has come to be known as
Meggaring (just like Xerox was the first company that came out with photocopying and the
process is now popularly known as Xeroxing !)
The insulation resistance is measured by applying a known value of voltage across the
insulation whose insulation is to be checked and measuring the resistance at that voltage.
Usually a high voltage is applied across the insulation to check the same at that voltage.
We cannot apply high voltage to any instrumentation terminal. As a result the first precaution
is to ensure that the Terminals at Both ends are open and NOT TERMINATED. The most
important is while meggaring a cable we are checking the insulation resistance of the cable
hence no other component other than the cable shall be included while applying the voltage.
Besides DO NOT TOUCH THE TERMINALS WHILE APPLYING THE HIGH
VOLTAGE FOR PERSONAL SAFETY. After insulation test discharge carefully the leads to
ground for any possible remnant voltage in the leads, again for safety.
T60 / T90 of a Gas Sensor:
Every Device has a Response time, i.e. the time taken for the device to respond to a
stimulation. In the case of say combustible Gas Detector or for that matter Toxic Gas detector
T60 means the time required for the device to reach 60% (display) of the value of the gas
exposed to the sensor. As an example if the full scale value of H2S detector is 20 PPM. If an
ampoule containing a test gas of 20 PPM is exposed to the sensor the time taken for the
device to display 12 PPM (60% of 20 = 12) from the time the sensor was exposed to the Gas
is known as T60. Similarly T90 means the time taken for the device to reach 90% of the
value, in this case 18 PPM.

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Similarly in the case of Combustible gas say, being calibrated by 2.5% by volume of Methane
(50% LEL), the time taken for the device to reach 30% LEL is known as T60 and 45% of
LEL is T90.
EOL Resistor
Typically in the case of smoke detectors, break glass a number of devices are connected in
parallel and considered as One Zone and connected to a zone module. Further whenever a
normally open contact is used from the field or an open contact is used to initiate a control
action in the field An End of Line Resistor (EOL Resistor) is used. The purpose of the
resistor is in case one of the wires break or make poor contact the EOL will sense the same
and give an alarm about the open field wire.
Typical drawing as follows:

Note normally the 5.6 K Ohms will be in series with the system as long as the wires are
healthy. In case the wire snaps the control room circuit will see an open circuit sensing a snap
in the wire. However as long as the 5.6 K Ohms is being seen by the circuit in the control
room the wiring is healthy. The EOL checks the integrity of the field wires.
When there is a change of state of the relay the control room will see 560 Ohms and will
sense a change in the state of the Relay.
Under healthy conditions the control room circuit will see 5.6 K Ohms
Under the change of state of relay condition the control room circuit will see 560 Ohms.
Under fault condition of wires the control room will see Open Circuit.
Temperature Conversion
Conversion of temperature from Centigrade to Fahrenheit
Remember the zero degree for Fahrenheit is 32. In other words 0 Deg C = 32 Deg F
Also remember 100 deg C = 212 Deg F
Since 0 Deg C = 32 Deg F
(212 32) Deg F = 100 Deg C
180 F = 100 C
Or 1 Deg C = 9/5 Deg F
If the temperature is given in Deg. C then to convert it to Deg F
Deg F = (Deg C X 9/5) +32
If the temperature is given in Deg. F then to convert it to Deg C
Deg C = (Deg F 32) X 5/9

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As an example to convert 30 Deg C to equivalent F


30 Deg C = 30 X 9/5 = 54 + 32 = 86 Deg F
As an example to convert 86 Deg F to equivalent C
86 Deg F = 86-32 = 54 X 5/9 = 30 Deg C.
Two Out of Three Logic:
In order to avoid false Trips very often Two Out of Three Logic is used for Trip circuits.
The diagram below explains pictorially the logic circuit. The output will be true when
A & B OR B & C OR C & A
FIRE AND GAS DETECTION SYSTEMS
A.

Low Temperature Detectors


Manufacturer: Rosemount
RTD sensor monitoring for liquefied LNG leakage around pumps on
tankage etc.

B.

Open Path Gas Detectors


Manufacturer: Sieger
Open path flammable gas detector, based on I/R absorption techniques
where hydrocarbons interfere with one of two I/R beams which are
projected to a distant reflector.
The level of absorption of the
measurement beam compared to the reference beam is monitored and
expressed as a value in LEL meters. This is because the measurement
could be taken over maximum distance of 300 meters.

C.

Smoke Detectors
Manufacturer: Fenwall
The CPD 7051 is dual chamber, ionization type detector designed to
sense both visible and invisible products of combustion. This detector
incorporates all advanced solid state circuitry. The 360 degree smoke
entry characteristic permit maximum smoke response from any direction.
The sensing chamber design permits operation in air velocities up to 2000
FPM.
To insure the detector is functioning a pulsing LED (approximately every 4
seconds) allows for visual indication of the detector status. In the alarm
condition, the LED lights continuously at full brilliance. In the case of a
detector being mounted in a ceiling void or under floor a remote indication
is provided at a position that indicates the location of the detector.

D.

H2S Gas Detectors


Manufacturer: Sieger
This detector uses an Electro Chemical cell, which in the presence of H2S
will develop a voltage proportional to that of the ppm concentration. This
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is achieved by using an electrolyte and two electrodes. When a polarizing


voltage is applied and the measured gas entering through permeable
membrane an oxidation reduction reaction develops a current proportional
to the gas concentration.
E.

Pull Handle / Call Points


This unit is a heavy duty manual alarm initiation device. The unit
manufactured for use in harsh environments, rated IP 65 and the materials
used are cast bronze further protected by an epoxy and polyurethane
paint. The unit is fitted with a Telemecanique explosion proof switch with
heavy duty electrical contacts.
Manufacturer: CNA

F.

Fire Control Panels & CO2 panels


These control panels are located in the MCR and all ITRs, these panels
may directly connect to the August Systems Fire and Gas equipment or
act as repeaters from the systems. Each building alarm will repeat in the
MCR as well as the Fire Station via the DCS concept employed on this
system.

G.

Heat Detectors
Manufacturer: Fenwall
This detector is a bimetallic switch used in placed where a smoke detector
would give spurious alarms, e.g. Kitchen, Garage etc. There are two types
of unit available fixed temperature and rate to rise. From information so
far available these buildings are fitted with fixed temp of 90 0 C.

H.

SO2 Gas Detectors


This detector uses an Electro Chemical cell, which in the presence of SO2
will develop a voltage proportional to that of the ppm concentration. This
is achieved by using an electrolyte and two electrodes. When a polarizing
voltage is applied and the measured gas enters through a permeable
membrane an oxidation reduction reaction develops a current proportional
to the gas concentration. The process is reversible so that in the absence
of the gas the current will be the original quiescent current.

I.

Fire and Gas Safety Logic and Monitoring System


Fire and Gas safety logic and monitoring system comprises of:
1. August system CS 386 faults tolerant TMR PLC with PIM I/O boards
and associated interface components in 2 out of 3 configuration.
2. Semi-graphic mimic panel
3. Annunciation and push button panel.
4. Modicon PLC
5. HIMA PLC
6. Triconex

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The above equipment are located in COMPANYs process plants (LNG


Train 1, Train -2, Train -3, Storage area, Loading area, Upstream, Utilities,
etc.), industrial buildings and non-industrial buildings and their numbers
are detailed in Table-1, under Appendix-5. further Site Plot Plans and
Schematic diagrams (5 Sheets) of Fire and Gas Systems are also
provided in Appendix -5 Table 2 and its Sub-Tables provide the details of
Maintenance Checks and Frequency for Carrying out these checks.
PROTECTION SYSTEMS
B.

Deluge Systems
Manufacturer: Knowsley SK
These water deluge skids monitors the various plant wide process
equipments with fixed temperature fusible plug back-pressure system.
These skids instrument signals are connected to the Fire & Gas August
System. The deluge valves can be activated automatically through the
fusible plug pressure switch and manually through pull handles, ITR &
MCR push button station. For the compressor houses in the trains and
receiving areas, it can also be activated by local flame detectors as per the
system logics. All the feedback signals are repeated in the MCR & other
respective areas.

C.

High Expansion Inst. Systems


Manufacturer: Knowsley SK
These high expansion foam skids monitor the spill basins of LNG train
process and storage areas through the Flame detectors and low
temperature detectors fixed around the basin. The dedicated local panel
operates few motor operated valves (MOV) and foam pump to mix the
foam with the fire water to produce the rated foam and spreads over the
spill basin. These skids instrument signals are connected to the Fire &
Gas August system. The skid can be initiated either by field detectors or
from the ITR, MCR, local panel push button stations and the area pull
handle device as per the system logic. All the feedback signals are
repeated in the MCR & other respective areas.

D.

Dry chemical powder instruments


Manufacturer: SAVAL, BV.
The system monitors the LNG storage tanks top tail pipes, LNG water
monitor towers and protect automatically by dumping DCP powder in to
these pipes in case of fire. High-pressure N2 cylinders will pressurize the
powder tank and discharge them to the required area through their pilot
cylinder activation. These skids instrument signals are connected to the
Fire & Gas August system.
The pilot cylinder can be activated
automatically through the fusible plug pressure switch and manually
through local pull handles, ITR & MCR Push button station. All the
feedback signals are repeated in the MCR & other respective areas.

E.

Rim Seal Agent


Manufacturer: SAVAL, BV.
Page 19 of 20

These stand-alone fixed fire-fighting units at the condensate storage tanks,


monitors the floating roof by a fusible plug header with a special rim seal
agent pressurized by nitrogen. These skids instrument signals are
connected the Fire & Gas August system. The agents are spread along
floating roof seal by the self-activating fusible sensors. All the feedback
signals are repeated in the MCR & other respective areas.
F.

CO2 System Instruments


Manufacturer: Pressuag system, Ajax system, Contract Fire system etc.
CO2 skids protect all the EDG, Turbo-compressor and Gas turbine
compartments, Diesel operated fresh fire water pumps generator
compartments, technical buildings. Fixed bimetallic heat detectors and
flame detectors monitor these compartments. Based on the package unit
control panel voting system, the triggering mechanism will be activated
and dump the CO2 to the protected area. In case of gas turbine it also
initiates the equipment trip to protect the same. These systems can be
activated by local pull handles, ITR & MCR push button station. All the
feedback signals are repeated in the MCR & other respective areas.

G.

FM200:
The FM200 fire extinguishing agent installed in control room and ITR room
in condensate jetty berth 2A. When system activated that will dump the
FM200 to the ITR or control room. This system can be operated manually,
MAC or by a signal from smoke detectors in the ITR or control room.

H.

Water Monitor Tower


Manufacturer: Silvani systems (LNG BERTH) & Knowsley SK (Condensate
BERTH).
The two tower water monitor by SILVANI systems installed to protect the
LNG jetty berth is operated by hydraulic package unit and the two tower
water monitor system by knowsley at the condensate jetty berth is a motor
driven unit. The tower water nozzles can be operated either by the local
control panel or from ITR consoles to cover a wide range of jetty area with
firewater spray. The feedback signals are repeated in the MCR & other
respective areas.

I.

Inspection Testing and Maintenance of Fixed Fire fighting system


Qatar gas (ITM) Programs
The recently developed Qatar gas Inspection testing and maintenance of
fixed fire fighting system (ITM) to implement a quality fire protection
program and to satisfy insurers requirements. The program with regular
scheduled inspections and maintenance, well defined functional
responsibilities and proper record keeping ensuring the above equipment
like fire water pumps high expansion foam skids etc.

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