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Sheet- 1




Coal based supercritical power plant,

Basavana Bagewadi Taluk, Bijapur
district, Karnataka.


Plant capacity

1320 MW


Plant configuration

2 units of 660 MW each


Location details

- Name of the villages

Mulvad (In proposed KIADB Industrial


- Latitude

160 33 16.03 N

- Longitude

750 43 44.52 E

- Height above MSL

588 m

- Seismic zone

Zone-II as per 1893 (part-I) 2002

- Distance from
Basavanabagewadi town

18.5 km

- Distance from National

highway No:218

0.5 km

- Distance from state highway


15.0 km

- Distance from nearest

Railway station Mulvad

5.0 km

- Distance from nearest Airport


165 km

- Distance from nearest sea

port GOA

460 km

Climatological data


Sheet- 2


- Annual max. mean temp.

32.9 0C

- Annual min. mean temp.

20.6 0C

- Extreme Highest temp.

44.9 0C

- Extreme Lowest temp.

06.7 0C

- Relative Humidity
- Max.
- Min.


- Average Annual Rainfall

671.6 mm

- Heaviest Rainfall in 24 hours

181.1 mm

- No. of Rainy days in a year


- Highest monthly mean of

wind speed

18.4 km/h

- Lowest monthly mean of

wind speed

03.8 km/h

- Max. wind speed

61.0 km/h

Design ambient temperature

50 0C


Area in acres

- Power plant


- Coal Handling plant &


- Water reservoir(15 days)


- Green belt


- Emergency Ash Dyke


- Colony


- Corridors for Railway line &



marshalling yard

(MOEF Notification dt. 3.11.09)

Water pipe line

Total area in acres

Sheet- 3


- Source of water

Krishna River

- Water requirement

4,430 m3/hr


- 16 km


Indigenous- 70%
Imported - 30%

- Source

Indigenous-CIL/coal blocks
Imported- S.A/Indonesia/ Austarlia

- Indigenous coal GCV


- Imported coal GCV


- Annual coal requirement ( with

average GCV of coal as 3980 & Station Heat Rate @
2380 )

1 ) 5.92 Million M.T - @ 85% PLF

2) 6.92 Million M.T - @ 100% PLF


- Source

From nearest refinery/oil depots

- Secondary fuel requirement

9,900 KL/ year


Steam Turbine Generator

The steam Turbine will be single shaft,

multi cylinders, tandem compound
single reheat, regenerative, condensing
unit directly coupled to AC Generator
giving a continuous rated output at
generator terminal.


Steam Generator

Steam Generator will be super-critical

pressure balanced draft furnace, single
reheat, radiant, dry bottom type, sliding
pressure operating, suitable for outdoor
installation designed for firing pulverized
coal as main fuel.


Cooling system

Closed cycle cooling system using

natural Draft cooling tower



One 275 meter high twin flue RCC


a Primary fuel

Blending ratio

b Secondary fuel

Sheet- 4

Station operation philosophy

Base Load


Power Evacuation

400 KV System for feeding to PGCIL



Rehabilitation & Resettlement

No R&R issues



- Generation

2.01 M.MT

- Utilization

Cement industries/SSI


Total project Cost including IDC,

margin money & Financing

Rs 7,020.56 crores


Cost per MW

Rs 5.32 crores


Cost of coal

Rs 2,900 / MT


Cost of Sec. fuel

Rs 30,000/MT


Levelised tariff for 25 years


Project completion Schedule

from Zero date

Rs 3.32 / kwh

Unit # 1 - 46 months
Unit # 2 - 52 months

Sheet- 5


M/s Luxor Energy Private Limited (LEPL) is being promoted by SANALI
GROUP and developing Coal Based supercritical Thermal Power
Generation Plant with a Capacity of 1320 MW in 2X660 MW configuration
keeping in view the efficiency of plant operations and the economies and
environmental aspects.
M/s Luxor Energy Private Limited was incorporated in Registrar of
Companies on 29.03.2010 date vide certification of incorporation ID no:
U40300AP2010PTC067703 under Indian companies act 1956.
The total installed capacity on all India wise is around 1,64,508.8 MW as on
31.08.2010. Out of this total installation the State , central and private sector
installation capacities are 80,849.12 MW (52.5%) , 51,727.63 MW (34%) and
31932.05 MW (13.5%) respectively. The supply and demand gap for energy
requirement and peak load is around 10.1% and 12.07% respectively in the
year 2009-2010 on all India basis. The annual growth rate in power generation
was recorded as 6.6% for the year 2009-2010.
The total installed capacity in Karnataka state is 10,386.34 MW as on
31.03.2010 and the state has met peak demand of 7084 MW. The peak and
Energy deficit in the state of Karnataka are recorded as 10.6% and 7.7%
respectively for the year 2009-2010.

As per the Electricity Act 2003, any generating company may establish,
operate & maintain power generating station. However, state/central
government approvals for various infrastructural requirements like land,
water, Rail transportation, Environmental clearance etc. and allotment of
domestic coal linkage by coal India Ltd. are required.
LEPL has explored three sites for the proposed project and the merits and
demerits of each site are discussed in the subsequent sections of this
report. Project report has been prepared based on central electricity

Sheet- 6

authority (CEA) guidelines, central electricity regulatory commission norms

and siting guidelines stipulated by MOEF/CPCB/KSPCB.
The project report covers the following aspects:a.

Justification of the project.


Basic infrastructural requirements such as land, fuel, water etc.


Plot plan and preliminary layout of the power plant.


Description of the major equipment of the proposed plant and auxiliary

systems covering technological aspects and description of salient
features of civil and structural works.


Power evacuation system.


Description of microprocessor based control & Instrumentation with

the latest technology suitable to steam generator and steam turbine
generator and auxiliaries.


Environmental considerations.


Estimation of the project cost with broad break up under major



Computation of cost estimates and cost of generation.

The justification of the project and the requirement of various statutory and
non statutory clearances are discussed in the subsequent section of this
It is proposed to have two units each of 660 MW capacity with supercritical
technology and pulverized coal fired boiler. Salient Technical features of the
main and balance of plant equipment are discussed in the subsequent
sections of this report.

Sheet- 7

The proposed project location is at Mulvad village in proposed KIADB

industrial area, Basavana Bagewadii Taluk, Bijapur District, Karnataka
state. The total land requirement is estimated about 1,089 acres in the
Industrial estate of Karnataka Industrial Area Development Board (KIADB).
The required land will be provided by KIADB. The nearest railway station
from the identified project site is Mulvad at a distance of about 5 km. The
water requirement @ 4,430 M3/hr will be met from River Krishna, which is
at a distance of 16 km from the project site. It is proposed to blend both
Indian and imported coal in the ratio of 70 and 30 respectively. The total
coal requirement will be around 5.92 million tons per annum at plant load
factor of 85%.
The imported coal will be transported by Indian Railways from the nearest
Goa Port to project site. Unloading will be through track hoppers of coal
handing plant of 2000 tph capacity for two shifts operation. Two stage
crushing; stacking, reclaiming & feeding systems have been envisaged.
Normally, the fly ash will be handled in dry form unless when there is no
demand. Bottom ash will be extracted and disposed off by conventional
slurry disposal system. Ash utilization will be complied as per MOEF
guidelines stipulated vide notification date: 03.11.2009. It is proposed to use
ash for the manufacturing of cement, bricks & building material etc. Excess
fly ash will be disposed off in slurry form to emergency ash dyke and 100%
utilization will be achieved as per MOEF stipulations.
The raw water will be clarified and dematerialized for the power plant water
use. Circulating water system will be closed circuit cooling system using
Natural draft cooling towers. Only make up water will be drawn from river
Krishna. Clarified water will be used for cooling tower makeup. Waste water
from the plant will be properly treated before re-use and/or disposal.
The electrical system will be equipped with adequately sized equipments
with redundancy to ensure uninterrupted operation. Power will be
evacuated at 400 KV voltage level through four (4) single circuits or two (2)
double circuits to the 400 KV S.S at Basavana Bagewadi.
The state-of-the-art Distributed Digital Control & Management Information
System (DDCMIS) will be used for equipment protection and process

Sheet- 8

control. The system will also integrate the various proprietary control
packages supplied by the main equipment vendors for plant operation.
There will be signal exchange from BOP packages/switchyard control
systems to central control room for monitoring.
Electrostatic Precipitators with 99.9% efficiency and of adequate size will be
provided at the exit end of each boiler to bring down SPM emission level
under 50mg/NM3. One No. twin flue 275 meters high stack common for
both units will be provided.
Civil and structural engineering aspects are discussed in the subsequent
sections. It is proposed to provide staff quarters for O&M staff.The required
infrastructure facilities will be provided for project execution. Project
construction activities will be monitored by LEPL staff and technical
consultants. The period of construction will be 46 months for first unit and
52 months for the second unit from the date of commencement. The
operation and Maintenance of the plant will be done by the LEPL O&M
staff. The required manpower will be recruited from local area.
The total Project cost based including interest during construction is
estimated as Rs. 7020.56 Crores. The total capital cost will be met from
promoters equity and debt from various Indian/external financial institutions.
The proposed debt and equity ratio is 70:30. The equity capital will be built
up by M/s. LEPL & its joint venture partners.

Sheet- 9




National Electricity Policy

In compliance with section 3 of the Electricity Act 2003 the Central
Government had notified the National Electricity Policy.
Recognizing that electricity is one of the key drivers for rapid economic growth
and poverty alleviation, the nation has set itself the target of providing access
to all households in next five years. As per Census 2001, about 44% of the
households do not have access to electricity. Hence meeting the target of
providing universal access is a daunting task requiring significant addition to
generation capacity and expansion of the transmission and distribution
The National Electricity Policy aims at achieving the following objectives:

Access to Electricity - Available for all households in next five years

Availability of Power - Demand to be fully met by 2012. Energy and
peaking shortages to be overcome and adequate spinning reserve to be
Supply of Reliable and Quality Power of specified standards in an efficient
manner and at reasonable rates.
Per capita availability of electricity to be increased to over 1000 units by
Minimum lifeline consumption of 1 unit/household/day as a merit good by
year 2012.
Financial Turnaround and Commercial Viability of Electricity Sector.
Protection of consumers interests.

Inadequacy of generation has characterized power sector operation in India.

To provide availability of over 1000 units of per capita electricity by year 2012 it
had been estimated that need based capacity addition of more than 1,00,000
MW would be required during the period 2002-12.

Sheet- 10
The Government of India has initiated several reform measures to create a
favorable environment for addition of new generating capacity in the country.
The Electricity Act 2003 has put in place a highly liberal framework for
generation. There is no requirement of licensing for generation. The
requirement of techno-economic clearance of CEA for thermal generation
project is no longer there. For hydroelectric generation also, the limit of capital
expenditure, above which concurrence of CEA is required, would be raised
suitably from the present level. Captive generation has been freed from all
In order to fully meet both energy and peak demand by 2012, there is a need
to create adequate reserve capacity margin. In addition to enhancing the
overall availability of installed capacity to 85%, a spinning reserve of at least
5%, at national level, would need to be created to ensure grid security and
quality and reliability of power supply.
Even with full development of the feasible hydro potential in the country, coal
would necessarily continue to remain the primary fuel for meeting future
electricity demand.


Power Scenario in Karnataka

As per Min. of power, GOI website under Power scenario at a glance, the
installed capacity by state owned generating companies and share of power
available from central sector generating stations and private companies as
on 31.03.2010 is given in table 2.1.
Table 2.1


Source : MOP/CEA Website



Wind /















Sheet- 11


Project Name


Table 2.2
Likely Installed capacity addition during 11th plan including best efforts
projects for Karnataka state :Installed

during 10
plan (MW)

of state

during 20072012 (MW)

Last unit
date/(Likely date
of commissioning
















KAIGA U-3 & 4





















COMM 220.00







COMM 500.00
COMM 230.00















COMM 600.00




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9 plan end
MAR ,2010











- 910
- 1393
- 768
- 315
- 391
- 442
- 1016




- 3032
- 3165
- 5008
- 1469
- 252
- 849
- 1090

- 15.4
- 9.8
- 13.9
- 4.2
- 0.7
- 2.1
- 2.7










Source CEA website


As per 17th Electric power survey of India , the peak load demad and energy
requirement for karnataka state is given as follows :Table-2.4
Peak Load MW
Energy Requirement

The total installed capacity in the state of Karnataka including central sector
shares from various power generating stations is shown in table-2.1 as
10,386.3 MW as on 31.03.2010.
The likely installed capacity addition during 11th plan including best efforts
projects as shown in table -2.2 in Karnataka state is projected as 4,110

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MW. After deducting the capacities of projects already commissioned as

31.03.2010 as per the table 2.2, the total installed capacity would be
13,047.3 MW (10,386.3 MW + 2661 MW) at the end of 11 th plan period i.e
by 2011-12.
As per the above table- 2.3, the state of Karnataka had peaking power
deficit of (-) 10.6 % and energy deficit of (-) 9.4% in the month of March2010. Also, It is can be noted that the energy deficit has been increasing
from the year 2005-06 to March-2010.
The peak demand met by Karnataka state is 7084 MW during 2009-2010
period against the total installed capacity of 10386.3 MW including private
projects and share from central sector projects and the capacity utilization
factor works out to 68.2%.
As per the above table- 2.4, the Karnataka state would require installed
capacity of 12,941 MW by 11th plan period end , 19,196 MW by 12th plan
period end and 25,607 MW by 13th plan period end with the above
utilization factor.
Based on the above the above power scenario of Karnataka state, there is
need for setting up of 1320 MW power plant and proposed project is

Statutory and Non-statutory Clearances.

In the state Karnataka, Electricity Act 2003 has come in force. As per
Electricity Act 2003, clause 7 any generating Company may establish,
Operate and maintain a generating station without obtaining license under
this act if it complies with technical standards relating to connectivity with
the grid.
Section 73 (b) of the Act 2003 stipulates functions & duties of Central
Electricity Authority.

Sheet- 14

Requirement of input/clearances
Electricity Act 2003 do not indicate special requirement like
clearances from the concerned statutory or non-statutory authorities
for setting up thermal power plant. However clause 10 (3)
stipulates that generating company will:a.

Submit technical details regarding its generating station to

Appropriate commission (i.e. CERC/SERC) and the Authority
(i.e. CEA).


Co-ordinate with central transmission utility or state

transmission utility as the case may be for transmission of
electricity generated by it.

As per GOI guidelines for setting up of power project, various

statutory/non statutory clearances are to be obtained.
Relevant requirements & status thereof are as follows:1.

Registration of the

Luxor Energy Private Ltd. has been

incorporated under Indian companies act
1956. (Annexure- 13.a)


Government of Karnataka
Approval for Infrastructural


Land Availability

Government of Karnataka, through its 22nd

State High Level Clearance Committee
meeting held on 24.05.2010, accorded
approval vide GO No: CI 185 SPI 2010,
dated 02.06.2010. (Annexure-13.b)
Around 1089 acres of land is available in
Mulvad KIADB Industrial area. KIADB is in
the process of acquiring around 4,500
acres of Land and LEPLs project land falls
in this area.

Sheet- 15


Water Availability

Water required for this capacity Thermal

Power plant is estimated as 4,430 M3/hr.
and GoK has accorded in principal
approval to draw water from River Krishna
vide GO No: CI 185 SPI 2010, Bangalore,
dated 02.06.2010


Coal Availability


Ministry of
Environment &
Forest Clearance


Rehabilitation &
Resettlement plan


Airport authority clearance

for chimney height


Power absorption &

evacuation plan

LEPL has applied to CEA/CIL for coal

linkage on 01.09.2010. It is proposed to
blend both Indigenous & imported coal in
the ratio of 70% & 30% respectively.
The project falls in category A of the
Ministry of Environment & forest notification
dated 14th Sep 06. LEPL will apply to
Ministry of Environment & Forest to accord
prior environmental clearance & Terms of
Reference (TOR) for conducting EIA
studies and to obtain Environmental
clearance & CFE from SPCB.
R & R issues, if any, will be identified and
resettlement will be finalized as per
guidelines and policy of state/central
M/s LEPL has to obtain No Objection
Certificate airport authority of India (AAI)
to construct 275 meter high chimney for the
The power will be evacuated on 400 KV
Corporation of India
Ltd. transmission
system network for absorption of power in
the state and export to neighboring states.
LEPL will apply to PGCIL for Open Access
to evacuate and transmit the power to the

Sheet- 16

10. Ash utilization plan

11. Approval by state

regulatory commission /
central regulatory
12. Source of Finance

Ash utilization plan will be drawn as per

MOEF Notification dated 03.11.2009
As per electricity act 2003, approval of
SERC for sale of energy within the state
and CERC for sale of electricity in more
than one state will have to be obtained at
appropriate stage.
30% equity of capital will be arranged by
LEPL & J.V partners. 70% debt will be
arranged from Indian or Foreign financial

Sheet- 17





Sanali is a trail blazing construction company that's at the forefront of the

infrastructure revolution that's moving to tackle the astounding growth of the
Indian economy. We tackle this challenge on all fronts from Housing
colonies to It Parks, from shopping malls to residential apartments. Our
company's dedication to this cause along with its quality of execution on its
promises has made it one of the most respected in Hyderabad.
Concordantly we have lived up to the expectation by successfully
completing a multitude of high profile projects at pivotal locations in cities
like Hyderabad and Bangalore that are leading the Indian IT revolution.
With a lead team that is second to none sanali has demonstrated the
conversion of dreams to reality with the aid of a concrete vision that has
never faltered. Yet as sanali enters a new age with quite a few milestones
behind it, complacency is still as far away from the fiber of the company as
it was on day one of its inception. With its vision and spirit intact sanali has
started to move onto bigger and better things starting with 3 enormous
projects in the cultural and commercial capital of the Middle East: Dubai.
We move so into the future, unflinching at the threshold of promises made
and at the cusp of greatness.
Mission & Value Statements
The sanali universe revolves with the customer at its center. In this light a
comprehensive portfolio of diverse construction projects under one roof has
ever been the aim and achievement we strive towards. We understand the
trust the customer places with us when he partners with us to achieve his
business, personal or real estate needs. We go to great lengths to ensure
that such trust has not been misplaced. We are dedicated to providing the
clients with end to end solutions that meet their varied and diverse needs
with an equally varied and diverse range of products with and unmatched
quality of service. We work by the motto of "build it right the first time" this
along with our dedication to the values of integrity, reliability and quality

Sheet- 18

create an environment that is conducive to the growth of both the customer

and ourselves.
"Sanali Group" is managed by dedicated, enthusiastic and committed
partners/directors, who are the members of a closely held family headed by
the young and ambitious entrepreneur Mr. Mohammed Noorul Haq. He has
been the General Secretary of the Andhra Pradesh Builders Association
and now is the Vice President of the same. His contribution in the
rationalization in construction by laws in Andhra Pradesh has been
substantial. Recognizing his valuable contribution in the field of trade and
business, the government of India has conferred many prestigious awards
on him like, "Gem of India Award", "Rashtriya Gaurav Award", "Udyog
Pratibha Award", "International Status Award", "International Trade
Promotion Award", "Rashtriya Nirman Ratan Award" to name a few.
Success has not come easy, but through a combination of various factors.
Luck, Hard work, Honesty and Keeping one step ahead of other
competitors vide exposure to the latest trends in technology. The other
notable factor has been being receptive to customer's needs and budgetary
constraints. As a result of this, all of his constructions come at rates which
are affordable, reasonable and well within budget limits. All of the above
has earned Mr. Haq numerous awards.
Group Of Companies
"Sanali Group" has earned a creditable name as one of the leading and
most respected promoters and builders in the city and the state of Andhra
Pradesh as well. The phenomenal success of the ventures did not come on
a platter, but through the bold vision of the founder and the able and
dedicated team of professionals, a storehouse of talent, innovation and
expertise. It's a team which leaves no stone unturned to bring you the very
best in real estate.
"Sanali Group" comprises of the following companies :

Sheet- 19








A professionally managed company, REMAX CONSTRUCTIONS, the

Flagship company of SANALI GROUP is widely regarded as one of the
foremost construction companies in the Hi-tech City of Hyderabad. Remaxs
name is built on an uncompromising attitude towards design and
workmanship, backed by determination to keep up commitments. REMAX
has constructed many prestigious residential and commercial complexes in
prominent places of Hyderabad, India. It is connected with every area of
building activity that is, building colonies, apartments, commercial
complexes, info-tech parks and shopping malls.
Ever since it made its entry into the business, it has maintained a high dose
of reliability, quality and adherence to norms of building construction and
environment. The construction monuments are elegant, impeccable,
exquisite, artistic, immaculate, creative, aesthetic, pristine, gorgeous, pretty,
classic and above all irresistible cum fascinating. Their constructions are
created with an eye for perfection, in the best of tradition laced with
modernity. Their constructions are done up as per the rules of Vasthu and
guarantee safe, comfortable, assured and healthy living. Their constructions
are a unique mix of what living, dining and experiencing the real nectar of
consummate and harmonious living is all about.
With all of the above they have earned a creditable name as one of the
leading and most respected builders in the city and the state of Andhra
Pradesh as well. The phenomenal success of their ventures did not come
on a platter, but through the bold vision of their founder and the able and

Sheet- 20

dedicated team of professionals, a storehouse of talent, innovation and

expertise. Its a team which leaves no stone unturned to bring you the very
best in real estate.
Customer satisfaction can at best be referred to as the cornerstone of their
service. It has and will continue to translate your dreams of living in style
into reality. They are and will always remain your partner in the art of
beautiful living is all about.
Constructed a state-of-the-art, world class IT Park for software
offices/BPOs/Call Centers and MNCs of international standards namely
Sanali Infopark at Road No.2, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad.
It is a Software Park notified by the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh having all the
incentives and benefits like Subsidy on Power Tariff, permission to run 3
shifts, Exemption from statutory clearances etc.
Acquired a very large and prime property facing the Necklace Road, off
Rajbhavan Road, Hyderabad and an office complex is under construction
namely Sanali Lakefront. It is also a notified Software Park by the Govt. of
Andhra Pradesh. It has 3,00,000 sqft of office space of international
standards is under construction, it has two levels of parking and 9 levels of
Property at RTC X Roads, Musheerabad, Hyderabad. A huge residential
development is planned in this property and construction of luxurious 200
flats has started. This complex is eligible for exemption from Income Tax
u/s 80 of the Income Tax Act.

Sheet- 21

Amir Ads is the advertising arm of Sanali Group, a foray into the world of
outdoor advertising. This company deals with the advertising requirements
of their clients with the media of Hoardings, Display Panels and Pole
Kiosks. Its business strategy is to be the premier provider of outdoor
advertising in each of the markets it serves. The talented design staff uses
state-of-the-art technology to help the advertisers prepare creative, eyecatching displays. They also help with the strategic placement of
advertisements throughout an advertiser's market by using software that
allows us to analyze the target audience and its demographics.
Sanali Soft, Inc. is the software arm of Sanali Group, a software
development and consulting firm. Since its inception, Sanali Soft, Inc.
demonstrated the unique ability to identify and align itself with emerging
technologies. Their vigorous insistence on high performance standards and
excellence is the driving force behind every project. Excellence is their top
priority because they know that their success is inseparable from their
clients' success providing quality solutions and services in project
management, software development and consultancy services in US and
abroad. Sanali Soft, Inc. has offices located both in India, United States and
This 2 X 660 MW Thermal Power Project will be Implemented by Luxor
Energy Pvt. Ltd., by raising equity share capital subscribed and by Term
loan to meet the project cost. The authorized and paid-up share capital of
the company will be raised in stages as and when required as per statutory
and financial requirement to execute the project, complying with standard
lending norms of lending institutions in India & Abroad (ECB Loans).

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The following infrastructure facilities/basic requirements are required to set
up a coal based power plant.
Land requirement and availability
Water requirement & availability
Fuel availability and transportation facilities.
Power Evacuation Facilities and proximity to the site.
Rail/Road accessibility.
Fulfillment of Pollution & Environmental stipulations.
Human resettlement and rehabilitation.
As per CEA regulations-2007, the following criteria shall be considered in
selection of site for thermal generating stations:



Availability of adequate land for the Station


Avoidance of proximity to geological faults, high flood zone of rivers

or the high tide zones of sea / backwaters


Siting criteria prescribed by MOE&F


Availability of required water


Feasibility of rail, road or other linkages for transportation of fuel and

equipment to the site


Feasibility of power evacuation


LEPL has studied three sites in Karnataka state and the location map is
enclosed (Annexure-2). The merits and demerits of each site are furnished
in the following table.

Sheet- 23

Details of Three Sites studied for the Proposed Power Plant



Site- A



Near Mulwad Villages,

Basavana Bagewadi Taluk,
Bijapur Dist,

Near Golasinghi village

Basavana Bagewadi Taluk,
Bijapur Dist,

Near Hebbal and Unnibhavi

villages, Basavana Bagewadi
Taluk, Bijapur Dist,




Longitude & latitude of


16 33 16.03

proposed site

Longitude :

75 43 44.52


For Details please refer Map-1






agriculture / Fallow land

/patta land/

Forest /

primary agriculture land,


16 29 16

Longitude :

75 54 27

Dry agriculture, rain fed patta land.

Required extent of dry land in one
block is possible, without







homestead ousters issues.

No major valley is cutting across the
identified land
Not much vegetation.
Lomy red Soil in most of the place




Kalgurki Village : 1.8 Km

Mulvad village : 3.5 Km
Malghana village : 1.06 km



16 27 32

Longitude :

75 56 38


For Details please refer Map-3

Presently Dry agriculture, rain fed Patta


Dry agriculture, rain fed patta


R &R and Extent of dry land is not available in

requirement , if any


For Details please refer Map-2

Land is gently sloping.



one block.

Though land is available, not possible for

compact lay out.

Likely to fall under Command area of

Likely to fall under Command area of

Second Stage High Level West Canal

Second Stage High Level West Canal






Hangargi : 1.6 Km
Uppal Dinni : 3.0 Km
Nagavada : 1.75






Hangaragi : 0.60 Km
Mukartihal : 2.56 Km
Unnibhavi:0.9 Km



Sheet- 24

proposed land boundary]

Ronihal village

: 4.23 Km

Golsangi : 1.8Km
Hebbal: 0.5 Km
Villages are in close proximity to the Halihal: 3.2 Km
proposed project boundary site
Villages are in close proximity to the
proposed project boundary site


Accessibility by Rail,

Mulvad Rail way station (on South

Telgi Rail way station (on South Western Vandal Rail way station is nearest

Name of the nearest Rail

Western Railway line on Gadag-

Railway line on Gadag- Baglakote

Railway station, on South western

way station, Distance to

Baglakote Bijapur section) is 5 km

Bijapur section) is 8 Km to the proposed

Railway line on Baglakote Bijapur

proposed site, in Km

to the proposed site


section ) is 8 Km from proposed site

About 46 acres of private land has to

be acquired for railway line (35.0 acres
KIADB land + 11 acres private land)

Railway line to cross NH-13 to reach

proposed site

Railway line to cross NH-13 to reach

proposed site

Cutting and formation of earth is


About 60 acres of private land has to be

acquired for railway line

About 60 acres of private land has to be

acquired for railway line


Coal Transportation
logistics , Rail way line
distance from source to
nearest RS in Km.

Coal requirement: 6.92 Million Tonnes Coal requirement: 6.92 Million Tons per Coal requirement: 6.92 Million Tons per
per year (100% PLF)

year (100% PLF)

year (100% PLF)

30% of coal will be imported from 30% of coal will be imported from 30% of coal will be imported from
Indonesia/ Australia
70% Indian coal

Indonesia/ Australia/South Africa

from CIL & coal 70% Indian coal

Indonesia/ Australia/South Africa

from CIL & coal 70% Indian coal

from CIL & coal

Transportation through Railways at

Transportation through Railways at 1218

Transportation through Railways at 1229

1200 km distance

km distance

km distance

Sheet- 25

In land transport of Imported Coal from Inland transport of Imported Coal from Inland transport of Imported Coal from



Goa Port to proposed site by Indian

Goa Port to proposed site by Indian

Goa Port to proposed site by Indian




Distance :460 Km

Distance :442 Km

Distance :431 Km

Availability, Guarantee &

Source: Krishna River ( Alamatti dam)

Source: Krishna River ( Alamatti dam)

Source: Krishna River ( Alamatti dam)

commitment of requisite

Quantity Required: 4430 m3/hr.

Quantity Required: 4430 m3/hr.

Quantity Required: 4430 m3/hr.

quantity of Water source

GoK in principal clearance has given for

GoK in principal clearance has given for

GoK in principal clearance has given for

for final installation

32.5 MGD from Krishna River / Almatti

32.5 MGD from Krishna River / Almatti

32.5 MGD from Krishna River / Almatti

Distance to project site: 16 Km

Distance to project site: 24 Km

Distance to project site: 20 Km

capacity &
Proximity to project site
in Km,

a. Metropolitan/ National




/ Golagumbus

park/ wild life/


sanctuaries/ ecological

importance place is

sensitive areas/

distance) from the proposed project

archaeological /historical/

site at Bijapur city.

religious /tourist
importance / defense




/ Golagumbus




historical / religious / tourist importance

historical / religious / tourist importance

28.5 km (radial

place is 42.5 km from the proposed

place is 47.5 km from the proposed

project site at Bijapur city.

project site at Bijapur city.

Basavana Bagevadi, religious place Basavana Bagevadi, religious place 11 Basavana Bagevadi, religious place 14
24.5 Km (radial) from proposed site

Km from the proposed site

Km from the proposed site

Sheet- 26

b. Land required for laying


Nature of land gentle slope.

Nature of land gentle slope.

Nature of land gentle slope.

water pipe line Nature of

No hindrance for laying pipeline.

No hindrance for laying pipeline.

No hindrance for laying pipeline.


Permission from respective Authorities is

Permission from respective Authorities is

Permission from respective Authorities is




Land required for R.O.W- 56 acres

Land required for R.O.W- 83 acres

Land required for R.O.W - 69.2 acres

NH 218 : 0.5 Km

NH 13: 2.5 Km

NH 13: 3.25 Km

Accessibility by Road

Distance from
National High way, in




Keeping in view the various merits & demerits of the sites as detailed in the
above table, Site- A is proposed for the installation of thermal power plant.

The site is located near Mulwad village and about 31 Km (by road) south
of Basavana Bagewadi town in Bijapur district, Karnataka state. The
nearest railway station is Mulvad at a distance of 5 km and National
Highway 218 passes 500 meters away from this site. The longitude
and latitude are 750 4344.52 and 160 33 16.03 respectively. Project
location topo map is enclosed as Annexure-3.
Land :
The area of land measuring about 904 acres consisting the mix of Fallow
land, waste land with shrubs and dry agriculture land with low yielding
single crop is available as one block for the power plant. This land is
adequate for 1320 MW capacity. In addition to this, about 65 acres of
land for colony is also available.
Water :
Source of water for this project is Krishna River and proposed water offtake point is 16 kms away. Consumptive water requirement is estimated
as 4,430 m3/hr. for the power Plant.
Right of way/acquisition of land for the corridor for laying pipeline for
transportation water from the intake point to the plant site will be
organized by M/s LEPL.
In line with the MOEF guidelines for the new thermal power Stations, it is
proposed to adopt closed circuit cooling system deploying cooling towers
and draw only makeup water requirement from the source. The plant
water system is described in section subsequent sections.


Coal Source and Transportation:

The source of coal is from coal fields of Coal India Ltd and imported coal
from Indonesia, Austarlia & South Africa. It is proposed to blend
indigenous and imported coal in the ratio of 70:30. The imported coal will
be routed through Goa port and transported to site by Railways.
The coal requirement considering G.C.V of blended coal as 4000
Kcal/Kg, station heat rate as 2380 and plant load factor (PLF)
as 85% works out 5.92 & 100% PLF @ 6.92 million tones / year.
Imported coal will be received from mining companies and unloaded at
nearest seaport. The coal will be transported by Indian railway system to
site. Railway line will be suitably routed to power plant as per Indian
railway norms. The railway link will also be used for transportation of
heavy equipment to site during construction phase and to bring main and
support fuel to the power plant during operation of plant.
Power Evacuation facility:
The generated power from the power plant switchyard will be evacuated
at 400 kv voltage through transmission lines. The start up power of the
power plant will be drawn through the plant switchyard connected to 400
kv network of PGCIL. The nearest 400 Kv transmission system is at
Basavana Bagewadi , which is about 24.5 km from this site. However,
Application for Open Access shall be filed with PGCIL as per Electricity
Act. 2003.
Rail/Road Accessibility:
The proposed project site is 500 meters away from NH-218 and 5 km
away from the nearest Mulvad Railway station on Bagalkot-Bijapur main
line. Railway siding is to be laid from nearest railway station to plant site.


Environmental Aspects:
There is no eco-sensitive spot like Natural Park, Wild Life sanctuary, BioSphere Reservation, Historical or Cultural Site in the vicinity of the
proposed site. LEPL will get the EIA studies conducted and obtain
Environmental Clearance based on the Terms of Reference of MOE&F.
Resettlement & Rehabilitation issues, if any, will be implemented with the
approval of state Government. There is no reserve forest or protected in
the proposed power plant identified area and no important historic place
is situated in the near-by vicinity. R & R issues (if any) will be resolved by
LEPL with the approval of State Govt. River water will be used in closed
circuit for circulating water system and for sweet water needs. Super
critical technology for steam generator will be adopted. Electrostatic
precipitator of high efficiency, stack height as per CPCB norms will limit
the emission levels. As such, no undue problem of installation of the
power plant at said location from environmental aspect is envisaged.





Development of Supercritical Technology

Coal fired power stations are emitting large volumes of co2 and causing
major factor for global warming. Because of its abundance and affordability,
coal continues to be a major energy source for power producers worldwide.
However, as carbon consciousness becomes more prominent, technologies
for gaining efficiency and reducing emissions from coal-fired plants become
more important. Therefore, it is worth considering the reduction of co2 can
have effect on prevention of global warming.
The reduction of co2 emissions is possible if the efficiency of the thermal
plant is improved. Energy conversion efficiency of steam turbine cycle
can be improved by increasing the main steam pressure and
temperature. The development of coal fired supercritical power plant
technology can be described as an evolutionary advancement towards
greater power output per unit and higher efficiency. Coal-fired
supercritical power plants operate at very high temperature and pressure
and resulting much higher heat efficiencies as compare to sub-critical
coal-fired plants.
Subcritical pulverized coal plant has steam outlet pressure below 22.1
MPa. Typical steam outlet temperatures (superheat and reheat,
respectively) are: 538 oC /538 oC and net plant efficiency (HHV-basis) of
35-38 percent for most coals and countries.
Supercritical pulverized coal plants have steam outlet pressure above
22.1 MPa. Typically, the pressure is 24.7 MPa and the steam outlet
temperatures 538-565 oC /565 oC resulting in net plant efficiency of 38-40
Ultra-supercritical pulverized coal (USC) plants have steam outlet
pressure above 22.1 MPa, typically around 27 MPa, and the steam outlet
temperatures in the 565 oC to 625 oC range. Net plant efficiency in the
40.0-42.5 percent range.


Advanced USC plants have steam outlet pressure above 22.1 MPa and
steam outlet temperatures above 625-650 oC. Typical net plant efficiency:
42.5-46.0 percent.
Pulverized coal technologies & efficiency
Pulverized coal option
Supercritical (SC)
Ultra-supercritical (USC)
Advanced USC

Steam Conditions
<22.1 MPa/538oC/538oC
24.7 MPa/538-565 oC /565 oC
27 MPa/565-625 oC
27 MPa/above 625 oC

Typical Efficiency
(% HHV)

"Supercritical" is a thermodynamic expression describing the state of a

substance where there is no clear distinction between the liquid and the
gaseous phase (i.e. they are a homogenous fluid). Water reaches this
state at a pressure above 22.1 MPa. The efficiency of the thermodynamic
process of a coal-fired power describes how much of the energy that is
fed into the cycle is converted into electrical energy. The greater the
output of electrical energy for a given amount of energy input, the higher
the efficiency. If the energy input to the cycle is kept constant, the output
can be increased by selecting elevated pressures and temperatures for
the water-steam cycle.
Up to an operating pressure of around 19 MPa in the evaporator part of
the boiler, the cycle is subcritical. This means, that there is a nonhomogeneous mixture of water and steam in the evaporator part of the
boiler. In this subcritical case a drum-type boiler is used because the
steam needs to be separated from water in the drum of the boiler before it
is superheated and led into the turbine.
Above an operating pressure of 221 bar in the evaporator part of the
boiler, the cycle is supercritical. The cycle medium is a single phase fluid
with homogeneous properties and there is no need to separate steam
from water in a drum. Once-through boilers are, therefore, used in
supercritical cycles. This is ideal for sliding pressure operation which has
much more flexibility in load changes and controlling the power grid.


However, this also requires more sensitive and quick responding control
Supercritical power plants use special high grade materials for the boiler
tubes. The turbine blades are also of improved design and materials. In fact,
the very increase in higher pressure and temperature designs are dependent
on the development of newer and newer alloys and tube materials.

In subcritical units the drum acts as a fixed evaporation end point. The
furnace water walls act as the evaporator. Not so in the case of a
supercritical unit. The evaporation end point can occur in various levels of
the furnace depending on the boiler load. The percentage of Superheat in
supercritical units is higher than subcritical units. Because of this the furnace
tubes act more as super heaters than water walls. This necessitates the use
of higher grade of materials like alloy steels in the furnace.
Higher steam temperatures in supercritical units results in a lesser
differential temperature for heat transfer. Because of this, heat transfer areas
required are higher than subcritical units.Higher Superheat steam
temperatures entering the HP turbine also mean higher reheater inlet
temperatures which again results in a higher heat transfer areas.
In supercritical units the water entering the boiler has to be of extremely high
levels of purity. Supercritical boilers do not have a steam drum that
separates the steam and the water. If the entering water quality is not good,
carry over of impurities can result in turbine blade deposits.

Some of the benefits of supercritical power plants include:


Reduced fuel consumption due to improved plant efficiency


Reduced ash generation.


Reduced auxiliary power consumption & more net exportable power.


Significant improvement of environment by reduction in CO2

emissions when compared with subcritical units.


Reduced water consumption.


Much reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions;


Reduced startup time and startup fuel.


Plant costs comparable with sub-critical technology and less than

other clean coal technologies;



Faster response to load variations.

In India, the units ranging upto 500 MW have been operating with
subcritical parameters of 170 kg/cm2 (abs) pressure and 540 0C steam
temperature from many decades. Now the ultra Mega capacity plants with
single unit rating of 660/800 MW with Supercritical parameters are under
implementation with parameters of 255 kg/cm2 pressure and main steam
& RH temperatures as 5680C and 5960C respectively. The first Indian
supercritical coal based thermal power plants are under construction by
NTPC at Sipat & Barh.


Unit rating and plant Capacity

Standard supercritical & ultra super critical technology unit ratings like
300 MW, 330 MW, 350 MW, 400 MW, 500 MW , 600 MW , 660 MW, 800
MW, 900MW, 1000 MW, 1100 MW are being manufactured by various
companies world wide. As per CEA recommendations the unit rating shall
be in the range of 600-1000 MW for supercritical units.
In view of the advantages as described in previous section and above
available unit ratings, it is proposed to setup the power plant of 1320 MW
capacity with 2 x 660 MW configuration.

























In collaboration with

Orders Executing :
A) Barh-II 2 X 660 MW

B) Krishnapatnam 2 x 800




500 MW TO 1000 MW



















In collaboration with



Orders Executing :
Barh-II 2 X 660 MW
Krishnapatnam 2 x 800 MW






Steam Generator & Auxiliary System

Super Critical Pressure (SCP) power plant is envisaged with a view
to capture better plant efficiency; minimizing basic fuel coal
consumption; And most important criteria being the drastic reduction
of emission quantities of SO2, Nox, CO2 and particulate matters etc.
The SCP technology has been presently accepted in India and is
being adopted by number of Independent Power Producers & utilities
including Public sector companies with 660 MW & 800 MW unit sizes.
660 MW Units are being installed for indigenous coal or imported &
indigenous coals with proper blending ratio, where as low ash content
imported coal will be used for 800 MW unit sizes.


Steam generator Configuration and Technical Features


Furnace Type
(i) Two path / tower type
Furnace configuration is derived from each equipment
manufacturers specialty. Two path types is mainly adopted in
Japan and tower type is typical in Europe.
No significant difference is observed in the applicability to kind
of coal. It is because boiler design can be adjusted in
accordance with coal characteristics such as abrasion of ash.
(ii) Spiral (plain/bare tube) wall and vertical (rifled/ribbed tube )
Wall type
The principal concern with a variable super critical pressure
design is the requirement for once-through operation. The
mass flow in the furnace wall tubes must be sufficiently high to


avoid overheating or Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB)

while generating steam at sub-critical pressures and to avoid
excessive metal temperatures and uneven steam outlet
temperatures when operating at super critical pressure at
higher boiler loads.
To accomplish these objectives, the spiral-wall design is used
for the unit. The principle of the helical-wall furnace is to
increase the mass flow per tube by reducing the number of
tubes needed to envelope the furnace without increasing the
spacing between the tubes. This is done by arranging the
tubes at an angle and spiral them around the furnace. For
instance, the number of tubes required to cover the furnace
wall can be reduced to one half by putting the tubes at a 30
degree angle. The centerline spacing or pitch (p) is made the
same as on a vertical wall to prevent fin overheating.
Additionally, by spiraling around the furnace, every tube is
part of all the walls, which means that each tube acts as a
heat integrator around the four walls of the combustion
The spiral-wall concept thus addresses two major challenges
of the full variable pressure super critical pressure boiler.

Achieving the required mass flow to avoid overheating and

excessive metal temperature by reducing the number of tube

Minimizing difference in tube to tube heat absorption by

exposing each tube to all four furnace walls
Spiral-wall furnaces have been in operation in Europe and
Japan for many years and have given satisfactory
As an alternative to the spiral-all design for larger-size steam
generators, a certain manufactures offer a tangentially fired


unit with vertical walls consisting of rifled tubes for ease of

fabrication, erection, and maintenance. A stable fireball is
formed in the centre of the furnace with tangential firing, with
essentially equal distribution of the lateral heat absorption on
all furnace walls. Unbalances are minimized and lateral heatabsorption patterns are predictable over the entire load range.
Rifled tubing is used in the furnace walls to avoid overheating
or DNB at sub-critical pressures.
iii) UP type / Benson type
UP type is applied to constant pressure once through boiler
and Benson type is applied to variable pressure once through
boiler. Variable pressure Benson type boiler is suitable to
improve plant efficiency at partial load and flexible operability.
2. Start up system
In the case of up type (constant pressure ) boiler, it is necessary
to keep the super critical pressure at boiler and the minimum
water flow rate at water wall from the early stage of unit starting in
order to prevent the water wall from tube burning-out, while the
turbine needs low pressure superheated steam at starting. For
these purposes, UP type boiler usually has flash tank drainage
start up system and uses depressurized steam from flash tank for
starting turbine. This start up system requires so-called ramping
operation which means switching operation from starting system
to main system during load increasing operation, because this
start up system capacity is only around 10% of turbine TMCR.
This ramping operation is so complicated operation under the
large different pressure that some values are required with
enough durability.
On the other hand, Benson type boiler can start from under the low
pressure condition because Benson type boiler has availability of
variable pressure operation owing to spiral structure of water wall


tube (or rifled tube used for vertical water wall), and circulation
system with boiler circulation pump (BCP) can be applied to this
type of boiler. This system can shorten the start up time and heat
loss during start up period.
3. Minimum Load with dry Range / Control Range
Changing point (Benson Point) or dry/wet condition is about 30%
TMCR load. Minimum control range is set at 40% TMCR load with
consideration of undershoot during load reducing, turn-down of
pulverizers, ignition stability etc. There is no difference is spiral
water wall and vertical tube water wall in minimum load

Material Selection
The materials for the range of steam temperature to the level of
566 0C are already proven. There is no difficulty in technical
aspects in material selection.
On the other hand, the applicable materials shall be selected
considering the combination of applied temperature and pressure
Table below shows the typical material selection in boiler pressure
parts. This material application just shows the general concept
and each manufacturer has his criteria considering his design
Judging from Indian sub-critical plants, 9% Cr steel and austenitic
materials have already used for high temperature zones.
Therefore for supercritical power plants, 538 0C temperatures for
main steam and 566 0C for reheat steam, no new materials are
required as the material basket used in sub-critical plant is
adequate. Only a shift in quantum of superior material is there due
to higher parameters.


Super heater tubes
Repeater tubes

246 kg/cm2g
538 0C / 560 0C
1-2% CrMo steels

Main steam pipes, headers, valve bodies

1-2% CrMo Steels

Austenitic steels
2-1/4 CrMo steels

High temperature re-heater pipes

9% Cr steels

5. Emissions
Coal consumption is reduced with efficiency improvement led by
upgrading of steam conditions. Consequently, emissions of CO 2,
NOx & SOx is reduced.
i. CO2 emissions
Super critical plants reduce CO2 emission at least 2-3%
Compared to sub-critical plant.
ii. SO2 emissions
Securing of FGD (Flue Gas Desulfurizer) space and the
installation of 275 m tall chimney as per M.O.E.F guidelines.
iii. NOx emissions
The amount of NOx emissions is limited to 40 micro gm/m3
(Annual Arithmetic mean of 104 measurements in a year) as
per National Ambient Air quality standards specified by MOEF


Notification dt. 16.11.2009 by providing low NOx burners for

the boiler.


Particulate Emissions
MOEF guidelines for particulate emission of less than 60 micro
gram/m3 for size less than 10 micro m (Annual Arithmetic mean
of 104 measurements in a year) will be satisfied by adoption of
high efficiency electrostatic precipitators (ESP).


Steam Generator - Auxiliaries


Draft system
The furnace draft system comprises of two (2) nos of Forced
Draft (FD) fans each one will rated capacity of 60% of BMCR.
The FD fans will be axial impulse type, constant speed with
variable blade pitch controller with drive motor. Each fan shall
contain bearing lubrication and hydraulic blade pitch control unit
consisting of
a) 2x100 % oil pumps, each with motor drive, coupling and
coupling guard.
b) 2x100% oil coolers.
c) 2x100% filters, differential pressure switches.
d) One (1) oil storage tank.
e) Instrumentation, interconnecting piping, valves and fittings
including pressure relief valves and non return valves
(NRVs) etc.
f) Electrical/ pneumatic actuators with all accessories.
Silencers will be provided at the suction of the fans to limit the
noise levels to specified values.


Also, Two (2) induced draft (ID) fans, each one will have rated
capacity of 60% of BMCR, radial type with variable speed
hydraulic coupling with drive motor. Each ID fan shall be
provided with bearing lubrication unit consisting of
a) 2x100% oil pumps each with motor, coupling and coupling
b) 2x100% oil coolers.
c) 2x100% filters, differential pressure switches, etc.
d) One (1) oil storage tank.
The equipment will be complete all other accessories necessary
for continuous operation and suitable for outdoor installation.

Regenerative Air Heater (RAH)

Regenerative type vertical rotating Air heater will be provided for
preheating of both primary and combustion air in two quad
sector. One steam coil Air preheater (SCAPH) will be provided to
preheat combustion/Primary air during startup of steam
Generator. RAH and SCAPH will be proved with suitable lube oil
system and other fittings.


Pulverized coal firing System

Coal mills: The coal pulverizers will be vertical bowl mills with
slow speed and low power consumption and relatively high life
expectancy of mill wear parts. The number and size of bowl
mills will be provided such that one mill remain as standy while
firing design coal and this mill will be brought into operation while
firing worst coal. In addition, the stand by mill can be kept under
maintenance while firing design coal.


The mills will have suitable arrangement to achieve gringing

fineness required by providing rotating classifiers with speed
The Steam Generator firing system will be provided with latest
State of the art burners and allow load variation from 40 to
100% BMCR without firing support fuel. The fuel and air flow
ratio will be controlled with combustion control system.
Each pulevriser will be provided with drive motor, lube oil
system and necessary instrumentation & fittings. The number
coal sampling points will be provided at the out let of each mill.
The required instrumentation for protection and safe operation of
the mills will be provided. The sturdy construction shut off gates
of will be provided at the outlet of each row of coal bunker. The
necessary coal chutes of suitable type and size will be provided
between coal bunker shut off gate and inlet to the coal feeder
and from feeder to pulveriser. Electrically operated hoists will be
provided for lifting of heavy equipment of bowl mills.

Raw coal feeders:

Gravimetric belt type coal feeders with minimum 20% spare
capacity over maximum mill capacity will be provided.


Seal Air Fans:


Primary Air Fans:

Boiler unit will be equipped with two (2) 60% primary air fans,
gravimetric raw coal feeders for each mill and two 100% seal air
fans to provide seal air for bearings, journals etc. The primary
and seal air fans will have a design margin on flow and pressure
of not less than 25% and 30% respectively.



Startup Fuel System

The fuel oil system will be provided for boiler start up; and for
flame stabilization during low load operation with or without coal
firing. Two (2) types of fuel oils will be used:



Light Diesel Oil (LDO) for boiler start up (upto 10% of

BMCR) and


Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) for low load operation and flame
stabilization for minimum capacity of 25% of BMCR.

Electrostatic Precipitators
The high efficiency electrostatic precipitators having an
efficiency of 99.9% will limit the outlet emission to 50 mg/Nm 3
while the boiler is operating at its BMCR and firing worst coal
having maximum ash contents.
The electrostatic precipitators will have four (4) parallel gas
streams, isolated from each other on the electrical as well as gas
side and will be provided with gas tight dampers at inlets and
outlets of each stream, so as to allow maintenance to be carried
out safely on the faulty stream, while the unit is working.
Electrostatic precipitators will be provided with microprocessor
based programmable type rapper control system and ESP
management system to ensure the safe and optimum operation
of ESP. ESP transformer rectifier sets will use high fire point oil
as the cooling medium. The dust collection hopes at all strategic
locations will have a minimum storage capacity of eight (8)
hours. The hoppers will have heating arrangements to prevent
ash sticking to the sloping sides and down pipers. Level
indicators to indicate and trip the ESP in case of high ash levels
in the ash hoppers which will jeopardize the safety of ESP


Flue Gas De-sulphurising system (FGD)


Space provision for the FGD system, to be installed in future (if

required), will be kept behind the chimney as per environmental
stipulation. The design and layout of steam generator and its
auxiliaries will be such that a wet/dry flue gas de-sulphurisation
system can be installed, taking suction from duct after ID fan and
feeding the de-sulphurised flue gases back to the chimney with
provision for bypassing the FGD system.

STEAM GENERATOR- Technical data

The steam generator will be designed to achieve the maximum
continuous rate (BMCR) with an appropriate control margin. The
steam generator performance data at VWO and firing design coal are
listed below:
The data mentioned below is indicative and each supplier will offer
the data for the machine being offered.
Typical technical


Super heater outlet steam
Steam pressure at SH outlet
Steam temperature at SH
Reheat steam flow






Unit Parameters

Kg/m2 (abs)





Steam temp. at RH inlet


Steam temp. at RH outlet


Kg/m2 (g)


Steam pressure at RH inlet



Steam pressure at RH outlet

Kg/m2 (g)


Feed water temperature

entering Economiser
Flue gas outlet temperature



Excess air (at 100% MCR)


Superheat temp control

Reheat temperature control

FD fans


Soot blowers

ID Fans


Regenerative air pre-heaters

Ambient air temp. for design

Efficiency at MCR


Steam Turbine and Auxiliaries


Power Cycle

By spray attempt.
between stages of S.H
By burner tilt/flue gas
recirculation and
emergency spray
2 nos. Axial impulse
Retractable blowers,
and rake blowers as
per requirement
2 nos. double suction
radial type
2 nos. regenerative
air pre heaters and 1
no steam heated air
pre heater.
Low NOx pulverized
coal burners
More than 86.4%

a) Superheated steam from the final super heater (SH) of the boiler
will be led to the HP turbine inlet through two main steam leads,
the two leads from SH outlets will be connected to two (2) main


steam stop cum control valves at turbine inlet chest. Branch tapoffs will be provided on the common main steam lead for
connections to 60 percent HP bypass valve as well as to the
pressure reducing desuperheating station for auxiliary steam
b) Steam


the HP

reheated of the boiler

turbine will be carried

for reheating

through (2)

back to the
cold reheat

steam leads having adequately sized (sizing to be done during

detailed engineering) non return valves located close to the HP
turbine end : and desuperheater (for reheat steam temperature
control during emergency) Branch tap of will also be provided
for extraction steam to HP heaters as well as HP/LP bypass
systems from the cold reheat line (i.e. line leading from HP
turbine outlet to reheated)
c) After reheating in the boiler, the steam will be led to the IP turbine
through two hot reheat steam leads from the reheated outlet
header. These two leads will be joined to a single lead or routed
separately upto the turbine box; and if required bifurcated for
connection to two (2) lines, each lead will be tapped for
connection to the LP bypass valve. The IP turbine exhaust will be
led through two cross over pipes to the LP turbine. A branch tapoff will be provided to draw extraction steam to desecrating
d) Steam after expansion in the LP turbine will be condensed in
the condenser (located below LP turbine): and returned to the
boiler through feed water heating cycle.
Typical Heat balance diagram for 660 MW unit is given in
Annexure -9.b

Steam Extraction System

The turbine will be provided typically with right (8) extractions as
listed below :-



HP turbine

to HP heater # 8


IP turbine extraction I

to HP heater # 7


IP turbine extraction II

to HP heater # 6


IP turbine extraction III

to Deaerator


IP turbine exhaust

to LP heater 4


LP turbine extraction I

to LP heater 3


LP turbine extraction II

to LP heater 2


LP turbine extraction I

to LP heater 1

Extraction steam leads to heater # 1 & to heater # 8 will be provided

with motorized valves while of the extraction steam lead to heater #
7,6, deaerator, heater # 4, 3 & 2 will be provided with automatic
hydraulically operated non-return valves along with motorized gate

Steam Turbine Plant

The turbine component and its auxiliaries will be designed and
selected to meet the stringent requirements in respect of superior
thermal performance, excellent product reliability & operational
The turbine manufacturer will have turbine designed based on
modular design approach that divides the turbine into three main
High-pressure (HP) section
Intermediate-pressure (IP) section and
Low-pressure (LP) section.


The turbine will have one single flow HP, one double flow IP and one
double-flow low-pressure cylinder. All components will be selected
based on long-proven records and standardized modules. The
turbines will be of the tandem compound design. The individual shafts


of the cylinders and the generator rotor shaft will be coupled rigidly
HP Turbine
The HP turbine will be designed with single flow. This will have a
double shell casing consisting of inner casing carrier and barrel type
outer casing. Main steam to the HP turbine will be supplied through
two combined stop and control valves. The exhaust branch will be
located below the turbine.
IP Turbine
The IP-turbine will be designed with double flow. This will have a
double-shelled casing with horizontally split inner and outer casing.
Reheat steam will be admitted through two combined stop and control
valves of the turbine. The valves will be arranged on either side of IP
casing. The exhaust branches will be on the top of the casing. The
steam flows to the LP turbine through a crossover pipe.
LP Turbine
The LP-turbine will comprise of horizontally split multi-shell casing.
The outer casing will consists of two end walls, a bracing system, the
top half and the sidewalls. The inner casing will be double shell axially
split supported by support arms that are bolted to it and that rests on
the bracket supports of the bearing pedestals. The bearing pedestals
will be mounted on the foundation. They will carry the shaft seal
casings, which shall be joined to the outer casing by means of
expansion joints.

The short moving blades and guide blades for the first LP stages will
be one-piece machining with integral T-roots and shrouds. The long
moving blades will be twisted and will have no lacing wires or
shrouding. They will be drop forge and will have fir-tree roots/T-roots


that will fit into similar grooves in the rotor. The guide blades of the
last stage will be hollow and fabricated.

The HP-Turbine will be fitted with two combined stop and control
valves and one overload control valve for main steam admission. Two
combined intercept stop and control valves will be installed at the IPTurbine for hot reheat steam admission.
Each combined valve consists of a stop valve and a control valve that
will be mounted on a common body. Every stop valve and control
valve will be equipped with an electro-hydraulic actuator. The main
steam valves will be directly mounted on the HP-turbine.


Gland Steam Sealing System

A fully automatic gland sealing steam supply system will be provided
for the TG Set and the turbine drives of BFPS. HP & IP turbine shaft
glands will be sealed to prevent escape of steam into the atmosphere
and the LP turbine glands will be sealed for preventing leakage of
atmospheric air into the turbine. Steam will be used for sealing these
spring backed labyrinth glands.
During start-up and low loads (say 40% load), seal steam will be
supplied to the turbine glands from the auxiliary steam header or cold
reheat line through a seal steam regulating valve. During normal
operation (above 40% load), the HP and IP turbines will be of self
sealing type and under that condition the auxiliary / CRH steam
source will be cut off and the leak-off steam from HP and IP glands
will be used for sealing the LP glands. The excess leak-off steam will
be led to the condenser. A gland steam condenser will be provided to
condense and return to the cycle, all gland leaks off steam including
that from BFP turbines. A de-superheating type bypass will be
provided during outage of gland steam condenser. 2x100% capacity
vapor exhausters will be provided to remove noncondensable
gases from the gland steam condenser. The exhaust gases will be led
over the TG hall roof level.



Shaft Glands
All shaft glands will be of the axial-flow labyrinth type. The glands on
the LP turbine will be mounted in glad casings that will be bolted to
the bearing pedestals.


Lubricating oil system

The lubricating oil system will supply oil for lubrication and cooling of
turbine and generator bearings, and to the hydraulic shaft turning
gear during start-up and shutdown. This system will be provided with
AC & DC powered oil pumps. To improve lubrication of the bearings
during start-up and shutdown, a jacking oil system will be installed
which also supplies motive oil to the hydraulic turning gear with
hydrometric gear motor.
A separate, self contained high-pressure fluid system with dedicated
pumps will be provided for valve actuation. The system will
specifically include the following:
(a) The main oil pump will be centrifugal or gear type. The turbine
shaft will directly drive it. It will have sufficient capacity to handle
lube oil requirement of the bearings and emergency seal oil
(b) 2x100% AC aux. Oil pumps for start-up, shut down of TG unit and
as stand to MOP for automatic operation. These pumps will be in
service during start up till the main oil pump takes over the supply.
(c) 1x100% DC emergency oil pump for meeting lube oil
requirements of bearings during emergency with automatic
starting on low lube oil pressure preset value.
(d) One (1x100%) each AC & DC motor jacking oil pumps will be
provided to lift the rotor at the bearings during turning gear


(e) Each unit will be provided with an oil tank of sufficient capacity for
oil changes. 2x100% duty vapor extraction fans and 2x100%
capacity oil coolers will be provided for oil cooling.
(f) A lube oil purification unit will be permanently installed for each
unit for the total oil charge on a continuous basis.

Turbine Control Fluid System

For the governing and control system of the turbine a complete self
contained control fluid system will be provided. Fire resistant fluid will
be employed to minimize fire hazards. The system will comprise of:
a) A control fluid reservoir of adequate capacity to ensure fluid
b) 2x100% AC motor driven pumps to pump the fire resistant fluid
from the reservoir.
c) 2x100% capacity control fluid coolers designed for service with
DM water.
d) A control fluid purifying unit will be provided for the turbo-set for
purifying at least 2% of the total fluid charge in the system per
hour on a continuous bypass basis. 2x100% capacity AC motor
driven purification pumps to circulate oil through purification
system will be provided. Necessary filters, strainers, piping,
fittings, valves and instruments shall be provided.


Governing/Regulation Systems
The turbine will have throttle or nozzle controlled type governing. The
steam turbine generator unit will be equipped with an electro hydraulic
governing system backed up by 100% mechanical hydraulic or
electro-hydraulic control system. The governing system will be highly
reliable and operationally safe and it will be capable of controlling with
stability, the speed of the turbine at all power outputs between zero
and the specified maximum power output when the unit is operating
isolated, or the energy input to the steam turbine when the unit is


operating in parallel with other units in the grid. The Turbine

governing system will be designed for high accuracy, speed and
sensitivity or response. The governing system will limit the over speed
of the turbine on loss of full load to value less than 8% of the rated
speed. The steady state regulation will be adjustable within +30% to
+8% of the rated speed. The dead band at rated speed and at any
power output within the rated output will not exceed 0.06% of the
rated speed.

Turbine drain system

To avoid thermal stress and possible deformation of the turbine
casing, the condensate produced by the condensing steam during
warm up of the turbine will be discharged into a standpipe of the


Bearings and Couplings

The turbine rotors will be designed with a single bearing system to
minimize the impact of foundation distortions on bearing stresses,
bending stresses acting on the trunnions. The combined journal and
thrust bearing at the rear of the HP turbine comprises a self-adjusting
journal bearing and thrust bearing to accept the unbalance residual
thrust. The other journal bearings will also be of the self adjusting
type. Bearing temperatures will be acquired by thermocouples located
directly under the white-metal lining of the bottom shell in the journal
bearings and in two diametrically opposed pads in the thrust bearing.
The individual turbine shafts will be rigidly coupled together by means
of integral flanges.


Turning Gear
Rotor turning gear will be provided to ensure uniform and rapid
heating/cooling of casing during start up/trip conditions. The turning
gear motor will be mounted on the housing and will be connected
through gears and pinions for turning the rotor at a speed of 3 rpm


approx. Manual turning gear arrangement will also be provided in

addition to the motorized turning gear.

Turbine Protection System:

Electronic protection system of turbine receives tripping signals from
individual tripping criteria such as, Low condenser vacuum, low lube
oil pressure, high axial shift, and high HP exhaust steam temperature
and from electrical generator protections schemes.


Turbine Stress Controller (TSC):

During start-up, load changes and shut down, internals of turbine are
subjected to temperature fluctuations resulting in thermal stresses
which in turn cause material fatigue. To achieve safe operation during
total life of the turbine and to prevent premature failure of turbine
parts, the limits are not to be exceeded. The TSC is the online
monitoring and evaluation system of turbine component in respect of
material fatigue and life expectancy. The TSC will monitor the
operational non-steady state thermal stress affecting the steam
admission area of turbine. Dedicated computing channels perform
online calculations of metal fatigue. This allows turning operation
within a set envelope against various permitted stress types or
loading combinations.
The turbine will be provided with all the required turbine protection
schemes and Turbine Stress Controller


HP LP Bypass station
60% H.P. and L.P turbine bypass station will be provided to act not
only as a protection to the turbine during pressure rise resulting from
sudden load throw-off but also to enable operation of the unit at loads
lower than the control load. Further HP/LP bypass will permit quick,
repeated hot starts of the unit on its tripping.
The LP bypass station will be connected to the hot reheat line and
discharges the steam into the condenser. The hot reheat steam will


be de-superheated by means of condensate injection. The bypass

system shall be in operation when the steam turbine is not able to
receive the entire steam quantity, e.g. during start-up or in case of a
The HP and LP bypass stations will be capable of meeting the
following requirements:



Quick start up of the steam generator from cold, warms & hot


Parallel operation of the bypass with turbine under large load



House load operation followed by large load throw-off.


To keep the steam generation in operation so as to avoid a

fire out in the steam generator following full load rejection.

Condensing Plant
The function of the condenser is to condense the steam exhausted
from the LP cylinders and to produce and maintain as high a vacuum
as possible in order to increase the enthalpy drop, which can be
utilized in the turbine.
The condensing unit will comprise two length wise condensers with
identical cooling surfaces. The cooling water will pass connectively
through the condenser in two parallel flows, thus making it possible to
shutoff one of them with out stopping the turbine.


Design features
The condenser unit will consist of two connected condensers and
three water jet ejectors. The condensing unit will comprise two
lengthwise condensers with identical cooling surface. The cooling
water will pass connectively through the condensers in two parallel
flows, thus making it possible to shut off of one of them without


stopping the turbine. The condenser will be located below the LP

turbine and form an integral part of it.
The steam dome , shell hot-well and water boxes will be steel
fabricated. The condenser will be fixed supported on foundation
The double-flow LP turbine outer casing will be connected to the
condenser through the steam domes. The steam domes will be
welded to the exhaust casing of the turbine with the result that the LP
turbine cylinder and the condenser form a unit.
The direction of circulation water flow will be at right angle with the
turbine axis. The condenser tube bundles, on which the exhaust
steam from the turbine condenses, will consists of straight tubes with
smooth surfaces and running right angles with the turbine axis in the
steam space of the condenser. The condenser tubes rest in tube
support plates at regular intervals along their length to prevent
impermissible tube vibration when the condenser is in service. Tube
sheets on the circulating water inlet and outlet sides will act as
partitions separating the steam space from the cooling waterside.
Both ends of the tubes, through which circulating water flows, are
roller-expanded into the tube sheets. On the cooling waterside the
water boxes will be provided with a coating to prevent contact
The condenser tubes will be divided into tube bundles designed to
promote uniform flow. The following general aspects of possible
improvements will be considered:
Lowest possible condenser inlet pressure influenced by the pressure
drop between the LP turbine diffuser and condenser tunes, the heat
transfer co-efficient of the tubes and the activation of the entire heatexchange surface.
Smallest possible condenser heat losses.
Minimized oxygen content in the condensate



Air Extraction
The unit will comprise of (2x100%) vacuum pumps along with all
accessories and instrumentation for condenser air evacuation. The
vacuum pumps and accessories will be used to create vacuum by
removing air and non-condensate gases from steam condenser
during plant operation. Vacuum pumps will be of single/two stage
liquid ring type with both stages (If two stage pump is selected)
mounted on a common shaft. Vacuum pumps will be sized as per
latest HEI requirements.


Condensate System
Condensate from the divided hot well of the condenser of each unit
will be pumped by 3x50 percent capacity condensate extraction
pumps (CEP) through steam jet air ejectors (alternately vacuum
pumps) gland steam condenser, drain cooler and LP heater to the
deaerator. Condensate extraction pump recirculation are envisaged
to arranged through an adequately sized control station located
upstream of the gland steam condenser. Condensate discharge flow
will be measured through a flow meter installed on the discharge
line between the CEPs and steam jet air ejectors (if provided) :- The
condensate will be utilized for the following apart from use for
steam generator :1.

Sample coolers


Condensate extraction pump seals


Exhaust hood spray


LP Bypass valve spray


Chemical feed tanks


Alkali flushing


Wet steam washing


Vacuum pump seals


LP heater # 1 and drain cooler will be arranged suitably for bypassing

together through globe valve while LP heater # 2 and LP heater # 3
will be provided with individual valve bypass arrangement. A flow
meter and non-return valve will be provided in the line from LP heater
# 3 to deaeration.
Flow control stations with necessary valves are envisaged in the
regenerative system feed water to achieve the desired levels in
deaerator and hotwell. Boiler make-up will be provided to the
condenser hotwell through an adequately sized control with valves.

Condensate pumps
Each unit has 3x50% capacity motor driven condensate extraction
pumps (two operating and one standby). The condensate pumps will
be vertical canister type, multistage centrifugal diffuser design with a
double suction first stage designed for condensate extraction service
having low suction head requirement. The pumps will be capable of
handing the condensate from the condenser together with feed heater
drains when the machine is operating at maximum unit output with HP
Heaters out with 3% make-up and discharging this quantity through
the condensate polishing unit and the LP heaters to the deaerator.
The pump will have adequate margins on capacity and head to cater
for most adverse conditions of operation such as:



HP & LP bypass in operation.


HP heaters out of service and unit operating at its maximum

load during an under frequency operation.

Heater Drip/Drain System

Heater drips/drains will be cascaded to the lower stage heater
through control valve stations. High pressure heater drips/drains
finally enter the desecrator while low pressure heater drips/ and those
from the gland steam condenser through cooler (if required) and
steam jet air ejectors (if provided) finally enter the condenser.


Drips/drains from all HP heaters and LP heaters

alternately connected




will be also

stations to the

condenser. Heater level will be controlled through level control valves

in the drip outlet of heaters. Group protection system will be provided
for HP heaters. This will be automatically operated in the event of rise
in level in HP heater thus safeguarding any carry over water to steam

Turbine Drains
Drain from steam turbine, extractions lines etc., will be connected
to unit flash tank subsequent flow to unit drain tank system.


Regenerative Feed Heating Cycle

Regenerative feed heating plant will be designed for all operating
conditions including transients like sudden load throw-off, HP-LP
bypass in operation, one or two heaters going out of service etc. The
condensate from the condenser will be pumped by the condensate
extraction pumps through the train of LP heaters to the deaerator. In
deaerator, the condensate will be heated to saturation temperature
and fed to the boiler feed pump, which increases the feed water
pressure to suit the steam generator requirements. Finally the feed
water is fed to the boiler through a feed regulating station


HP & LP Heaters
Regenerative feed heating cycle will consist of LP heaters, one drain
cooler, deaerator and HP heaters. The number of LP and HP heaters
will be based on the optimization of feed heating cycle.
Feed water will be heated by uncontrolled turbine extraction steam
from turbine inter/stage tap offs and cold reheat line in feed water
heaters. The deaerator will normally be operated under variable
pressure on extraction steam from the cross over pipe, between IPT
and LPT modules. Each feed water heater will be capable of handling


the drains from the preceding heater under operating conditions of the
The equipment will be designed in accordance with latest applicable
standard or codes of heat exchanger institute. ASME, IBR etc. The
feed water heaters will be of U-tube with all welded stainless steel
tubes, surface type and horizontal with integral condensing and drain
cooling zones. The HP heaters will also have de-superheating zone.

Horizontal spray cum tray type deaerator with a storage tank will be
provided. The deaerator will be capable of deaerating the dissolved
oxygen and carbon dioxide in condensate & HP Heater drains. The
minimum capacity of the deaerator will be 6 minutes between normal
operating level and low level with a filling factor of 0.66. The deaertor
will be normally operating by taking extraction steam from IP turbine
except during low load operation and start up when the steam is
drawn from the auxiliary steam header.


Boiler Feed System

a. Boiler feed suction will comprise of a common header from the

desecrator storage tank branching - off to suction of 3x50% boiler
feed cum booster pump sets through adequately sized suction
strainers (one provided for each pump set). The discharge from
the booster pump set will enter the suction of the boiler feed
b. The discharges of the 3 boiler feed pump sets will be connected
to a common header of each unit. Each feed pump discharge will
be provided with a non-return valve and motor operated gate
valve. Each feed pump will also be provided with balance drum
leak-off and recirculation lines returning to suction of boiler feed
pump. High pressure feed water passes through HP heaters # 6,


# 7 & 8 # for finally connecting to the boiler economizer. On the



line from HP heater # 8 to economizer , an

adequately sized flow measuring device, feed water control

station; and stop



will be

provided. Motorized

bypass arrangement will be made for each HP heater individually

and also for heaters in a group.
c. Tee-off connection will be provided on the feed discharge line
before HP heater # 7 for supply spray water to the following :

HP bypass valve.


Auxiliary PRDS.


SH temperatures.


RH attemperators.

The feed control station will comprise three (3) parallel sets of control
valves each provided with motor operated inlet and outlet gate valves.
Out of the 3 control valves, two valves will be of full capacity control
one working and one standby) and the third will be of smaller capacity
control valve for starting purpose.

Boiler Feed Pumps

The unit will comprise of 2x50% turbine driven boiler feed pumps and
1x50% Electric motor driven Boiler feed pump per unit with the
booster pumps mounted on the common shaft. Each pump will be
designed to give parameters to suit the steam generator
requirements, such that motor driven feed pump will be used for startup of unit and will also act as standby BFP. Turbine driven boiler feed
pumps will be located at operating floor and the motor driven pump
will be located on mezzanine floor and both types will be accessible to
turbine house EOT crane for erection and maintenance. The feed
pump will be able to handle feed water of Ph 8.5 to 9.5 and of
temperature up to 185 0C (tentative).


The boiler feed pumps will be of horizontal, centrifugal type with stiff
shaft design. The boiler feed pumps outer casing will be of barrel type
with end removal. The inner pump assembly comprising of shaft,
impellers, stage casings will be capable of being removed and
replaced as a unit without disturbing the feed piping. Each feed pump
will be provided with ON-OFF / modulating type recirculation control
valve to protect the pump under low flow condition. The boiler feed
water system will be designed to operate primarily in an automatic
mode over the range of system design loads. The arrangement will
provide automatic start-up one of the standby motor driven feed pump
under conditions like tripping of the running TDBFPs and / or
discharge header pressure low etc.
The feed flow will be controlled by throttling the turbine steam inlet
control valve in case of turbine driven pumps whereas hydraulic
coupling will be utilized to achieve speed control of motor driven
pumps. Provisions will be made for warm up to standby pump, if

Lube oil Purification System

A suitably sized centrifuge type turbine oil purification plant will be
provided as an auxiliary of the proposed turbo-generator set to
condition the turbine oil continuously to remove the water and other
impurities. In addition, a common turbine oil storage unit comprising
one clean oil tank, one dirty oil tank, one purifier unit with necessary
pumps, vent fans etc. will be kept. This would also receive the refill of
turbine oil from outside. The purification plant will be complete with oil
purifiers, storage tanks, filters and necessary pumping sets and vent


Typical Design Parameters of Steam turbine

Turbine (Typical)
Number of cylinders
Type of governing


660 MW
Tandem Compound
Four (4)
Electro hydraulic


Rated output (Continuous)
Steam pressure before
emergency stop valve HP
Steam temperature before
emergency stop value
Reheat steam inlet pressure
Reheat Steam outlet temp.
SH Steam flow required with
0% make-up and 0.1033 ata
back pressure
Rated pressure at exhaust of
LP turbine
Reheat steam flow
Rated quantity of circulating
Water to condenser
Max. temp. rise of circulating










2 x 68,824

Auxiliary Steam System

Auxiliary steam from the units will maintain auxiliary steam system
comprising of two pressure levels viz.. 16 kg/cm2g and 3.5 kg/cm2.
The 16 kg/cm2g auxiliary steam system for each unit is envisaged
through pressure reducing and desuperheating station on the branch
tap-off from the main steam system and will supply 16 kg/cm 2g steam
header to the following facilities :a) Turbine PRDS
Desecrator pegging through Control Station.
Turbine glands seal through control station.
Ejectors (if provided)


b) Boiler PRDS
Steam coil air presenters through control station
Fuel oil atomizing through control station.
Fuel oil unloading / storage heating through control station.
c) Soot blowing
The 16 kg/cm2 (g) auxiliary steam headers of both the units are
envisaged to be interconnected for operational flexibility. The 3.5
kg/cm2 (g) auxiliary steam system for each unit will supply steam
to desecrator which will normally fed from two sources namely
auxiliary steam system through pressure-reducing station or
through cold reheat line through pressure reducing station.

Sampling System
Centralized automatic and manual sampling and analysis will be
provided for monitoring of quality of steam and water. Online
instrument like ph meter, conductivity meter, dissolved oxygen
analyzer; silica analyzer etc. will be installed as per the scheme. The
sampling system will cover for measurement of H2 purity, conductivity
of stator water.


The generators will be directly connected, horizontal shaft, cylindrical
rotor, continuously rated for the turbine VWO output and at a rated
power factor of 0.85 lagging 3 phase, 50 HZ, star connected, in IP
55 enclosure. The generators will be provided with static or brushless
excitation as per manufactures standard. The generators will be
capable of operating in isolation or in parallel with each other and the
state power grid, with voltage variation of (+) 10% and frequency
variation of 47.5 to 51.5 hertz. The generator will have class F
insulation with temperature rise upto class B limits.


The generators will have overload capacity as per IEC 34-3. The
unbalance load capacity will 0.08 pu continuous with I2. 2t equal to 10
sec. The generator rotor will be capable to withstand an over speed of
20% for 2 min.
The excitation system will be capable of supplying required excitation
current of the generator under all conditions of operation of load,
voltage and power factor and under fault conditions. Rated current
and voltage of the exciter will be at least 120% of normal excitation
current and at least 110% of no load excitation voltage with minimum
ceiling voltage of 200% of rated.
Each generator will be provided with the following:a) Automatic high speed digital dual channel (auto-manual) AVR,
capable of maintaining steady-state terminal voltage within +
0.5% of the present value under all operating conditions and
capable of smooth and continuous running over the operating
band width.
b) Excitation control cubicle.
c) Surge protection equipment.
d) Neutral grounding equipment.
e) Current and potential transformers.

Generator control and relay panels.

g) Hydrogen cooling & stator water cooling systems.

h) Jacking oil, bearing oil and seal oil systems covered under



Generator Specification (Typical)

Rated KW capacity (MCR)

Rated kVA capacity (MCR)
Maximum Continuous kvA output
Rated terminal voltage
Rated power factor
Rated Stator current
Rated frequency
Efficiency at rated power output and power factor
Excitation current at rated power output and
power factor
Excitation Voltage at rated power output and
power factor
Short circuit ratio ( minimum)
Rated hydrogen pressure (gauge)
Rated hydrogen cooling water flow
Maximum capacitive loading capability at full
Maximum capacitive loading capability for
stability at rated voltage and Zero power factor
Reactance (%) unsat../sat

660,000 kw
77647 kVA
808400 kVA
24 kV
0.85 lagging
18680 Amps
3000 RPM
50 Hz
5823 Amps

Direct axis synchronous (Xd)


Direct axis transient (Xd)


Direct axis sub-transient (Xd)


Negative sequence (X2)


Zero sequence (X0)


Noise level at 1.0 meter

Total weight of generator
Heaviest lift

390 volts
0.56 +10 %
4.0 kg/cm2
1000 M3/hr
220 MVAR
350 MVAR

90 dBA
540 Tones
353 Tones






The main fuel for the power is coal. It is proposed to use both
indigenous beneficiated coal and imported coal in the blending ratio of
70 and 30 respectively to reduce the ash content. The indigenous
coal will be sourced from coal India mines as per linkage by Min. of
coal and imported coal will be tied up from South
Africa/Australia/Indonesia. The coal handling plant (CHP) will be
designed to operate throughout the year with blended coal.


Coal Transportation & Unloading Facilities

Indian washed coal will be transported through Indian Railway system
from mine to project site. The imported coal will be received at Goa
port and further transported to plant site through Indian Railway
The ROM coal (-) 300 mm or smaller size will be transported from
Coal mines in BOBR (Bottom open & bottom release) wagons. The
CHP layout will be developed for unloading coal through track
hoppers each provided on separate rail lines. Track hopper will be of
adequate capacity to unload full rake of BOBR wagons in about less
than 2 hours.
Required number of rail tracks appropriately interconnected with each
other will be laid ahead & prior to the track hoppers for handling/
return of empty rakes. Necessary line side equipment and signaling
arrangement for rake movement will be provided.
Blending :
Blending can be done in many ways. One method is reclaiming coal
from respective stock files at the rate of proposed ratio (70 or 30) and
blending can be done in the following methods


The coal can be blended in the following options,

i) Through feeding domestic coal at the rate of 70 % directly and
reclaiming imported coal at the rate of 30 %
ii) Through feeding imported coal at the rate of 30 % and reclaiming
domestic coal at the rate of 70 %
ii) Through reclaiming domestic and imported coal at the rate of 70 %
and 30 % respectively.
With the above reclamation/feeding methods and by providing
suitable facility in coal handling system, it is possible to lay indigenous
and imported coal in layers on the belts while conveying coal to
bunkers. These coal layers would get mixed while falling into bunkers.
The other method is to fill one bunker with imported coal and other
bunkers with indigenous coal and then adjust the mill parameters to
achieve the optimum heat load of the burners.

Coal Handling Plant - Design Parameters

(a) having average ash content of 34% (maximum) and having an
average gross calorific value of 4000 Kcal/Kg. calorific value for
design coal is also considered as 4000 Kcal/Kg for designing
CHP. Coal quality parameters (tentative) of imported coal and
Indian washed coal are given in Annexure- 6a & 6b respectively.
(b) Considering gross plant heat rate of 2380 Kcal/Kwh., the coal
consumption for the plant works out at full load with GCV of coal
as 4000 Kcal/Kg will be



Coal consumption at full

Tons per hour
Tons per day
Per year (at 85% PLF)


2 x 660 MW
(1320 MW)
5.92 Million MT


Some coal may be lost in transit/windage loss during storage etc.

However, plant will not work at full load on 24 hours sustained
load basis. Consequently, coal-handling plant designed on the
basis of requirement of 18,000 tonnes/day. CHP system capacity
will be taken as 2000 TPH coal receipt based on coal rake of 60
wagons and each wagon with maximum pay load of 58 tonnes.
Thus the 18000 tonnes of coal receipt in 6 rakes/day will be
handled in two shifts/day operation with single stream of CHP in
CHP system will consist of two (2) fuel streams (1operating + 1
standby) and each stream will have rated capacity of 2,000 TPH.
The complete CHP equipment & system will, however, be
designed for simultaneous operation of both the fuel streams at
rated capacity of 2000 TPH each in exigencies.
(c) The CHP system will have track hopper system, crusher house
having two crushers, two (2) stacker-reclaimer machines of 800
tph with reversible yard conveyors, coal blending system,
crushed/ blended coal storage yard conveyors, coal blending
system, crushed/blended coal storage yards, two (2) reclaim
Hopper complex for crushed/blended coal complete with
necessary inter-connecting conveyors simultaneous operation.
Other facilities such as safety guards, safety switches and hoists
for maintenance will be provided. The conveyor galleries with walk
way on either side will be of covered type having corrugated GI
sheets as roofing and side cladding. Galleries will be naturally
ventilated. FRP sheet side panels will be provided in a staggered
manner for natural lighting.
(d) The coal bunkers (above the pulverize/feeders) for each unit will
have aggregate 16 hours storage capacity. The bunkers will be
steel cylindrical silos with conical bottom and lined with stainless
plates to ensure smooth coal discharge from bunkers.


(e) The CHP system anticipated will be complete with dust

suppression/Dust extraction system etc. to make the CHP system
operation eco-friendly.
(f) All chutes will be lined to ensure smooth flow & discharge of coal
as Well as to ensure longer operating life of chutes. All junction
towers (JTs) and crusher house will be provided with floor
cleaning chutes.
(g) Below the hoppers, there will be four (8) rotary discharge
machines (RDM) (4 operating + 4 stands by) of 500 TPH, Two (2)
belt conveyors each of 2000 TPH capacity.
(h) From the hoppers ROM coal will be delivered to crusher house
through RDM belt conveyors, belt weighed, suspended
electromagnet, metal detector and in-line magnetic separator will
be provided on belt conveyors.

Crushing & screening Facilities for coal

a) Coal will be delivered to crusher house for crushing & screening

via track hoppers belt conveyor before feeding coal to crusher.
Tramp will be separated from uncrushed coal by on line magnetic
separators mounted at head end of conveyor before feeding coal
to crushers.
b) The Crusher house envisaged will have following features:i)

Four(4) screens will be provided for prescreening of coal to

Screen out (-) 25 mm lumps prior to feeding it to four (4)
Crushers. Two (2) screens will be operative while other two
(2) will act as standby. Similarly two (2) crushers will be
operating and the other two (2) will be standby. Each crusher
will be of 1000 TPH rated capacity to crush the ROM coal
from (-) 300 mm size from (-) 25 mm product.


Prescreened feed to crusher will prevent-crusher choking due

to wet fines during monsoon as well as prevents generation of
excessive amount of fines to avoid dust nuisance.
Screens require relatively low headroom and their operation is
relatively vibration free compared to other types of feeding
equipment vibration free compared to other types of feeding
equipment. Anti vibration pads for crushers will be provided to
optimize civil/ structural design of each crusher house.

Storage/reclaiming/coal bunker facilities

a) When coal bunkers for both the units are full, crushed coal from
crusher house will be transported to crushed coal storage yard and
stacker/reclaimer together with reversible yard conveyors.
d) In the event of non-availability of coal at track hoppers crushed coal
from stockpile will be reclaimed by bucket wheel/boom belt of
stacker/reclaimer and transported by yard conveyor to junction tower
for-filling boiler bunkers.
e) When stacker / Reclaimer, track hoppers and conveyors are under
maintenance or inoperative, then the crushed coal from stockpile will
be dozed into reclaim hoppers, equipped with four (4) vibrating
feeders at the bottom to discharge crushed coal onto bunker filling
conveyor, via reclaiming conveyor for filling onward coal bunkers.

Coal handling plant auxiliaries

Auxiliary systems such as dust extraction/dust suppression system for
dust emission control room and Unitary Air Filter (UAF) system in
MCC room will be provided.
On line weighing system will be provided on the track hopper.
Weighing system will also be provided on belt conveyors and boom of


stacker reclaimer to weigh the coal receipt rakes, crusher discharge

rates, reclaim rates, fuel feed rates to coal bunkers.
For removing tramp iron, on-line magnetic separator will be provided
at discharge end of belt conveyor. Magnetic detector, installed on the
conveyor prior to magnetic separator, will energize the magnetic
separator for tramp iron removal.
3-stage sampling system will be provided in crusher house and 2stage sampling system will be provided in JT (Junction tower.)
High/high & low/-level indicators will be provided for coal bunkers to
show the measurement of coal in the bunkers.
Electric/manual hoists will be provided for maintenance of drive units/
pulleys/crusher & screen components etc. Lift beam/hoist system will
provide facility to allow removal of material to the ground level for
transportation to repair shop.
Sump pumps will be provided in underground track hoppers/reclaim
hoppers buildings and stockpiles area etc. for rain water drainage.
Belt sealing arrangement will be provided for coal bunkers.
Annunciation system will be provided on tripper conveyor floor, CHP
control room etc to operate the entire CHP facility safely and
Suitable belt vulcanizing machine will be provided for belt repairs &
Mobile dust suppression system will be provide for stacker reclaimer.
Five (3) dozers (2 operating + 1 standby) with coal blade will be
provided for dosing into reclaim hoppers.

Electrical & Instrumentation

a) Power supply will be received in CHP substation from 11 kv
station buses through two feeders and step down to 3.3 kv &


415 v , 3 phase, voltage levels to supply to the drives and other

electrical equipment/ system of the CHP. Suitable sequence
controlling facilities will be provided at the central control panel in
CHP control room for proper control of the entire CHP. 3.3 kv
power will be distributed to various 3.3 motors of stacker/
reclaimers through central land mounted junction box, flexible
trailing cables with cable reel drums.
b) All other LT loads will receive power from LT boards, which in
turn will receive power from 6.6 KV switchgears via 6.6 KV/433
Volts transformers. The LT board at track hopper substation will
receive supply through 6.6 KV/433 volt transformers. The
switchgear cum motor control centre at the bunker floor will
receive power from the 415 Volt station switchgear to feed CHP
LT loads in powerhouse including the bunker filling conveyors.
c) Illumination will be provided indoors and outdoors for the entire
CHP by suitable explosions proof lighting fixtures supplied from a
number of local lighting panels which in turn will be supplied from
the main lighting distribution boards in the substations.
d) Entire installation will be earthed through two separate grounding
systems for protective earthing.
e) Lightning protection will be ensured in the form of horizontal
conductor network and/or vertical air terminal rod on the top of
various buildings and conveyor galleries with suitable downcomers grounded through test terminal links. Lightning protection
will be provided for structures / buildings higher than 55 meters
and/or where the calculated risk index exceeds 40.
f) Central control desk-cum-panel in sheet metal clad, free standing
type will be provided for the entire CHP housing mimic,
enunciator, control switches, push buttons, indicating lamps,
meters, scanners, power distribution system will also be


Control logic for the entire CHP will be achieved by

programmable logic controller (PLC) having features such as
auto-mode; manual mode; operator grade mode; and stimulation
mode; operator grade mode; and stimulation mode.
The CHP will be have sub-group level of control; and 2 out of 2
redundant features in CPU, redundant circuitry in I/O level,
diagnostic up to component level.
Intelligent INPUT/OUTPUT modules will be located in an airconditioned environment at strategic locations viz. main CHP
substation track hopper substation and bunker floor MCC room,
100% redundancy will be provided in PLC for CPU & memory.
Information peripherals at the output hierarchy i.e VDU, printer
etc will be connected within main processor. UPS system will be
incorporated for smooth functioning.
Coal handling scheme is given in Annexure 9.C

Coal Mill Rejects Handling System

The Mill Rejects Handling System will be provided for collection of the
rejects from the of each boiler unit and to convey to storage bunker.
Each mill will be provided with collection and transportation
equipment comprising of one no. Pyrite Hopper with water spray
arrangement plate valves at inlet and outlet and a transport vessel
connected to storage bunker. The mill reject handling system is
shown in Annexure 9.d


Fuel Oil System


A fuel oil system for boiler start-up as well as for flame

stabilization during low load operation will be provided.
Essentially heavy fuel oil (HFO) will be used for the boilers.
However, for ignition of furnace light diesel oil will be utilized.
Annual fuel oil requirement is estimated as 9, 900 KL.



Fuel oil will be brought to the station in railway wagons by a

full or half rake and will be unloaded by fuel oil unloading
pump sets located in the fuel oil pump house adjacent to oil
Unloading header located in the railway siding. The unloading
pump sets will transfer the fuel oil to storage tanks from oil
header provided with plug valves, flexible hoses. Steam
and/or electric heating system will be provided to facilitate oil
unloading, pumping and tank heating.


The oil system mainly will consist of following major


Two (2) HFO storage tanks each having a capacity of

2000 kilolitres complete with floor coil heaters. Suction
heaters; pipe nozzles, level indicators and other
necessary accessories. The tanks will be provided with
thermal insulation to conserve the heated oil to maintain
flowable characteristics.


Three (3) 210 TPH oil unloading/transfer pump sets with

auxiliaries to unload a full rake from rail wagons of oil in
about 4 hours time.


One (1) HSD/Bio-Diesel storage tank of 500 KL capacity

along with two (2) 100 TPH unloading/transfer pump sets
with auxiliaries.


One (1) adequately sized drain oil tank with 2x100

percent capacity pump sets and accessories located in
the fuel oil pump house.


One (1) common oil water separator for the unloading

area and fuel oil pump house area. A separate
condensate collection tank with 2x 100% capacity
condensate lift pump sets, valves, instrumentation and
accessories will be provided.


Associated steam & condensate pipe work, oil pipe work,

steam and/or electric heat tracing, thermal insulation,
valves, fittings, local/remote instrumentation etc. Scheme
of fuel oil system is given in Annexure 9.e



Ash Handling plant


Design parameters
The ash handling system will be designed to meet the following
requirements:One unit
of 660 MW
( TPH)

Two units
1320 MW
( TPH)

Coal consumption at full load



ii a Bottom ash generation @ 20%



b Coarse ash generation @ 10%



c Fly ash generation @ 70%







Ash generation with 34% ash

content in coal

Additional margin of ten (10) percent will be considered for

designing the ash handling plant over and above the anticipated ash
generation rates.
Ash collected in various hoppers will be extracted and disposed off
as described below.

Bottom Ash system

As shown in the Bottom Ash handling scheme in Annexure-9.f,
Bottom Ash (BA) will be collected continuously in a W-shaped, water
impounded, storage type, water cooled refractory lined bottom ash
hopper. BA hopper will be located directly below the bottom water
wall header of boiler and will have an effective storage capacity of 8
hours ash generation while firing worst coal. The bottom ash of each
unit collected in BA hopper will be removed in 90 minutes once in a
shift of 8 hours. To unload contents of BA hopper , its feed gates will
be opened by a remotely controlled/operated four way solenoid valve
and air water converter unit. It will be ensured that full quantity of ash
slurry is being removed during deashing cycle.


Each BA hopper will consist of two sections; each section provided

with two clinker grinders with electric drives installed directly below
the feed gate assembly to crush the clinkers to limit the size of
clinkers to maximum 25 mm. Out of two clinker grinders, provided for
each section of BA hopper, one grinder will operate while the other
will be standby. Operation of the grinder motor will be electrically
interlocked with the grinder seal water pressure, jet pump water
pressure and BA disposal line discharge pressure. The slurry (mixture
of bottom ash and water ) from the clinker grinder will be conveyed to
ash slurry sump by jet pumps through carbon steel pipes as per IS3589.
Bottom Ash hopper overflow will be routed through overflow seal box
to a drain sump. The contents of this drain sump will be discharges to
ash slurry sump.

Coarse Ash System

Coarse ash collected in Economizer hoppers, Air-preheater hoppers
and flue gas duct hoppers along the flue gas path will be
automatically extracted and conveyed to the feeder ejectors located
below each hopper. Necessary vacuum for extracting ash from the
hoppers will be created by the feeder ejectors. Coarse ash slurry will
be routed to the surge tank. Ash slurry from the surge tank will be
pumped to the slurry sump with 2x100% capacity horizontal
centrifugal slurry pumps through adequately sized 9.52 mm thick
carbon steel pipes as per IS-3589. The contents of coarse ash from
various hoppers of each unit will be pumped out in maximum four (4)
hours in a shift of 8 hours simultaneously with fly ash removal system.
Water requirements for feeder ejector will be tapped from HP ash
water pumps discharge header.


Fly Ash system

Fly ash collected in the ESP hoppers along the flue gas path will be
extracted continuously. The ash will be extracted either in dry form or


in wet form and convey either to ash silos in dry from or in wet form to
ash slurry sump.
Fly Ash System (Wet Disposal)
Fly ash collected in electrostatic precipitators and stack hoppers
along the flue gas path will be automatically and sequentially
extracted and pneumatically conveyed dry to the elevated collector
tanks through vacuum created by mechanical exhausters. Dry fly ash
prior to its entry to the collector tank will pass through wetting head
which wets the dry fly ash and discharge ash water slurry formed in
collector tank to the slurry sump. Collector tanks will be connected to
mechanical exhausters through Air washers. Flow of air to the
mechanical exhausters will contain negligible dust. Air washer drain
will be connected to collector tank discharge pipe. Jetting nozzles will
be provided below each collector tank to further convey the slurry to
the slurry sump. For dry fly ash conveying, cast iron pipes to IS:
1536/BS: 1211 Class-D will be used. For ash water slurry, carbon
steel pipes to IS: 1239(H) is: 3589 will be used.
Four (4) adequately sized fly ash piping steams per unit will be
provided and connected to individual collector tanks, mechanical
exhausters and other connected accessories. Normally all the four (4)
streams will be in operation simultaneously for fly ash removal.
Fly ash removal will be sequential according to a preset arrangement
and valves, which will be electrically interlocked accordingly. At the
operators option, it will be possible to bypass ash removal from any
hopper/s. fluidizing pads ensure free flow of ash from collection
hoppers of ESP will be provided Two (2) adequately sized ceramic
fluidizing pads located on opposite sides of each ESP hopper are
envisaged near hopper outlet flange.
Fly ash removal of each unit at full load with four fly ash streams
working simultaneously will not take more than four (4) hours in a shift
of eight hours while fining worst coal as shown in
Annexure 9.g


Fly Ash System (Dry Collection)

Fly ash collected in the ESP hoppers along the flue gas path will be
extracted sequentially and conveyed pneumatically in dry form to
RCC silos through dust collectors located adjacent to collected tank
tower. For collecting dry fly ash, fly ash streams will be connected to
dust collectors air lock valves, bag filters and other accessories. The
dust collectors will be connected the mechanical exhausters.
Adequately sized vent filters will be mounted on silo roof. Dry fly ash
will be conveyed to silos through adequately sized 3x50% capacity
screw compressors for each unit through adequately sized cast iron
pipes to IS: 1536 Class D /BS-1211 Class D.
Dry fly ash of each unit will be collected in separated silos. The
storage capacity of each silo will be 1600 Tonnes (ash collected in 8
hours while firing worst coal). Four (2) number of such silos for both
the units will be located near Railway marshalling yard and one silo of
1000 tonnes near the plant boundary.
Dry fly ash from silos will be off-loaded at the rate of 200 tph into the
trucks through dust suppression system or through rotary feeders.
Fly ash from each hopper will be collected in dry or wet form by
providing suitable remote controlled isolating valves) at the option of
the operator).
Deashing of dry fly ash from ESP hoppers to silos of each unit while
firing worst coal will not take more than four (4) hours in a shift of
eight hours.

Ash Disposal system

The ash will be utilized as per MOE&F guide lines and any unutilized
ash will be disposed off in ash dyke.
The ash slurry from 2 units will be collected in a common slurry sump.


Two (2) number silos each of 1600 tonnes capacity and one no of
1000 tonnes capacity at plant boundary will be provided for both the
The fly ash handling system capacity will be for 90% of total ash. This
ash will disposed in 6 hours for the ash collected in 8 hours. However,
the system will operate continuously.
Four (4) Ash disposal pump sets having a capacity of about 650 M 3/hr
consisting of two pumps in series to dispose slurry unto disposal area
will be provided. One set will be working and one set will be standby
with independent line without any cross over will be provided.
Ash disposal pipelines will be routed on concrete pedestals. Facilities
for easy rotation and replacement of the disposal will be ensured.
Disposal pipe lines will be joined by sleeve type couplings. Each pipe
length will not be more than 15 meters length and rest on three (3)
independent supports/pedestals.
Disposal line will be of 300 mm carbon steel pipes having minimum
9.5 mm thickness conforming to IS: 3589/API SL Gr. B.
Dry fly ash management plan is discussed in chapter 8 of this report.
The ash & water ratio for the ash slurry is generally 1:5. The total
slurry generation for both units will be around 1387 M3/hr or 1664.4

Ash Disposal water system

The water required for ash disposal will be tapped from cooling
towers blow down and routed to the ash sump. The pumps required
for ash disposal viz. Hp water pumps, LP water Pumps, refectory
cooling water pumps, seal water pumps etc. Will be provided. At least
50% capacity of pumps will be standby.


HP Water pumps
3 x 100% duty HP pumps (one working per unit & one common
standby for two units) will be installed in the ash water sump to cater
the needs of jet pumps below BA hoppers, feeder ejectors below
coarse ash hoppers and slurry sump agitation nozzles.
LP Water pumps
3 x 100% duty LP pumps (one working per unit & one common
standby for both units) will be installed in the ash water sump to cater
the needs of BA hopper fill, wetting head and air water on collector
tank tower etc
Refractory cooling water pumps
3 x 100% duty refractory cooling water pumps (one working per unit &
one common standby for both units) will be installed in the ash water
sump to cater the needs of refractory cooling of each bottom ash
Seal water pumps
3 x 100% duty seal water pumps (one working per unit & one
common standby for both units) will be installed in the ash water
sump to cater the sealing water requirement of ash disposal pumps
and coarse ash disposal pumps sealing. For this requirement, water
will be tapped from filtered water system.
The ash handling system for unit -1 & 2 are given in Annexure 9.f &

Electrical & Instrumentation for Ash handling system


Power supply for the ash handing plant will be received form
11 KV station Buses through two feeders and stepped down
to 3.3 KV and 415 Volts voltage level to supply power to


pump motors/electrical equipment/system of Ash handling




Operation and monitoring of Ash handling plant (AHP) will be

through programmable logic controllers common for Fly ash
(FA) evacuation, operation of water pump sets, ash disposal
pump sets, mechanical exhausters, conveying air
compressors fluidizing air blowers etc. of the units


While BA system of each unit will be operated from BA

control panel located near the respective BA hoppers, FA
system of each of the 2 units will be controlled from the main
control panel located in MCC room adjacent to ash disposal
pump house.


All electricals needed for the plant viz., switchgear, control

panels, cabling (instrument/power) earthing system of all
motors, illumination system of associated buildings will also
be provided to meet the system requirement.


Ash Disposal Pump house

i) The pump hose complex for both the units will comprise of
ash disposal pump house, ash water pump hose and MCC
room. Ash disposal pump house will accommodate ash
disposal pump sets & seal water pump sets; ash water pump
house will accommodate HP water pump sets, refractory
cooling water pump sets, while MCC room will accommodate
switchgears, control panels and PLC.
ii) Ash disposal pump house and Ash water pump house will be
provided with above 5% of heaviest single material capacity
EOT cranes for maintenance of equipment.


Blower Room
Blower room for both the units will accommodate mechanical
exhausters and fluidizing air blowers located between ESPs


of the units. For maintenance of these equipments,

adequately rated under slung crane will be provided in each
blower room.


Conveying Compressors Room

Compressor room will accommodate conveying air
compressors (for conveying dry ash from ESP hoppers to
silos) will be located between ESP of the units. For
maintenance of the equipments, adequately rated under slung
crane will be provided in conveying compressors room.

Emergency Ash Dyke

As per the Ministry of Environment & Forest (MOEF) G.O dt 3rd
November 2009,New coal and, or lignite based thermal power
stations and, or expansion units commissioned after this notification
to achieve the target of fly ash utilization as per table given below:


Fly ash utilization level

Target date

At least 50% of fly ash generation

At least 70% of fly ash generation

90% of fly ash generation

100% of fly ash generation

One year from the date of

Two years from the date of
Three years from the date
of commissioning.
Four years from the date
of commissioning.

The unutilized fly ash in relation to the target during a year, if any,
shall be utilized within next two years in addition to the targets
stipulated for these years. The unutilized fly ash accumulated during
first four years (the difference between the generation and utilization
target) shall be utilized progressively over next five years in addition
to 100% utilization of current generation of fly ash.;
The Central Electricity Authority and other approving agencies may
permit the land area for emergency ash pond or fly ash storage area


up to 50 hectares for a 500 MW unit, based on 45% ash content coal,

or in the same proportion for units in other capacities taking into
account the ash content in coal or lignite to be used.
As per above stipulation, the total land area works out for 1320 MW
capacity coal based power plant with ash generation @ 34% is up to
99.73 hectares.
With the progressive utilization of fly ash as stipulated by MOEF,
99.73 hectares (246.5 acres) of land area provided for the ash dyke
will be adequate for life of the plant.
The dry fly ash will also be collected in 2 nos. silos of 1600 tonnes
capacity to dispose off for bulk consumption through Railway wagons
and in one no. of 1000 tons capacity to provide dry fly ash to other
small scale industries. 2 nos 1600 tons silos will have Railway siding
and 1000 tons silo will have ash unloading facility to trucks.

Plant water system and water balance

Water is required in a thermal power station for:a)

Circulating water/CT make up


water for bearing cooling and other auxiliary systems through

closed loop circulation (ACW system)


Boiler makeup


Plant and colony portable water


Plant service


Fire fighting


Ash Handling system



Composite water balance

The consumptive water requirement of a typical 2x660 MW units is
worked out as follows:-



DM Water Requirement
Make-up water in power cycle @ 1.5% of 2x1920 M3/hr.
Aux. cooling water make-up @0.2% of 2x4200 M3/hr
H2 plant make-up
Condensate Polishing Unit
Chemical Feed
Considering regeneration time of 4 Hours, the capacity
of DM plant is Worked out to 100x24 : 120 M3/hr.
Hence, Three DM streams (2w+1s) each of Capacity 60
M3/hr. will be provided
Clarified/filter water requirement:
Clarifier slurry to Sludge sump
Feed to DM Plant including regeneration requirement
(with regeneration @ 10 M3/hr)
Plant & colony potable water
Plant service water, sealing, & A/c & Ventilation
R.G Filters back wash
CHP Dust suppression & green belt from waste water
Cooling tower make up @ 2.055% of 2 x 79,545 M3/hr.
(Based on COC 5)
Cooling tower blow down
Say (A)
Recycling water







a Filter back wash water

b Water recovery from sludge separation system
c Recycling water from UF/RO Plant
Sub-total (B)
iv Sludge Generation
Solid cake- PT Plant
Sludge- CMB Clarification plant
Sub-total (C)
Raw water requirement to PT Plant (A-B=D)
Evaporation losses- In plant water reservoir (E)
Design margin @ 5% (F)
vi Raw water requirement from River (D+E+F)


Consumptive water for the power station will be made available from
Krishna River as per allocation by WRD, Govt. of Karnataka and
pumped to site through pipelines.

Raw Water System

Raw Water Analysis:
Raw water Analysis is given in Annexure 7.0


Pre-treatment System
Two (2) working + one (1) standby 2300 M3/hr. capacity raw water
pumps will be installed in intake pump house located at intake system
provided at river Krishna will supply water to site through
2 x 100%
capacity pipelines. Boosting stations as per requirement will be
provided at suitable locations.
Requirement of raw water will be stored at site in-plant reservoir for
15 days consumptive requirement. Raw will be drawn from the
reservoir through 3 x 2300 M3/hr pumps (2w+1s), will be clarified
through PLC operated 3 x 2, 000 M3/hr capacity clariflocculators (two
working plus one as a common standby). Alum/Sodium


carbonate/lime/ polyelectrolyte and chlorine will be dosed in the pretreatment plant to accelerate coagulation process. The clarified water
(not exceeding 10 ppm turbidity) will flow by gravity to Nine (9) PLC
operated gravity filters each of capacity 500 M3/hr ( 8 working + 1
standby). The filtered water will be stored in a 8,000 M 3/hr sized
filtered water tank including separate storage for
requirement. Sludge from the clarifiers and rapid gravity filters will be
taken into sludge sump. The sludge will be pumped to the sludge
thickeners from sludge sump. Under flow from the thickeners will be
pumped to centrifuge-by-centrifuge feed pumps. Concentrate from the
centrifuges and supernatant from the thickeners will be taken back to
the inlet of the clarifiers. Solid cakes from centrifuge will be collected
in sludge dumpers for ultimate disposal.
Filtered water will be distributed to various areas of the plant through
dedicated pump sets as follows:a)

Three (3) - 55 M3/hr ( 2 working + 1 common standby) filtered

water pump sets for supply water to the three (3) DM Plant
stream having a capacity of 60 M3/hr.


two (2) 50 M3/hr (1 working + 1 standby) capacity potable

water pump sets will cater to the needs of plant & colony
potable water. Chlorine dosing is envisaged on the pump
suction lines to ensure compliance to GOI Public Health


Two (2) 200 M3/hr (2 working + 1 standby) capacity

adequate head service water pumps will supply filtered water
to the service water distribution network all over the plant
through an adequately sized 2 nos steel plate fabricated
overhead tanks suitably located over bunker bay (K/L) roof.


Two (2) 2,100 M3/hr (2 working + 1 standby) capacity

adequate head filtered water pumps sets will supply filtered
makeup water to Cooling tower make up to the CW sump/fore
bay of the CW pump house.




Three (3) 50% (2 working + 1 standby ) capacity adequate

head filtered water pump sets will be used for back wash of
filters along with adequate capacity two (2) nos. (1 working +
1 standby) air blowers with accessories.

Condenser cooling water system

Closed cycle condenser cooling is envisaged as per the requirement
laid down by MOEF (Protection) Rules 1986, as amended on
December 22, 1998 requiring New Thermal Power plants, using
water from river/lake/reservoir to install cooling towers irrespective of
location and capacity. Accordingly closed circuit cooling water
system with cooling Towers requiring only makeup water is
Make-up filtered water will be pumped through 3 Nos. CT makeup
pumps (2w+1s) to the circulating water (CW) sumps through one (1)
No. 100% capacity buried steel pipes.
The each CW sump will be provided with 3 (2+1) Nos. vertical, mixed
flow CW pumps sets for pumping filtered water to condenser of each
unit (3 No. 50% capacity pumps per unit) and will discharge to natural
draft cooling tower having cooling range of 100C maintaining a cycles
of concentration of 5. The re-cooled water (at 320C) from cooling
towers will be channeled to CW sump. Appropriate interconnection
between the CW Pipes near the CW Pump house will be provided.
Suitable arrangement for chlorine dosing to curb organic growth and
chemical dosing for maintaining higher COC will be made. The makeup requirement for the both the CTs based on COC of is worked out
as 4090 M3/hr.


Bearing Cooling water system

Demineralised water in a closed cycle is envisaged for all auxiliary
equipment cooling of the power plant. This will be recooled by filtered
water, circulating on the secondary side of the plate heat exchangers.




Three (3)- Two operating plus one standby PHEs will be

provided per unit.A set of three (3) (2 working + one standby)
4200 M3/hr. auxiliary cooling water pumps (ACW) for each
unit will be used to establish necessary pressure differential
required for PHEs. These equipment will be located suitably
in the power plant building at ground level for each unit.


Dematerialized water for makeup to closed cycle BCW

system will be conditioned to avoid corrosion of carbon steel
materials. 3 Nos (2w+1s) of 1800 M3/hr DMCW pump sets
utilizing dematerialized water through PHEs will distribute to
various coolers of each unit of plant


Makeup water to ACW system will be made available from the

DM Water storage tank. This will be achieved through three
(3) 50 M3/hr Capacity ( 2 w + 1 s) adequate head DM transfer
pump sets located near the DM water storage tank and a
tapping is taken for make up to ACW tanks of both units.

Demineralization plant


Three (3) DM streams (2 operating + 1 standby) of capacity

60M3/hr. with fully automatic PLC based Demineralizing plant
will be provided to have mixed bed outlet quality as follows:
- Silica

less than 0.01 ppm as Sio2

- Ph

7.0 + 0.2

- Conductivity

less than 0.1 micro-mhos/cm at

25 0C

The filtered water will be pumped to DM plant through

activated carbon filters, cation exchangers; degassifiers;
anion exchangers; and mixed beds all installed within the DM
plant building. The DM water will be stored in two (2) 1000
cum capacity steel plate proper breathers and floating PVC
ball arrangement to prevent absorption of atmospheric gases.


The DM water will be used for heat cycle make up, auxiliary
cooling circuit make up, hydrogen generation plant. DM water
from storage tanks will be transported to the unit condensate
storage tanks of capacity 500 M3 through three (3) nos. (
2w+1s) 75 M3/hr. capacity pumps. Two (2) 100% capacity
boiler fill pump sets common for both boilers will eb installed
at DM water storage tanks for initital fill of boilers. 60 M3/hr
capacity separate unit wise pump sets will be provided for
supplying DM water to hot well make-up as shown on the DM
water system.



Manual operation is envisaged for unloading of chemicals,

measuring regenerant chemicals, acid/alkali flow rate setting,
while all other operations will be automatic through
pneumatically operated ON/OFF valves at all exchange units
separately. The valves will be of failsafe closure design such
that the regenerant chemicals are not wasted through drain in
the event of the power or air failure.
One (1) Programmable logic controller (PLC) will be provided
with a hot standby process with opening/closing of valves;
starting/stopping of pump sets during regeneration/ service
are controlled. Three (3) CRTs will be provided with facility for
alarms, printout and colors graphics for mimic display out of
which one of these will be provided with programming facility
as well. For pumps coming under automatic control, failure of
any operating pump will start the standby pump automatically.
Display of regeneration and time setting steps will be provided
through display unit. Manual override in case of automatic
system failure will be provided from the control panel.
DM/Pre-treatment plant PLC panel will be located in DM plant
control room along with processor rack.

Chemical feed system

Unit wise chemical feed system will be provided for feeding
neutralizing amines such as ammonia, morpholine and
cyclohexylmine in the condensate pump discharge/boiler feed suction


line (low pressure feed system) condensate tank outlet to maintain

the chemical concentration in the boiler water and feed water within
permissible limits for trouble-free operation of the plant along with
oxygen dozing arrangement to control water chemistry regim.
The chemical feed system plant will be located at ground level near
each unit between B&C bay.
Low pressure chemical dosing system of each unit will consist of:



An adequately sized mixing tank provided with stirrer and a

metering tank.


Two (2) full capacity metering pump sets complete with

suction filters, valves, specialties, and other accessories with
pipe work, fittings etc as necessary. Normally, one pump set
will run intermittently while the other pump set will be standby.

Station Effluent treatment system

a) Main plant drains consisting of waste water having light
density fine suspended particles from different areas as well
as other effluents such as boiler blow down, DM plant effluent
(i.e.) regeneration effluent from DM plant will be neutralized in
a neutralization pit before discharge to central monitoring
basin (CMB). Bottom ash hopper over-flow, Ash silo area
effluent, Boiler & TG area wash water , service water drains
etc will be led to central monitoring basin (CMB).
b) The Cooling tower blow down will be led to Central monitoring
c) Effluents from oil unloading area will be taken to oil-water
separator from where the separated oil will be taken for
mixing with coal for burning in the boiler furnace and the
water led to the CMB. Skimming tank is provided separately
to remove contained oil etc.


d) The intermittent oily waste generation in transformer area ,

T.G hall will be led to one common oil pit and Boiler area oily
waste to another oil pit/sump. This oily waste will be pumped
to oil separator to separate oil , water & sludge. The clear
water will be led to CMB intermittently.

e) Effluent from CHP primarily consisting of coal dust laden

water from various dust extraction points as well as dust
suppression system and run of water from coal piles will be
led to a separate settling/guard pond located near the cola
yard conveniently. and the over flow/resultant clear water will
be used for the coal handling plant (CHP) dust suppression
system. The required make up for coal dust suppression
system & coal pile area will be met from R.O reject.
f) The effluent from CMB will be clarified and the resultant
effluent will be led to UF+RO plant. The sludge generation
from clarification plant will be led to ash dump area. The
recycled water from RO plant will be taken back to Filter water
sump for reuse. The RO reject will be used for green belt,
AHS water make up, dust suppression system and any
balance will be led to solar evaporation.

g) The effluent water from ash pond & other waste will be
pumped to the guard pond; and will be treated in ash water
recycling system to maintain acceptable standards to pollution
norms; and recycled back to ash handling plant sump for
further ash disposal.

Condensate Polishing System

The Condensate Polishing system will be provided to remove
dissolved and suspended solids, corrosion products & other impurities
from condensate during startup, normal operation and periods of


condenser tube leakage to maintain the feed water and steam purity
requirements of the boiler and turbine. The condensate polisher will
be located in condensate feed water cycle between the condensate
pump discharge and the gland steam condenser.
Condensate polishing system will consist of 4 vessels of 33.3%
capacity for each unit complete with all equipment and separate
external regeneration arrangement will also be provided.
Composite water & waste water Schemes are given in Annexure
9h & 9i

Chemical Laboratory
A chemical laboratory will be provided for the day-to-day testing of
water quality, steam quality, blow down etc.


Compressed Air System

The requirements of instrument air for the two units will be met by
three (3) compressors each of 32 Nm3 / min, 8.0 bar. One compressor
will be on automatic mode while second set of compressor will be onload/unload mode and the third set of compressor as standby. Each
of the compressors will be of rotary, screw type, non-lubricated type
complete with intercooler, after cooler, air receiver (dedicated to each
compressor) air drying units for all the compressors and associated
pipe work, instrumentation etc. The silica gel desiccant type dual
tower air drying unit for providing dry air having a dew point of (-) 40
C at atmospheric pressure will have 100% standby air drying
absorption tower, automatic regeneration facilities etc. to supply clean
dry air to instrumentation and control system.
The service air requirements for the two units will be met by three (3)
Nos. rotary, non-lubricating type station air compressors (same type
as that of instrument air compressors). While one (1) compressor will
be normally working on automatic mode the second set of
compressor will be in load/unload mode and third compressor will be
standby. These compressors will have suitable interconnection with
instrument air header to improve the availability/ reliability of the


instrument air system with proper backflow protection i.e. providing a

non-return valve (NRV) with direction of flow towards instrument
airside. Both the instrument and service air supply networks will cover
the entire operating and maintenance area of both the units of the
power plant.
Compressed Air scheme is given in Annexure 9.J

Ventilation & Air-conditioning system

Right environment for operation and maintenance of the power plant
units as well as for proper functioning of the plant equipment, controls
and accessories is an important aspect which will be given due
consideration In the proposed ventilation and air-conditioning system.


Air-conditioning (AC) system

Various control rooms of the plant units having a group of
sophisticated and precision control and protection devices; as well as
computer rooms will be air-conditioned to have controlled
environment for proper functioning and operating personnel comfort.
Various types of air-conditioning system will be provided (viz)
centralized system; package air-conditioning plants & split window
AC. The following areas will be air-conditioned:a)

Control room, control equipment room/UPS room, computer

room, SWAS (dry) panel room, DDC & DAS labs.


office area, laboratories, in service building.


All electrical control rooms.

The above equipment/buildings will be air-conditioned through
a central and/or distributed chilled water system. It will consist
of 2x100% capacity chilled water circulation pumps, condenser
cooling water pumps, cooling towers (as needed), hermitically
or semi-hermitic type chillers; cabinet type air handling units
with centrifugal limit load type backward blowers with 3-way


mixing valves & balancing valves etc. Cooled air will be

supplied to the various areas by rectangular Gl ducts and return
air will taken back through return air grills provided above the
false ceiling.

Electrostatic precipitator control rooms.


Coal handling plant control room.


DM plant control room.


switchyard control room


Ash handling control room

The above facilities will be air-conditioned through dedicated direct

expansion plants.
Air-cooled type packaged air-condition will also be provided at
isolated areas such as elevator machine rooms etc requiring airconditioned environment for smooth functioning of the control
systems in the background of high ambient temperature particularly
during summer season.
Package machines will have multiple cooling circuits with dedicated
compressors to ensure part load operations.

Ventilation System
a) Adequate ventilation system is considered as detailed below for
the power plant machine room building, ESP control building;
and other areas such as DG set room, air compressor room, A/C
plant room, DM plant building, Battery rooms and various pump
houses such as fuel oil pump house, DM water pump house etc
to achieve:
i) Dust free comfortable working environment.


ii) Scavenging out structural heat gain and heat load from
various equipment, hot pipes, lighting etc.
b) Power plant machine room building
Supply air system will be provided with evaporative cooling
plant by a set of air washers of 2x50% capacity with cooling
water coils ( water supplied with an independent source ) .The
system The system will include 2 x 50% capacity supply air fans,
inlet louvers, bird screens, viscous filters, cooling coils,
recirculation water system with 2 x 100% circulating water pump
sets, bank of spray nozzles & flooding nozzles, eliminators plates
and masonry sump tank etc. for supply and distribution of cooled
air at various locations. The exhaust system will consist of roof
extractors (for machine room); axial flow wall mounted exhaust
fans with GI ducts, dampers, grilles and other accessories as
necessary. The system will be designed and other maintain close
to ambient dry bulb temperature inside the building.
Various rooms of the power plant building such as cable
spreader room, switchgear room etc. will be ventilated by means
of pressurized supply and exhaust fans suitably located.
c) ESP control building
For ventilation of this building, ambient air will be draw through
unitary air filtration unit comprising fresh air intake louver, dry
type filter and cooling coils conveying water [supplied from an
independent source] and supplied to the space by means of
centrifugal fans through ducting, grilles, etc. The supplied air will
be exhausted through wall mounted gravity operated dampers to
maintain higher over pressure (measurable) in mm water column
to reduce dust and fine sand.
d) Other buildings


Other areas such as DG set room, air compressor room A/C

plant room etc will be ventilated by means of dry system
comprising axial flow fan, dry filter whenever required, cowls
ducting etc. Inside dry bulb temperature is maintained lower than
ambient by about 5 0C. Fire dampers will be provided on
ductwork routed through electrical installation areas. Ventilation
system of respective areas will be suitably interlocked with fire
detection system to minimize spreading of fire.
The normal design criteria for the design of the ventilation system
is to consider at least 10 air changes per hour an effective
volume of space 4 m from the floor level. In areas such as the
machine room of the plant building TG bay, etc. where the
volumes handled are very large, the system is designed by
providing limit load type backward curved centrifugal DIDW
blowers/fans (mounted on suitable heavy duty vibration isolators)
inside an acoustically insulated room with dedicated ductwork so
that all the heat generated is removed and a temperature lower
than the ambient is maintained. The system envisages to
maintain a temperature of 50C lower than the ambient
temperature for providing comfortable working atmosphere.

Fire protection system

For protection against fire, all yard equipment and plant equipment
will be protected by a combination of hydrant system; automatic
sprinkler spray system (emulsifier system); fixed foam system for oil
handling areas; automatic high velocity and medium velocity sprinkler
spray system; auto modular inert gas based system for control rooms
apart from portable and mobile fire extinguishers located at strategic
areas of plant buildings and adequate passive fire protection
measures. The systems will be designed as per the recommendations
of NEPA or approved equals in accordance with the tariff advisory
committee of the insurance association of India stipulations.

In view of vulnerability to fire and its importance in the running

of the power station, effective measures will be taken to tackle


fire in the susceptible areas such as cable galleries; fuel oil

handling areas; coal handling plant areas including transfer
points, crusher houses and tunnels, etc.

For containment of fire and preventing it from spreading in

cable galleries unit wise fire barriers with self-closing fire
doors will be provided. In addition, all cable entries/openings
in the cable galleries, tunnels, floors will be sealed with noninflammable/fire resistant sealing materials to prevent fire
propagation for at least three (30 hour. Fire protection cable
coating compound over cables at switchgear entry points,
power station building entry points and trays shall be provided
to prevent damage from fire for at least thirty (30) minutes.

Adequate separating distances will be maintained between different

process blocks and hazardous equipment. To prevent fire from
spreading through ventilation & air conditioning ducts, dampers with
auto closing arrangements will be provided at appropriate locations.
FRLS power and control cables will be used.
Dedicated fire water pumps are installed in the filtered water pump
house. In the filtered water storage tank about 4000 M3 water will be
stored as dedicated dead storage for meeting firewater requirement in
exigencies. The details of system are as follows:a) Two (2) electric motor driven fire water pump sets of
adequate capacity having 88 MWC head along with two
(2) identical capacity & head diesel engine driven backup
fire water pumps of identical capacity will be provided for
hydrant and sprinkler system in addition to two (2) jockey
pump sets having adequate capacity and 88 MWC which
would be brought to operation automatically when
hydrant pressure drop indications are received. In
addition to these pump sets, other auxiliaries for the fire
protection system such as hydro-pneumatic tanks,
compressors, pipe work, valves etc will be provided as


b) The hydrant system will feed pressurized water to

hydrant valves located throughout the plant and also at
strategic locations within the powerhouse.
c) Automatic high velocity water spray system (HVWS) will
be provided for generator transformer; unit auxiliary
transformers; station service transformers; and turbine oil
storage tanks.
d) Automatic medium velocity water spray system will be
provided for


Cable galleries, cable vaults, cable spreader

room, cable riser in main plant, switchyard, ESP,
AHP control room, coal conveyors & transfer
points etc.
Fuel oil area.
Compressor room & DG set room

Adequate arrangement of detection of fire and smoke

will be provided at different locations of vital
installations. Centralized control panel indicating zone
of fire will be located at central control room. Fire
alarms will be distributed throughout the plant and
important location so that security gate/fire station
persons and control room get immediate information.
The ventilation system provided in cable galleries will
be so interlocked with the fire alarm system that in the
event of a fire, the ventilation system would be
automatically switched-off.
e) Automatic High velocity spray system will be used for
protection of burner zone of each of the boiler.


f) Fuel oil tanks in the fuel oil farm area will be provided
with MVWS system as well as mixed foam mechanical
system to extinguish accidental fires in tanks as well as
outside the dyke. Water for foam system will be drawn
from the plant hydrant system. Adequate numbers of
hydrant points will be distributed near the oil tanks foam
area. Fire hoses fitted with couplings and nozzles will be
located suitably at the oil unloading station and kept in
house boxes.
g) Automatic inert gas based flooding type-extinguishing
system will be provided for unit control room, areas
independently apart from the provision of detection and
fire alarm system in that area. Suitable fire detection
system will also be provided at cable vault rooms, unit
control rooms and other MCC rooms etc to detect
outbreak of fire at an early stage.
h) Adequate number of fire hydrant points will be distributed
through out the plant building, service building. Coal
handling plant, ash handling plant and other areas along
with fire hoses fitted with couplings and nozzles and kept
in the hose boxes.
In addition to the above facilities adequate number of manual call
points (MCP) as well as portable and mobile (wheel mounted) fire
extinguishers of soda acid type; foam type; chemical type; and
carbon-dioxide type will be provided at suitable locations throughout
the plant area to meet NFPA and Loss preventive Association codes,
Tariff Advisory committee stipulations ETC.. These extinguishers may
be used during the early stages of fire to prevent from spreading.
Two (2) nos. of fire tenders will be located and kept in readiness
complete with all accessories at fire station located close to fire
control room.

Cranes and Hoists


In order to facilitate the handling various equipments during erection

and maintenance of the power plant, a number of cranes and hoists
will be required at various locations.
Two (2) electrically operated traveling type (EOT) cranes of 140/40
tonne capacity complete with all accessories to operate independently
and also in tandem operation will be provided. The lifting beam with
swivel arrangement for tandem operation of the two cranes for
handling heavy equipment in the machine room/turbine building
common for both units is also envisaged .
The generator stator will be the heaviest piece of equipment. To avoid
extra load on the turbine building columns and foundations, the
generator stator will be lifted by jacking/cribbing process. For other
heavy pieces to be lifted such as generator rotor, LP turbine rotor etc.
One of the two (2) 140 tones capacity EOT crane will be utilized.
Conventional and special type of cranes for maintenance of a few
important equipment of SG and TG packaged plants such as
FD/PA/ID fans pulverizes, air heaters, condenser water box, ESP
transformer rectifier sets etc will be provided. For various pump
houses like clarification plant; Filtration plant; Dematerializing plant;
Fuel oil pump house; intake pump house; under slung cranes of
adequate capacity; and pendant operated cranes with electrical hoists
will be provided. For circulating water pump house, a pendant
operated electric overhead traveling crane will be provided with
minimum capacity of crane of 40/5 tonnes.
Maintenance cranes/handling devices of suitable capacities will be
considered for all other areas such as compressor house; hydrogen
generating plant; coal handling plant transfer points etc. Monorails for
lifting heavy motors and other equipment within the power house not
covered by EOT crane such as Miscellaneous pumps, heat
exchangers etc will also be provided. Suitable rails embedded on floor
for dragging the horizontal feed water heaters to have the approach
under EOT cranes will also be provided.




One (1) 2000 kg. capacity goods elevator will be provided in

between the two (2) boilers connecting various boiler floors and
power plant building floors for carrying men & heavy material for
operation maintenance of boilers.
One (1) 884 Kg capacity ( suitable for 13 persons) for power house
building to facilitate movement of O&M personal will be provided.
Elevators will be designed as per relevant IS/4665 ( All parts).
One stack elevator of capacity about 500 kg , rack and pinion type
vertical lift complete with all accessories will be provided for the stack.
Further, one (1) 20 passenger elevator of 1360 Kg capacity will be
installed in the service building annexed to power plant building.
Elevators envisaged for the power plant, will conform to IS:3534 and
IS : 4666.

Hydrogen Generation plant

A Hydrogen generation plant having two (2) streams of 10 Nm3/hr
capacity will be provided in the plant to meet the hydrogen gas
requirements of both units.
The purity of Hydrogen gas will be 99.998% as per IS:1090/1983.
Hydrogen gas produced from the plant will be compressed in bottles
for transportation to the respective units hydrogen bottle racks in the
machine room.
The normal hydrogen gas requirement for one unit will be about 30
Nm3/day. About 500 hydrogen gas cylinders, each of capacity 6 Nm 3,
will be provided for hydrogen gas storage, which will be used for
normal supply of gas for make up and filling up of generators.
Carbon dioxide is required for purging the hydrogen and during shut
down and start up respectively. About 200 Nos. of CO2 cylinders of
8.85 Nm3 capacity will be stored at site.


The oxygen gas produced as by product from the hydrogen

generation plant will be released to atmosphere.

Mechanical work shop

A mechanical workshop for regular maintenance of work will be
provided with necessary equipment.




Basic Design Concepts

Station Electrical systems and equipment will be designed
conforming to the following basic concepts:a)

Ambient temperature: The equipment will be designed for a

maximum ambient temperature of 500C.


Voltage levels: Voltage levels envisaged at the plant are 400

KV for evacuation of power; 24 KV for generation; 11 KV for
large auxiliaries loads (above 2000 Kw); 3.3 kv for medium
auxiliary loads (200 kw to 2000 kw); 415 volts for smaller
auxiliaries (lower than 200 KW) and 220 Volts DC. Singlephase AC motors are not recommended for use except in
very special cases of low power for which panel mounted
415/240 Volts transformer will be provided. 110 Volts will be
adopted for AC control supply fr which panel mounted
415/110 control transformer will be provided.


Variations: Auxiliaries will be designed for ac voltage

variation of + 10%, frequency variation of + 5%; and
combined voltage and frequency variation of 10%. DC
auxiliary system will be designed for voltage variation
is (-) 15% to (+) 10% of 220 volts.




Fault levels: Symmetrical fault level ratings and withstand

duration at the various voltage levels for design of circuit
breakers and other components are as under:


400 kv


27 kv generator bus duct - 152 KA (rms) for 1 sec (main

run) and 281 KA (rms) for tap
off to Aux. transformer & Delta
connection of main run


11 kv

- 40 KA (rms) for 1 sec


3.3 kv

- 40 KA (rms) for 1 sec


415 volt

- 50 kA (rms) for 1 sec


Basic insulation level: Lightning impulse & switching impulse

levels of 1425 kVp for 400 kv system 125 kVp for 24-27 kv
system, 75 KVp for 11 kv system, 30 kVp for 3.3 KV systems
and 5 kVp for 415V system will be adopted.


In line with the prevailing practices, neutrals of 400 KV and

415 v AC systems will be solidly grounded. Generator
neutrals will be grounded with resistance loaded distribution
Transformer. 11 kv and 3.3 kv system neutrals will be
grounded through resistance limiting the earth-fault current to
300 Amps. 220V DC system will have a floating (unearthed)


Control and protection: Controls will be micro-processor

based and centralized in a central control room. Multifunction
numerical type relays with redundant features will be used as
far as possible for the protection of generators, transformers,
400 KV, 11 KV, 3.3 KV and 415V systems.

Single line diagram

- 40 KA (rms) for 1 sec


A key single diagram of the electrical system for a typical 2x660 MW

power plant is as per Annexure 9.k.

Power Evacuation
The net power available at the power station bus bars for evacuation
to PGCIL/KPTCL grid will be of the order of 1241 MW.
Depending upon the conductor configuration used, the surge
impendence loading of 400 kv line varies from about 500 to 650 MW.
Thus, minimum three (3) single circuits 400 kv lines would
theoretically suffice to evacuate the entire net output of the plant.
However, the system should provide for outage of a 400 kv line from
a major generating station. Therefore, it is proposed to provide four
(4) 400 kv line bays power evacuation from power plant.


400 KV Switchyard
The 400 KV Switcyard is proposed to have conventional 3-bus (Main1, Main-2 and Transfer bus) arrangement with the consideration of
simplicity of switching and protection schemes. The switchyard will
comprise following bays: 2-Generator transformer bays
4-O/G line bays
2-station transformer bays
1- Bus coupler bay
1-Transfer coupler bay
Total 10 bays
For the above mentioned configuration the switchyard will require a
space of about 350 M (L) X 200 M (D)
The switchyard will be complete with galvanized steel structures,
lightning surge arrestors, wave traps, PLCC equipment, CTs, PTs of
suitable VA burden and accuracy class as required for measurement


protection and communication, insulators, bus-bars, clamps,

connectors & hard wares etc.The switchyard will be controlled by
computerized supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)
To improve reliability of the power evacuation system and the plant
load factor, switchyard insulators with increased creepage ( minimum
25 mm per kv) and live line insulator washing equipment will be

400 KV Switchyard equipment


Circuit Breakers
Circuit breakers will be 420 KV class conforming to IEC
62271-100 SF6 type with 40 KA (rms) symmetrical
interrupting capacity comprising three (3) identical single pole


420 KV Isolators (Disconnecting switches)

The design of isolators and accessories will confirm in general
to latest edition of IEC 62271-102. Isolators will be provided
with earth switches wherever required and will be capable of
withstanding the dynamic and thermal effects of the maximum
possible short circuit current of the system in their closed
position. These will be constructed such that they do not open
under influence of short circuit current. The earth switches will
be interlocked with the main blade so that the earth switch
can be operated only when the isolator is open and vice
verse. This will be in addition to electrical or electromechanical interlocks between isolators and associated
circuit breakers. All these interlocks will be of fail safe type.
The isolators will be capable of making/breaking normal
current when no significant change in voltage occurs across
the terminals of each of the isolators on account of


make/break operation. Isolator and earth switches will be

motor operated.

420 KV current Transformers

The current transformers will be as per latest edition of IEC60044-1 or IS: 2705 and be preferably of live tank
construction with secondary terminals in a weather proof (IP55) terminal box. These will be mounted on oil filled porcelain
bushings, suitable for outdoor service and upright mounting
on steel structures. Expansion chamber at the top of the
porcelain insulator will be suitable for expansion of oil and
provision of primary terminals. Current transformer
characteristics will be such as to provide satisfactory
performance for burdens ranging from 25% to 100% of rated
burden over a range of 10% to 120% of rated current in case
of metering CTs and up to accuracy limit factor/knee point
voltage in case of relaying CTs. All ratios are to be obtained
by secondary taps. Out of six cores of current transformers,
four will be for protection and two for metering. The protection
core will be PS class and metering cores will be of 0.2. The
burden and knee point voltage will be in accordance with the
requirements of the protection system.


420 KV capacitor voltage transformers

The capacitor voltage transformers will conform to latest
edition of IEC-60044-5. Voltage transformers will be of
capacitance voltage divider type suitable for carrier coupling.
CVTs will have four secondaries , one for protection having
3P class of accuracy, two for metering of 0.2 class accuracy
and one for composite metering cum protection function of
3P/0.2 class of accuracy. CVTs on lines will be suitable for
H.F. coupling required for power line carrier communication.


Surge Arresters


Each outgoing 400 KV line & generator transformer will be

provided with three ((3) surge arrestors conforming to IEC
60099-4 and having following rating:Surge arrester rated voltage (KV)
Discharge class
Discharge current (KA)

: 360
: IV
: 20

Generator Transformers (GTs)

The Generator Transformer for 660 MW unit will comprise a bank of
three (3) single phase units rated 260 MVA ODAF or
OFAF/ONAF/ONAN cooled oil-immersed outdoor type. The rating of
the three phase bank will be 780 MVA. The GTs will be sized to
evacuate maximum continous output of the unit minus the full rated
load of one UAT. The low voltage side of the transformer will have
isolated phase bus duct connection to the generator while the high
voltage side will be connected to the 400 KV switchyard by means of
ACSR overhead conductors. Voltage ratio for the GTs will be
420:24 KV.
The transformer will be provided with off-circuit tap changer (OCTC)
having range of (+) 5% to (-) 5% in steps of 2.5%. HV windings will be
with graded insulation while LV winding will be uniformly insulated.
The impendence of the transformer at normal tap will be around 15
percent. The noise level of the transformer will be restricted to 90 db.
The three phase windings of the transformer will be connected in star
on HV with neutral brought out for solid grounding. The secondary
windings will be connected in delta. The vector group will be YNd11.
The GTs will be suitable for bi-directional flow of power.
One single-phase unit of generator transformer will be provided as a
spare unit and will be suitable placed in the transformer yard.
Each phase of the transformer will be provided with a lightning surge


Station Transformer


Station Transformer (ST) will be 3 phase 400/11.5/11.5 KV

OFAF/ONAF/ONAN cooled, YNYnOYnO, 3-winding type with OLTC in
range of (+) 5% to (-) 10% in steps of 1.25% on HV. Each ST will be
sized to cater to the worst loading condition of a) 100% of common
station auxiliaries, with transferred load of one unit under starting and
the other unit under shutdown or b) 50% of common station
auxiliaries with both units running on full load, with the transferred
load of one unit Auxiliary transformer under outage/maintenance.
With the fore-mentioned considerations each ST will have an OFAF
rating of 90 MVA. The two secondaries will each be rated for 50 MVA.
The impedance of the ST will be around 21% (HV-LV1/LV2) and 37%

Unit Transformers
The 660 MW units will each have two (2) 28/35 MVA, ONAN/ONAF
cooled , 3 phase Dyn1 Unit Auxiliary Transformers (UATs) with onload tap changer ( OLTC) having a variation range of +10% in steps
of 1.25% on HV side and a voltage ratio of 24/11.5 kv. The
impedance of UATs will be around 9% at the principal tap so as to
limit 11 kv fault level to less than 40 Ka.
Each UAT of 660 MW unit will be sized for sixty ( 60) percent of unit
MCR auxiliary load.


Start-up power
Startup power for the unit will be draw from the 400 KV system
through station Auxiliary transformers. Once the unit is synchronized
with the system through generator transformer, the unit auxiliary
power requirements will be drawn the unit auxiliary transformers.


Auxiliary power for the units & common auxiliaries

Auxiliaries of 660 MW Unit, rated 2000 KW & higher are proposed to
be connected to 11 KV supply while auxiliaries rated between 200


KW to 2000 KW will be connected to 3.3 KV supply and lower rated

auxiliaries to 415 V supply.

Unit/station service transformers

Power from 11 KV switchgears will be stepped down to 3.3 KV and
415 V voltage levels through 11/3.6 KV and 11/0.433 KV or 3.3/0.433
KV Dyn 11 connected service transformers. 11/3.3 kV transformers
will be oil-filled outdoor type while 11/0.433 kV & 3.3/0.433 KV
transformers will be dry type for indoor installation. Maximum capacity
and minimum impedance of 11/0.433 KV and 3.3/0.433 KV
transformers will be limited to 2500 KvA in order to restrict the 415 V
system fault level to 50 KA (rms). LV neutral of 3.3 kv transformers
will be resistance earthed for fast detection and clearing of earth fault.
Off circuit taps of + 2.5% and + 5% will be provided on HV windings
for controlling the voltage on the LV side.


Bus ducts
Each generator will be connected to the generator transformer
through isolated phase naturally cooled, pressurized type bus duct
with continuous type aluminum /aluminum alloy separate enclosure
for each phase. Arrangement will be made for blowing hot dry air
through the bus duct on starting a unit after prolonged shut down.
Current & voltage transformers for AVR, relay protection,
instrumentation etc. will be provided in the generator bus duct. Surge
protection equipment housed in metal clad cabinets will be provided
on the generator bus duct tap off. A generator neutral grounding
cubicle housing a single phase distribution transformer and secondary
loading resistor will also be provided along with the neutral side bus
duct. The connection of the unit and station transformer to their
respective 3.3 KV & 11 KV switchboards will be by means of phase
segregated bus duct.








To cater to the MV loads of off site BOP systems suitably rated 11/3.3
KV Dyn11 oil-filled ONAN cooled auxiliary transformers will be
provided. These transformers will have off load tap changer with
+10% range in steps of 1.25% on 11 KV side. Each auxiliary
transformer will be sized to cater for 100% of the system load. Two
(2) such transformers will be provided for achieving redundancy &
The power supply for water intake system at river end will be
arranged from the local power supply net work of the state utility

11 KV & 3.3 KV switchgear

The station transformers & Unit auxiliary transformers will supply
power to 11 KV and 3.3 kV station/ Unit switchgears through
segregated phase bus-ducts. These switchgears will directly feed
high voltage motors, LT auxiliary transformers and switchgears for
Ash handling/Coal handling plant/CW system, water treatment plant,
intake water pump house etc.
The switchgears will be SF6/vacuum type in metal clad cubicles
suitable for indoor installation.


415 V Switchgear
Power from unit/ station service transformers will be supplied to 415V
switchgears. These switchgears will distribute power to LT auxiliary
motors and also to other auxiliary loads viz. MCC / ACDB, etc. LT
switchgears will be of metal enclosed indoor draw out type having
degree of protection class IP44 for bus bar chamber and IP-54 for
balance portions. Incomers as well as all the outgoing feeders will be
equipped with air circuit breakers of fault interrupting capacity of 50
KA rms.


Motor Control centers & distribution Board

Power to MCC & AC distribution boards (ACDB) will be supplied from
the 415 V switchgears through redundant incomers.


The MCCs will be of modular, metal enclosed, indoor, draw out type.
Each outdoing motor feeder will have a direct on-line (DOL) starter
unit. The motor starter will consist of MCCBs/switch-fuse unit,
contactor, Control fused and Bi-metallic over load relay and phasing
The DBs will be of metal enclosed, indoor, fixed type and suitable for
3 phase 4-wire 3 phase 3-wire, and 1phase 2 wire distribution system,
as applicable.
The incomers, ties and motor feeders of size above 110 KW & upto
200 KW will be controlled by circuit breakers while other feeders will
be controlled by MCCB/switch fuse, contractor for the lower sized
motors and MCCBs/switch-fuses for other feeders. Circuit breakers
will be of air-break type with symmetrical fault interrupting capacity of
50 KA (rms). DOL starters of essential Boiler & TG LT auxiliary
motors such as seal oil pumps, lube oil pumps, jacking oil pump etc
will be provided with a delayed drop off feature to permit auto-restart
following change over of supply from one bus to another bus.

Electric Drives
HT & LT motors will be energy efficient type (class eff-2), F class
insulated with maximum temperature rise within class B limits, IP-55
enclosure (with canopy for vertical outdoor motors ) designed for
direct-on-line starting with as low starting current as possible. Starting
current of boiler feed pump motors will be restricted to 4.5 p.u. (with
no positive tolerance). For other motors, the starting current will be
restricted to 6.0 p.u subject to a tolerance of + 20%.
Motor rating will be at least 1.1 times the power requirement of the
driven equipment at the duty point or the maximum power
consumption of the driven equipment.
Motors will be capable of starting and accelerating to full speed at
80% of the nominal voltage and will be capable of either two starts in
quick succession with third start after 5 min., in cold condition or two


starts at 15min. intervals in hot condition, in both cases with voltage

and frequency variation within specified limits. Motors will also be
capable of restarting under full load after a momentary loss of voltage
with the possibility of application of a total of 150% nominal voltage
during fast bus-transfer.
Motor torque characteristic will be such as to ensure smooth and
rapid starting and acceleration of the driven equipment.
Motors rated above 30 KW will be provided with thermostat-controlled
single phase space heaters to be switched on when the motor is idle.
Motorized valve/damper actuators will be intelligent type, with built-in
reversing starters and switched by soft command from remote
through a data highway bus. Feedback from actuator to remote
control center will also be transmitted through soft link.

communication facilities and non-volatile memory and MMI will be
provided for all 400 KV feeders, generators, on HV side of station and
unit auxiliary transformers and on incomers to 11 KV and 3.3 KV
buses for energy audit.
AVAILABLE Based Tariff ( ABT) grade energy meters will be provided
for main and check metering for both import and export of power from
the 400 KV buses. For this purpose, separate dedicated CTs and PTs
of accuracy class 0.2 will be used.
All 11 KV and 3.3 KV feeders connected to station and unit
switchgear buses will be equipped with multifunctional
microprocessor based feeder management devices having protection
and meeting facilities along with fault recording, event logging,
continuous self- monitoring and communication ports/ gateways with
IEC 61850 protocol for interface with plant DDCMIS system.


All other feeders will be provided with conventional indiacting and

metering instruments.

Electrical protection proposed for the various equipments will be
generally as per guidelines of CBIP/CEA and IEEE and as indicated
below:1. Generator/GT/AT: Three (3) sets of numerical protection relays
continuous, self monitoring and metering and
event/fault recording & communication
facilities & comprising the following
protections:a) Generators:
i. Differential (87G)
ii. Stator Inter-turn fault (95)
iii. Stator earth fault (64G)
iv. Loss of excitation (40)
v. Negative phase sequence current
vi. Reverse power (32)
vii. Low forward power (37)
viii. Rotor earth fault (64R), if feasible
ix. Over-voltage (59)
x. Under-voltage (27)
xi. Generator pole slipping (90)
xii. under/over frequency (81)
xiii. Voltage balance (60)
xiv. VT fuse fail Monitoring
xv. Thermal Overload (49)
xvi. Stator winding temp high


xvii. Dead machine protection (96)

against accidental energization

xviii. stator cooling Water conductivity low
b) Generator

i. Differential (87 T)
ii. Overall differential (87GT) covering

generator, GT and UAT HV winding

iii. HV restricted earth fault (64 REF) for
ST Only
iv. HV standby earth-fault (51 N) for ST
3. 400 kv

comprising of


protection (21)
i. Distance
phase over current & E/F
ii. Directional
i & 67N) Feeders.

4. 11kv & 3.3 Kv

(incomer & tie

400kv breaker failure

Breaker pole discrepancy

Breaker trip circuit supervision

Bus bar differential protection (87BB)

Numerical protection including:-

i. Inverse/definite time over current

(51) and earth-fault (51N)
ii. Instantaneous short circuit (50)
iii. Under voltage (27)
5. 11 kv and 3.3 kv
motors and
breaker controll
415 volt motors

Numerical protection comprising

i. Short circuit (50)


ii. Differential protection (for

rated above 1000 kw ) (87)
iii. Thermal overload (49)


iv. Phase over-current instantaneous &

definite time lag (50/51)
v. Instantaneous earth-fault (50 N)
vi. Unbalance loading/single phasing
(46 )
vii. Locked rotor (50 L/R)
viii. Under-voltage (27)
6. 415 Volts

i. phase over current and earth fault


7. Contactor
controlled 415
volts motors
below 110 KW

i. Thermal overload (with built-in or

separate SPP feature)

ii. Fuses for short circuit protection

220 V DC

i. Earth fault (Alarm only)

ii. Under voltage (27)
iii. Short circuit protection (by fuse)


Control Rooms
There will be one Central Control Room (CCR) at the operating floor
of steam turbine-generators building in which control panels for the
steam generators, station / unit auxiliary transformers and distributed
digital control system (DDCMIS) equipment will be housed. In
addition, auxiliary system electrical relay panels and fire alarm control
p[panels will also be provided.
The control & synchronizing of generators excitation systems,
generator transformers, unit & station auxiliary service transformers,
11/3.3 Kv/415 V incomers, ties and main outgoing circuit breakers to


the auxiliaries will be also achieved from operator consoles in the

central control room.
Switchyard controls will be achieved through a computerized
supervisory control and data Acquisition (SCADA) system comprising
RTUs, bay controllers, GPS etc, The switchyard relays will be of
numerical type with remote communication interface (IEC 61850)
such that all bay level data can be transmitted to the SCADA system
through optical fiber cable highway. To minimize cabling, the
numerical relays, RTUs, bay controllers and bay level operator
station, etc. will be located in outdoor air-conditioned container kiosks
having IP 55 degree of protection. It will be possible to operate the
bay disconnects switches and circuit breakers from the SCADA
operator control stations located in the bay kiosk. Ethernet data
highway will be extended to operator cum Engineering stations
provided in the central control room for remote control of all
switchyard bays. Gateways/ communication ports with protocol
converters will be provided between switchyard SCADA and plant
DDCMIS for exchange of data.
Separate control rooms will be provided for outside buildings, such
as, ash handling / coal handling / ESP / DM & WT, Intake / makeup
water pump houses etc.

The grounding requirement of the power station complex will be
divided into the following two main categories viz. system grounding
and equipment grounding:a)

System grounding: The system neutral

different voltage levels has been described.

grounding at


Equipment grounding: The equipment body grounding will

be adopted to provide protection to personnel from potentials
caused by ground fault currents and lightning discharges. A
stable ground grid will be provided for grounding of equipment


and structures maintaining the step and touch potentials

within safe limits. An earth mat will be laid in suitable depth
below the ground and balance of plant areas and provided
with ground electrodes at suitable spacing. The earth mats of
main plant & BOP will be interconnected by two or more
interconnections. All metallic parts of equipment supposed to
be at earth potential will be connected to the grounding mat
including building structures, substation towers, plant rail road
tracks, the perimeter fencing etc. The grounding system will
comply with IEEE 80, IEEE 665 and IS: 3043.

Lightning Protection System

Lighting protection system in accordance with IS:2309 will be installed

for protection of tall buildings/ structures and equipment against
lighting discharge. This will be achieved by providing lightning
conductors on tall structures, stacks, power house building, flood light
towers etc. and connecting these with ground electrodes.

Emergency power supply

2x1250 KVA diesel generator sets will be installed in the station to

serve as emergency power source. This emergency power supply
source will provide safe shutdown power in case of complete loss of
415V supply. The diesel generator sets will be provided with AMF for
the immediate start so as to cater to the following essential service: Barring gear and jacketing oil pumps
Auxiliary Lube and seal oil pumps
Oil vapor extracting fan
Fire Siren
Instrumentation and control


Lighting and intercommunication in vital areas

Unit & station battery charges.
Exhaust fan
BFP auxiliary pumps
Lube oil pumps
Hydrogen generating plant


Power and Control Cables


Main factors considered for selection of power cable sizes

will be as follows: System short circuit current withstand time of 0.16
seconds for circuit breaker controlled outgoing/ motor
De-rating factors due to higher ambient temperature and
grouping of cables.
Continuous current rating.
Voltage drop during motor starting and under continuous
operation (Limited to 20% for motor starting and 3% for
continuous operation).
Standardization of the cable size to avoid too many sizes.


All 11 & 3.3 kv cables will be of standard aluminum conductor,

XLPE insulated, screened, PVC inner sheathed wire / strip
Armoured, fire retardant low smoke ( FRLS) over all PVC


sheathed type. The cables will be suitable for 11 & 3.3 kv

unearthed system.
All LT power cables will be of 1100 V grade aluminum / copper
conductor, XLPE insulated, PVC inner sheathed, steel wire / strip
armored, FRLS PVC outer sheathed type. The cables will be suitable
for earthed system.
Control cables will be of multi-core 1100-volt grade 2.5 mm2 stranded
copper conductor, PVC insulated , PVC sheathed, steel wire armored,
FRLS, and PVC sheathed type.
LT power and control cables for essential services will be of copper
conductor and fire survival type.

Plant DC System


A reliable DC power source will be provided to supply the

normal DC loads and those loads which will be required to
function on a loss of AC power. The DC power supply system
will comprise of:
220 Volts DC batteries
Battery charges (float and boost chargers)
DC distribution and sub-distribution boards

The batteries will be either planet positive plate lead acid type or
Nickel-cadmium alkaline type.
The following sets of batteries, battery chargers & Distribution
boards (DBS) will be provided:i)

Two (2) sets 220 V DC battery, float & boost chargers and
DBs for the two units.



Two (2) sets 220V DC battery, float & boost charges and
DBs for 400 kv switchyard.


One (1) set 220 V DC battery, set of float & boost chargers
& DBs as common standby for the unit batteries and also
catering for common station loads.


Two (2) sets 220V DC battery, float & boost chargers and
DBs each for coal & ash handling plants and water intake
Pump house.

The requirement of 24V dc supply where required will be catered

from UPS battery system.

Basis of selection of the above items is as follows:i)

Normal requirement of the battery is to supply power for the
following: Control and monitoring of the entire power plant.
Alarm and annunciation of plant condition under
emergency. The duty of the battery is strenuous
particularly during the first one minute after occurrence
of emergency. During this first minute, the battery is
required to supply.
Tripping power




Starting of jacking oil pump.

Starting of emergency lube oil pump.
Starting of barring gear.




Seal oil pump

Plant emergency DC illumination system
Indication, alarm and annunciation
After the lapse of the first minute, the demand on the
battery will go down considerably for the next 59 minutes
during which the battery will only serve all other loads
mentioned above except that for the circuit breakers. The
duty cycle of the battery in this one hour during emergency
Condition determines the battery capacity. The storage
battery sets at ten hour discharge rate having suitable
number of cells for 220 volts nominal rating would be
required. The ampere-hour capacity of each battery set
will be worked out during detailed engineering and will also
be determined by ageing factor, type of battery etc.

Battery charger
Battery chargers of suitable capacity will be provided with
trickle charging and boost charging for each of the aforesaid
battery sets. Completely automatic and self-regulating type of
battery charger comprises of independent float cum boost
charges. The float charger will be capable of floating the
battery and at the same time supply the continuous DC load.
The boost charger will be capable of quick charging the
battery to a state of fully charged condition in 10 hours and at
the same time supply the continuous DC load. 20% spare
margin over the maximum charging rate is considered.


DC Distribution board
One main DC distribution board for each of the battery sets
will be provided with DC sub-distribution boards as required.
The DC distribution board will have two incomer DC switchfuses and required number of outgoing switch fuse units


selected to have a continuous current rating of not less than

125% of the nominal load current.

Telephone and inter-communication system


Telephone system
A 200 extension, 15 incoming line digital automatic EPABX
exchange based on time division-multiplexing technique will
be installed at one convenient location. This will serve the
thermal power plant. A separate 200 extension EPABX will be
provided for the colony. There will be interconnection between
plant and colony exchanges.


Inter-communication system
The inter-communication system will be provided in power
plant to facilitate plant operations by establishing quick
communication among the operating personnel at various
locations of the plant. A public address system with page and
party channels and a number of walky-talky or radio pagers
will be provided for this purpose.


Illumination system
Suitable illumination is necessary to facilitate normal operation and
maintenance activities and to ensure safety of working personnel.
This is achieved by artificial lighting. Power for the illumination system
will be obtained from the 415V bus through a number of 415/433 V
transformers of adequate capacity for plant areas and buildings.
The rating of the transformers will be decided in order to restrict the
fault level of the lighting circuits to safe level for humans and to avail
of MCBs. For yard illumination, 30 to 40 meters high lighting masts
with cradle mounted flood lights will be installed at suitable locations
to provide requisite level of illumination. Pole mounted high-pressure
sodium vapor fixtures will be used for approach and work roads.


Generally fluorescent fixtures with electronic chokes will be used for

indoor illumination. Combination of sodium vapor, fluorescent and
halogen fixtures will be used for turbine hall and boiler
platforms/galleries. The illumination levels at various places will be
Maintained as per values indicated in standards. The lighting system
design ensures uniform illumination avoiding dark spots. Typical
lighting levels generally recommended are given in Table-1 below:Table 1
Recommended Illumination levels



Central control room & switchyard

control room


Other control room

Switchgear rooms, MCC rooms,
battery rooms, office rooms
Turbine hall, pump houses, off-site
Basement floors, boiler house, boiler
platforms, crusher house, cable
galleries, passages, stairs, toilets
Fuel handling area, tank farms
Switchyard & transformer yard
Others storage yards & outdoor areas
Main roads
Secondary roads


e i)

300 400


distribution from the lighting transformers will be through 415V, 3

phase, 4 wire distribution boards. Suitable number of lighting panels
will be located in each area, which will be supplied power from main
lighting distribution boards.


In addition to normal illumination, emergency AC and emergency DC

lighting schemes will also be provided in the power station complex.
About 20 percent of the total lighting fixtures will be fed from normal
cum emergency AC supply and about 10 percent of the fixtures will
be fed normally from AC supply: and upon failure of AC these will be
fed from 220V DC through inverters. Station emergency AC/DC
lighting fixtures or panels will be fed from station emergency 415V
AC/220V DC distribution system during failure of normal AC supply.
Remote DC lighting for isolated buildings in areas where station 220V
DC is not available, will be from self contained battery with charger
units, flood lamp futures will be energized upon loss of normal AC
supply isolated areas.
Compact florescent lamps (CFL) will be provided at indoor location
such as control rooms/offices to conserve energy.

Electrical Laboratory
An electrical lab will be provided for the day-to-day maintenance /
testing and calibration of the electrical equipment of the power plant.




Design Philosophy
The Instrumentation and Control System will be provided with modern
power plant practices and shall be in compliance with all applicable
codes, standards, guides, statutory regulations and safety
requirements in force.
The Instrumentation and Control System will comprise of DDCMIS,
measuring instruments, power supply system, SWAS etc., cables,
fittings, conduits, calibration and lab equipment, control desks/panels
etc. The availability of the complete C&I system shall be 99.7%.
Adequate redundancy in system design shall be provided at
hardware, software and sensor level to satisfy the availability criteria.


For the protection system, independent sensing device shall be

provided to ensure adequate safety of plant equipment.
The design of the control systems and related equipments shall
adhere to the principle of Fail Safe operation wherever safety of
personnel / plant equipment is involved. Fail Safe operation signifies
that the loss of signal or failure of any component shall not cause a
hazardous condition. However, it will also be ensured that occurrence
of false trips are avoided / minimised.
Unit Control & Monitoring Philosophy
The control & monitoring philosophy for the plant envisages control
from two locations:
1) From Unit Control Room (UCR)
2) Control of BOP Packages from local control rooms/panels/stations
i) Control & Monitoring from Unit Control Room
There shall be one common UCR for controlling the boilers, turbine
generators and auxiliaries of the two units. Accordingly, the control
room layout will be developed to accommodate the complete control
equipment associated with each unit and the control interface
equipment for common facilities as specified.
The main plant equipment like steam generator & auxiliaries, TG &
auxiliaries, regenerative cycle equipment, equipment cooling water
system etc. are envisaged to be controlled from the operator
workstation (OWS) mounted on the unit control desk (UCD) in the unit
control room (UCR) under all regimes of operation i.e. start-up,
shutdown, load throw off and emergency handling.
In addition, minimum 4 nos. large video-screens of minimum size of
200-210 cm (80-84) per unit will be provided. All the information
required for safe and efficient operation of the plant shall be displayed
on TFTs at high speed and accuracy in specially designed displays
suitable for power plant operation. The operation of CW pumps shall
be integrated in DDCMIS with a provision of operation of CW pumps
from unit OWS as well as from local control panel to be provided by


the CW pump supplier. Operation of generator, generator auxiliary

systems and breakers for 11kV (unit and station switchgears), 3.3 kV
switchgear and 415 V associated with the main plant and DG sets
shall also be performed through OWS.
The minimum amount of conventional push-button (PB) stations and
Indicators shall be provided on Unit Control Desk for safe shut down
of the unit. In addition, the necessary hardware like indicators etc. for
generator Protection & control, transformer & switchyard control
parameters etc. Will also be provided to control & monitor important
electrical parameters on Electrical Unit control Desk in UCR.
ii) Control & Monitoring of the Balance of Plant Packages & Auxiliary
The control, monitoring & operation of the auxiliary plants like ESP
system, centralized oil purification system for TG, condensate
polishing system etc. and Balance of Plant packages like coal
handling plant, ash handling plant, fuel oil plant, D.M. plant etc. will be
carried out from local control panel/operator workstation of the
respective plants. The necessary hardware link through LAN and
software will be provided to transfer data from these package control
systems to DDCMIS in UCR for the information of unit in charge /shiftin-charge etc. However the operation of CW pumps shall be
integrated in DDCMIS with a provision of operation of CW pumps
from unit OWS as well as from local control panel.
outdoors/indoor/air-conditioned areas shall be designed to suit the
environmental conditions and shall be suitable for continuous
operation in the operating environment of a coal fired station and also
during periods of air conditioning failure without any loss of function,
or departure from the specification requirements covered under this
Reference Codes and Standards
The design, manufacture, inspection, testing, site calibration and
installation of all equipment and systems covered under this report
will conform to the latest editions of codes and standards mentioned


below and all other applicable ANSI, ASME, IEEE, ISO, IEC, IGCI,
VDE and Indian Standards and their equivalents.




The microprocessor based distributed digital control, monitoring &

information system (DDCMIS) shall be provided for the safe and
efficient operation of steam generator, turbine generator and all
auxiliaries under all conditions of operation.
DDCMIS shall basically consist of :
a) Control system of boiler, turbine & balance of plant (namely SG C&I, TG - C&I & BOP - C&I including their respective
measurement system);
a) Man-Machine interface and plant Information system (MMIPIS);
b) System programming & documentation facility;
c) Data communication system (DCS);
d) Sequence of events (SOE) recording system;
e) Annunciation system;
f) Master & slave cock system.
g) System Expandability
Modular system design shall be adopted to facilitate easy system
expansion. The system shall have the capability and facility for
expansion through the addition of controller modules, process I/O
cards, drive control modules, hand/auto stations, push button
stations, peripherals like TFT/Keyboards, printers etc. while the
existing system is fully operational. The system will have the
capability to add any new control loops groups/subgroups, in control
system while the existing system is fully operational.
A system configuration diagram is as per Annexure 9.I
On Line Maintenance


The system will facilitate the removal/replace of various modules (like

I/O module) online from its slot for maintenance purpose without
switching off power supply to the corresponding rack. Further, it shall
also be possible to remove/replace any of the redundant controller
module without switching off the power to the corresponding rack and
this will not result in system disturbance or loss of any controller
functions for main controller. The on-line removal/insertion of
controller, I/O modules etc. shall in no way jeopardize safety of plant
and personnel.
Fault Diagnostics
The DDCMIS will include on-line self-surveillance, monitoring and
diagnostic facility so that a failure/malfunction can be diagnosed
automatically down to the level of individual module giving the details
of the fault on the programmer station TFT displays and printers. The
faults to be reported shall include fault in main and standby power
supplies, sensor fault, any channel fault in 2V3 channels etc. These
faults shall be indicated on TFTs as well as local indication on the
faulty channel/ module and on corresponding rack/ cubicle. The
diagnostic system shall ensure that the faults are detected before any
significant change in any controller output has taken place. Failure of
any I/O modules, controller etc. shall be suitably grouped and
annunciated to annunciation fascia and to OWS.
Fault Tolerance
The DDCMIS shall provide safe operation under all plant disturbances
and on component failure so that under no condition the safety of
plant, personnel or equipment is jeopardized. Control system shall be
designed to prevent abnormal swings due to loss of control system
power supply, failure of any control system component, open
circuits/short circuits, instrument air supply failure etc. On any of
these failures, the controlled equipment/parameter shall either remain
in last position before failure or shall come to fully open/close or on/off
state as required for the safety of plant/personnel/equipment and as
finalized during detailed engineering.


Signal Exchange
All the signal exchange between various functional groups of each
control group (i.e. within SG - C&I, TG - C&I and BOP - C&I) shall be
implemented through redundant main system bus (the main bus
connecting various subsystems) and local system bus within a subsystem as per the standard practice of the system. It shall be ensured
that any single failure in electronics involved for such communication,
e.g., communication controllers, bus interface modules, physical
communication media, etc. does not result in loss of such signal
exchange and there in no deterioration in specified system response
and system parametric requirements.
In case a controller utilises some inputs generated/ processed by any
other controllers/functional group and the requirement of controller
response time as specified elsewhere is not met due to inadequate
communication rate/ procedure, then the hardwired signal exchange
for such inputs will eb provided. Control & protection signal exchange
between SG- C&I, TG-C&I and BOP - C&I shall be hardwired only.
Protection signals like MFT shall necessarily be hardwired even for
exchange within the same sub-system.
No single failure either of equipment or power source shall be capable
of rendering any part/system/sub-system of DDCMIS in-operative to
any degree.
System Spare Capacity
Over and above the equipment and accessories required to meet the
fully implemented system as per requirements, DDCMIS shall have
spare capacity and necessary hardware/ equipment/ accessories to
meet following requirement for future expansion at site:
a) 10% spare channels in each of the functional groups, fully wired
upto marshalling cabinets.


b) Wired-in "usable" space for 20% modules in each of the system

cabinets for mounting electronic modules wired up to
corresponding spare terminals in marshaling cabinets such that
implementation of any additional control loop/logic can be
achieved only by insertion of necessary electronic modules(s) in
system cabinets, configuration of corresponding controller and
connection of inputs/ outputs at 'field end' of marshaling cabinet /
logic cabinet as applicable.
c) MMIPIS shall be provided with capacity to handle 25% or at least
1 no. of each type of peripherals additionally, like TFTs,
keyboards, printers, PCs etc., over and above already specified,
without any additional hardware or software.
d) Each controller shall have 30% spare functional capacity to
implement additional function blocks, over and above
implemented logics/ loops. Further, each controller shall have
spare capacity to handle minimum 20% additional inputs/ outputs
of each type (including (a) & (b) above), over and above
implemented capacity. Each of the corresponding communication
controller shall also have same spare capacity as that of
e) The data communication system (including main system bus and
other bus system) shall have the capacity. This will be in addition
to 50% spare capacity specified.

Twenty (20) percent spare relays of each type and rating,

mounted and wired in relays cabinets. All contacts of relays shall
be terminated in terminal blocks of relay cabinets. In each of the
relay cabinets 20% spare terminal blocks shall be provided so that
additional relays can be mounted and wired.

g) The spare capacity as specified above shall be uniformly

distributed throughout all cubicles. The system design shall
ensure that above mentioned additions shall not require any
additional controller/ processor/ peripheral drivers in the system


delivered at site. Further, these additions shall not deteriorate the

system response time/ duty cycle, etc. from those stipulated under
this specification.
Remote Input Modules and Cubicles
It is envisaged to use remote input modules and racks / cubicles at
the following locations in the plant to the extended I/O bus, to
minimize cabling.
a) Boiler area (for metal temperature etc.)
b) Near transformer yard for various inputs related to transformers.
c) SWAS room.
d) Switchgear room

DDCMIS- System Description

The DDCMIS will work in full integration and conjunction with field
equipment/drives like pumps, motors, valves, actuators, dampers,
hydraulic control systems (e.g. for HP&LP bypass etc.) and field
instruments. The DDCMIS hardware like controllers, modules/cards
etc. shall be housed in cabinets located in control equipment room
(CER) except for operation interfaces located in unit control desk
(UCD) and unit control panel (UCP) in unit control room (UCR).
Control System
The control system along with its measurement system, shall perform
functions of closed loop control, sequence control, interlock &
protection of SG, TG and auxiliaries under all conditions of unit
operation. The measurement system of control system shall perform
the functions of signal acquisition, conditioning and signal distribution
of various types of inputs/outputs like analog, (4-20 mA DC,
thermocouple, RTD), binary, pulse, etc. The inputs which are required
for only information and monitoring purposes shall be distributed
suitably in various groups of the measurement system.


Man-Machine Interface and Plant Information System (MMIPIS)

The MMIPIS shall perform control, monitoring and operation of SG,
TG and auxiliaries under all regimes of unit operation, interacting with
the control system. For this, MMIPIS shall primarily perform following
a) Operator interface for control system
b) Plant supervisory functions like displays, alarm monitoring &
reporting, (reports & logs, calculations, trend recording, historical
and long term data storage & retrieval, etc.)
iii) System Programming & Documentation Facility
The programmer stations shall be provided for
a) on-line configuration & tuning of control system
b) on-line program development/modifications in MMIPIS
In addition, latest state of the art work-station based system
documentation facility shall be provided to retrieve, generate &
document all system documentation, logics, control loops, cable
interconnection, etc. to achieve paperless documentation for the
complete plant.
Data Communication System (DCS)
The data communication system shall be provided for communication
between control system and MMIPIS communication and signal
exchange between various functional groups as well as
communication between various units & off site / off line systems.
Sequence of Events Recording System (SOE)
The DDCMIS shall be capable of carrying out sequence of event
recording function to scan and record events in the sequence of event
occurrence within a resolution of one (1) m sec.


Master and Slave Clock System

Master and Slave Clock System shall be provided to ensure uniform
time indication throughout the various plant facilities and time
synchronization between control system, MMIPIS, switchyard
disturbance recorder, other PLC's etc.
Annunciation System
Annunciation system shall be LVS based in the unit control room. The
annunciation logic will be implemented as a part of DDCMIS. Top
portion of all the LVS shall be reserved for annunciation with 3/4
bands for different priority.
Measurement Functions of Control System
All the signals coming into/going out of the control system shall be
connected either directly or routed through marshalling cabinets as
per the interconnection philosophy of DDCMIS. The input / output
modules employed in the control system shall be separate from
controller hardware.
Analog signal conditioning & processing

The conditioning and processing functions to be performed as a

minimum for the analog inputs coming for control and information
purposes are :
a) Galvanic isolation of input and output signals wherever
b) Transmitter power supply with per point fuse protection or
current limiting and power supply monitoring.
c) Transducer/transmitter signal output limit check
d) Implementation of multiple measurement schemes
e) Square root extraction
f) Pressure and temperature compensation.
g) On-line analog digital converter (ADC) gain and drift monitoring
and correction at periodic intervals.


h) Linearisation of thermocouple signals

i) Reasonability check for all analog inputs.
ii) All analog signals for control purpose shall be acquired, validated,
processed and their respective data base updated at a maximum
interval of 250 milliseconds except for some fast-acting control
loops for which the above referred time shall be as per process
requirement. For signals required for information only, the above
functions shall be performed at an interval of 1 2 sec. The
validated analog inputs shall be converted into engineering units on
a per point basis. Analog input processing (scanning to alarm
checking) shall be performed once every scan cycle. It shall be
possible to delete any analog input from scan or to return it to scan
on demand by the operator.
iii) The 4-20 mA input analog cards shall be suitable for interfacing
transmitters giving 4-20mA analog signal along with superimposed
HART interface signals. 4-20 mA DC signal will only be used for
control purpose and superimposed HART signal will be used for
configuration, maintenance diagnostic and record keeping facility
for electronic transmitters and analysers etc. meeting the
functionalities described elsewhere.
Binary signal conditioning & processing
i) The changeover type contacts (i.e. 'NC' + 'NO' together) shall be
wired to the control system for all the binary inputs required for
control purposes, except for inputs from MCC/switchgear, actuators
and inputs related to hardwired signal exchange among various
functional group for which non-changeover type contacts ('NC' or
'NO') shall be wired to the control system. The binary inputs
required for information purposes only shall be wired to control
system in the form of non-changeover type contacts.
ii) The conditioning and processing functions to be performed as a
minimum for the binary inputs coming for control and information
purposes are:


a) 24V / 48 VDC power supply for contact interrogation for all

potential free contacts with per point fuse protection or suitable
current limit feature/ isolation through opto-coupler.
b) Contact bounce filtering delay time of 15 milliseconds.
c) Facility for pegging the binary signal to logic one/zero or last
correct value in case of failure of binary input module.
d) Binary signal distribution to different users shall be in such a
way so as to ensure that a short/ground fault on one user is not
reflected to the other user.
e) Implementation of multiple measurement schemes for signals
for control purpose.
f) All binary signals shall be acquired, validated, processed, alarm
checked and their data base updated within one second. In
addition to this requirement, binary signals required for SOE
shall have a resolution of 1ms.
g) Checking for excessive number of status changes for all
binary/contact inputs.
h) Facility to delete any binary input from scan or to return to scan
on operator demand.
i) The non-coincidence monitoring shall be provided for binary
inputs for all changeover signals, namely process actuated
switches required for control purpose (i.e. protection/interlock,
permissive, logical intervention etc.)
iii) Triple measurement scheme for analog inputs employing three
independent transmitters connected to separate tapping points
shall be employed for the most critical measurements used in
analog control functions including but not limited to furnace draft,
feed water flow, throttle pressure, turbine first stage pressure,
deaerator level, turbine speed.
The three signals shall be auctioneered to determine the
median/average value which will be used for control purpose. In
case one transmitter fails or shows excessive deviation with
respect to others, it will be removed from computation of
median/average value and the average of the other two
transmitter outputs shall be used for controls. The control loop
shall trip to manual when any two of the three transmitter signals


fail. The operator shall be able to select any of the transmitters or

the median/average value from the control desk. The outputs of
the transmitters shall be continuously monitored for excessive
deviation which shall be displayed, logged and alarmed.
Individual transmitter signal, their status and selected value for
control/measurement shall be available on OWS.
iv) Dual measurement scheme for analog inputs employing two
independent transmitters, connected to separate tapping points/
temperature element shall be employed for the remaining
measurements used for analog control functions.
The output of the redundant transmitters shall be continuously
monitored for excessive deviation. In case the deviation is within
limits, the mean value shall be used for the control loop. If the
deviation becomes high (with both transmitters remaining
healthy), the loop will be automatically transferred to manual.
However, if one transmitter fails and the other transmitter remains
healthy, then the output of the healthy transmitter shall be used
for control. If the other transmitter also fails, loop shall trip to
manual. The outputs of the transmitters shall be continuously
monitored for extensive operation which shall be displayed and
logged and alarmed.
Individual transmitter signal, their status and selected value for
control/measurement shall be available on OWS.
v) For binary and analog inputs required in furnace and turbine
protection triple sensing devices shall be provided. Binary and
analog inputs which are required for protection of more than one
equipment (e.g. flame failure, deareator level very low, etc) as
well as protection signals for turbine driven boiler feed pump
(TDBFP)/ motor driven boiler feed pump (MDBFP), triple sensing
devices shall be provided. For other critical binary and analog
inputs required for protection and interlock purpose of other
equipment (e.g. those interlocks which may result in loss of
generation, non-availability of a major equipment etc.), dual


sensors shall be provided. However, for bearing temperature of

FD/ID/PA/MILLS/APH and its HT drives, single sensor shall be
vi) Wiring scheme for inputs to control system shall be as follows :
a) Each of the dual/ triple redundant binary and analog inputs
shall be wired to separate input modules. In addition, for
functions employing 2V3 controllers like BMS/turbine
protection, each of the redundant binary and analog signals
shall be wired to separate input modules associated with each
controller. Similarly, each of the dual redundant binary and
analog inputs shall be wired to separate input modules. These
redundant modules shall be placed in different racks, which will
Implementation of multiple measurement scheme of these
inputs will be performed in the redundant hardware. Loss of
one input module shall not affect the signal to other module and
also other channels of these modules can be used by other
inputs of the same functional group.
b)The single binary and analog signals required for control
purposes shall be wired as follows:
- The limit & torque switches and the MCC/ Swgr check backs
shall be wired to drive control modules wherever provided.
For the drives where drive control modules are not provided,
these signals shall be connected to input module only.
- Other single analog & binary inputs shall be wired to single
input modules.
vii) The binary and analog outputs from one subsystem of the Control
System to other which are required in these systems for control
purposes, (only very few critical signals e.g., reheater protection
or MFT, load set point to electro hydraulic turbine control (EHTC)
from CLCS, etc.), shall be made available from triple/dual
redundant binary and analog output modules. However,


redundancy in binary and analog outputs to indicators/recorders,

SOE and annunciation facia lamps is not required.
viii) The signal conditioning functions like multiple measurement
schemes, square root extraction for flow signals, pressure and
temperature compensation, limit value computation can be
performed either in the controllers or in signal conditioning and
processing hardware outside controllers.
ix) The maximum number of inputs/outputs to be connected to each
type of module shall be as follows:
1. Analog input module - 16
2. Analog output module - 16
3. Binary input module - 32
4. Binary output module - 32
5. Analog input & output (combined) - 16
6. Binary input and output (combined) - 32
(Note : For binary inputs, one changeover contact is counted as 2
Further, minimum 10% spare channels shall be kept in each of
the input/output modules.
x) The following requirements shall be met :
a) Input filters to attenuate noise shall be provided.
b) All analog outputs shall be short circuit proof.
Any single sensor/transducer/transmitter failure alarm shall be
provided on programmer station TFTs for all sensors/
transducers/ transmitters. Similarly sensor break alarm for
thermocouples etc. shall also be displayed on the TFTs.

Control System Requirements

The control system shall be broadly divided into SG - C&I, TG - C&I
and BOP - C&I.


i) The SG- C&I part of DDCMIS system shall perform the following
function as minimum but not limited to
a) Burner management system (BMS) including control &
protection of coal mills, fuel oil system etc.
b) Analog control functions pertaining to secondary air damper
control etc.
c) Soot blower control.
ii) The TG- C&I part of DDCMIS system shall perform the following
a) Turbine protection system function (TPS)
b) Turbine governing system for main turbine
c) Turbine stress control system (TSCS)
d) Automatic turbine testing (ATT)
e) Automatic turbine run up system. (ATRS)
f) HP&LP bypass control system
g) Turbine generator control system
h) EHG, interlock & protection for turbine driven BFP
iii) The BOP- C&I system shall perform the following functions:
a) Analog control functions, other than those covered in SG-C&I
and TG-C&I, like co-ordinated master control, furnace draft
control, SH/RH steam temperature control, FW flow control,
heaters/deaerator/condenser level control, Auxiliary PRDS
pressure & temperature control etc.
b) Binary control functions pertaining to main plant auxiliaries like
FD/ID/PA fans, APH, BFP etc., Generator auxiliary systems
and electrical breakers etc.
iv) Functional grouping of various controllers shall be decided during
detailed engineering which shall be subject to purchaser's
approval. Functional grouping shall meet following general


a) Process redundancies shall be maintained. For example, in case

the mechanical equipment has been provided with redundancy,
the drive shall not be controlled by a common controller i.e. for
redundant set of process equipments(eg.2x60%ID fans,3x60%
CEP etc.),it shall be ensured that there is no sharing of controller
components between independent groups.
b) Stream concept shall be maintained. The different equipment
shall be clubbed in such a manner that failure of a controller set
affects only one stream of the process path, eg. in air and flue
gas path, ID-fan A, FD-fan A, and secondary rotary air pre
heater A can be clubbed on one set of controllers.
c) Inter-related controls shall be provided in one group, i.e. when
the loop /sequence of one equipment depends on the availability
of another sequence /loop or equipment than these controls
shall be preferably be clubbed together eg. PA fan controls
depend on the availability of mills/mill control, so, control of half
the number of mills can be clubbed with control of the relevant
PA fan.
d) Failure mode analysis, i.e while formulating the controller group,
it shall be ensured that the failure of one function does not
jeopardize the plant operation or cause shut down. For example
if 6 mills are required for full load plant operation, then the
grouping of mills shall be done in such a manner that not more
than 3 mills shall be clubbed in one set of controller.
For each of the functional groups, separate sets of controllers, I/O
modules, communication controllers, power packs/ modules etc. shall
be provided.Mixing of hardware of two or more functional groups (FG)
shall not be acceptable. It shall be ensured that failure of any set(s) of
hardware of any FG does not affect other FG(s) and data
communication between other FG(s) and MMIPIS.
v) The minimum functions to be realized in each of the above
mentioned control systems shall be as per requirements specified
under subsequent sections. It is envisaged to
provide all


hardware/software to fully meet operational, maintenance, safety

requirements as well as conform to international standards and
proven practices.
vi) The control system shall function reliably under the environmental
conditions as specified. It shall be immune from the interferences
resulting from disturbances in power supply feeders, signal lines,
inputs, outputs, etc. as experienced in a coal fired power station.
vii) The control system shall have on-line simulation and testing
facility. Further, it shall be possible to on-line configure and tune
controllers through configuration and tuning station for control system.
viii) The system shall have the flexibility to easily reconfigure any
controller at any time without requiring additional hardware or system
wiring changes and without disabling other devices from their normal
operation mode.
Modifications shall not require switching off power to any part of the
ix) The executive programs for the controller modules shall be
firmware based, which shall be non-volatile and shall not be alterable
except by replacement of parts. The application programs for the
functional controllers shall be software based which shall be
maintained through power supply failure. The application program
shall be alterable through the configuration and tuning station for all
configuration and strategy changes, etc., and through the operator's
console for set point/bias changes, device selection, etc. Parts
replacement or parts removal shall not be required in order to
accomplish changes in application programs including system tuning.

x) All the 100% hot/redundant backup controllers shall be identical in

hardware and software implementation to their corresponding main
controllers and shall be able to perform all its tasks. The backup
controller shall track its corresponding main controller. There shall be
an automatic and bumpless switchover from the main controller to its


corresponding backup controller in case of main controller failure and

vice versa without resulting in any change in control status. In case of
switchover from main controller to the 100% hot backup controller, the
back-up controller shall work as the main controller.
Facility shall also be provided for manual switchover from main to
100% hot back-up controller and vice versa from the programmer's
console. The control system hardware design shall be such that it is
able to withstand power line disturbances as per relevant standard.
Burner Management System (BMS)
i) Fully proven microprocessor based system, based on hardware and
software proven for burner management application shall be provided
to achieve the boiler protection e.g. master fuel trip (MFT), control of
mills & fuel oil systems etc.
ii) The BMS shall be provided with automatic self monitoring facility.
All modules to be used in this system shall be of fail safe design. Any
single fault in any primary sensor, I/O modules, multifunction
controllers, etc. should not result in loss of safety function. All faults
should be annunciated to the operator, right at the time of its
occurrence and also for alarm annunciation facia. The BMS shall
meet all applicable relevant safety requirements including those
stipulated in latest editions of VDE 0116, Section 8.7, VDE 0160,
NFPA 8502/ 8503 etc.
The suggested configuration of the MFT sub- group of BMS shall be
submitted. The exact implementation shall be subject to Purchaser's
approval during detailed engineering.
iii) The MFT functions shall be implemented in a fault tolerant 2 out of
3 triple redundant configuration. Each of the three independent
channels shall have its own dedicated processors, multi-function
controllers, communication controllers, I/O modules, interface etc. All
safety related process inputs shall be fed to each of the 3 channels.
All the primary sensors for unit/boiler protection shall be triple


iv) The acquisition and conditioning of binary and analog protection

criteria signals for MFT shall be carried out in each of the three triple
redundant channels. Each channel shall compute the 2 out of 3 voting
logic and issue a trip command. The trip signals of the three channels
shall be fed to a fail safe 2 out of 3 relay tripping unit for each drive.
The protection criteria for tripping shall be executed by a program
which shall be identical in each of the triple redundant channel. The
check back contact signals of each relay of the 2 out of 3 relay
tripping unit shall be fed back to each of the triple redundant channels
and shall be continuously monitored for equivalence in each of them
v) The BMS shall be designed to :




Prevent any fuel firing unless a satisfactory purge sequence

has first been completed.
Prevent start-up of individual fuel firing equipment unless
permissive interlocks have first been satisfied.
Monitor and control proper equipment sequencing during its
start-up and shutdown.
Provide equipment status feed back and annunciator indication
to the unit operator.
Provide flame monitoring when fuel-firing equipment is in
service and effect a burner trip or master fuel trip upon
warranted firing conditions.
Continually monitor boiler conditions and actuate a master fuel
trip (MFT) during adverse operating conditions which could be
hazardous to equipment and personnel.
Reliably operate and minimize the number of false trips.
Provide a master fuel trip relay independent of processors and
I/O modules to provide a completely independent trip path.

Provide all logic and safety interlocks in accordance with

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).
k) Include a first out feature in all controllers to identify the cause
of any burner trip or boiler trip.
l) Provide a complete BMS diagnostic system to immediately
identify to the operator any system module failure.


m) Allow burners and igniters to be started, stopped and tripped on

a burner basis.
n) Allow the automatic start and stop of burners based on boiler

The sequence of which burner will be started or stopped will be

selected by the operator from a TFT display.
Turbine Protection System (TPS) Functions
i) Fully proven microprocessor based system, based on hardware and
software proven for turbine protection application for the same
turbine being offered for this project, shall be provided to achieve
the turbine protection action.
ii) The Turbine Protection System shall meet all applicable safety
standards/requirements. The system design shall be such that
safety function of the total system must not be jeopardized on
occurrence of fault. Any single fault in either primary sensor,
input/output modules, controller module etc. shall in no way
jeopardise the safety of the turbine. All modules to be used in this
system shall be of fail safe design.
iii) The Turbine Protection System shall also be implemented in 2 out
of 3 voting logic. Three independent trip channels each having its
own and dedicated processing modules, controllers, input/output
modules etc. shall be provided to achieve 2 out of 3 voting logic.
The outputs of the three channels will be used to implement 2 out
of 3 voting logic in two relay units, the output of which will be fed to
the two turbine trip relays.
As an alternative, it is possible to propose two independent trip
channels, each having its dedicated processing module with hot
backup. Two out of three voting logic will be implemented in each of
the channels and the output of each channel to be fed to each of the
two turbine trip relays. Turbine shall be tripped when either of the
above two trip relays operates.


The exact implementation shall be subject to purchaser's approval

during detailed engineering.
iv) All the input signals (trip signals etc. from the field devices) shall
be fed in parallel to all the two/three redundant channels of protection
system as mentioned above via signal conditioning cards designed
for such application.
Further, the computation of field input voting logics i.e. 2 out of 3 etc.
shall also be performed in the controllers of all the three/two channels
of protection system which will then perform the computation of 2 out
of 3 voting logic independently.
v) The required primary sensors etc. necessary for protection system
shall be provided. All trip signal inputs required for the safety of the
turbine shall be based on 2 out of 3 logics. The system shall include
turbine lock-out relays, redundant turbine trip solenoids and
necessary hardware required for testing.
vi) The tripping devices shall be designed to operate on DC supply.
The trip coils shall be monitored continuously for healthiness and
failure shall be alarmed.
Binary Controls/Open Loop Control System (OLCS) Function
Binary controls of SG-C&I and TG-C&I and BOP - C&I
i) The OLCS shall include sequence control, interlock & protection for
various plant auxiliaries, valves, dampers, drives etc. The
sequence control shall provide safe and automatic startup and
shutdown of plant and of plant items associated with a plant group.
The interlock and protection system shall ensure safe operation of
plant/plant items at all times and shall automatically shut down
plant/plant items when unsafe conditions arise.


ii) The OLCS shall be arranged in the hierarchical control structure

consisting of unit level, group level, subgroup level & drive level (as
It shall be possible to perform automatic unit startup & shutdown by
issuingminimum number of command from the OWS. Thus, the unit
level shall control all the control system blocks and issue
appropriate startup and shutdown commands to various blocks of
control system.
The group level shall control a set of functional sub-groups of drives.
Appropriate start-up and shut down commands shall be issued to
the subgroup control and various checkbacks shall be received
from sub-groups or drives. Each sub-group shall execute the
sequential start-up and shut down programmes of a set of interrelated drives along with system interlocks and protections
associated with that sub-group as well as basic interlocks and
protections related to individual drive falling under that sub-group.
The drive level shall accept commands from the sub-groups, push
buttons (wherever provided), etc., and transmit them to the
respective drive, after taking into account various interlocks and
protections and the safety of that particular drive.
iii) A sequence shall be used to move a set of groups and sub-groups
from an initial steady state (for instance 'OFF') to a final steady
state (for instance 'ON'). The sequence initiating command for the
unit and group level shall be issued from TFT/KBD.
iv) A sequence shall be made of steps. The steps shall be executed in
predetermined order according to logic criteria and monitoring time
consisting of the interlock & protection requirements and check
back of previous step which shall act as pre-conditions before the
sequence control can execute the command for that step.
v) Each step shall have a "waiting time" implying that the subsequent
step would not be executed unless the specified time elapses. A
monitoring time shall also be defined as the maximum time
required in executing the commands of any step and the time


required for appearance of check back signals. In case, this is not

completed within the specified time, a message shall be displayed
and programme will not proceed further.
vi) Manual intervention shall be possible at any stage of operation and
the sequence control shall be able to continue at the correct point
in the programme on return to automatic control. Protection
commands shall have priority over manual commands, and manual
commands shall prevail over auto commands.
vii) Open or close priority shall be selectable for each drive.
viii) The sequence startup mode shall be of the following types.
a) Automatic Mode
In this mode of operation, the sequence shall progress without
involving any action from the operator. The sequence start/stop
command shall be issued from the TFT/KBDs.
b) Semi-Automatic Mode
In this mode of operation, once the sequence is initiated, the
step progressing shall be displayed on the TFT. But the step
execution command shall be prevented and shall be sent by the
operator via the keyboards. It shall be possible to bypass and/ or
simulate one or more criteria to enable the program to proceed.
This facility shall allow the program to be executed even if some
criteria are not fulfilled because of defective switching device,
etc., while the plant condition is satisfactory. All the criteria
bypassed shall be logged and displayed.
It shall be possible to put the system on the auto-mode after
operating it on semi-automatic mode for some steps or viceversa, without disturbance to the sequence operation.
c) Operator Test Mode


It shall be possible to use the sequential control in operator

guide mode/ test mode i.e. the complete system runs and
receives input from the plant and the individual push button
stations (where provided)/ keyboards but its command output is
blocked. The whole programme, in this case shall run in manual
mode. This mode shall allow the operator to practise manual
operation using step and criteria indications. The actual
protection should remain valid during this mode of operation
ix) The sequence shall be started by putting the sequence on 'auto'
and on receipt of 'start' command from the OWS or from a higher
level group/ protection action as defined. The sequence shall then
progress as per the defined logics.
It should be possible to select alternative operation in the same
sequence depending on certain process/ equipment condition.
Some step can be automatically bypassed also based on certain
process/ equipment condition.
When the expected results of the sequence are reached the
sequence is considered as "End".
If during sequence initiation or sequence progressing or during
normal running of the drive, a shutdown criteria is present, the
sequence shall be stopped and the shut down sequence initiated.
x) For the drives, the command shall be provided through redundant
output module and inputs (status, switchgear & process) shall be
acquired through input modules. The drive logic shall be
implemented in the redundant controller.
The status for the 11 KV, 3.3 KV drives and some other important
drives (total approximately 40 nos. per unit) shall also be wired in
parallel to redundant input modules so that on failure of the single
input modules, the information regarding the status of the affected
drive remains available in OLCS.


xi) The output modules control module shall have the feature that
ensures that in case of failure, all the outputs are driven to zero.
The 24V DC command outputs to drives for on/open, off/close
shall be separate and independent and inverted outputs shall not
be employed. For inching type of drives, position transmitter
power supply and monitoring of position transmitter signal shall be
xii) The termination for open/ close command for the drive actuator
shall be performed in the actuators with integral starter specified.
However, open/ close and disturbance status as a minimum shall
be monitored in OLCS.
The sequence interlock & protection requirements shall be
finalised during detailed engineering and the same shall be
subject to Purchaser's approval.
xiii) The OLCS shall also include the control of electrical systems in
addition to the auxiliaries of boiler & turbine such as open/close or
on/off etc. of various electrical systems such as generator,
generator auxiliary systems, breakers of 11kV, 3.3 kV. 415 V
switchgears , synchronisation of unit etc. as described in previous
Analog Controls/Closed Loop Control System (CLCS) Functions
Analog controls of SG - C&I , BOPC&I and TG - C&I .
The CLCS shall continuously act on valves, dampers or other
mechanical devices such as hydraulic couplings etc., which alter the
plant operation conditions. The system shall be designed to give
stable control action in steady state condition and for load changes in
step/ramp over the load range of 60% to 100% MCR with variation or
parameters within permissible limits to be finalised during detailed
engineering state. The system shall have the following minimum



The controller capability shall, as a minimum, include (i) P, PI, PD

and PID control functions and their variations (ii) cascade control
(iii) feed forward control (iv) state-variable based predictive control
for SH/RH temperature control (v) on-off control, (vi) ratio and bias
control, (vii) logical operation etc. The loop reaction time (from
change of output of the sensor of the transmitter/temperature
element to the corresponding control command output) shall be
within 500 milli seconds. However, for faster loops such as feed
water, furnace draft, PA header pressure control loop etc. the
same shall be based on actual process requirement but shall not
be more than 250 milli second.


The control system shall be bumplessly transferred to manual on

the following conditions as a minimum and as finalised during
detailed engineering. Control power supply failure, failure of
redundant controllers, field input signal not available, analog input
exceeding preset value, etc.

iii) Any switch over from auto to manual, manual to auto and
switchover from TFT operation to auto manual station operation
and vice versa shall be bumpless and without resulting in any
change in the plant regulations and the same shall be reported to
the operator.
iv) Buffered analog output (positioning signal) of 4-20mA DC shall be
provided from CLCS to the respective E/P converters. For
electrical actuators, pulse type output (bound less control) shall be
preferred. CLCS shall also provide all the necessary outputs for
indicators & recorders with output loop resistance of 500 ohms for
each channel of the output module.
v) The functional requirement of the CLCS loops as well as the
detailed schemes shall be finalised during detailed engineering
stage and shall be subject to Purchaser's approval.
vi) The system being supplied shall be such that when permissible
limits are exceeded, an automatic switchover from an operation


governed by maximum efficiency, to an operation governed by

safety and availability is affected.
vii) For safety reasons, switchover logics associated with the
modulating control loops, shall be performed within the closed
loop control equipment.
viii) Time supervision facility shall be provided to monitor the final
control element.
ix) It shall be possible to block the controller output on a preprogrammed basis.
x) All controllers shall be freely configurable with respect to requisite
control algorithms.
xi) Whenever, alternate measurement is available for a control input
the alternate measurement value will be automatically substituted
in the control loop in case of loss of control input. All necessary
software for switching and reconfiguration shall be provided. In
addition, such substitution shall be balanceless and bumpless and
shall be reported to the operator.
Turbine Control System (TCS) Functions
The Turbine control system shall consist of turbine governing system,
turbine stress control system and BFP turbine Electro-hydraulic
governing system HP&LP bypass system & automatic turbine testing
(ATT) system.
(i) Turbine Governing System
a) Following two alternatives for the turbine governing system shall be
adopted one of these alternatives based standard practices.
Alternative - I


In this alternative, the turbine generator unit shall be equipped with

electrohydraulic governing (EHG) system backed-up by mechanicalhydraulic control system. The system shall be designed such that the
governing of the steam turbine shall be automatically and safely
transferred to mechanical hydraulic control system during operation,
in the event of a fault developing in electro-hydraulic control system.
Alternative - II
In this alternative, the EHG system shall be provided with 100% hot
redundancy i.e. the system shall consist of two independent channels
right from sensors, transmitters, other field mounted devices, input
modules, controller modules, output devices etc. of the electro
hydraulic converter. Further, each of these channels shall be fed from
independent power supplies.
b) Both the above mentioned alternatives shall meet the following
functional requirements. The controls covered in this system shall
basically consist of speed controller, load controller, valve-lift
controller, inlet steam pressure controller and output frequency droop
characteristic controller. The speed controller shall ensure controlled
acceleration of the turbine generator and shall prevent over speed
without tripping of the unit under any operating condition or in the
event of full load throw-off.
The speed controller shall limit the over speed of the turbine on loss
of full load to a value less than 8% of rated speed. The governing
system shall be equipped with speed/load changer to control the
speed or power output of the steam turbine within the limits. The
speed/load changer provided shall be capable of adjusting the speed
of the turbo set to any value in the range of 94% to 106% of rated
speed for manual/auto synchronisation of the generator with the bus.
It shall be capable of varying the load on the machine from no load to
full load. For remote control, suitable motor drive shall be provided.
Indication of the speed/load changer position shall be provided on the
OWS and console panel insert. The governing system shall be
equipped with a load limiting device capable of being operated both
locally as well as remotely from unit control room for the purpose of


limiting the amount of opening of the governor controlled valves to set

the load at a pre-determined limit, while the turbine is in operation. A
remote position indicator shall be provided on the console panel insert
for indication of the setting of the load limit. Contacts shall also be
provided on the load limiter for signaling load limited operation in unit
control room.
(ii) Turbine Stress Control System (TSCS)
A proven turbine stress control system will be provided, which will
work in conjunction with turbine governing system and ATRS. The
system shall be complete including measuring transducers for
generator load, processing modules, microprocessor based
controllers for stress calculations and turbine life calculations etc.,
dedicated colour TFT monitor, recorders, etc. TSCS shall meet the
following functional requirements
(a) Continuous on-line monitoring of thermal stress levels in all critical
parts of the turbine such as main stop valves, control valves, HP
casing, HP shaft and IP shaft etc.
(b) Continuous on line computation of stress margins available for
the above mentioned critical components of the turbine during
various regimes of operation i.e. run-up, synchronization, loading,
load maneuvering, normal operation, run backs, unloading, shutdown etc.
(c) Computation of the limits of speed and load changes allowable at
any particular instant before synchronization and after
synchronization respectively.
The system shall be designed to inhibit further operation like
speed/steam temperature raising or lowering wherever upper/
lower temperature margins are not available (during periods prior
to synchornisation) and load/steam temperature raising or
lowering whenever upper/lower load/temperature margins are not
available (after synchronization) within allowable limits.


(d) Carry out a fatigue analysis for all affected components of the
turbine and also to compute the percentage service life
consumption of the turbine.
(e) Display the stress margins etc. on a separate dedicated colour
VDU/Printer as well as on OWS for operator guidance and
storage of necessary data such as percentage service life
consumption etc.
(f) Store long term data & carry out residual life analysis.
BFP Turbine Electro hydraulic Governing System
a) The drive turbine speed shall be controlled by electro - hydraulic
governor, stable and satisfactory speed control over full speed
range from 0% to 100%. The electro-hydraulic governing system
hardware shall be microprocessor based, with hot back up.
b) When the governing system is in auto mode, it will receive speed
demand signal from FW control loop and in manual mode shall be
fed either from TFT of OWS or through auto/manual stations. The
actual speed of the turbine should be measured by three
independent speed sensors and three independent speed
measurement channels. These three signals shall be fed to the
selection circuit which will choose the median value. The speed
controller output shall be fed to the valve lift controller. The output
of the valve lift controller shall be fed to the electro-hydraulic
converter which will vary the position of the control valve. The
electro-hydraulic controller shall be designed such that the
transfer between different steam sources should be bumpless.
The electro-hydraulic control system to be provided shall be of
proven design, whose configuration and hardware implementation
should have been employed in at least six(6) turbine driven
pumps of equivalent capacity which are in operation for not less
than two(2) years.



A 220 V split-series field, reversible, totally enclosed DC motor

along with an electronic controller, shall be provided for remote
speed changing operation.

(iv) HP&LP Bypass System

a) LP bypass control system
The LP Bypass control system shall consist of steam pressure
control loop and steam temperature control loop. The LP bypass
control shall be implemented through a set of redundant
controller modules, I/O modules etc. The LP bypass control shall
suitably interface with other TG control like HP bypass, EHG etc.
Further, condenser exhaust hood spray valve shall be
interlocked to open whenever LP bypass comes into operation.
b) HP bypass control system
The system shall consist of steam pressure control loop & steam
temperature control loop. HP bypass system shall be
implemented through a set of redundant controller modules, I/O
modules etc. The system shall be supplied with redundant
primary sensor and suitable interface with other TG - C&I
controls like LP bypass, EHG etc.
(v) Automatic On Line Turbine Testing (ATT) System
The ATT system shall be provided for on load testing of turbine
protective equipment automatically in a sequential manner without
disturbing normal operation and keeping all protective functions
operative during the test. The ATT facility shall include but not be
limited to the following.
a) Opening and closing of emergency stop and control valves,
reheat stop and interceptor valve.
b) Over-speed trip
c) Low vacuum trip
d) Electrical remote trip.


ATT mentioned at item b), c) & d) above shall be possible to be

carried out on 100% load.
Other SG - C&I Functions
The SG control functions shall also consist of secondary air damper
control, soot blower control, auxiliary PRDS etc. in addition to the
burner Management system and shall meet the requirements of
measurements system, binary and analog control system as
described above
Other TG -C&I Functions
The TG control functions shall also, consist of turbine generator
control system like seal oil, primary water, hydrogen system etc. and
TDBFP interlock & protection and shall meet the requirements of
measurements system, binary and analog control system as
described above.

Man-Machine Interface System and Plant Information System


i) Man-Machine Interface system shall be designed and engineered

for safe, efficient, reliable and convenient operation. MMIPIS shall
employ high-performance, non-proprietary architecture to ensure fast
access and response time and compatibility with other system.
MMIPIS shall be used primarily for the following functions :
(a) As operator interface for control operation of the plant or
accepting data from and issuing commands to SG -C&I, TG C&I and
BOP- C&I systems etc.
(b) To perform plant supervisory, monitoring and information functions
ii) The plant data pertaining to one unit shall be available in the
MMIPIS of the respective unit. Data from common system shall be
available in the MMIPIS of both units.


Operator Interface to the Control System

i) The operator interface of the MMIPIS shall consist of colour TFTs/
KBDs of OWS, colour ink-jet printers, colour plotter etc. Each OWS
shall include one TFT, one keyboard and touch screen or mouse for
ease of operation. The TFT operation shall employ powerful menudriven and window supported input facilities for operational ease and
The following functions shall be provided as a minimum:
a) Each keyboard set shall comprise of ASCII/ Numeric keyboard,
function keyboard, control keyboard, cursor control keyboard etc.
b) All OWS of the MMIPIS shall be fully interchangeable i.e. all
operator functions including (for quick access to displays & other
operator functions) control, monitoring and operation of any plant area
on drive shall be possible from any of the OWS at any point of time
without the necessity of any action like downloading of additional files.
Each OWS shall be able to access all control information related data
under all operating conditions including a single processor/computer
failure in the MMIPIS. Further, simultaneous operation of at least two
drives of control system shall be possible from a single display
without calling additional displays for multiple drive operation.
c) No single failure in MMIPIS shall lead to non availability of more
than one OWS and two printers. In such an event i.e., single failure
leading to non availability of any OWS, it shall be possible to operate
the entire plant under all regimes of operation including emergency
conditions from each of the other available OWS.
d) Operator functions, displays, structure of the keyboard assembly
and key assignment shall be finalised during detailed engineering.
Further, all frequently called important functions including major
control loop display shall be assigned to dedicated function keys for
the convenience of the operator.


ii) The operator functions for control on each OWS shall as a

minimum include control system operation, alarm acknowledge, call
control displays, demand/printout of various displays, logs,
summaries etc. The display selection process shall be optimised so
that the desired display can be selected with the barest minimum
number of key strokes / steps by the operator.
The control related displays on the TFT shall as a minimum include
mimic displays, overview displays, area displays, individual loop/drive
display, closed loop control displays, open loop control displays etc.
Plant Supervisory, Monitoring and Information Functions of
The MMIPIS shall be designed as an on-line system which shall
process, display and store information to provide the operator, either
automatically or on demand, the relevant information. The following
minimum functions shall be performed by MMIPIS:
i) Performance calculations:
The performance calculations shall use high level language
calculations shall be made using floating point arithmetic. These
equations shall be changeable on-line at the job site. An extensive set
of steam property subroutines based on 1967 ASME steam tables
shall be included in the system. The results of these calculations shall
be available through data base for appropriate logs and operator
displays. The calculation shall be carried out at 30% unit load or
higher. The calculation frequency shall be selectable at site from 10
minutes to 1 hour, with a step of 10 minutes.
The performance calculations shall be broadly subdivided into two
Class I : Equipment protection calculations
Class II : Plant/equipment efficiency calculation.


The Class I calculations are generally for the purpose of detecting

and alarming unit malfunctions. These shall include cold reheat steam
approach to saturation temp, super heater spray outlet approach to
saturation temp., turbine steam-metal temp. differences, turbine metal
temp. rates of change, feed water heater terminal temp. difference,
feed water heater drain cooler approach, excess air deviation from
standard, feed water heater temp. deviation from standard, water
saturation temp. rate of change, metal temp. difference for SH 'Y' and
RH 'Y' piece etc.
The Class-II performance calculations shall be performed to
determine the performance of individual items of equipment and the
overall unit. The periodicity of these calculation shall be selectable
from 10 minutes to 60 minutes in increments of 10 minutes. These
shall include calculations for boiler efficiency, gross turbine generator
heat rate, gross unit heat rate, net unit heat rate, operating hours,
plant load/availability factors, HP,IP,LP turbine enthalpy drop
efficiency, performance of condenser, deaerator, economizer ,
airheater performance, unit availability calculations, merit order rating,
deviation from expected values for each calculation shall also be
c) Other Calculations
Variable alarm limit calculations, heat rate deviations and revenue
calculations, frequency excursion time integration etc. shall also be
ii) Alarm monitoring and reporting
The system shall display history of alarms in chronological order of
occurrence on any of the OWS. The MMIPIS shall have the capability
to store a minimum of 1000 alarms each with paging features allowing
the operator to view any page. The OWS keyboard shall have all
alarm functions and related function keys like alarm acknowledge,
reset, paging, summaries etc. Other design features like prioritisation,
set point/dead band adjustments, alarm report format etc., shall be as
finalised during detailed engineering.


iii) Displays
Various displays on the TFTs shall as a minimum include P&ID
displays or mimic, bar chart displays, X-Y & X-T plot (trend) displays,
operator guidance message displays, group displays, plant startup/shutdown message displays, generator capability curves, heat rate
deviation displays, system status displays etc. Number of displays
and the exact functionality shall be on as required basis and as
finalised during detailed engineering. Other types of displays as
applicable for convenience of operation shall be provided. However,
the minimum quantity of major types of displays shall be as follows:
a) Control displays (group/ sub-group/ sequence/loop) 500
b) P&ID/ mimic display 100
c) Bar chart 100
d) X-Y/ X-T Plot 100
e) Operator guidance message 100
f) Plant starting/ shutdown guidance message 100
g) Other misc. displays 25
h) System status & other diagnostic displays on as required basis.
The system shall have adequate storage capacity for storing the last
72 hours of data at scan rate for a minimum 500 points (operator
selectable) for use in trend displays.
iv) Logs/Summaries
The system shall generate three basic types of reports/logs i.e., event
activated, time activated and operator demand log & summaries. The
log format and point assignment for each logs/ report and other
design features shall be as finalised during detailed engineering. The
system shall have the facility for viewing of time activated and
operator demand logs/summaries on the TFT(s).
(a) Event activated logs shall as a minimum include alarm log, trip
analysis log, start-up - shutdown logs (Boiler start-up log, turbine run-


up log, turbine shutdown analysis log/ turbine recall log) & control
related logs.
The trip analysis log shall record a minimum of 30 pre-trip and 30
post-trip readings for the pre-defined parameters but not less than
250 points, sub-divided in to 25 groups. The data collection rate shall
be variable, i.e. faster near the trip point and gradually slower with
time. The exact details shall as finalised during detailed engineering.
The system shall be capable of generating and printing SG & TG
start-up and shutdown logs.
(b) Time activated logs shall as a minimum include shift log and daily
logs. Each of these shall provide hourly record of a minimum 225
points sub divided into 15 groups.
(c) Operator demand logs shall include, as a minimum, trend log,
maintenance data log, summary log, performance logs and some
special logs as decided during detailed engineering stage.
The system shall be capable of generating and printing trend log for a
minimum of 80 groups of 15 points each. Maintenance data log shall
provide schedule of preventive maintenance and routine equipments
(d) Various summaries shall include off scan summary, constants
summary, point quality summary, substituted values summary,
peripheral status summary etc.
(e) The assignment of logs to any of the printers shall be possible
from MMIPIS TFTs/ keyboards and programmer station.
v) Log Generation Utility
The system shall cover all features of log generation utility to
generate a log/report with format design , point selection, data
collection in different interval etc.
(vi) Historical Storage and Retrieval system (HSRS)


The HSRS shall collect, store and process system data form MMIPIS
data base. The data shall be saved online on hard disk and
automatically transferred to erasable dual Magneto-optical disk
(removable type) once in every 24 hours periodically for long term
storage. Provision shall be made to notify the operator when optical
disk is certain percentage full. The disk capacity shall be sufficient to
store at least seven days data.
The data to be stored in the above system shall include alarm and
event list, periodic plant data, selected logs/reports such as event
activated logs, sequence event log, trip analysis log, start-up log etc.
The data/information to be stored and frequency of storage and
retrieval shall be as finalised during detailed engineering.
The system shall provide operator function to retrieve the data from
historical storage. The operator shall be able to retrieve the selected
data on either colour TFT or printer and suitable index files/directories
shall be provided to facilitate the same.
In addition to the HSRS, the system shall also have facility to store
and retrieve important plant data for a very long duration (plant life) on
Magneto optical disk.
A PC along with a laser printer shall be provided for this purpose. This
PC shall be connected with the system bus, on which all the data can
be accessed.
MMIPIS Hardware
i) The MMIPIS as specified shall be based on latest state of the art
workstations and servers and technology suitable for industrial
application and power plant environment. Two possible alternatives
for MMIPIS can be envisaged. For alternative-I, the no. of redundant
servers shall be as required to achieve the processing capability to
meet all the functional requirements. For alternative-II, the
workstations other than OWS shall be configured in such a way that
loss of one workstation does not result in loss of any function.


The actual size of the main and bulk memory shall be sufficient to
meet the functional and parametric requirements as specified with
25% additional working memory and 50% additional bulk memory
over and above the memory capacity required for system
implementation. The exact system configuration and sizing shall be
as approved by Purchaser.
ii) The workstation/servers employed for MMIPIS implementation shall
be based on industry standard hardware and software which will
ensure easy connectivity with other systems and portability of
purchaser developed and third party software. These will be 32 bit/ 64
bit machines. Each workstation/ server shall be provided with an UPS
each for 60 min. back-up with output messaging facility for loss of
input power.
iii) Redundant sets of communication controllers shall be provided to
handle all the communication between the MMIPIS and redundant
system bus and to ensure specified system response time and
parametric requirements. Each communication controller shall have
message checking facility.
iv) Power fail auto restart (PFAR) facility with automatic time update
shall be provided.
v) The LAN shall be provided under MMIPIS and shall support TCP/IP
protocol (Ethernet connectivity) and shall have data communication
speed of minimum 100 MBPS.
Operating Stations

Main Control Console


The main control console provides the primary manmachine interface through the operator station. The
system will consist of six (6) Operating Stations.
Overview of the plant systems, complete controls and
monitoring of the plant equipment and parameters,


including performance of start-up/shutdown, normal

plant operation and emergency operations, are
accessible from any one of the operating stations. All
operating stations will be interchangeable.
Three operating / working stations will have 21 inches
TFT screens with high resolution (1600x1200),
minimum 80 GB Hard Disk memory, 1GB RAM
capacity, DVD R/W. The response time should not be
more than 1 to 2 seconds. All keyboards/key pads area
of totally enclosed type.

Three (3) large video screens, each with 67 inches

diagonal, graphic controller and other hardware will be
provided. The system will be interfaced on 100 MBPS
LAN (or higher depending upon the latest system /bus
speed available). Also there should be a possibility of
integrating the RGB, video available in the Control
Room on a later date by providing some extra input
cards. The system should be possible to show the
mirror images of six (6) operator workstations running
on WINDOWS NT / 2000 and connected using the
Ethernet with the display controller. The system will be
interfaced with SCADA system of switchyard. If
interfacing is not possible, there will be separate LVS
for the SCADA system of Switchyard. The system will
also be interfaced with video signals, to receive &
project pictures from CCTV, live camera, VCP/VCD
player/DVD player, SCADA & DDCMIS remote unit for
switching between video signal & MMI signal, selecting
the video signal channel will be provided.
The rear projection module will have single chip DLP
rear projection technology each of the rear projection
module will be 67 diagonal as minimum with a
resolution of 1600 x 1200 pixels and offers 16.7 million
colures. The contrast will be equal to better than 850:1.


The whole screen of the large screen graphics wall

should behave as a single logical screen and the
control of the same should be from a dedicated
graphical control unit (controller) having a keyboard &


Three nos B/W laser Jet printers and one colour laser
jet printer are provided along with main control

Computer room / shift in charge room / maintenance

laboratory room

Computer Room
The computer room is located adjacent to the unit
control room to provide easy access for control room
Personnel. This room contains all distributed digital
control, monitoring and information system (DDCMIS)
related equipment necessary for configuring and
maintaining the power block management information
and balance of plant systems such as one (1)
engineering/diagnostic workstation and laser jet printer
and all programming devices for configuration of the
system and graphics also having diagnostic features,
one (1) workstation and dedicated dot Matrix printer for
Sequence of event recording, two (2) workstation and
dedicated dot matrix printers for alarm, historian and
MIS, one (1) workstation and laser jet printer for
performance calculation and optimization package, one
(1) workstation and laser jet printer for vibration
monitoring and analysis (OCAMMS) system, one (1)
work station and laser jet printer for boiler leak
detection system, one (1) color laser jet printer ((A3


Shift In-charge Room


One (1) Workstation and laser jet colour printer for shift
supervisor, which will be common for all units.

Maintenance Laboratory room

One (1) workstation and laser jet printer for LAB
instruments calibration will not be in computer room.
The shift in charge room and Maintenance laboratory
room will be common for all the units.

Displays such as overview of plant, graphics (plant

schematics) line display of data and plan status including
electrical parameters, bar graphs, trends (trend point and
trend group), alarms, open & close loop schemes including
instrument face plate, various logs & steps during process
upset including help message, Simulations & optimizations,
diagnostic display, tuning panel are envisaged.

Tube leak detection system

Acoustic type tube leak detection system will be provided for boiler
Online computer aided microprocessor based
maintenance management system (OCAMMMS)


Microprocessor based standalone online vibration/machinery

monitoring and anyalysis system will be used for condition
monitoring of TG and HT drives/motors. OCAMMMS will take care of
predictive maintenance of machine/equipment and will be
compatible and of same family of turbine vibration-monitoring
system / HT drives vibrations system.



Balance of Plant Packages control system

The following balance of plant packages will be controlled by

Programmable logic controllers (PLC)/ Microprocessor based
systems/ Local control panels/Local control rooms in the field

Coal handling plant (CHP),

Mill Reject handling system
Ash handling system & Silo unloading system,
Raw water plant
Pre-Treatment & clarified plant
Dematerialized water (DMW) plant,
Air conditioning & ventilation system
Fuel oil handling system and other auxiliary systems.
Compressed air system
Fire Detection & protection system
Effluent treatment
CW Chlorination
Chemical dosing system
H2 Gen. plant

All the packages comprising of PLC or Microprocessor based control

systems will be connected through suitable Gateways with DDCMIS
for data transfer to Main control room for monitoring. Some of
switchyard control data will obtained to DDCMIS through DAS and
control signal exchange will be carried through hardwire.

Programmable logic controller (PLC)

All the PLCs controllers will be hundred percent hot standby with
bump less transfer facility in the event of failure of running processor.
The controller will be 32 bit & adequate period Battery back up will be
provided for RAM for continuous operations during power failure. The
controller will have 40% spare functional capacity to implement
additional function blocks, over and above implemented logic/ loops
under envisaged load conditions.


The redundancy will be provided, for all input/output cards, used for
control signals. No redundancy at I/O card level is envisaged for non
control signals and Data Acquisition/Monitoring functions. The inputs
or inputs of any of I/O card shall not have more than 16 channels per
I/O card except Analog output card. In case of Analog output card the
out puts shall have max. 8 channels.

24 VDC power supply

24 V DC supply is envisaged DDCMIS cards/transmitters etc and

annunciation systems because of high degree of reliability and
availability. This ensures that under any condition does the supply to
the control system of the plant fail.
The control supply to Micro-processor based control systems cannot
have any interruption as this leads to the loss of memory and
consequent halting of the systems. Therefore a uninterrupted supply
is ensured for such systems.

24V Dc system will be located in AC rooms & will consist


100% capacity float-cum-boost
100% capacity static switches
30 min backup VRLA
DC power distribution boards

Qty. / Unit

The use of 24V DC charger and Valve regulated lead acid / sealed
maintenance free batteries (having 20 years life ) for providing
uninterruptible power supply of 24V DC for the control portion of the
system requirement (Voltage requirements). The DC supply from
battery/charger is given to DC distribution board on redundant feeders


(2x100%). The scheme provides no interruption of 24 V DC power


240 V UPS
The other system loads not fed with DC are taken on the 240 V AC
supply through UPS.
Redundant ACDB with redundant feeders will be provided for UPS
supply in order to ensure no-break power supply of 240V AC
The total requirement of C&I power supply is fed from 240V AC
industrial graded parallel redundant UPS and valve regulated lead
acid, sealed maintenance free batteries having 20 yrs life. 240V AC
UPS supply is fed to MMI.
For the AC portion of the loads, the use of completely 100%
redundant charger cum inverter system is envisaged with 50% load
sharing. However, the battery bank for the system would be 100%
capacity batteries only. The envisaged 50% load sharing also ensure
that there is increased margins in the inverters to blow branch fuses.
The equipment included for the UPS for such a scheme is given
below. UPS is located in AC room.

100% capacity float-cum-boost chargers
100% capacity static inverters
100% capacity static switches
Manual by-pass switch
30 min backup VRLA/SMF batteries with 20
yrs life.
Step-down transformer (415V, three phase
to 240V, single phase)
Voltage stabilizer
AC power distribution boards

Qty. / Unit




Unit Control panel and operator Interface

2 Nos. LVS and operating console desks/ consoles for group of

operating stations in the central control room and also provide
operator control consoles in computer room for Engg/ Diagnostic
calculations/Optimization, boiler leak detection system along with their
Operating stations will be console mounted and placed at an angle for
viewing from the front as an operator station. Operating station /KBD
will generally be used for control and monitoring and also large video
screens will be used for control and monitoring.
Control panels housing the control cards/equipment are located in a
room adjacent to control room; and have IP-32 degree of protection
as per IS-2147 offering dust and vermin protection. 2 mm thick steel
sheets (CRCA) are adopted for fabrication, consistent with weight of
devices, control equipment to be mounted. UPS panels are of 2 mm
thick steel sheet (CRCA).
All panels, cabinets and enclosures will be furnished, fully, wired with
necessary provisions for convenience outlets, internal lighting
grounding, ventilation and vibration isolation pads and other
accessories as per IS: 5032-1262.
The sealing of panels/cabinets/enclosures bottom with bottom plate.
Double compression cable glands and suitable sealing material to
prevent entry of dust. Suitable arrangement for preventing fire
propagation through cable entry points like fire seals etc. at cable
entry points. Exhaust fans with louvers & filters will be provided in all
consoles and panels. All the panels will be equipped with Anti
Vibration pad of 15 mm size



Analytical System SWAS & FG Analysers

This section covers the philosophy and design criteria for continuous
on line analytical measurements of important process media such as
water, steam and flue gas . All analytical instruments are of
microprocessor based only.
Analytical measurements are of two types:a) Gas Analysis: Flue gas analysis is carried out for
percentage oxygen (O2 zirconium oxide probe type),
Combustibles (Co) (in-situ type), Sox / Nox (in-situ type )
and smoke emission density.
b) Steam and Water Analysis: Continuous analysis is
done on steam and water media to establish their purity
and suitability for long life of pressure parts. The
measurements are carried out at different cycle points of
the plant to establish Conductivity, PH, silica, sodium,
phosphate & Dissolved oxygen content.
The steam and water analysis system (SWAS ) includes all requisite
analyzers, sampling system, complete with sampling table, chiller unit
and analyzer panels. All data are available in DDCMIS for
The measurements of samples will be as follows:
Sample Sample


Make-up DM

Hot well A&B

Type of

Range of

c) pH

0-10 Micro

















0-10 Micro



b) pH
c) Dissolved
e) Cation
f) silica
g) Sodium ion









0-20 ppb
0-1000 ppb
0-10 Micro
0-10 Micro
0-100 ppb







0.1 to 1000
0.2 ppb












h) Chloride



Feed water
BF booster
Feed water

Boiler Water


b) Dissolved

0-20 ppb
0-100 ppb


b) pH

6-14 pH

c) Conductivity 0-10 Micro

d) Hydrazine
0-50 ppb
0-100 ppb
e) DO2
f) Silica
0-50, 100















b) pH

6-14 pH

c) Conductivity 0-300 Micro

d) Silica
0-5000 ppb
e) Phosphate
0-10 ppm





FP discharge















c) Ph

0-100 Micro
6-14 Ph







c) Silica

0-10 Micro
0-100 ppb





d) pH

6-14 pH




e) Hydrazine

0-50 ppb
0-10 Micro










Stator water
Main steam
c) After cation



d) Silica

0 to 100





0-500 ppb,





6-14 Ph




c) Conductivity 0-10 micro

d) Silica
0-100 ppb







e) Sodium ion




e) pH

a) Chlorine
Cooling water
Out let of
Polishing unit b) pH

0.3 to 1000
0.4 ppb

f) Chloride



Flue gas after Oxygen %

air heater (1
nos for each
air heater,
total 2 nos)
Flue gas at
a) NOX
Discharge of
b) SO2
Duct (to

Flue gas at
eco. Outlet
before air

0-10 %
volume O2










c) CO

3000 PPM




d) O2%
Oxygen %








heater ( 2
Nos L & 1 No
Flue gas at
height of 8
times of


mg / NM3




Field Instrumentation
Smart Transmitters will be provided for pressure, temperature, flow
and level measurements. Transmitters will be electronic type, twowire configuration. The output signal will be 4 to 20 mA DC HART
compatible & capable of drawing loads upto 600 ohms at 24 V DC.
The transmitters will be provided with integral indicator of 5 display
with an accuracy of + 0.075%
Pressure Measurements
The pressure sensing element/movement material will be SS316
with die cast aluminum cable. The accuracy will be +1. Local
pressure gauges will be 150 mm dial type. The bourdon tube will be
SS316 and case material will be die-cast aluminum. The pointer will
be of micrometer type with adjustable zero adjustment in the front.
Gauges will be provided with snubbers/ pulsation dampers, siphons,
seals as required.
Pressure switches are provided for pressure measurements.
Pressure and differential pressure will be selected based on
pressure and temperature operating conditions.


Temperature Measurements

Thermocouples: - Thermocouples will be of Duplex K-type

with KX Extension cables wire. The elements will be
ungrounded type. The sheath OD will be 6 mm for
thermocouples. The insulation materials will be magnesium
oxide. The accuracy for thermocouple will be + 1.10C.
Thermocouples will have spring-loaded sheathed elements to
provide good thermal contact with the well. The gauge size
will be 16 SWG.


RTD: Duplex type resistance temperature detector (RTD) will

be of 3-wire platinum type. The nominal resistance will be 100
ohm at 00C. RTDs will be of ungrounded type. The sheath OD
will be 6 mm. The insulation materials will be magnesium
oxide. The response time will be 15 sec. (bare) and 30 sec.
with thermo well. The accuracy will be + 0.350C. RTDs will
have spring-loaded sheathed elements provided with good
thermal contact with the well. The gauge size will be 18 SWG.


Local Temperature Gauges will be liquid filled type with 150

mm dial with separable SS316 thermo well. The case material
will be die cast Aluminum. The accuracy and response time
will be + 1% and max. 15 sec. The process connection size
will be M33x2. Extension neck length will be 50 mm above
insulation of pipe.


Thermo well: Thermo well will be heavy duty tapered, weld in

bar stock type as per ANSI B31.1 piping code. Thermo well
will be designed for maximum pipeline velocity to prevent well
failure. Thermo well material will be SS316.

Level Measurements
Accuracy of measurement will be + 1% of full scale or better for
granular or powdered material level measurement, ultrasonic, RF
type detectors will be used. For liquid level measurement, float,


displacer, pressure bulb or differential pressure type will be used

depending upon the vessel/tank is closed or open type or the
medium for which it is used.
Level gauges will be provided for local indication. Al gauge glasses
will be provided with graduated suitable scale. Level gauges will be
transparent type & back lighted.
Level switches will be external cage float type with its body rated for
vessel or tank design conditions. The body will be provided with
individual block vent and drain connections.
Flow Elements
For measurement of water flow, orifice plates will be used as
primary sensing device. The flow sensors are sized as per BS 1042
or confirming to the latest codes of ASME and calculation
parameters. For airflow measurement, flow-sensing devices will be
venture tubes. For steam flow measurement, flow-sensing devices
will be of nozzle type and condensation chambers of identical
dimensions will be used and installed as near to the sensor as
possible. Sensing instruments and their mounting accessories for
steam line and high-pressure application will be IBR certified.
For flow measurements of line size up to 500 mm, carrier ring type
orifice plates will be used. Beyond this size, disc type orifice plate
will be used. The orifice plate will be installed not less than with a
straight pipe length of 10 D on the upstream side and 5 D on the
down stream side., free from bends, tees, branch pipes, valves etc.

Control Valves
For pneumatically operated control valves, the valve will operate on
0.2 to 1 Kg/cm2 air signal. Control valves will be sized so that the CV
required for normal flow will not be more than 62.5% of the
manufactures published CV for 100% valve opening: and the
minimum flow will occur at 30% of value opening and more to have a


good operating range. Valve lift will be limited to 80% of the travel at
max. Flow load.
Control valves will be complete with I/P converters, position
transmitters, Air lock relay, Positioners, limit switches, solenoid valves
and filter regulators as needed. The valves will be provided with hand
wheels for local operation.
Critical service valves like PRDS, HP/LP bypass, Auto recirculation
values, Boiler feed control, SH/RH steam temperature control, Soot
blower pressure control valves will be drag design.
The control valve will have valve position indication in the control
room. Position transmitters will be 2-wire type with 4-20 mA DC
output. Teflon/asbestos packing will be used up to 200 0C
temperature; and graphite lubricated asbestos will be used for
operating temperature higher than 2000C. The noise level of the
control valves will be less than 85 dB. The control valves will be
installed after the flow sensing devices in the direction of flow.

Instrumentation Cables
Instrument (Pair / core) cables (tinned copper conductor, 650V Ext
grade, 0.5 / 1.5 sqmm, FRLS type, PVC insulated, armored) and
compensating cables (KX, 1.5sqmm, FRLS type, PVC insulated,
armored ) complete with all accessories.
Compensating cables are used to interconnect thermocouples to
control and monitoring systems. The type of compensating cable
depends on the type of thermocouple being connected to the control
and monitoring systems in any one of the following ways:a)

Compensating cables from thermocouple head (through

JB/Mar willing cubicle or directly as the case may be) will be
connected to the control and monitoring system.


Thermocouple extension cable will be connected to up to the

JB provide cold junction compensator at JB and from thereon


shielded instrumentation cable to the control and monitoring

system will be used.


Connecting the thermocouple extension cable at the JB end

to temperature transmitters, which convert the thermocouples
signal to a standard current signal for transmission to the
control and monitoring system.

Erection Hardware
All required installation hardware including impulse pipes, tubes,
valves, manifolds fittings, etc. required for proper installation and
interconnection of instrumentation and control systems will be
provided. All materials and installation thereof will confirm to latest
editions of American national standard Code for pressure piping,
ANSI B 31.1, ANSI B 16.1, ASME Boiler and pressure vessel codes,
IBR and other application ASME, ANSI and local standards.


Maintenance and Calibration Equipment

One (1) set of maintenance and calibration equipment for
instrumentation and control systems will be provided. This would
consist of calibration equipment such as electronic test bench,
pneumatic test bench, digital manometers, dead weight tester,
manometers, air sets, RCL bridge, digital channel simulator, logic
probe, etc.
The calibration instruments will have a common PC along with ink jet
printer for calibration and report generation.
All the calibration instruments will be provided with Rs232C port for
PC interface with their own interfacing cables.





Basic Design considerations

All materials, design, workmanship test and acceptance criteria etc.,
must conform to the latest edition of the Indian codes and standards
or other Internationally accepted standards which ensure a quality
equal to or higher than the Indian standards:Indian Standards
Different Indian standard codes (IS)
Special publications (SP)
Indian Road Congress standards (IRC)
National Building Codes (NBC)


Wind speed
The applicable design wind pressure will be computed during design
of buildings and structures as per IS:875 (part 3) for the zone in which
the proposed power station is located. This basic wind speed will be
used to determine wind load for all structures.


Systems and system component design criteria which require
ambient temperature extremes shall use the range from minimum to
maximum temperature existing at site for dry-bulb temperatures.


Relative humidity
i) Absolute maximum : 100%
ii) Highest monthly mean : As per site condition




The power station is located under Zone-II as per IS: 1893 (part-I):
2005. The design and analysis of structures to withstand the seismic
forces will be done/carried out as per the provisions of IS: 1893.

Soil Characteristics
The area is generally covered with medium Red sandy loam Soils.
Type of foundations will be decided based on the geotechnical
investigation. LEPL will carryout the detail geo-technical investigation
of the proposed project site for the plant structures as per the plot to
decide about the type of foundations for the plant equipment


Site grading & Levels

The plot of land for the proposed project is not fairly level. The
elevation of the plant is 588 meters above MSL. The plant grade level
will be finalized during detailed engineering stage.


Main Plant Power plant building superstructure

The main power plant building comprising TG bay (A-B bay ) and the
adjacent electrical & deaerator bay (B-C bay) will be of steel framed
construction up to the roof level. The floor slabs at intermediate levels
will be of RCC and supported on steel beams & columns. The TG bay
roof (A-B bay) and side cladding will be provided with 0.5 mm the precolor coated PVF-2 galvalum high strength double in metallic cladding
provided with resin bonded mineral wool insulation 50 mm thick. The
deaerator (B-C bay) will have side cladding of brickwork (cement
plastered with architectural finishes); B-row and C-row duly painted.
Floor slabs and roof covering of B-C bay will of cast in situ RCC
construction. A-B bay will be equipped EOT cranes B, C, D raw wall
will be of bricks.
Roof will be provided with suitable drainage arrangement through
rainwater down corners.
Doors, windows and rolling shutters will be provided.


All structural components will be shop welded while the field

connections will be made with high-tensile bolts or welding as
determined in design stage. The transverse frames will be of framed
type. In the longitudinal direction, these transverse frames will be
braced to resist horizontal forces.


Plant area Civil works

All the walls and floors will be provided with approved painting and
floor finishing. RCC roofs will be provided with approved water
proofing treatment.
Special foundations - Rotating equipment
The foundation systems for rotating equipment will be sized and
proportioned not to exceed the bearing and settlement criteria and
to assure satisfactory performance of the equipment. In addition to a
static analysis , a dynamic analysis will be performed to determine
the fundamental frequencies of the foundation system. To preclude
resonance , the fundamental frequency of the foundation will be 25
percent removed from the operational frequency of the equipment.
The dynamic behavior of the foundation will meet the requirements
of IS:2974 (Part I to IV) code of practice for design and
Construction of machine foundations.
All rotating equipment will be provided with vibration isolation spring
system mounted foundations. The vibration isolation system
supplied will be of proven make, consisting of steel helical spring
units and viscous dampers (Providing damping resistance in all
three planes). The vibration isolation foundation system will be
provided for Turbo-generator, Boiler feed pumps, ID/FD/PA fans,
Coal mills and Coal crushers.
The vibration isolation system will be capable of vibration isolation
more than 95%


If minor equipments are to be supported on building structures,

floors etc. Suitable vibration isolation will be provided.
Civil foundations will be designed to take into consideration soil
bearing capacity and ground water table. Generally raft/spread
foundations will be considered. The minimum grades of concrete will
be in accordance with appropriate class of exposure as per IS 456
2000.Concrete grade for various works will be
For decks of spring supported machine foundations and substructure.
M30 Mechanical foundation chimney shell and substructure of
spring supported machine foundation.
M25 structural RCC work in foundations and superstructures,
water retaining structures and chimney raft foundation.
M20 Grade slab & other miscellaneous items
M15: sub-grade filling, mud-mat etc (depending upon the
aggressiveness of foundation soil)
IS:875 code is referred to for considering all the required provisions.
Brickwork in cement mortar 1:4/1:6 will be used for plant buildings
as applicable. Ductile detailing of RCC structures will be as per
Foundations of all major equipment with vibrating load such as fans
(ID, FD, SA, PA, coal mills and coal crusher etc. will be spring
supported deck type with supporting framed structure of RCC.
Equipment foundation will be separated from adjoining part of
building and other foundations joints at floor/slab will be suitably


All building will be provided with 1500 mm wide and 150mm thick
plain cement concrete paving around on the outside. The plinth
protection will be laid over prepared sub-base and base.
Steel doors, windows, rolling shutters will be provided with glazing
as required.
b) Structural works
Structural works will be designed for dead-load plus adequate live
load plus worse of wind load and earthquake load with importance
factor of 1.5 and seismic load as per IS: 1893 as applicable for
Mill & bunker bay will comprise of structural steel framework
supporting the coal bunkers, feeder floor and tripper floor. The
structural frame will be designed as a fixed joint frame in the
transverse direction and braced frame in the longitudinal direction.
Coal bunkers will be of structural steel plates and will be lines with
stainless steel liner plates in the entire conical portion. The floors will
be of reinforced concrete with hardened top and supported on steel
beams. The column foundation and mill foundations will be
supported on raft/spread foundations. Tripper bay and conveyor
galleries will be provided with color coated sheet cladding.
Stairs, platforms and galleries will be of minimum 900 mm width
complete with hand-rails, toe-plate and curbing as required. Stair
treads will be of 250 mm with 150/190 mm height between
successive treads.
c) RCC foundations for Turbo-generators, Boiler feed pumps, (as
required) ID/FD/PA fans, coal mills and coal crushers will be
provided with vibration isolation systems supporting the top RCC
deck to support the machine/equipment.



Road & Culverts

The roads in the plant area will be of adequate thickness and width as
per requirement of various areas. It is proposed to have wet mixed
macadam (WMM) roads during construction stage and the same will
be finished with asphalt surfacing during completion stage. Adequate
plant roads/culverts, grading and drainage will be provided. All roads
will be designed as per applicable IRC/MOR&T standards.


Liquid retaining Structures

RCC Water retaining structures will be leak proof and designed as
uncracked section. The design will conform to IS: 3370. In all liquid
retaining structures, PVC water bar will be provided at each
construction/expansion joint.
RCC foundations of boiler columns and other miscellaneous
equipment will be included. RCC Grade slab covering the boiler area
will be provided.
Grade slab foundations will be provided for ESP columns, duct
supports and miscellaneous minor equipment. ESP control room,
electrical room will be of flat RCC roof construction with brick walled


Natural draft cooling tower

Natural draft cooling tower for each unit to handle 80,000 m3/hr.
Water with leak proof under ground basin and separation of whole
basin in two parts by means of partition wall. It will be hyperbolic shell
with external and internal platform arrangement, hot water duct
system and CW channel etc. Suitable draining and pumping
arrangement from the drain box outside is provided for sludge
disposal. Cooling towers will be RCC framed structure as per the
requirement of BS:4485-1996 Part I to IV.



Water system
The consumptive water requirement will be drawn from river Krishna
and pumped to plant through MS pipelines. Intake water pump house
will be provided at suitable location at river end with pumping
facilities. The make up water pumping station will be of RCC
construction. In plant water storage for 15 days requirement will be
provided. The in plant water reservoir will be compartmentalized to
ensure de-sludging/maintenance of any section without affecting plant
Pre-treatment plant & overhead tanks for potable water/service
Pre-treatment plant consists of clarifloculator along with Aerator, flush
mixture, clarified water tank and pump house, sludge disposal
system. The design and construction of these structures will be based
on IS-3370 Part-01 to IV along with the provision of leak proof
arrangement of structures.
With a view to conserve water, the fire water reservoir will be provided
with concrete slabs on top as protective cover, PVC lining will be
provided on bed and sides to prevent seepage loss.


coal handling plant

Railway marshalling yard for the movement of coal wagons to enable
them for unloading on track hoppers will be provided. Conveyors
galleries, supporting trestles, superstructures of crusher house and
transfer house will be of fabricated structural steel work. All
components will be of welded fabrication with bolted/welded joints for
erection and assembly in the field. Intermediate floors and roof in
transfer houses and crusher houses will be of reinforced concrete
supported on structural steel framing. Side cladding will be of
plastered brickwork or GI sheeting: and necessary windows/louvers
will be provided for natural lighting and ventilation. Crusher foundation
with vibration isolation springs system for isolating the crusher house
building will be of RCC RCC frame. Conveyor tunnels will be of


concrete box section with

proofing arrangement.

provision of appropriate water

Civil works for Ash handling plant

The Ash water pump house with the ash sump and ash slurry sump
will be of RCC construction with RCC columns and beams. The ash
slurry sump will be compartmentalized lined with abrasion resistant
liners. Similarly the ash water sump will be compartmentalized for
mounting pumps , separation walls and other needed facilities.
Provision for suitable steel inserts will be made for installation of the
pipes, valves etc, The pump house will have the provision for
traveling crane of adequate capacity lift. The blower / compressor
room will be separate RCC construction in flat roof construction
located close to ESPs to accommodate the blowers/compressors with
its auxiliaries.
Ash silos will be provided for dry collection of fly ash for transportation
& utilization by utilities.
Pipe rack for conveying the ash and water pipes to slurry sump will be
of structural steel framed construction having its columns mounted on
the RCC foundations. Suitable head room clearance will be
maintained below the pipe rack for free movement of the cranes and
other mobile equipment. All the wet ash will be conveyed through
pipes laid in covered trenches up to the ash slurry sump.


Emergency Ash Dyke

Ash dyke will be provided for collection of ash slurry. Ash dyke top will
be 6 meters wide. The cross-section of ash dyke will be finalized
during detailed engineering stage using locally available soil properly
lined with betonite to prevent ash water seepage into the ground
water and around.



Waste water management

As a part of waste water system management, adequately sized
settling sump oil water separator; settling pond; waste treatment plant
sumps will be provided in RCC construction lined inside with suitable
materials. Plant drainage system will be designed as per the area
drainage pattern. The surface run off the power plant area and water
taken out of the buildings will be led to natural drainage system
through a designed storm water drains through open drains, pipes.
Plant rainwater drainage will be connected to the nearly existing
natural drainage system.
For the main power plant building one no. With sufficient capacity of
sewage treatment plant will be located in the vicinity and for other
miscellaneous buildings septic tanks and soak will be provided.
All the effluent from powerhouse building, boiler building, chemical
house etc. Will be taken to a central monitoring basin. The effluent will
be further treated in R.O plant to recycle and reuse in the system. The
necessary civil work like lamellar clarifier, dry and wet sand pit etc.
will be constructed as per IS:456 2002 and IS:3370 part I to IV.


Switchyard Civil Works

Civil work for 400 KV switchyard will consists of tower foundations,
equipment foundations, foundations for lighting mass towers, control
room building and cable trenches, roads drains and chain link fencing.


One(1) twin flue having flues of steel or acid resistant/fire clay bricks
with insulation (insulated outside the flue) RCC chimney will be
provided. The height of the chimney as per CPCB will be 275M. The
chimney will be fitted with 500 Kg capacity elevator, staircase inside
the windshield of RCC slip form construction. Chimney will be fitted
with pollution ,measuring apparatus & warming lights at top. chimney
will be provided with lighting arrestor, aviation warning lights as per


statutory requirement. The outside of the chimney shell will be painted

with acid resistant cement paint. The top of chimney shell will be
painted with alternate red and white bands conforming to aviation
safety Standard requirement.

Railway Siding
Railway linkage to the project site will be from Mulvad Railway station
of Hubli-Bijapur section of South western Railway at a distance of
about 5 Km.


Auxiliary Buildings
In addition to the power plant technological structures/buildings,
following non-technological buildings/structures will also be provided.

Fire house to accommodate 2 fire tenders with facilities for

the shift operating staff.


Service building in 4 floors, each floor having an area of 450

m2 attached to the main plant building


Administrative building in 3 floors, each floor having an area

of 500 sq.m.


Workshop, canteen, store.


Security gate and time keeping office


20 meter high lighting towers in coal yard & switchyard area.


10 meter high, 4 meter square at top, guard / watch towers

spaced adequately, around the boundary wall.


Cycle and scooter parking sheds.


Green belt around the power plant area covering about 30%
of the plant area as per Environment Pollution Control norms.




Adequate number of toilets and both rooms in the TG building

and other areas including associated septic tanks/sewage
disposal system.


Motorcar shed with roof cover side open for 25 vehicles.

Residential Colony


Man-power for operation of the power plant


The operation and maintenance staff for a wellmanaged proposed power station has been assessed
as 350 personnel besides security staff. Availability of
some of skilled manpower for the project in the
neighboring areas is envisaged. Project site being
close to Basavana Bagewadi town at about 25 KM, the
manpower likely to be available. A residential colony for
the plant will be built for O&M Personnel in about 65
acres of land. There is no big developed town nearby
area of the proposed site and as such the rental
accommodation may not be available in abundance.


Considering the above factors and on the ground of

economy, accommodation is proposed for 260
persons for the power plant operation and maintenance
staff and staff employed for the other allied services
like finance, administration, accounts, security welfare
etc. will be developed. The break-up of O & M staff is
indicated in Annexure -11

Housing Categories
About 260 personnel are proposed to be accommodated in
the town ship. About 10% employees will be provided with
bachelor hostel accommodation and the remaining will be
accommodated in A, B, C, D type residential quarters.
Security barracks (bachelor accommodation) is proposed for


most of the security staff, while their supervisors and officers

will be provided with residential quarters. The number of units
proposed under each type of residential quarter is given


Housing type


Number of

50 M2
75 M2
100 M2
125 M2


Hostels and Residential Quarters

The size of different types of residential quarters is as per
standard prevailing norms. Besides the bachelors hostel,
security barracks and residential quarters are proposed in the
township. The bachelor hostel will have 3 floors, each floor
having 10 rooms with a separate conference room and
common room.


Community Facilities
In order to attract and retain a competent work staff, the
township will be developed with an aim to satisfy the
diversified needs of the employees and their families.
Accordingly, adequate and various type of community
facilities will be provided in township area. These will include
childrens play areas and play fields, primary cum nursery
schools, cruche, health center and hospital, shopping
facilities, community center, club house, open air theater,
bank, post office, police outpost etc.





CEA Guidelines
As per CEA regulations 2007, the following Layout considerations
shall be adopted.
General layout of the Station shall be developed considering space
optimization, functional requirements, future extensions (if envisaged)
and provision of space requirements during construction stage.
Following minimum layout requirements shall be complied with as
may be applicable for coal/lignite and/or gas turbine based Stations:

The layout of the Station shall be compact so as to optimize the

use of land, materials and minimize losses in the system.


Adequate provision shall be made in regard to space and access

in order to carry out the maintenance of various equipments.

iii) Due consideration shall be given for the wind direction while
deciding on the relative location of the following:
a) cooling tower and switchyard to minimize the moisture drift
towards the switchyard.
b) chimney and ash disposal area with respect to township and
adjoining habitation areas (applicable for coal/lignite based
generating stations)
iv) Adequate space shall be provided for unloading and maintenance
purposes in Turbine - Generator (TG) area.
In case of coal/lignite based generating stations, two transverse
bays shall be provided in TG area, at ground level at one end of
the building for unloading and maintenance purposes. For
Stations with multiple units, adequate space shall be provided to
meet the requirement for simultaneous maintenance of two units.


v) Requisite lay down area shall be provided for each unit on TG

floor and same shall be approachable with electric overhead
travelling (EOT) crane.

Coal/lignite bunker bay shall preferably be located away from the

TG building to avoid the dust nuisance. In case bunker bay is
located adjacent to TG area, suitable isolation arrangement shall
be provided.


Adequate fire escape staircases shall be provided in TG building

with fire doors at each landing.

viii) For coal/lignite based generating stations, interconnecting

walkways between TG building and steam generator shall be
provided at TG operating floor level and at deaerator floor level.
Walkways at various levels shall also be provided for
interconnection between steam generator and bunker bay.
ix) Provision of adequate space, as per stipulation of MOE&F, shall
be made for future installation of flue gas desulphurization plant.
x) One (1) no. of staircase, for each unit/ module, and minimum one
(1) no. elevator shall be provided in the TG building. In addition,
following elevators shall also be provided for coal/lignite based
generating stations:
a) One passenger-cum goods elevator for each steamgenerator
b) One passenger cum goods elevator for coal transfer point in
bunker area
c) One elevator for chimney with suitable landings

Plot Plan
The general plant layout for the proposed power station is shown in
plot plan drawing is given at Annexure-9.a
The Plot plan shows the location of main plant equipment with its
auxiliaries, raw water storage reservoir, railway marshalling yard, coal


storage area, switchyard, fly ash silos, and ash dyke. The plant layout
has been developed keeping in view the following:i.

Location within the designated area best suited from the point of
view of available land offering least site grading costs.

ii. Wind direction

iii. Proximity to the state highway road and railway line.
iv. Location of cooling water facilities considering in wind direction
v. Power evacuation corridor for 400 KV system.
The main plant equipment and auxiliary systems are located based
on the unit system design concept except for common facilities such
as 400 KV switchyard, raw water system, coal unloading and handling
facilities, fuel oil system, ash disposal pond etc.
The layout provides for:i.

Dedicated 15 days storage of raw water for plant consumptive


ii. Storage space for coal and secondary fuel.

iii. Space for future FGD plants
iv. Dry ash silos
v. Railway marshalling yard within plant boundary.
vi Green belt all around the plant.
vii Administrative building.
viii Adequate space for built-up and open area for construction
offices, stores, fabrication yard, pre-assembly yard etc.
Ix Residential colony

Ash dyke area as per MOEF notification dt. 03.11.2009.



General plant layout


400 KV switchyard will be located North-west of station building
beyond transformer yard as shown in the plot plan drawing. Power
will be evacuated from the plant switchyard at 400 KV voltage level.
Natural draft cooling towers, water reservoir are located in Nort-East
side of the main plant, where as the coal handling plant and railway
marshalling are in the East.
Separate provision for gate complex comprising security office, first
aid centre and time office will be made in gatehouse complex.
The auxiliary and building includes:

Fire station


Work shop


Hydrogen generation plant




Compressor House


Emergency diesel generators station.

vii. Storage sheds.


Layout of steam Generator and Auxiliaries

The general disposition of furnace with its supporting columns; FD,
PA and ID fans with drivers and handling columns; Rotary air preheaters etc. will be located as applicable to front wall fired/corner fired
down shot burner configuration boiler. The layout is subject to revision
based on the final selection of the steam generator. The rear end mill
arrangement will be preferred. The arrangement will reduce the
critical piping lengths, coal conveyor lengths etc.


The flue gas ducts from the air heater pass below feeder floor for
connection to ESP; and then will be connected to a 275 M high RCC
stack, with steel flues, each flue connected through two (2) ID fans for
each unit.
ESP control room will be provided separately for each unit.
Ash pump house with slurry sump will be located near ESP.
One (1) passenger-cum freight-elevator of 2000 kg. capacity will be
located between two (2) boilers. Elevator will be connected to various
platforms of the boilers.
The elevators machine rooms will be provided with pressurized
ventilation/air-conditioning to avoid ingress of dust from boiler & mills
area. The elevator-shafts will be covered on all with CGI sheeting or
perforated corrugated metal cladding.

Layout of Machine Room building with Annex

The machine room building will comprise of 40M span turbine hall
followed and 15 M bay for electrical and control rooms. The machine
room will be provided with two (2) 140/40 tones capacity Electric
overhead traveling (EOT) cranes with lifting beam suitable for tandem
operation. Generator stator will be lifted by special temporary jacking
arrangement. Steel columns with brick/aluminum cladding and
precast RCC roof is envisaged for covering the machine room to
protect it against rain, wind etc. A clear passage will be kept between
C-row column line and boiler first columns to facilitate critical pipe
work routing into machine room; and to locate other auxiliary
equipment such as blow down tanks etc. This corridor will also be
utilized for cable/pipe trenches between units as well as the boiler.
415 V, 3.3 & 11 KV Switchgear will be located mostly on floors in B/C
Bay in between the machines, boiler auxiliaries MCC; boiler Valves
MCC; soot blower MCC; 240 Volt ACDB etc. dedicated for each unit
will be located at higher levels scattered close to the equipment to the


extent possible to minimize the cable lengths. 240 Volt ACDB etc.
dedicated for each unit will be located at higher levels scattered close
to the equipment to the extent possible to minimize the cable lengths.
240 Volt Station Battery units and its chargers, room along with UPS
Battery will be also located in B/C bays. The air-conditioning plant
with its associated auxiliaries such as Air handling unit (AHU) room
etc. Serving the control rooms will located in B/C bay at higher
elevation floor. Deaerator with its storage tank (one per each unit) will
also be located at 36.0 M floor level separately for each unit.
The ground floor, apart from the unloading space for handling the
equipment through EOT cranes, in between A/B bay, the following
equipment with auxiliaries will be installed: 3x50% capacity condensate extraction pump sets
Turbine dirty oil & clean oil tanks with associated pump sets;
& purification plant - common for both units
Gland steam condenser / drain coolers
Chemical dosing equipment
Hydrogen cooling system for generators
Regenerative feed water heaters will be located in the machine hall
between A/B bays (LP heaters below operating floor while HP heaters
will be located at operating floor, in case horizontal heaters are
selected) close to B-row so that theses are approachable to EOT
crane when shell is withdrawn.
The main equipment erection hatch will be located at the end of AB
bay suitable for rail entry under the machine room EOT cranes and its
lifting beam. Subsidiary erection hatches will be provided for crane
access to equipment locaed on ground and mezzanine floors. As per
TAC requirement, access staircases will be provided for
interconnection to all main floors and for evacuation of operators
during an emergency.


2 nos. natural draft cooling towers for cooling the circulating water will
be located to the East side of the power station building. The location
is selected, considering the wind directions such that it does not effect
the power plant equipment & 400 KV switchyard.
Transformer yard will have RCC rail track upto unloading bay of TG
hall for shifting of Generator transformer during erection &
The ash dyke area is located south-west of the main plant.



Ministry of environment and forests (MOEF), through notification of
14th September, 2006 have laid down procedures for environment
clearance for industrial projects including thermal power stations. The
notification requires industry to carry out EIA study, in accordance
with MOEF guidelines to determine the impact of new industry on the
existing environment in respect of atmospheric and liquid pollutants
and resultant air and water quality in the area to ensure their quality
should be well within the prescribed limits and thus requires
Environmental clearance.

The new procedure has been defined four stages of environmental

clearance process. These stages in sequential order are as follows
Stage-1 screening
Stage-2 scoping
Stage-3 public consultation
Stage-4 appraisal
The above notification requires industries to carryout EIA study in
accordance with MOEF guidelines after scooping and determination
of the Terms Of Reference (TOR) on likely impacts on the existing
environment. Based on studies carried out in respect of identified
activities including atmospheric emission and effluent discharge ,
predictions are made on the anticipated effects. To ensure that
expected levels fall with in prescribed limits, delineation of mitigation
including environmental management plan is necessary for
compliance. The notification also provided public consultation to
mitigate public concerns for the proper compensation
rehabilitation of project affected persons.
Coal fired thermal power station contribute to environmental
pollution as follows:
a) Atmospheric pollution through particulate and gaseous emissions.


b) Thermal pollution of the surroundings.

c) Pollution due to discharge of liquid and solid wastes.
d) Noise pollution.

Air Pollution Control system

Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) would be installed to control the
emission of ash particles. The precipitators will be designed to limit
the particulate emission to less than 50 mg/Nm3. One (1) number of
stack of 275 m height will be provided based on existing CPCB/MOEF
norms( Annexure-13.F). Besides on-line monitoring system, the
chimney will be provided with access for regular monitoring of stack
emissions. For the control of fugitive dust emission within and around
the coal handling plant, coal dust extraction and suppression systems
will be provided. Dust suppression system will be installed at all
requisite points in CHP and coal stockyard.
Advanced combustion technology for lower emission of nitrogen oxide
would be necessary to control Nox emission in the boilers.
Space is provided for the Flue Gas Desulphurization system as per
environmental guidelines.
In addition, ambient air quality concentration will be maintained as per
National Ambient Air quality Standards. (Annexure-13.G)


Water Pollution Control System

Effluent management scheme will be implemented with the objective
of optimization of various water systems so as to reduce intake water
requirement, which would result in lesser waste water discharge. The
effluent management scheme will essentially involve collection,
treatment and recirculation / disposal of various effluents. Adequate
treatment facilities will be provided to all the waste streams emanating
from the power plant to control water pollution.


Effluent from the pretreatment plant (clarifier and filtration plants) will
comprise sludge and water. Sludge will be separated and compacted
in sludge presses and will be disposed off in solid form as landfill. The
balance water will again re-cycled in clarifier along with raw water
drawn from the reservoir.
Effluents from the dematerialized plant resin regeneration circuit,
generally acidic from the cation units and alkaline from the anion units
will be neutralized in a neutralizing pit. The neutralized effluents will
have less than 100 ppm suspended solids and a PH value of about
7.5 to 8.0. The neutralized effluents will be led will be led into Central
Monitoring Basin (CBM).
The cooling tower blow down will be led into CMB.
The boiler blow down will be controlled to maintain system solids
loading within normal limits for proper water chemistry. The effluents
will have less than 100 ppm suspended solids and will be led into the
The run-off from the coal handling area will flow through channels
around the coal storage area and coal handling buildings into a
common basin (settling tank) from where it will be pumped into the
Central Monitoring Basin.
The oil-water mixture collected in the existing drains, provided around
the oil unloading area and the pump house, etc. is led to an oil-water
separator. The separated water containing less than prescribed limit
of oil and grease and will be led into the CMB. The waste oil as
separated out will be reutilized, if possible.
The sewage from the various buildings in the power plant as well as
the colony will be routed through a sewage treatment plant. The
treated effluents from the sewage treatment plant will be utilized
suitably for land application as per the existing standards.


The ash pond will be suitably lined to prevent ingress of ash water in
sub soil. In the later years, when ash utilization is progressively
increased, lower quantity of raw water will be required and more
treated effluent water will be used for CHP dust suppression, BA
hopper refractory cooling and watering of green belt. Excess liquid
effluent will be discharged in a central monitoring Basin , where
treated liquid effluent will be monitored and recycled in DMF-UF-RO
system for reuse.
The effluent quality of various streams will be maintained as per the
existing standards of thermal power effluents (Attachment-13.i). The
final effluents, after treatment, will confirm to the standards for
(Attachment- 13.I ).

Noise Pollution
The major noise generating sources are turbines, generators,
compressors, pumps, fans, coal-handling plant etc. Noise levels will
be limited as per CPCBs Ambient Noise Standards/MOEF notification
on noise pollution ( Regulation & control) Rules 2000. Suitable
acoustic enclosures shall be provided to control the noise level.
Personal protective equipment will be provided to the persons
working in high noise area.
Ambient noise inside and outside the plant area will conform to the
prescribed noise levels for various land use categories as per
National standards for Ambient noise (Attachment 13.J). This will
be ensured through proper designing of the equipment with adequate
acoustics permitting the ambient noise levels without of exceeding the
specified criteria from the source.
Green belt adequate width will be provided around plant boundary
and strategic locations and the total green belt comprises 1/3 of the
plant area.



Solid waste management

A large quantity of ash in the form of fly ash, bottom or pond ash will
be produced. Generally, Fly ash consists of spherical particles of
crystalline matter and un-burnt carbon. Its color depends upon the
quantity of carbon, varying from light to dark grey. The ash utilization
is a priority area.
Ash has specific utilities depending upon the characteristics and
Engineering properties. The safe Environmental concerns cannot
afford to increased ash pond areas; increased heights of ash dykes;
as well as the likely pollution it may have in air, surface water and the
Ground water. The ash in its natural form may not be free from likely
environmental hazards. The protections from environmental hazards
that can be anticipated necessitate 100 percent ash utilization in a
variety of ways.
Ash needs to be converted into ash based products and utilized so
that ash does not fly in air; it does not get washed away with surface
water flow and also does not get leached to cause ground water
pollution. There is a considerable impact of fly ash on the
environment. Fly ash particles are carried by wind, reduce visibility in
the surroundings and causes respiratory diseases. The particles
settle in far off places and the finer particles, still airborne, tend to
create acid rain during the rainy season. Fly ash can cause corrosion
in steel structures. The land in the vicinity of ash pond or even in far
off places where wind carried particles settle, can turn alkaline due to
alkali in Fly Ash.
Safe utilization of ash is essential. Ash Utilization therefore needs to
be a continuous activity at all the coal based thermal power stations.
The progressive ash utilization of coal based Power Plants has been
increasing past few years. The targets of ash utilization are primarily
governed by the MOEF Notification dated 03rd November,2009 and
shall be achieved 100% ash utilization from the initial stage of
commissioning of the projects. It is proposed to have well tied up


program of ash utilization by user agencies, dry fly ash collection, and
storage and making available dry fly ash to the user agencies outside
the plant boundaries round the clock; so that it forms a continuous
The important areas of ash utilization are indicated below:
i) Building Sector for use in bricks, blocks, tiles, cement, concrete,
plaster, etc.
ii) Land reclamation, filling low lying areas, raising ground levels.
iii) Roads, embankments, ash dykes, road blocks, kerb stones, etc.
iv) Agriculture and wasteland area development.
v) Hydro Sector, Irrigation, drains, water supply & drainage., lining of
rivers, tributaries, canals, minors, sub-minors etc.
vi) Mine filling.
vii) Industrial applications & high value areas.
viii) Roller compacted dams, pavements, roads etc.
ix) Special use for ash e.g., collecting cenospheres from floating ash.

Treatment of acidic soil for wasteland reclamation for agricultural


xi) Construction of road sub-base and rigid pavements for runways.

xii) Manufacture of coagulants to remove turbidity of water.
xiii) Manufacture of insulating bricks.
Fly ash, being a high temperature product, has pozzolinic properties
and forms a cement like material when mixed with lime and water.
These properties make it suitable for a number of commercial uses;
the most promising of these are as follows:The pozzolonic activity and lime reactivity of fly ash is employed for
numerous uses including manufacturer of building construction
materials such as fly ash clay bricks, fly ash lime & sand bricks, light
weight aggregate, port land pozzolana cement & septic tanks and
sewerage pipes.


As per the current practice, large quantities of water are used for the
transportation of fly ash in slurry form which otherwise could have
been saved for other more important requirements. Thus, ash water
recovery system is envisaged to re-use of ash water from ash pond.
With a view of proper utilization, fly ash has to be handled separately
by collecting in silos in dry form for subsequent utilization. The dry fly
ash could be transported in Railway wagons and closed trucks for
commercial utilization.
Bottom ash after being collected in ash bins for decantation will be
conveyed in trucks outside the plant site, and will be used extensively
as a replacement for cinders. The use of bottom ash in area filling has
been satisfactory over the years, by virtue of which it finds ready
For the proposed power plant, fly ash will be collected in dry from in
ash silos and will be transported by Rail wagons/trucks to the ash
utilization facilities. Surplus fly ash not used in the manufacture will be
disposed off in slurry form to the ash disposal area in exigencies.
d) Ash utilization Plan:As per the Ministry of Environment & Forest (MOEF) notification dt 3 rd
November 2009, New coal and, or lignite based thermal power
stations and, or expansion units commissioned after this notification
have to achieve the target of fly ash utilization as per table given

Fly ash utilization level

Target date

At least 50% of fly ash

At least 70% of fly ash
90% of fly ash generation

100% of fly ash generation

One year from the date of

Two years from the date
of commissioning.
Three years from the
date of commissioning
Four years from the date
of commissioning.


The unutilized fly ash in relation to the target during a year, if any,
shall be utilized within next two years in addition to the targets
stipulated for these years. The unutilized fly ash accumulated during
first four years (the difference between the generation and utilization
target) shall be utilized progressively over next five years in addition
to 100% utilization of current generation of fly ash.
In line with above stipulations, LEPL will make necessary tieup with
cement manufacturing units to dispose major quantity of ash and
also encourage the entrepreneurs to set up ash based plants
including brick making plant, concrete blocks, panels or any other
material for construction of roads, embankments, dams, dykes or
construction activity near to power station.
The Central Electricity Authority and other approving agencies may
permit the land area for emergency ash pond or fly ash storage area up
to 50 hectares for a 500 MW unit, based on 45% ash content coal, or in
the same proportion for units in other capacities taking into account the
ash content in coal or lignite to be used.

As per above stipulation, the total land area works out for 1320 MW
capacity coal based power plant with ash generation @ 34% is up to
246.45 acres.
Total ash generation is estimated as about 2.013 million tons/annum
with ash content in coal @ 34% and unit operating at 85% PLF.
The dry fly ash will also be collected in 2 nos. silos of 1600 tonnes
capacity for Railway wagons loading and one silo of 1000 tonnes
capacity for loading into closed trucks and will be disposed off for ash
utilization facilities.

Resettlement & Rehabilitation

R&R plan for the land will be drawn in consultation with State
Government and suitably implemented. Necessary socio-economic
surveys will be conducted to facilitate preparation of R&R Plan.



Post Operational Monitoring Programme

Regular mentoring of pollutants in different environmental disciplines
like air, water, etc. will be undertaken during the post operational
phase of the plant. The monitoring locations will be finalized in
consultation with State Pollution Control Board. However, a minimum
of four (3) monitoring locations in up wind as well as down wind
directions will be required in the vicinity of the proposed plant.


Institutional Set-up
The Post operational monitoring programme will be under the
supervision of the Environmental Management Group (EMG) at the
project site. The station will be equipped with all necessary
instrumentation / equipment and manpower required for ensuring
effective monitoring. The EMG stationed at site will interact with State
Pollution Control Board for all environmental issues during operation
of the station.




The project will be totally implemented and run Professionally by
engaging qualified, experienced professional technocrats from
respective areas of specialization in Thermal Power Plant. For all
practical purposes and to designate the project as a Professionally
Managed Company - Business with Two or More Directors on the
broad, representing the interest of Stake Holders.


Infrastructure Facilities for Construction

Site access
The nearest railway station is Mulvad at a distance of 5 km from
project site. The necessary railway siding will be provided from
Mulvad station to plant site. Also , the state highway no: 218 is
passing next to project site at a distance of 0.5 km from project site.
Necessary approach road from State Highway to the plant site will be
developed. The layout provides adequate land to build railway
marshalling yard with in the power plant boundary. All the heavy
equipment such as turbo generators, steam generator and auxiliaries
will be transported to site by using Indian Railway system through the
proposed Railway siding.
In case of imported material, the equipment will be brought to
Marmogao port located at a distance of about 460 km from the site.
Thereafter the equipment will be transported through the Indian
Railway system or by road net works from port to site.
Infrastructure Facilities
The Proposed 2X660 MW coal based project is a green field plant
with no infrastructure in existence. Adequate mobilization of
construction facilities will be organized at various stages for timely
and unhindered implementation of the Project. For this purpose, the
plant layout has been developed to allow covered and uncovered
storage yards, fabrication and pre-assembly yards and other
associated facilities.


Space will also be earmarked for labour hutments outside of the plant
area for temporary work force during execution stage.
Adequate construction office space and covered storage space will be
built during construction and the same will retained as site offices,
stores etc. after the power station is constructed.
In addition to the above, temporary facilities for the construction staff
are also needed apart from open storage space such as preassembly yard, canteen, garage, yard toilets etc. for which the
adequate open space will have to be made available.
A residential colony will be built for the project for the plant for which
the adequate land will be provided. The residential colony will have all
the required facilities of roads, electrical distribution system, water
and sewage disposal arrangement, community centers, shopping
complex, medical facilities and schools etc. One hostel building will
also be built as a first priority and will be utilized for housing staff in
the initial period. The hostel building will be for accommodating O&M
staff/security staff and/or as a hostel for visiting personnel during plant
Construction Water
The maximum requirement of construction water is estimated to be
about 200 M3/hr. Construction water is proposed to be drawn either
from Bhima/Krishna river.
Construction Power
The construction power will be drawn through the 33 KV or 11 KV
network from KPTCL sub-station in Mulvad at a distance of 8 km from
project site. The peak demand is estimated about 5 MVA assuming
structural steel fabrication work at site besides other power


Construction Material
Construction material such as stone, sand, bricks, cement are
available within 25 km distance from construction site.

Construction and Execution

The Project will be implemented either through EPC route or by
grouping the various system based packages i.e BTG and Balance Of
Plant(BOP) through the supplier/contractor selected for the purpose,
on turnkey basis.
The selection of the EPC or BTG & BOP package Contractor will be
finalized through International Competitive Bidding (ICB) route and
the selection process followed will be on the basis of well defined
Request for Qualification / Request for Proposal Specifications
defining commercial terms and conditions and technical specifications
and evaluation criteria after taking into consideration differential
loading due to missing items, heat rate, auxiliary power consumption,
gross and net output, delivery schedule etc. The selected Contractor
will be well known Contractor familiar with issues associated with
construction of power plants in India & abroad. The contract will be a
fixed price, turnkey, with an entity having substantial financial backing
and significant experience in the engineering and construction of
similar plants. The contract will include provisions necessary to attract
project financing and ensure the prescribed cost and performance for
the terms of the contract. The contract will incorporate performance
guarantees in respect of deliveries, outputs, heat rates, auxiliary
power consumption etc. and liquidated damages provisions sufficient
to preserve the projects ability to service the debt and meet obligation
to LEPL if the facility does not achieve commercial operation in time
or does not meet expected performance levels.


Quality Assurance
An independent quality assurance group for ensuring the quality
during the project engineering, procurement and manufacturing, as
well as during material storages will be organized in the Corporate
Office. Before the award of any contract the QA Dept. Will discuss


with the prospective contractors and finalize mutually acceptable

inspection programme and detailed quality plans. The quality plans
after discussions and finalization with the contractor form a part of the
contract document.
In the post-contract stage, the inspection reports generated by the
inspectors will be reviewed to evaluate the quality status with respect
to the specified levels and to ensure the achievement of the required
quality levels.
There will be a close inter-action amongst the Engineering wing,
Contract Services, Inspection, Expediting and Quality Assurance
groups and the project site in arriving at the quality plan and
manufacturing delivery programmes.
To ensure that only technically competent parties are awarded the
contract, including those for major civil works, a system of
prequalification of contractors, based on their technical competence,
financial capabilities, past performance will be adopted by LEPL. The
enlistment of contractors will be of great help in executing projects in
the desired manner.

Operation and Maintenance

The Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of the plant will be organized
by LEPL. The suggested O&M staff organization is as per
Annexure 11.
The O&M organization will set out procedures for operation and
maintenance, interaction with southern Load Dispatch Center (SLDS),
planned and unplanned maintenance outages, procedures for
declaring availability and computing plant load factor besides data


Construction Management Organization

A General Manager stationed at site will head the group involved in
the implementation of the project. He will be the overall in charge of
the project right from the beginning up to the commissioning stage.
He will be responsible for all site activities and assist EPC Contractor
to complete the job within the time frame.


Deputy General Manager will head the technical wings of the

organization. For each discipline of engineering activity Dy.General
Manager will report to the General Manager. Suggested Project
Organization Chart is given at Annexure-10

Spare Part Management & Inventory Control System

A full computerized materials management system will be developed
for an efficient spare part management which will include stores
issues, inventory control, procurement etc. The basic requirement of
spare parts in line with norms will be included in the contract. Material
management system will ensure the monitoring of the spare parts
consumption during initial phase of operation and forecast the realistic
requirements of spares, based on which procurement schedule will be
prepared considering the lead time to ensure availability of spares at
the right time while maintaining a optimum inventory based on.
a. Proper codification of all spares and consumables.
b. Stores management for storage, preservation,
c. Spare parts procurement policy and procedure.
d. Material planning and inventory control.
e. Source development and standardization.



The stores arrangement will include covered and open storage yard
with facilities for material handling. Environment controlled rooms will
be provide for storage of sensitive spare parts and consumables like
electronic cards, chemicals etc.

The training of O&M personnel at various levels will be arranged
through prevailing methods and practices which will include a
computerized plant operation simulator, various audio visual aids, a
well maintained library and most important the requisite set up for
training activity.
These will be reinforced by:



In plant training of operators at the site itself prior to

commissioning of the plant.
ii. Continued training of operators and maintenance staff through
experts and suppliers staff as part of the in-plant training
iii. Specialized training at various training institutes in the country.
iv. Training, during manufacture, at suppliers works.

Completion Schedule
The Bar Chart for the project schedule indicating the major activities
of the project is as per (Annexure 12)
a) The zero date is taken as the EPC contractor is selected and
advance released. The zero date is projected to occur 6 months
after the decision to proceed with the project.
b) The project will be scheduled for the first unit to go into
commercial operation in 46 months after the zero date & second
unit at 6 months interval thereafter.
c) The first activity to be started at the site, namely the site
development work. i.e. soil investigation, leveling, grading etc. will
be scheduled to start three months prior to zero date and be
completed by the zero date.





Mega Power Policy Guidelines

Policy guidelines for setting up of mega power projects were last
revised and issued vide Ministrys letter of even number dated 2nd
August,2006. The Government of India has modified the Mega Power
Policy to smoothen the procedures further. The modified Mega Power
Policy issued by Min. of Power , Government of India vide: No.A118/2003-IPC dated 14th December, 2009 is as follows:

(i) The power projects with the following threshold capacity shall be
eligible for the benefit of mega power policy:
(a) A thermal power plant of capacity 1000 MW or more; or
(b) A thermal power plant of capacity of 700 MW or more located
in the States of J&K, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam,
Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura or
(c) A hydel power plant of capacity of 500 MW or more
(d) A hydel power plant of a capacity of 350 MW or more, located
in the States of J&K, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam,
Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura;
(e) Government has decided to extend mega policy benefits to
brownfield (expansion) projects also. In case of brownfield
(expansion) phase of the existing mega project, size of the
expansion unit(s) would not be not less than that provided in
the earlier phase of the project granted mega power project
(ii) Mandatory condition of Inter-State sale of power for getting mega
power status has been removed.


(iii) Goods required for setting up a mega power project, would qualify
for the fiscal benefits after it is certified by an officer not below the
rank of a Joint Secretary to the Govt. of India in the Ministry of
Power that (i) the power purchasing States have constituted the
Regulatory Commissions with full powers to fix tariffs and (ii)
power purchasing states shall undertake to carry out distribution
reforms as laid down by Ministry of Power.
(iv) Mega Power Projects would be required to tie up power supply to
the distribution companies/utilities through long term PPA(s) in
accordance with the National Electricity Policy 2005 and Tariff
Policy 2006, as amended from time to time, of Government of
(v) There shall be no further requirement of ICB for procurement of
equipment for mega projects if the requisite quantum of power
has been tied up or the project has been awarded through tariff
based competitive bidding as the requirements of ICB for the
purpose of availing deemed export benefits under Chapter 8 of
the Foreign Trade Policy would be presumed to have been
satisfied. In all other cases, ICB for equipments shall be
(vi) The present dispensation of 15% price preference available to the
domestic bidders in case of cost plus projects of PSUs would
continue. However, the price preference will not apply to tariff
based competitively bid project/s of PSUs.

Cost Estimates
An estimate of the total cost of the project has been made. The
estimate has been made under three heads, namely Civil, Mechanical
and Electrical.
The following assumptions have been made in the preparation of the
cost estimates: The average cost of land for plant, ash disposal area including
green-belt area, colony and corridors for railway line approach


road etc. has been considered at the rate of Rs.12.5 lakhs per
The estimate of civil and structural works have been prepared
assuming no piling except for TG foundations, natural draft
cooling towers and chimney.
Freight @ 4% and for the plant equipment insurance @ 1% has
been taken (total 5%).
Cost of spares has been taken as 2.5% of the project cost
excluding IDC & Finance charges.
Erection, testing and commissioning has been taken as 10% of
equipment cost.
25% of working capital requirement is capitalized and is included
as margin money. The margin money has not been considered
for the purpose of tariff calculations.
The cost of mechanical, electrical and C&I equipment are
exclusive of all taxes and duties on the assumption that Mega
status to the project will be available from Ministry of Power. The
Prevalent rate of excise duty applicable to boilers, TGs and
auxiliaries is 16.0% plus 2% surcharges. For the imported
equipment there is a levy of 21.8% towards custom duty. LEPL
will approach Govt of India, Ministry of Power for according mega
status to the Project.
Service Tax @ 10% and education cess @ 3% on service tax i.e
10.3% has been considered on erection, testing &
commissioning and freight and insurance costs.
Income tax & Minimum Alternate Tax has been considered in line
with 2010-11 financial bill.
The discount factor has been considered as 9.35 based on
CERC publication.




The following input parameters are considered for financials based on
CERC tariff regulations

Auxiliary Consumption
Station Heat Rate




5.28%- 1st 12 years

2.05% - 13 years


14.62 lacs/MW & escalated

@ 5.7% every year

1 ml/unit



Return on equity

17.481% ( 1st 10 years)


Working capital
O&M expenses

1 month

Fuel charges

2 month

2 month

Support fuel

2 months

Maintenance Spares

20% of O&M cost

Life of plant

25 years




Other Input Parameters/assumptions

The loan repayment period has been considered 12 years in 48 quarterly
equal installments.
The average GCV of coal after blending is taken as 4,000 and
the landed average cost of coal is estimated as Rs 2900 Rs/MT.


The average GCV of support fuel is considered as 10,000 with

the cost of Rs 30,000/ MT.
The project construction period permitted by CERC/CEA is up to 52
months for first unit and 6 months from there for second unit. However, it
is envisaged to complete the construction of first unit in 46 months and
second unit after six months.

Financing Structure

It is proposed to finance the project such that Capital structure is

built up of:

Equity Capital
Loan Capital


The debt capital, comprising loan capital and Interest during

Construction, will be financed from Indian/External Financial

Interest During Construction (IDC)

An interest rate of 12.5% has been considered for construction

period. The long-term interest rate has been considered as 12.5%.
Also the payment of interest has been worked out at the end of each
quarter of construction period in line with financial institutions

Working Capital (WC)

Provision for working capital requirement has been made in line with
CERC guide lines and the interest on working capital margin has been
considered as 13%.


Cost of Generation

The cost of generation with the estimated project cost, CERC norms
and other input parameters has been computed as follows.
Levellised tariff @ 85% PLF with 25 years plant life Rs 3.32 /Kwh
The tariff computation sheets are enclosed.