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Manual

Version 3.5

The specifications and data given in this documentation are subject to modification without prior
notice. Unless otherwise stated, any names and data used in the examples are completely fictitious. No
part of this documentation may be reproduced or transmitted for whatever purpose, in any form or by
any means (electronic or mechanical), without the express permission in writing from DataKustik
GmbH.
DataKustik GmbH. All rights reserved.
Greifenberg 2005
CadnaA is a registered trademark of Datakustik GmbH, Greifenberg, Germany.

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 1 Contents
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 1 Inhalt

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Brief Overview
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphic

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 1 Contents

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 2 Register
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 2 Register

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Contents

2.1 1

Chapter 2 Register
2

2.1 Contents
2.2

Licence Agreement

2.3

Conventions Used in this Manual

2.4

Attribute Abbreviation

2.5

Operators and Functions

2.6

Literature

2.7

Strings and Operators

2.7.1

Replacing a String

Manual

2.1

Chapter 2 Register
Contents

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Licence Agreement

2.2

Licence Agreement

IMPORTANT NOTICE TO USER: THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND


CONDITIONS APPLY TO THE TRANSFER OF THE CadnaA
SOFTWARE. YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO RETURN THE SOFTWARE PACKAGE UNOPENED AND SEALED - IF IT WAS
SEALED - WITHIN ONE WEEK IF YOU DO NOT ACCEPT THE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS STATED IN THIS LICENCE AGREEMENT. IN THIS CASE, ANY PAYMENTS WILL BE REIMBURSED.
LICENCE AGREEMENT
1. SUBJECT MATTER OF THE AGREEMENT: DataKustik GmbH
grants the customer a non-exclusive licence for the CadnaA software. The property right and the copyright in the software do not
pass to the customer. The licence is issued for use on one single
computer workstation. For any further computer workstation, a
separate licence agreement will be required. The customer is
responsible for the selection of the licensed software and its use.
2. HARDLOCK PROTECTION: The CadnaA software is hardlockprotected. This hardlock represents the value of the program. It
cannot be replaced free of charge, if lost.
3. PROHIBITON OF COPYING: Neither the licensed software, nor
the documentation, in whole or in parts, may be copied. The only
exception to this rule is the generation of a machine-readable
copy of the software for backup or archiving purposes. Any copy
made by the customer for these purposes shall be clearly
labelled like the original software, including the same complete
notices regarding confidentiality, property right and copyright of
DataKustik GmbH.
4. ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSFER: The assignment to third parties of rights and obligations arising out of this licence agreement, and the transfer of the software for use is subject to prior
written consent by DataKustik GmbH, Munich, Germany.
5. USE OF TRADEMARKS: The customer is permitted to use the

Manual

2.2 1

2.2

Chapter 2 Register
Licence Agreement

6.

7.

8.

9.

trademarks and commercial names used by DataKustik GmbH


to identify printouts, provided that (a) these printouts were produced by the licensed software using an electronic printing
medium, (b) these trademarks and commercial names are identified in the same way as done by DataKustik GmbH, and (c) the
customer stops using these trademarks and commercial names
upon termination of this licence agreement.
PROHIBITION OF MODIFICATION: The customer may not
modify the licensed software in any way, or have it modified by
third parties.
UNAUTHORISED USE: The customer undertakes to ensure
that his employees and any other person subject to the customer's instructions, having access to the licensed software,
comply with all obligations of safeguarding and the duty of care
and diligence arising out of this agreement. The customer furthermore undertakes to ensure that no person gains access to
the licensed software with the aim of deriving the source code. If
the customer becomes aware of any such persons as indicated
in the first sentence of this clause, using the software in violation
of the obligations of safeguarding and the duty of care and diligence mentioned, he shall immediately take any possible action
to prevent such use contrary to agreement. He shall inform
DataKustik GmbH in writing of any such use contrary to agreement, should it continue nonetheless.
INDEMNITY: DataKustik GmbH is entitled to the protection
rights and the copyright in the licensed software. The customer
can be held liable by DataKustik GmbH for any violation of such
protection rights which he is answerable for.
WARRANTY: The customer recognises that errors in the programs and the pertinent documentation cannot be excluded
given the state of the art. If, within 30 days from delivery to the
customer, the customer asserts any deviation of the programs
from the program specifications/description, he has the right to
return the defective software including the hardlock key to his

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Licence Agreement

supplier, and to demand delivery of a new software version. If


remedial measures cannot be taken, or fail, the customer has
the right to demand cancellation of the agreement. In this case,
the customer shall destroy any and all copies that he may have
generated. In states where national legislation requires a term of
notice of defect of more than 30 days, that legally provided term
shall be taken to apply, if the software is purchased and used
there.
ANY FURTHER WARRANTY CLAIMS ARE EXPRESSLY
EXCLUDED. DataKustik GmbH NEITHER WARRANTS THAT THE
PROGRAM FEATURES SATISFY THE CUSTOMER'S REQUIREMENTS NOR THAT THEY ARE COMPATIBLE IN THE SELECTION MADE BY THE CUSTOMER. ANY LIABILITY FOR LOST
PROFIT, FOR DAMAGE TO OR LOSS OF SAVED DATA, AND
FOR ANY OTHER INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
IS ALSO EXCLUDED, UNLESS RESULTING FROM GROSSLY
NEGLIGENT OR WILFUL ACTION BY DataKustik GmbH. ANY
WARRANTY, LIABILITY OR INDEMNITY, ETC. PROMISED BY A
THIRD PARTY (E. G. A DEALER) TO BE GRANTED BY DataKustik GmbH IS NOT BINDING FOR DataKustik GmbH.
9. PROTECTION RIGHTS OF THIRD PARTIES: If the customer is
held liable by a third party because of an alleged violation of a
patent right, copyright, or any other protection right that said third
party may have in the licensed software, DataKustik GmbH shall
immediately be informed in writing of the alleged violation of protection rights, and DataKustik GmbH shall be supported sufficiently in any lawsuit. If the customer is held liable by a third
party in this way, DataKustik GmbH has the right to choose, at its
own discretion, to either provide the customer with the appropriate licence by the third party in question, to modify the licensed
software, to supply the customer with an equivalent different
software, or to take back the licensed software, in which case
the licence fees shall be fully reimbursed to the customer.
DataKustik GmbH is not liable for violations of protection rights

Manual

2.2 3

2.2

Chapter 2 Register
Licence Agreement

which are due to the fact that the customer altered or modified
the licensed software to suit his needs, or that the licensed software is used or sold in combination with other software, hardware or consumables not supplied by DataKustik GmbH. This
material liability is the total of any liability assumed by DataKustik GmbH for violations of any patent right, trademark right, copyright or other intangible property rights.
10. SOFTWARE UPDATES: DataKustik GmbH reserves the right to
supply to the customer the most recent version of the licensed
software. DataKustik GmbH reserves the right to charge the customer with additional licence fees for such updated versions,
and the customer has the right to decline acceptance of such
deliveries.
11. LEGAL INVALIDITY OF CONTRACTUAL PROVISIONS:
Should single or several provisions of this agreement be or
become invalid, this shall not affect the effectiveness of the
remaining provisions of the agreement. The invalid provision(s)
will then have to be re-interpreted or supplemented in such a
way that the originally intended commercial purpose is lawfully
achieved.
CadnaA is a registered trademark of DataKustik GmbH, Munich,

Germany.

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Index

2.3

Index

Numerics
3D-Camera 13.15.0-5
3D-Reflector 9.10-1

A
absolute coordinates 5.5.2-1
absolute Height 10.4-3
Absolute Height at Every Point 10.4-3
Absolute Height/Ground at every point 10.4-4
Absorption
Alfa 9.2-1
Spectra 16.3.5-1
Acoustic Transparency 9.3.1-1
Action
activation 5.7.16-1
Activation 5.7.16-1
Additional Width of Road G-3
Adjusting column width 15.2.6-1
Affine Transformation 6.3.4-5
Aircraft Tab 12.4.12-1
Appearance of Grid 11.5.2-1
ArcView 6.4.3-1, 17.3.4-1
Area (m) 8.6.5-1
Area Source 8.5-1
Area source
horizontal 8.5-1
vertical 8.5-1
Areas With Specified Ground Absorption 9.81
Arithmetic 9.3.6-4
Arithmetik 11.5.5-1
Ascii-file 10.7-2
Ascii-Poly 6.4.14-1

Manual

2.3 1

Ascii-Raster 17.3.1-1
Atlas GIS 6.4.4-1
Attenuation 8.6.6-1
Auralisation 8.14-4
Auto save 18.9-1
AutoCad 17.3.3-1
AutoCad-DXF 6.4.2-1
Automatic Saving of Files 18.9-1

B
Barrier 9.5-1
automatically optimize noise barriers
9.7.1-1
the floating 9.5.1-1
with Cantilever 9.5.2-1
Barrier Coefficient 12.4.9-6
Bastian, connection with CadnaA 17.5-1
Batch Operation 18.7-1
Bitmap 6.4.11-1, 14.2-1, 17.3.1-1, 17.4.1-1
calibrate 14.2.1-1
fix 14.2.1-4
show bitmap 14.2.1-4
Web-Bitmaps 14.4-1
BMP 17.3.1-1
BNA,BNX 17.3.1-2
BPL option G-1
Break
Areas 5.7.9-1
into pieces (line-like objects) 5.7.15-1
Bridge 9.6-1
Example of a street bridge elevated by
two embankments 9.6.2-1
Example of How to Enter a Bridge 9.6.1-1
how to enter a 9.6.1-1
Building 9.3-1
acustic transparency 9.3.1-1

2.3

Chapter 2 Register
Index

Deactivate Point Objects in Buildings


9.3.0-1
Generate Building 9.3.4-1
Height Points 6.4.13-1
Level-Difference-Map 9.3.8-1
Level-Difference-Map for 9.3.8-1
Noise Maps of 9.3.6-1
Residential and Outbuilding 9.3.2-1
Result Table for the Building Noise 9.3.71
Snap Point to Building Facade 9.3.3-1
Building Evaluation 9.3.5-1
Building Height Points 6.4.13-1
Built-Up Areas 9.9-1
Button Bar 15.2.1-1

C
Cadna.dat 16.2-2
Calc Width of Roads 8.9.8-2
Calculate
Limits 13.2.0-4
Calculation
Batch Operation 18.7-1
Compact Protocol 12.7-1
Grid 11.5.4-1
Limits 13.2.0-4
Protocol 12.6-1
Selecting Data for 12.5-1
Calculation Methods implemented 12.4.2-1
Calculation Protocol 12.6-1
Calculator -3
Change Color 5.7-2
Change Dimensions 5.4.3-1
Check Box 4.11.0-1
Check Consistency 11.2.3-1
Check ID 1-2

Clipboard
copy to 5.4.5-2
Closing Buildings 11.6.5-1
Cluster of Height Points 10.7.0-1
Combo box
Combo box \gScale 1: 13.3-1
Compact Protocol 12.7-1
Compatibility mode for Industry 12.4.6-4
Condition 5.7.2-2
Configuration 12.4-1
Conflict Maps 11.6.2-1
Connect Lines
Snap Radius 1-2
Context Menu
Deleting Objects 5.4.7-1
Force Rectangle 5.7.5-1
Parallel Object 5.7.13-1
Context menu
break areas 5.7.9-1
break into pieces (line-like objects)
5.7.15-1
convert to 5.7.14-1
Duplicating Objects 5.7.1-1
modify objects 5.7.2-1
Spline 5.7.12-1
Contour Lines 10.5-1
Control Elements 4.11-1
Check Box 4.11.0-1
List Box 4.11.0-1
Option Button 4.11.0-1
Convert to 5.7.14-1
Coordinate Grid 13.4-1
Coordinate Transformation 6.3.4-1
Coordinates
Affine Transformation 6.3.4-5
General Transformation 6.3.4-6
Copy 15.2.1-1

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Index

Copy Data Records 15.2.7-1


Copying
Copying Objects 5.4.5-1
Copying within the Graphic 5.4.5-1
Copying Objects 5.4.5-1
Correction
for multiple Reflections 8.9.8-1
Country Tab 12.4.1-1
Criteria for the Calculation of Reflections
Min. Distance Source to Reflecting Object 12.4.8-5
Crossings with Traffic Lights 8.10-1
Cylinder 9.4-1

D
Database
ODBC interface 6.5-1
Deactivate Point Objects in Buildings 9.3.0-1
Decimal separator 5.5.4-1
Delete 10.7-2
and interpolate height of polygon points 7
delete
Data record 15.2.0-2
Delete Grid Points 11.5.1-4
Deleting Objects 5.4.7-1
Designation of Land Use 11.3-1
Deviation G-2
Diagram 8.6.3-3
Dialog boxes
ID 5.5.3-1
Info 5.5.3-1
Name 5.5.3-1
Digitizer 7.2-1
Calibrate Digitizer 7.3-2
Info 7.2-4

Manual

2.3 3

Initial string 7.2-4


Option 7.2-4
Tablet Menu 7.3-3
Terminal 7.2-5
Text 7.2-2
Type 7.2-1
Digitizing
Digitizing a Map 7.3-1
Digitizing a Road 7.4-1
Directivity 8.7-1
Directional Sound Radiation 8.7-1
frequency dependent 8.7.3-1
Sound Radiation from Building Elements
and Openings According to
AL 8.7.2-1
Sound Radiation from Chimney Outlets
8.7.1-1
Display Ground Height 10.8-1
Display Ground height 10.8-1
Display real Width of Roads 8.9.1-1
Displaying Sound Rays 12.3-1
Distance of the outer lanes 8.9.1-1
Distance Source to Reflecting object 12.4.8-5
Diural Patter 8.9.4-1
Dongle 4.3-1
Drefl dB(A) 8.9.8-1
Druck_Gr.TXT -3
DTM
fit objects to 10.3-1
DTM Digital Terrain Model Tab 12.4.7-1
Duplicating Objects 5.7.1-1
Action Duplicate 5.7.1-2
DXF 17.3.3-1

E
EDBS 6.4.6-1

2.3

Chapter 2 Register
Index

Edit
Result Table 15.3.1-1
Search 5.6-1
Source dialog 8.6-1
table cells 15.2.3-1

2
edit

objects edit dialog 5.5.1-1


Edit dialog
of a source 8.6-1
edit dialog
ID 5.5.3-1
Edit mode F-3, 5.4-1
Editing
Template Files 17.2.2-1
Editing a Template File 17.2.2-1
Editing Objects 5.5-1
Editing Table Cells 15.2.3-1
Einzug 17.4.3-3
Embankment 9.7-1
Emission
attenuation 8.6.6-1
A-weighted Emission Value 8.6.1-1
Emission Spectrum 8.6.3-1
Ko without ground 8.6.8-1
Lm,E in dB(A) for roads 8.9.3-1
normalised A 8.6.2-4
operating time 8.6.7-1
Railway 8.12.1-1
Sound Reduction 8.6.4-1
sound-radiatin area 8.6.5-1
Ergebnistabelle
Textvariable fr GLK 9.3.7-4
Evaluation 11.6.3-1
Evaluation Parameter Tab 12.4.6-1
Example
Defining a group 18.2.1-2
Digitizing a Road 7.4-1

Hierachy of Groups and their Partial Sum


Level 18.2.1-2
Noise Map in Levels differences for Buildings 9.3.8-1
of a Street bridge elevated by two embankments 9.6.2-1
of How to Enter a Bridge 9.6.1-1
Examples
Formulas and Operators 2.6-2
Managing Files Using Folders G-4
Template File for Graphics User-defined
Printout 17.2.8-1
Export 17.3-1
ArcView 17.3.4-1
ArcView Shape 17.3.4-1
BMP 17.3.1-1
BNA,BNX 17.3.1-2
DXF 17.3.3-1
Formats 17.3.1-1
Immis Luft files dbf 17.3.1-2
RTF 17.3.2-1
Text file TXT, RTF 17.3.2-1
TXT 17.3.2-1
Export Limadateien 17.3.1-2
Export.RTF -3
Exporting
Export.RTF -3
Template Files 17.2.1-1

F
Fault Lines 10.6-1
File 17.4.4-4
Database 6.5-1
New 5.2-1
Save as 5.2-1
FileDatum 17.4.5-5

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Index

FileExpIn 17.4.6-6
FileExpOut 17.4.7-7
FilePrint 17.4.8-8
FileZeit 17.4.9-9
Fit Objects to DTM 10.3-1
fix
Bitmap 14.2.1-4
Floors 11.2.6-1
Foliage 9.9-1
Font 17.4.10-10
Force Rectangle 5.7.5-1
Formats
Export 17.3.1-1
Formulas 2.6-1
Frahme
Symbol 13.11.3-1
Frame
Station Mark 13.11.4-1
Frames 13.11-1
Functions 2.6-1

G
Gebudelrmkarte
Textvariable 9.3.7-4
General and Special Sources 8.2-1
General Sources
area source horizontal 8.5-1
area source vertical 8.5-1
Line Source 8.4-1
General Tab 12.4.3-1
General Transformation 6.3.4-6
Generate Building 9.3.4-1
Geometry 10.4-1
according to RLS90 8.9-3
Edit dialog 10.4-1
Enter Absolute Height at Every Point

Manual

2.3 5

10.4-3
Geometry Tables 17.4.32-37
Gradient (%) for road 8.9.7-1
Graphic
Marker size G-1
Graphics
Bitmap 14.2-1
Coordinate Grid 13.4-1
Druck_Gr.Txt -3
print 17.2.3-1
Settings for Objects with Frames 13.11-1
synchronize graphics with table 15.2.1-1
Template Files 17.2.1-1
update during drag 13.2.0-3
Vector graphics 14.2-1
Grid
Appearance of Grid 11.5.2-1
Arithmetik 11.5.5-1
Calculating a grid 11.5.4-1
Conflict Maps 11.6.2-1
creating a grid of receiver points from IsodB-lines 11.5.6-1
Evaluation 11.6.3-1
vertical
Vertical Grid 11.5.3-1
Grid of Receiver Points 11.5-1
Grid specification 11.5.1-1
Ground Absorption
Areas with Specified Ground Absorption
9.8-1
Use Map of 12.4.9-3
Groups
Hierachy of Groups 18.2.1-2
Partial Sound level 18.2.1-2
Partion Sound Level 18.2.2-1

2.3

Chapter 2 Register
Index

H
2

Hardlock-Key (Dongle) 4.3-1


Hardlock-Server 4.4-1
Height
Display Ground Height 10.8-1
enter height at every point 10.4-3
Height Points 10.7-1, 10.7-2
delete 10.7-2
Generate Contour Lines from 10.7.1-1
Import Ascii-file 10.7-2
Hold Value 13.11.2-1

I
icon
icon bar 4.7-1
icon bar 4.7-1
Icons 4.6-2
ID 5.5.3-1
If, Tag 17.4.11-11
Immis Luft files dbf 17.3.1-2
Implemented Calculation Methods 12.4.2-1
Import 6.2-1, 10.7-2
Allocate Object type to layer 6.3.1-1
Format 6.4-1
formats 6.4-1
Height Points 6.4.7-1
Importing in Section only 6.3.2-1
Importing selected Object Types 6.3.3-1
Layer 6.2-1
MITHRA 6.4.11-1
Number of Trains 6.4.10-1
ODBC 6.5-1
Options 6.2-1, 6.3-1
QSI 6.4.11-1
T-Mobil 6.4.11-1

Import / Export of Tables listing number of


Trains 6.4.10-1
Import formats
NTF 6.4.11-1
ArcView 6.4.3-1
Ascii-Poly 6.4.14-1
Atlas Gis 6.4.4-1
AtlasGIS 6.4.4-1
AutoCad-DXF 6.4.2-1
Bitmap 6.4.11-1
Building Height points 6.4.13-1
CadnaA 6.4.1-2
EDBS 6.4.6-1
MapInfo 6.4.9-1
Niedersachsen 6.4.11-1
Sicad 6.4.5-1
Slip 6.4.11-1
SOSI 6.4.11-1
special formats 6.4.11-1
Stratis 6.4.8-1
third-party programs 6.4.12-1
WINPUT 6.4.7-1
Import Options
Affine Transformation 6.3.4-5
Allocate object type to layer 6.3.1-1
General Transformation 6.3.4-6
Importing in Section only 6.3.2-1
Importing selected Object Types 6.3.3-1
Industry Tab 12.4.9-1
Infringement 11.2.1-1
Inhabitants
Inhabitants/km 11.6.4-2
Initial strings 7.2-4
Insert a Row 15.2.2-1
Insert Bitmaps 14.2-1
Installation

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Index

CadnaA 4.2-1
Hint for Windows95 F-2

K
Keyboard 4.9.0-1
Keyword
Aircraft 17.4.32-37
Ampel 17.4.32-35
Gruppe 17.4.32-36
Hline_Geo 17.4.32-37
ImmSpek 17.4.32-36
AircraftZvh 17.4.32-37
Bebauung 17.4.32-35
Bebauung_Geo 17.4.32-37
Bewuchs 17.4.32-35
Bewuchs_Geo 17.4.32-37
Bitmap 17.4.1-1
Bodenabs 17.4.32-35
Bodenabs_Geo 17.4.32-37
Bplan 17.4.32-35
Bruch_Geo 17.4.32-37
Bruecke 17.4.32-35
Bruecke_Geo 17.4.32-37
CalcConf 17.4.32-34
Einzug 17.4.3-3
File 17.4.4-4
FileDatum 17.4.5-5
FileExpln 17.4.6-6
FileExpOut 17.4.7-7
FilePrint 17.4.8-8
FileZeit 17.4.9-9
Flugplatz 17.4.32-37
FlugplatzRwy 17.4.32-37
Flugstrecke 17.4.32-37
FlugstreckeAnz 17.4.32-37

Manual

FlugstreckeGeo 17.4.32-37
Font 17.4.10-10
FQ 17.4.32-35
FQ_Geo 17.4.32-37
FV 17.4.32-35
FV_Geo 17.4.32-37
Geometry Tables 17.4.32-37
GruppeNacht 17.4.32-36
GruppeTag 17.4.32-36
Haus 17.4.32-35
Haus_Geo 17.4.32-37
Hausbeurt 17.4.32-35
If, Tag 17.4.11-11
Imm 17.4.32-36
ImmSpekN 17.4.32-36
ImmSpekT 17.4.32-36
Kraftwerk 17.4.32-35
Legende 17.4.12-12
LegendeNutz 17.4.13-13
LibAlf 17.4.32-37
LibL 17.4.32-37
LibR 17.4.32-37
Libraries (local) 17.4.32-37
LineAbs 17.4.15-15
LineRel 17.4.16-16
LQ 17.4.32-35
LQ_Geo 17.4.32-37
Metafile 17.4.17-17
MoveAbs 17.4.18-19
MoveRel 17.4.19-20
NeueSeite 17.4.20-21
Nutz 17.4.32-36
Nutz_Geo 17.4.32-37
Object Tables 17.4.32-34
PanAttr 17.4.22-24
Plan 17.4.21-22
PosPop 17.4.23-25

2.3 7

2.3

Chapter 2 Register
Index

PosPush 17.4.24-26
PPL 17.4.32-35
PPL_Geo 17.4.32-38
PPLRLS 17.4.32-35
PQ 17.4.32-35
RasterBewertung 17.4.26-28
RectAbs 17.4.27-29
RectRel 17.4.28-30
Richtw 17.4.32-35
Scale 17.4.29-31
Schiene 17.4.32-35
Schiene Zkl 17.4.32-35
Schiene_Geo 17.4.32-38
Schirm 17.4.32-35
Schirm_Geo 17.4.32-38
Seite 17.4.30-32
Strasse 17.4.32-35
Strasse_Geo 17.4.32-38
Tab 17.4.31-33
Table 17.4.32-34
Tables Air-traffic noise 17.4.32-37
Tables Immissions 17.4.32-36
Tables Miscellaneous 17.4.32-36
Tables Obstacles 17.4.32-35
Tabs 17.4.33-39
Teilpegel 17.4.32-36
TeilpegelNacht 17.4.32-36
TeilpegelNachtS 17.4.32-36
TeilpegelTag 17.4.32-36
TeilpegelTagS 17.4.32-36
Tennis 17.4.32-35
Text 17.4.34-41
VarianteM 17.4.36-43
Variants 17.4.35-42
Version 17.4.37-44
Wall 17.4.32-36
Zabst 17.4.38-45

Zeit 17.4.39-46
Zugzahlen 17.4.32-35
Zylinder 17.4.32-36
Zylinder_Geo 17.4.32-38
Ko without Ground 8.6.8-1

L
Labelling of Printing Ranges 17.2.1-3
Land Use 11.3-1, 11.4-1
Lateral Diffraction 12.4.9-1
Layer 6.2-1
Left Mouse Button G-1
Legende 17.4.12-12
LegendeNutz 17.4.13-13
LegendeObj
Keyword
LegendeObj 17.4.14-14
Level Box 13.11.2-1
Level-Difference-Map for Building Noise
9.3.8-1
LfU-Studie 1993 8.13-2
LfU-Study 2003 8.13-3
Li 16.3.2-2
Libraries
Absorption Spectra 16.3.5-1
Cadna.dat user-defined entry for global library 16.2-2
global placed on server 16.2-2
Libraries Manager 16.4-1
Limadateien 17.3.1-2
Limits
Background 13.2.0-2
calc 13.2.0-4
Calculate 13.2.0-4
Line Source 8.4-1
LineAbs 17.4.15-15

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Index

2.3 9

Line-like Objects 10.3.2-1


LineRel 17.4.16-16
List Box 4.11.0-1
Long Straight Road 8.11-1
Lw 16.3.2-4

Moving a Polygon Point 5.4.1-1


Moving Objects 5.4.4-1
Multiple Selections G-1

NeueSeite 17.4.20-21
New 5.2-1
Noise Map
PCSP 18.6-1
Noise Maps and their Evaluation with CadnaA
11.6.1-1
Noise Maps of Buildings 9.3.6-1
Noise Source
Area Source 8.5-1
general and special sources 8.2-1
Line source 8.4-1
optimized area source 8.15-1
point source 8.3-1
normalised A 8.6.2-4
NTF 6.4.11-1
Number of Trains 6.4.10-1

MapInfo 6.4.9-1
Marker size G-1
Match Points 6.3.4-3
max. Error (dB) 12.4.3-1
Metafile 17.4.17-17
Meterology correction C0 (dB) 12.4.9-7
Min. Distance Source to Reflecting Object
12.4.8-5
Miscellaneous
Decimal separator 5.5.4-1
MITHRA 6.4.11-1
Modify objects 5.7.2-1
activated or deactivated objects 5.7.2-2
activation 5.7.16-1
all 5.7.2-2
condition 5.7.2-2
group of objects 5.7.2-2
inside, outside, on the borderline of the
polygon 5.7.2-2
Parallele Object 5.7.13-3
Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to
BUWAL 11.6.7-1
Mouse Buttons 4.10-1
Click with Left Mouse Button G-1
Click with Right Mouse Button G-1
Double-click with Left Mouse Button G1
MoveAbs 17.4.18-19
MoveRel 17.4.19-20

Manual

O
Object Tables 17.4.32-34
Objects edit dialog 5.5.1-1
Objects 5.3-1
edit objects (edit mode) 5.4-1
insert objects 5.3-1
modify objects 5.7.2-1
Tables 15.2-1
with frames 13.11-1
Objectss Geometry 10.4-1
Object-Scan 11.6.6-1
Obstacles
3D-Reflector 9.10-1

10

2.3

Chapter 2 Register
Index

areas with specified ground absorption


9.8-1
Barrier 9.5-1
Bridge 9.6-1
Built-Up Areas 9.9-1
Bulding 9.3-1
Cylinder 9.4-1
Embankment 9.7-1
Foliage 9.9-1
reflection properties 9.2-1
Obstacles within Area Source do not Shield
12.4.9-4
ODBC interface 6.5-1
Operating Time 8.6.7-1
Operators 2.8-1
Functions -1
Replacing a String 2.8.1-2
Operators and Functions 2.6-1
Optimisable Area Source
Noise Allotment -2
Usability -3
Optimisable Source Tab 12.1-2, 12.4.13-1
Optimized Area Sources 8.15-1
optimized area sources 8.15-1
Option
XL(formaly SIP) 11.6-1
Option Button 4.11.0-1
Option XL 11.6-1
closing buildings 11.6.5-1
Evaluation 11.6.3-1
Monetary Evaluation of Noise according
to BUWAL 11.6.7-1
Object-Scan 11.6.6-1
Population Density 11.6.4-1
Options
Coordinate Grid 13.4-1
icon bar 4.7-1

Land Use 11.4-1


Options menu
Decimal separator 5.5.4-1
Marker size G-1

P
Parallel Object 5.7.13-1
Parallele Object
between defined station marks 5.7.3-4
Parking Lot
Emission L*m,E in dB(A) 8.13.0-4
LfU-Studie 1993 8.13-2
RLS90 8.13-2
Parking Place 8.13-1
LfU-Study 2003 8.13-3
Partial Levels 11.2.5-1
Partial Sound Level 18.2.1-2, 18.2.2-1
Partition Tab 12.4.4-1
Pass-by
Video 8.14-8
Pass-by levels for line sources 8.14-1
Pass-by Levels for Line Sources with the Noise Levels Time History 8.14-1
paste 15.2.7-1
PCSP - Program Controlled Segmented Processing 18.6-1
Plan 17.4.21-22
PlanAttr 17.4.22-24
Point Source 8.3-1
Point-like Objects 10.3.1-1
Polar 5.5.2-1
Polygon Point Mode 5.4.1-1
Population Density 11.6.4-1
Positioning Method 1: Insertion of Points
5.3.1-1
Positioning Method 2: Polygons and Lines

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Index

5.3.1-1
Positioning Method 3: Text Boxes and Zoom
+ 5.3.1-2
PosPop 17.4.23-25
PosPush 17.4.24-26
Preview 17.2.9-1
Zoom 17.2.9-1
Print
Druck_Gr.Txt (Graphics) -3
Preview 17.2.9-1
Print Graphics 17.2.3-1
Reports 17.2.2-1
Template Files 17.2.1-1
Printing
Druck.TXT -3
Editing a Template File 17.2.2-1
Example Graphics Printout 17.2.8-1
Reports 17.2.2-1
Template Files 17.2.1-1
Printing Reports 17.2.2-1
Projection Method for extended Sound
Sources 12.2.3-1
Protocol 12.6-1
Purge List of Numbers-of-Trains 8.12.5-1
Purge Tables 18.11-1

Q
QSI 6.4.11-1

R
Railroad Tab 12.4.11-1
Railway 8.12-1
Emission Level Lm,E 8.12.1-1
purge list of numbers-of-trains 8.12.5-1
Speed (km/h) 8.12.2-2

Manual

2.3 11

traffic-count calculator 8.12.4-1


Train Class local 8.12.2-1
train classes 8.12.2-1
train classes user-defined 8.12.3-1
Raster factor 12.4.4-1
RasterBewertung 17.4.26-28
RBLrm 92, Method 1 12.4.4-1
Receiver Point
Calculation and Presentation of Results
11.2.2-1
Check Consistency 11.2.3-1
Floors 11.2.6-1
Grid 11.5-1
Grid specification 11.5.1-1
Receiver Points 11.2-1
RectAbs 17.4.27-29
RectRel 17.4.28-30
Reference Point 10.4.0-4
Reference Time Tab 12.4.5-1
Reflection 12.2.4-1
Absorption coefficient alpha 9.2-1
Reflection of the 1st Order 12.2.5-1
Reflection Properties of Obstacles 9.2-1
Reflection Tab 12.4.8-1
Reflections of Higher Order 12.2.6-1
relative coordinates 5.5.2-1
Replacing a String 2.8.1-2
Residential and Outbuilding 9.3.2-1
Result Table 15.3.1-1
Result Table for the Building Noise 9.3.7-1
Rich Text Format (RTF) 17.3.2-1
Road 8.9-1
Additional Width G-3
Calc Width of Roads 8.9.8-2
Correction for Multiple Reflections 8.9.81
correction for multiple reflections 8.9.8-1

12

2.3

Chapter 2 Register
Index

Display real Width of Roads 8.9.1-1


Distance of the outer lanes 8.9.1-1
Diural Patter 8.9.4-1
Drefl dB(A) 8.9.8-1
Emission 8.9.3-1
Emission Lm,E in dB(A) 8.9.3-1
Geometry 8.9-3
Gradient 8.9.7-1
Gradient (%) 8.9.7-1
lateral slope 8.9.2-1
long straight 8.11-1
multi lane road 8.9.1-4
Screen G-3
Self-Screening G-3
Specification of Road Widths 8.9.1-1
Speed 8.9.5-1
Speed Limit (km/h) 8.9.5-1
Standard Cross Section (SCS)/Distance
(m) 8.9.1-3
Station Mark 13.11.4-1
Surface 8.9.6-1
Total width of road from curb to curb
8.9.1-1
Traffic Density 8.9.4-1
Traffic Lights 8.10-1
Widening of a Road from 1 to 2 Lanes
8.9.1-4
Road Surface 8.9.6-1
Road Tab 12.4.10-1
Roof 10.4-3
Rotation and Displacement -1
Rounding up by the last digit 15.3.2-2
RTF 17.3.2-1

S
Save as 5.2-1

Save Settings 4.12-1


Saving 18.9-1
Scale 17.4.29-31
Combo box 13.3-1
Zoom - 13.3-2
Zoom + 13.3-2
Scale Dimension 13.11.1-3
Screen (Road) G-3
Search 5.6-1
Search Radius (m) 12.4.3-1
Search Radius for Reflecting Objects 12.4.8-2
Seite 17.4.30-32
Selecting a Template File 17.2.2-1
Selecting Data for the Calculation 12.5-1
Selecting one row G-1
Selecting several consecutive rows G-1
self-screening of buildings 12.4.11-2
Self-Screening of Road G-3
SET
Option SET 8.16-1
Shape 17.3.4-1
Sicad 6.4.5-1
sigma G-2
SIP 11.6-1
SIP see XL
Slip 6.4.11-1
Snap Point to Building Facade 9.3.3-1
Sorting columns 15.2.4-1
Sosi 6.4.11-1
Sound Pressure Level 11.2.4-1
Sound Rays 12.3-1
Sound Rays and Reflection 12.2-1
Sound Rays from extended Sources 12.2.2-1
Sound Rays from Point Sources 12.2.1-1
Sound Reduction
Sound Radiation from Building Facades
8.6.4-1

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Index

Sound-radiatin Area (m) 8.6.5-1


Special Formats 6.4.11-1
Spectra
Absorption-Spectra 16.3.5-1
ID 16.3.1-2
Li 16.3.2-2
Lw 16.3.2-4
Spectra Diagram 8.6.3-3
Speed Limit (km/h) 8.9.5-1
Spline 5.7.12-1
Split Tab
RBLrm 92, Method 1 12.4.4-1
Splitting Acc. to RB-Lrm 92, Method 1
12.4.4-1
Standard Cross Section (SCS)/Distance (m)
8.9.1-3
Standard Deviation G-2
Standard Level 11.2.1-1
Station Mark 13.11.4-1
Status Bar 4.6-2
Status bar
Information 13.2.0-3
Stratis 6.4.8-1
Strings 2.8-1
Symbol 13.11.3-1
Synchronize Graphics with table 15.2.1-1
System Requirements
minimum requirements 3.5-1

T
Tab 17.4.31-33
Table 17.4.32-34
adjusting the column width 15.2.6-1
Button Bar 15.2.1-1
Copy 15.2.1-1
Copying and Pasting Data Records

Manual

2.3 13

15.2.7-1
delete Data Record 15.2.0-2
editing table cells 15.2.3-1
Geometry 17.4.32-37
Inserting a Row 15.2.2-1
purge tables 18.11-1
Result Table 15.3.1-1
Result Table for the Building Noise 9.3.71
sort column 15.2.4-1
Tables 15.2-1
Air-traffic noise 17.4.32-37
Immissions 17.4.32-36
Libraries (local) 17.4.32-37
Miscellaneous 17.4.32-36
Object Tables 17.4.32-34
Obstacles 17.4.32-35
Tabs 17.4.33-39
Template Files 17.2.1-1
Druck.Txt -3
Editing 17.2.2-1
Export.RTF -3
Labelling of Printing Ranges 17.2.1-3
Tennis 8.8-1
Terrain, uneven 10.2-1
Text 17.4.34-41
Text block
how to enter a 16.6.0-2
Text Box 13.11.1-1
The Foliage and Built-Up Areas 9.9-1
Third-Party Programs 6.4.12-1
Tile Project 18.6-1
T-Mobil 6.4.11-1
Toolbox
Areas With Specified Ground Absorption
9.8-1
Topography

14

2.3

Chapter 2 Register
Index

Building Height Points 6.4.13-1


Contour Lines 10.5-1
display ground height 10.8-1
Fault Lines 10.6-1
Height Points 10.7-1
Total width of road from curb to curb 8.9.1-1
Traffic Density 8.9.4-1
Traffic Lights 8.10-1
Traffic-Count Calculator 8.12.4-1
Train Class local 8.12.2-1
Train classes 8.12.2-1
Train Classes User-defined 8.12.3-1
Transformation 6.3.4-1
Match Point 6.3.4-10
TXT 17.3.2-1

Wildcards 2.8-1
WINPUT-DGM 6.4.7-1

X
XL 11.6-1

Z
Zabst 17.4.38-45
Zeit 17.4.39-46
Zoom - 13.3-2
Zoom + 13.3-2

U
Uncertainty 12.4.3-2
uneven Terrain 10.2-1
Update automatically/ Hold Value 13.11.2-1
Update during Drag 13.2.0-3
Updates F-3
Use Map of Ground Absorption 12.4.9-3
Utilization 11.2.1-1

V
VarianteM 17.4.36-43
Variants 17.4.35-42
Vector graphics 14.2-1
Version 17.4.37-44
Video 8.14-8

W
Web-Bitmaps 14.4-1

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Conventions Used in this Manual

2.4

Conventions Used in this Manual

The following list comprises all conventions used in this manual.


Words or characters that you are supposed to type
appear in font type Curier.
ENTER/RETURN
Names of keyboard keys and hotkeys are in small
capital letters, for example ENTER and CTRL+C.
CTRL+V
A plus sign (+) between two key names means
that you must press those keys at the same time
(hotkey). For example, CTRL+V instructs you to
hold down the CTRL key while typing the letter V.
DOWN KEY
The arrow keys are named by the direction each
arrow indicates. (LEFT ARROW KEY, RIGHT
ARROW KEY, UP KEY). The term "arrow keys" is a
collective term referring to all of these four keys
together.
Grid|Appearance of This style instructs you to first click the Grid
menu, and then, from the submenu that opens, the
Grid|Options
menu item Appearance of Grid. As a rule, this
will open a dialog where you are supposed to
click, for example, the Options button.
Press the RIGHT
This instruction tells you to position the mouse
pointer on the border of an object, or on the cenmouse button
treline of a line object, and then press the right
mouse button. In these cases, a context menu
opens, offering further commands relating to the
object in question.
Select or Confirm
You are instructed to click the respective feature,
command, or button, using the LEFT MOUSE BUTTON.
Double-click
Instructs you to rapidly press and release the left
mouse button twice.
instructs you to do something.
)
setup

Manual

2.4 1

2.4

Chapter 2 Register
Conventions Used in this Manual

With the key

INS insert
2

A Step-by-Step instruction, which can be omitted


by existing basic knowledge.

two new rows

alerts you to essential information.

 Industry.cna

For the stated example you will find a file on the


CadnaA-CD-Rom. Open the file to follow the
example.
For the stated example you will find a file on the
CadnaA-CD-Rom with the example already
completed.
The mentioned literature is saved on your program CD as PDF file in the folder DatakustikInfos

BuildingNoiseMap.cna

 Datakustik-Infos|
950_22.pdf

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Attributes and Abbreviations

2.5

2.5 1

Attributes and Abbreviations


Abbreviation

Meaning

ABSNR

Buildings reflecting=0/absorbent=1/highly absorbent=2

ABST

Mean distance between buildings (m)

ALFAL

Absorption coefficient alpha left

ALFAR

Absorption coefficient alpha right

ANZMAXT
ANZMAXTN

Option FLG: Number of exceedings (T) day or (N) night at the


receivers

APBEZX

x coordinate, right (AzB module)

APBEZY

y coordinate, top (AzB module)

AREA

area (in square meters)

area_i

see Chapter 11.6.6 "Object-Scan"

area_p

see Chapter 11.6.6 "Object-Scan"

area_w

see Chapter 11.6.6 "Object-Scan"

ART

short name of land use

ARTI

land use integer (0 = without use; 1 = first typ of land use in


numerical ascending order according to the dialog etc.)

ARTL

long name of land use

ART_AUTO

determine designated land use

AUTO

intern - not relevant

density of the buildings (%)

BABS

ground absorption G

BASISQ

basic source (Power Plant Option!)

BELN

Parking lots occupied (%) night-time

BELT

Parking lots occupied (%) daytime

Manual

2.5

Chapter 2 Register
Attributes and Abbreviations

BEWERT

Frequency weighting (linear; A-weighted (A); B-weighted (B);Cweighted (C); D-weighted (D))

BEWN

Parking lot events per hour, night-time

BEWT

Parking lot events per hour, daytime

BEZ

Objects Name

BEZRAW

- (only for program-internal use)

BOXL / R / T / B

Bitmap reference of coordinates of the left lower and the right


upper corner

BTYPNR

Type of building

CANTI_HORZ

Horizontal Overhang by Cantilevers

CANTI_VERT

Vertikal Length of the Overhang by Cantilevers

D1 . . . . D10

Attenuations 1 through 10 (power plant module)

DAEMPF

Attenuation by buildings

DAT_VON/DAT_BIS

Date interval

DBEB; DBEW

Attenuation from Foliage and Building developement (RLS90)

DBEB_L; DBEB_R

Distance of building development (left/right)

DBR

bridge penalty

DBUE

Correction for railway crossing Db (dB)

DEN_NUM

Number of target value LP1 till LP4

DFB

Correction for type of railway track Dfb (dB)

DIFFK

Diffusion correction (power plant module)

DIR

for Result Table output of Degree No. 0-360 with 0 symbolized


North direction

DIR_AUTO

1 = automatic; 0 = manuel (then vector x, y, z of directivity)

DIR_TAUS

Exhaust Gas Temperatur in C

DIR_TYP

Name of the saved directivity

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Attributes and Abbreviations

DIR_VAUS

Windspeed in m/s

DIR_VX (_VY, _VZ)

directivity factor x, y, z

DMP

Attenuation point, line or area source

DP

Correction for type of parking lot

DRA

Correction for railway radius of curvature

DREFL

Correction for multiple reflections (dB(A))

DSTRO

Correction for road surface (dB(A))

DTV

Mean daily traffic density

DURCH

Diameter (m)

EGHOCH/STHOCH

Height of resp. distance between storeys, height of ground floor

EINFB

Start of interweaving section (AzB module)

EINFE

End of interweaving section (AzB module)

EINW

Inhabitants / Population

EXCL

exclude bevor calculation (x = actual)

FBABST

standard cross section (SCS/distance (m)

F_COLOR

color code decimal

F_COLORX

color code hexadecimal

FLAECHE

radiating surface aerea (qm)

FLAECHK

Area correction (power plant module)

FONTCOLOR

Text color

FREQ

Dominant frequency (Hz)

GRENZT/GRENZN

Limiting value daytime/nighttime

GRENZ1...GRENZ4

Limiting value of the corresponding target value LP1 till LP4

GWT / GWN

(could be the maximum value of land use or the maximum level


at the receiver point depending on which parameter is used)

Manual

2.5 3

2.5

Chapter 2 Register
Attributes and Abbreviations

object height (m)

Height of each point

HA

Object initial height (m)

HA_ATT

Object initial height attribut:


r = relativ
a = absolut
g = above building roof
h = height on each point
hb or hg = height/ground on each point

hb

Ground height of each point

HBEB_L; HBEB_R

average height (m) of building development (left/right)

HB_LPT

Building Evaluation Day- and Nighttime

HB_GWT

Building Evaluation Maximum Value Day

HB_GWN

Building Evaluation Maximum Value Night

HBEB

Mean height of buildings (m)

HB_LPMINT /
HB_LPMINN

Building Attributt by Building Evaluation - Minimum-Level Dayand Nighttime

HE

Object final height (m)

HE_ATT

Object final height attribut:


r = relativ
a = absolut
g = above building roof
h = height on each point
hb or hg = height/ground on each point

HIRI

in Result Table output of Direction with one letter (N-North, OEast, S-South, W-West)

HIRI2

in Result Table output of Direction with two letters if necessary


(e.g. NW-North-West, SO-South-East)

HO

Height of air route (AzB module)

HREL

Relative height above the ground (m)

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Attributes and Abbreviations

ID

Identification

KANK

Duct correction (power plant module)

KILO

the first station point (e.g. 510) m

KILO_DESC

Station ascending = 0, descending = 1

KN

Night-time correction

KO

Directivity index K0

KRBREITE

Crest width (m)

KT

Daytime correction

LAT

Degree of latitude (AzB module)

Lden

Noise Level (d=day, e=evening, n=night

LAERMART

Noise type (road/railway/industry/aircraft/total)

LEN

Length (m)

len_i

see Chapter 11.6.6 "Object-Scan"

len_p

see Chapter 11.6.6 "Object-Scan"

LIN / LIT

Indoor level Li (dBA) night-time / day-time

LIBZZ

Table listing the number and type of trains

LKNICKT/LKNICKN

Salient point of usability function power level daytime/nighttime

LMEN

Emission level (dB) night-time

LMET

Emission level (dB) daytime

LMINT/LMINN/
LMAXT/LMAXN

Minimum level daytime/nighttime


Maximum level daytime/nighttime

LON

Degree of longitude (AzB module)

LPMINT / LPMINN

Attribut of the Building Evaluation Symbol for the minimum level


day and night-time

LP1 - LP4

Alias for the four target values in Caluclation|Configuration|Target Values

Manual

2.5 5

2.5

Chapter 2 Register
Attributes and Abbreviations

LPT
LPN

Calculated sound Level at the receiver point day-time


Calculated sound Level at the receiver point night-time
LPT or LPN without No. refers to the current displayed variant

LPT<n>
LPN<n>

Calculated sound Level at the receiver point day-time


Calculated sound Level at the receiver point night-time
refers to the variant stated by the number <n> (LPT03 or LPN03
refers to the sound level of the variant 3.)

LPT_<n>

Just as above with regard to a corresponding band of a spectrum


with the number after the underscore (see chapter 15.3.3)

LUECK_L; LUECK_R

gaps proportion (left/right) of building development

LW_LI

Indoor level, sound power level, or sound power level per unit
length or unit area

LWA

Presently not supported

LWLIN

Presently not supported

LWN

Sound power level (dB(A)) night-time

LWSN

Sound power level per unit length or unit area (dB(A)) night-time

LWST

Sound power level per unit length or unit area (dB(A)) daytime

LWT

Sound power level (dB(A)) daytime

LWTYP

Sound power, type: LI=indoor level; LW=sound power level, or


otherwise sound power level per unit length or unit area

Mean reciprocal length of edge (m) (1/m)

MARK

State of activation (indifferent/activated +/deactivated -)

MEMO

Info box

MKN

Model correction (Switzerland) night-time

MKT

Model correction (Switzerland) daytime

MN

Hourly traffic density M night-time

MT

Hourly traffic density M daytime

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Attributes and Abbreviations

N_31-8000

Frequency spectrum nighttime

NACHT

Traffic light active during night-time

NAIND

Limiting value of industry for a type of land-use

NASTR

Limiting value of roads for a type of land-use

NASCH

Limiting value of railways for a type of land-use

NAFLG

Limiting value of aircraft noise for a type of land-use

NEIG

Inclination of wall (1:value)

NO_K1

K1 correction (blank = correction)

NORM_A

Figure = normalized A-weighted level; blank or empty means not


normalized

PLAN

Proportion of low-noise trucks (Austria) night-time

PLAT

Proportion of low-noise trucks (Austria) daytime

PLN

Proportion of lightweight trucks (Austria) night-time

PLT

Proportion of lightweight trucks (Austria) daytime

PN

Proportion of trucks % night-time

PO_AREA

area (m) of a closed Polygon

PO_HABSMIN

minimum height of all polygonpoints


( absolute height at every Point)

PO_HABSMAX

maximum height of all polygonpoints


( absolute height at every Point)

PO_HREL_P1

relative height of the 1. point by a Polygon

PO_HGND_P1

ground height of the 1. point by a Polygon

PO_LEN

length (m) of a Polygon

PO_LENAREA

length (m) of a open Polygon or area (m) by a closed Polygone

PO_PKTANZ

Number of polygon points

PPLTYP

Type of parking lot acc. to RLS or VDI

Manual

2.5 7

2.5

Chapter 2 Register
Attributes and Abbreviations

PPLTYPI

0=RLS; 1=VDI

prop

see Chapter 11.6.6 "Object-Scan"

prop_l

see Chapter 11.6.6 "Object-Scan"

PT

Proportion of trucks % daytime

QTYP

Source type Spherical source=KU; line source=LI; area


source=FH; vertical area source=FV (power plant module)

QUELLE

Source of data (libraries)

R_31-8000

Sound reduction index R (dB) in the range from 31.5 to 8000 Hz

ROUND

Rounding value

RQ

Standard cross section of road

RVL

Reflection loss, left side

RVR

Reflection loss, right side

RW

Sound reduction index R (dB)

S_31. . . .8000

Level spectrum in the range from 31.5 to 8000 Hz

SIGMAD;SIGMAE
SIGMAN

The resulting uncertainty sigma dB for Day, Evening and Night.

SIN_31. . . .8000

Internal - do not assign anything!

SP<n>

SP - Column of the result table


<n> consecutive number of the column, e.g.,
SP4 (is the 4. column). To count the column number use either
the dialog Edit Result Column or the dialog Table column and
not the Result table itself because the invisible columns are
counted as well.

SSCR_ADDWID

Roads selfscreening - additional road width

SSCR_H_R
SSCR_H_L

Roads selfscreening - walls height Left (L) and Right (R)

STEIG

Slope of road %

STELL

Number of parking spaces on parking lot

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Attributes and Abbreviations

STHOCH

Heigth or distance between floors

STRGATT

Type of road

STRGATTNR

Type of road (internal numbering)

STRO

Identification of road surface (currently for output purposes only)

STRONR

Road surface number

STW

in Result Table output of Floor Identifier

STYPI

Spectrum type (0 = Li; 1 = Li from interiour sources; 2 = Lw; 3 =


Lw calculated from Lp + area + nearfield correction; 4 = Lw calculated from Lp + area + nearfield correction)

T_31-8000

Frequency spectrum daytime

TAG

Traffic light active during daytime

TAKTMAX

Correction for maximum level during specified intervals


(blank=no correction)

TEINWN

Time of operation during night-time (min)

TEINWR

Recreation time (min)

TEINWT

Time of operation during daytime (min)

TOTD, TOTN

Total Noise Level day- and nighttime (total day, total night)

TRANSP

acoustical Transparency (%)

VtLKW

Truck speed

VPKW

Passenger car speed

Angle of approach (AzB module)

WG

x = residential building / blank = outbuilding

WG_NUM

1 = residential building / 0 = outbuilding

WKNICKT/WKNICKN

Salient point of usability function daytime/nighttime

x coordinate

X1

Coordinates of power plant source

Manual

2.5 9

10

2.5

Chapter 2 Register
Attributes and Abbreviations

X2

Coordinates of power plant source

y coordinate

Y1

Coordinates of power plant source

Y2

Coordinates of power plant source

Z1

Coordinates of power plant source

Z2

Coordinates of power plant source

ZAUSD

Dimension along z direction

ZKLST_ASC

ASCII Table of Trainclass

ZYL_MX

x coordinate of centre of cylinder

ZYL_MY

y coordinate of centre of cylinder

ZYL_R

Cylinder radius

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Operators and Functions

2.6

Operators and Functions

The following operators and functions can be used in formula boxes. Examples are:

Calculation|Configuration|General tab|Total Level


the common edit dialogs for sources, in the PWL, Sound Reduction,
and Attenuation boxes.
==
equals
!=
is not equal
>=
greater or equal
>
greater than
<=
less or equal
<
less than
++
level addition
-level subtraction
+
addition
subtraction
*
multiplication
/
division
(
open bracket
)
close bracket
max
maximum max(1,2) = 2
min
mimimum min(1,2) = 1
pow
power: pow(a, b) = a^b
abs
absolute value or magnitude
log10
logarithm to the base 10
log
logarithm to the base e
exp10
xth power of 10 (10 to the x)
exp
xth power of e (e to the x)
sqrt
square root
sin
sine (argument to be expressed in radians)
cos
cosine
tan
tangent
ctg
cotangent

Manual

2.6 1

2.6

Chapter 2 Register
Operators and Functions

deg2rad
rad2deg
arcsin
arccos
arctan
iif
rand(x,y)

Examples of Formulas
and Operators:
2.6

conversion from degrees to radians


conversion from radians in degrees
arc sine
arc cosine
arc tangent
iif(x, a, b) returns a, if x!=0, and b if x==0
generated a random number in interval between
x and y

Example entry for Attenuation - LWA - Sound Reduction on an edit


source dialog.
Expression
((8+4+3.5+2)++17.5)-19)
SP_002++SP_005
where SP_002 and SP_005 refer to spectra
stored in the local library
SP_002 - 3
3 dB are subtracted from the current level in
each frequency band of the spectrum
x - 55
reduces the current number by 55
x+2
increases the current number by 2
x ++ 50
adds 50 dB to the current level respecting rules
for the addition of levels
x -- 50
subtracts 50 dB from the current level respecting rules for the subtraction of levels
Operators:
++
energetic addition (level addition) (40 ++ 40 = 43)
-energetic difference (level subtraction) (43--40 = 40)
+
arithmetic addition (40 + 40 = 80)
arithmetic difference (80 - 40 =40)
max(a,b)maximum level of the levels calculated separately for the two
source groups a and b.
min(a,b) minimum level of the levels calculated separately for the two
source groups a and b.

Manual

2.6 3

Chapter 2 Register
Operators and Functions

You can use all arithmetic terms or combinations thereof.


In CadnaA you can integrate user-defined functions by using DLL-files
(dynamic loadable library).
On your CadnaA program CD in Support\CNA_FUNC you will find a
CadnaA example (CNA_FUNC) and a README file, which describes the
interface CadnaA and DLL.
As precondition you will have to make an entry in the Cadnaa.ini file for
each function and the function name must be entered in a formula field,
e.g. in the PWL field of a point source in its edit dialog.

Manual

User-defind
Function

2.6.0

2.6

Chapter 2 Register
Operators and Functions

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Literature

2.7

Literature

/1/

18th regulation for the execution of the Federal Immission Protection Act (Regulation concerning the protection from noise from
sports facilities - 18. BImSchV) dated 1991-07-18, Bundesgesetzblatt, annual set 1991, part 1, p. 1588

/2/

DIN 52210-1 Tests in building acoustics; airborne and impact


sound insulation; measuring methods

/3/

DIN EN ISO 3744 "Acoustics - Determination of sound power


levels of noise sources using sound pressure - Engineering method
in an essential free field over a reflecting plane (ISO 3744:1994);
German version EN ISO 3744:1995"

/4/

Parking Lot Study 1995 - Precise


Wolfgang Hendlmeier: "Noise control at parking lots and underground car parks", Clause 12.2: Precise calculation method (for
parking lots, where the distribution of traffic between the parking
spaces can be estimated with sufficient precision), Bavarian Ministry for Environmental Protection (LfU), Depts. 2/4 and 2/5,
November 1994

/5/

Parking Lot Study 1995 - Approximate


Wolfgang Hendlmeier: Noise control at parking lots and underground car parks, Clause 12.3: Approximate calculation method
(for parking lots, where the distribution of traffic between the parking spaces cannot be estimated with sufficient precision) , Bavarian Ministry for Environmental Protection (LfU), Depts. 2/4 and 2/
5, November 1994

/6/

Parking Lot Study of Bavarian Ministry for Environmental Protection


Study concerning sound emission from parking lots, scrap yards
and bus terminals, 1993 Edition, Issue 89, Collection of publications of the Bavarian Ministry for Environmental Protection (LfU),
Munich

Manual

2.7 1

2.7

Chapter 2 Register
Literature

/7/

Parking Lot Study of Bavarian Ministry for Environmental Protection 2003


The new revised 4. study concerning sound emission from parking
lots, bus terminals, mulit-storey car park and subterranean garage
of housing estates, August 2003 Edition, Issue 89. Collection of
publications of the Bavarian Ministry for Environmental Protecton
(LfU), Augsburg; Kessler Verlagsdruckerei, 86399 Bobingen,
ISBN 3-936385-26-2, ISSN 0723-0028; http://www.bayern.de/lfu

/8/

Schall03 Guidelines for the Calculation of Sound Immission from


Railways Schall 03, Akustik 03, Ed. 1990, DB (German Railways),
Central Administration, Munich

/9/

RLS90 Guidelines for Noise Control at Roads (RLS-90) Published


by the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Dept. for Road Construction, Ed. 1990, Traffic Gazette 44 (1990)

/10/

16th regulation for the execution of the Federal Immission Protection Act (Regulation concerning the protection from traffic noise 16. BImSchV) dated 1990-06-12, Bundesgesetzblatt I, p. 1036

/11/

TA-Lrm Sixth general administrative regulation concerning the


Federal Immission Control Act (Technical instruction for noise
protection TA-Lrm) dated 1998-08-26, published in Gemeinsames Ministerialblatt dated 1998-08-28

/12/

VDI 3760" Computation and measurement of sound propagation in


workrooms ", February 1996, Beuth-Verlag, Berlin, Kln

/13/

VDI 2720 Sheet 1, " Noise control by barriers outdoors", March


1997, Beuth-Verlag, Berlin, Kln

/14/

VDI 2058 Sheet 1, " Assessment of working noise in the vicinity",


September 1985, Beuth-Verlag, Berlin, Kln

/15/

VDI 2571 " Sound radiation from industrial buildings", August


1976, Beuth-Verlag, Berlin, Kln

/16/

VDI 2714 " Outdoor sound propagation", January 1988, Beuth-

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Literature

2.7 3

Verlag, Berlin, Kln


/17/

Updated information of the German Railways central administration, Munich - Acoustics - Effects of Wheel Absorbers), 016,
103.10313, 962/6302, dated 1991-04-19

/18/

Updated information of the German Railways central administraton, Munich - Acoustics - "Schall 03, Aerodynamic Effects", 021,
103.10313, 962/6302, dated 1991-08-17

/19/

Probst, Wolfgang: Noise emissions from sports facilities and their


quantitative consideration for the purpose of immission control
prognosis", Federal Institute for Sports Sciences, Cologne, 1994 Collection of publications on sports facilities and sports equipment;
B94,2, ISBN 3-921896-84-3

/20/

Probst, Wolfgang: Computer Aided Noise Allotment", talk given


at a conference on quality management of software programs in
Munich

/21/

ISO 9613
Acoustics - Attenuation of sound during propagation outdoors Part 1: Calculation of the absorption of sound by the atmosphere,
1993
Part 2: General method of calculation (ISO 9613-2:1996)
ISO International Organization for Standardization, Switzerland
Beuth Verlag, Berlin

/22/

DIN 18005-1 : 1987-05


Noise abatement in town planning; calculation methods, Beuth Verlag Berlin

/23/

VDI 3770 Characteristic noise emission values of technical sound


sources; Sports and recreational facilities; First working draft as of
February 1996

/24/

AL Guideline #28, Sound Radiation and Sound Propagation,


December 1987, Austrian Association for Noise Abatement

Manual

2.7

Chapter 2 Register
Literature

/25/

NORM S 5011 : 1995-04 Determination of noise immission


caused by rail traffic - Railway traffic, shunting and cargo handling
operations

/26/

DIN EN ISO 717-1 : 1997-01 Acoustics - Rating of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements - Part 1: Airborne sound
insulation (ISO 717-1:1996); German version EN ISO 717-1:1996,
Beuth Verlag, Berlin

/27/

ISO 11654 : 1997 Acoustics - Sound absorbers for use in buildings


- Rating of sound absorption, Beuth Verlag, Berlin

/28/

RVS 3.02 Protection from Noise, December 1997, Austrian Research Association for Road and Traffic, Echenbachgasse 9, A-1010
Wien, Austria

/29/

RAS-Q 82 Guidelines for the construction of roads RAS, Part:


Cross sections, Research Association for Traffic and Transport,
Working Group on Road Design

/30/

RAS-Q 96 Guidelines for the construction of roads RAS, Part:


Cross sections, Research Association for Traffic and Transport,
Working Group on Road Design

/31/

Calculation Examples concerning the Guidelines for Noise Control


at Roads RBLrm-92, German Federal Ministry of Transport, Dept.
for Road Construction, Ed. 1992, Office of the Research Association for Traffic and Transport, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 13, D-50996
Kln, Germany

/32/

Kutruff, H.:ber Nachhall in Medien mit unregelmig verteilten


Streuzentren, insbesondere in Hallrumen mit aufgehngten Streukrpern,Acustica 18 , 1967

/33/

Probst, W.:Schallabstrahlung und Schallausbreitung - Berechnungsmodelle und Schalleistungsbestimmung, Forschungsbericht


Fb. 556 der Bundesanstalt fr Arbeitsschutz, Dortmund 1988

/34/

Probst, W., Neugebauer G., Kurze U., Jovicic S. und Stephenson

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Literature

2.7 5

U.: Schallausbreitung in Arbeitsrumen, Forschungsbericht Fb


621 der Bundesanstalt fr Arbeitsschutz, Dortmund 1990
/35/

Probst, W.; Huber, B.: The Calculation of Noise Emission by


Multi-Storey Car Parks, Zeitschrift fr Lrmbekmpfung 5/2000,
47. Issue, Page 175 (published in German)

 950_03_Car_Park.pdf

/36/

Probst, Wolfgang: Calculation of Noise Levels in an Environment


with highly reflecting Objects and Surfaces, Euronoise 1998,
Munich

 EURONOISE98.pdf

/37/

Vierundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Durchfhrung des BundesImmissionsschutzgesetzes (Verkehrswege-Schallschutzmanahmenverordnung - 24.BImSchV, Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 1997
Teil I Nr. 8, ausgegeben zu Bonn am 12.2.1997

/38/

VDI-Richtlinie 2719 Schalldmmung von Fenstern und deren


Zusatzeinrichtungen, August 1987, Beuth-Verlag, Berlin und Kln

/39/

Magnetschwebebahn-Lrmschutzverordnung vom 23.9.1997


(BGBl. 2329, 2338)

/40/

Probst, W. : Geruschentwicklung von Sportanlagen und deren


Quantifizierung fr immissionsschutztechnische Prognosen,
Bericht B2/94 aus der Schriftenreihe Sportanlagen und Sportgerte des Bundesinstituts fr Sportwissenschaften, sb67 Verlagsgesellschaft, Bleriotstr. 6, 50827 Kln, 1994, ISBN 3-921896-84-3

/41/

DIN ISO 3746 Akustik, Bestimmung der Schalleistungspegel von


Geruschquellen, Hllflchenverfahren der Genauigkeitsklasse 3
ber einer reflektierenden Ebene, Beuth-Verlag, Berlin

/42/

TAL98 - Zur Bestimmung der meteorologischen Dmpfung - Eine


Anleitung mit Beispielen - Landesumweltamt NRW, Postfach
102363, D-45023 Essen

/43/

Environmental noise from industrial plants - General prediction


method. Danish Acoustical Laboratory, The Danish Academy of
Technical Sciences, Report no. 32, 1982

Manual

2.7

Chapter 2 Register
Literature

/44/

Railway Traffic Noise - The Nordic Prediction Method, TemaNord


1996:524, Nordic Council of Ministers, Store Strandstraede 18,
DK-1255 Copenhagen K, ISBN 92 9120837 X, ISSN 0908-6692

/45/

Road Traffic Noise - Nordic Prediction Method, TemaNord


1996:525, Nordic Council of Ministers, Store Strandstraede 18,
DK-1255 Copenhagen K, ISBN 92 91208361, ISSN 0908-6692

/46/

MLus 92, Ausgabe 96, Merkblatt ber Luftverunreinigungen an


Straen - Teil: Straen ohne oder mit lockerer Randbebauung, Ausgabe 1991, Genderte Fassung 1996, Forschungsgesellschaft fr
Straen- und Verkehrswesen e.V., Kln, Arbeitsgruppe Verkehrsfhrung und Verkehrssicherheit.

/47/

23. BImSchV - Dreiundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Durchfhrung


des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes (Verordnung ber die Festlegung von Konzentrationswerten) vom 16. Dezember 1996
(BGBl. 1 S. 1962

/48/

DIN 45687 Akustik - Software-Erzeugnisse zur Berechnung der


Geruschimmission im Freien - Qualittsanforderung und Prfbestimmungen - diese Norm ist zur Zeit der Drucklegung im Verabschiedungsverfahren.

/49/

Literature reference in VDI 3733 Noise at Pipes, Juli 1996,


Bibliography [80] by Reinicke and Danner, UBA-Fb 81-33, 1981

/50/

NMPB-Routes 96 - Mthode de calcul incluant les effets mtorologiques, version exprimentale, Bruit des infrastructures routires,
Janvier 1997 - Centre dtudes sur les rseaux, les transports,
lurbanisme et les constructions publiques
Service dtudes techniques des routes et autoroutes - Laboratoire
central des ponts et chausses - Centre scientifique et technique du
btiment

/51/

Concawe - the oil companies international study group for conservation of clean air and water - europe (established in 1963), report
no. 4/81, the propagation of noise from petroleum and petroche-

Manual

2.7 7

Chapter 2 Register
Literature

mical complexes to neighbouring communities, Prepared by C.J.


Manning, M.Sc., M.I.O.A. Acoustic Technology Limited (Ref.AT
931), CONCAWE, Den Haag May 1981
/52/

Probst, Wolfgang; Donner, Ulrich: The Uncertainty of Sound


Pressure Levels calculated with Noise Prediction Programs,
published in German in ZfL 3/2002 Mai 49. Jg., Springer Verlag,
Dsseldorf, http://www.technikwissen.de and translated in English
by Wolfgang Probst

/53/

EN 12354: Building acoustics - Estimation of acoustic performance


of buildings from the performance of products Part 1: Airborne sound insulation between rooms; German version
prEN 12354-1:1996
Part 2: Impact sound insulation between rooms; German version
prEN 12354-2:1996
Part 3: Airborne sound insulation against outdoor sound; German
version prEN 12354-3:1997

/54/

ISO 717: Acoustics - Rating of sound insulation in buildings and of


building elements Part 1: Airborne sound insulation (ISO 717-1:1996); German version EN ISO 717-1:1996
Part 2: Impact sound insulation (ISO 717-2:1996); German version
EN ISO 717-2:1996

/55/

Schriftenreihe Umwelt Nr. 301, Lrm: Wirtschaftliche Tragbarkeit


und Verhltnismssigkeit von Lrmschutzmassnahmen; Bundesamt
fr Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (BUWAL) Bern, 1998. Bezugsquelle: BUWAL Dokumentation, Ch-3003 Bern,
http://www.admin.ch/buwal/publikat/d/

/56/

ZTV-Lsw88: Zustzliche Technische Vorschriften und Richtlinien


fr die Ausfhrung von Lrmschutzwnden an Straen, Verkehrsblatt - Dokument Nr. B 6508 - Vers. 88.2, Der Bundesminister fr
Verkehr, Abteilung Straenbau, Verkehrsblatt-Verlag Borgmann
GmbH & Co KG, Hohe Strae 39, P.O. Box 100555, 46000 Dort-

Manual

2

950_22_Uncertainty.pdf

2.7

Chapter 2 Register
Literature

mund, Germany
(Additional Technical Regulation and Guideline for the Construction of Noise Barriers at Roads)

2
/57/

Wolfgang Probst, Bernd Huber: Modelling of Chimneys and


acoustically transparent plants, Zeitschrift fr Lrmbekmpfung
published in German

/58/

Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the


Council of 25th June 2002 relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise, Official Journal of the European
Communities, L189/12, EN, 18.7.2002

/59/

AzB - Bekanntmachung der Datenerfassungssysteme fr die


Ermittlung von Lrmschutzbereichen an zivilen (DES) und militrischen Flugpltzen (DES-MIL) sowie einer Anleitung zur Berechnung, Der Bundesminister des Innern, GMBl 1975, Nr. 8, Seite 126

/60/

Railway Noise: The Netherlands national computation method


"Standaard-Rekenmethode II" published in "Reken- en Meetvoorschrift Railverkeerslawaai '96, Ministerie Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer, 20. November 1996".

/61/

TA-Luft 2002: Erste Allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift zum Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz (Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft - TA Luft) Vom 24. Juli 2002 (GMBl. 2002, Heft 25
- 29, S. 511 - 605)

/62/

22. BImSchV: 22. Verordnung zur Durchfhrung des Bundesimmissionsschutzgesetzes, 11.September 2002 BGBlI2002, 3626

/63/

ECAC DOC 29: European Civil Aviation Conference Document


29, Report on Standard Method of Computing Noise Contours
around Civil Airports, 2nd edition, 1997

/64/

DIN 45684-1 Ermittlung von Fluggeruschimmissionen an Landepltzen, Teil 1: Berechnung (Entwurf 2004-03)

/65/

VDI 3945 part 3 (Environmental meteorology - Atmospheric dis-

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Literature

2.7 9

persion models - Particle model), Dsseldorf, September 2000


/66/

Harmonoise - Harmonised Accurate and Reliable Methods for the


EU Directive on the Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise: WP3: Engineering Models. Programming The Point-ToPoint Propagation Model. Type of Document: Technical report;
Document reference: HAR34TR-041124-CSTB01; Level of confidentiality: Public, Date: 24/11/2004; Author: Dir Van Maercke

/67/

Kozak, J., Liberko, M.: Updated Method for Calculation of Road


Traffic Noise (in Czech), Annex of the Newsletter of the Ministry
of the Environment of the Czech Republic. 1996, No. 3, p.1-16

/68/

TNM - FHWA Federal Highway Administration Model (http://


www.trafficnoisemodel.org) TNM Version 2.5, McTrans Center
University of Florida, 2088 Northeast Waldo Road, Gainesville, Fl
32609, http://mctrans.ce.ufl.edu

Manual

10

2.7

Chapter 2 Register
Literature

Manual

Chapter 2 Register
Strings and Operators

2.8

Strings and Operators

On some dialogs, complex search criteria can be specified, which serve to


narrow down search results or selections of records. Examples are:

Edit|Search: Name: and ID boxes (see chapter 5.5.3)


File|Import|Option Layer selection (see chapter 6.3.1)
Tables|Groups: Expression box (see chapter 18.2.1)
Tables, when applying the Change Column command from the context menu (see chapter 15.2.5)

Examples:

Element searched for

Operator

Example

finds

single character

m?t

mat, met

character string

l*t
*

lot, loot, latent, lost, last


all characters

one of the characters mentioned

[]

b[au]ll

ball, bull

a single character in an alphabetical sequence

[-]

[m-k]strae
((o))

Nstreet, Ostreet, but not


Bstreet. The alphabetical
sequence must be given in
ascending order.

a single character except those


mentioned in the brackets

[^]

[^g]ut

but, but not gut

Logical relations

100|200

100 or 200

ab(c|de)f

abcf or abdef

Manual

2.8 1

2.8.1

Chapter 2 Register
Replacing a String

2.8.1
2

Replacing a String

To replace character strings in table columns, use the Edit Column command from the context menu.
\1
\2
\n
#

denotes the entire character string as is


denotes the first section in brackets
denotes the nth section in brackets
denotes automatic numbering

Examples:
Current value: FBxyz_01
Search for: (*)xyz_(*)
Replace by:
\1
\2uvw_\3
\3u\2
##

enclose characters to be retained in brackets


(FB) is the first section in brackets,
(01) is the second section in brackets
results in
FBxyz_01
FBuvw_01
01uFB
automatic numbering with two digits, i. e. 01
to 99; from 100 on, the numbering will start
over with 00, 101 will become 01, etc.

This flexible logic allows you to perform practically any operation required to convert strings.

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 3 Introduction
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 3 Introduction

Manual

Chapter 3 Introduction
Contents

3.1 1

Chapter 3 Introduction

3.1 Contents
3.2

CadnaA - the Software Program for Noise Prediction

3.3

CadnaAs additional options

3.4

Selecting Standards for Calculation

3.5

System Requirements

3.6

How to learn CadnaA

Manual

3.1

Chapter 3 Introduction
Contents

Manual

Chapter 3 Introduction
CadnaA - the Software Program for Noise Prediction

3.2

CadnaA - the Software Program for


Noise Prediction

CadnaA for Windows is a program for noise and air pollution prediction

and efficent for expert purposes.


The program calculates and predicts noise immission in the neighborhood
of

trade enterprises and industrial plants


sports and leisure facilities

traffic systems like

road and railways


airports and landing strip or
any other noisy facilities

according to national and international standards and regulations.


The air pollution is calculated and evaluated according the German guidelines TA-Luft /61/ and 22. BImSchV /62/.
CadnaA is suitable for noise protection as well as for detailed analyses for

mapping noise in large cities (additional XL option).


Extensive features like screen display, treatment and output of graphical
grids enable the usage of scanned plans (additional BMP option).
CadnaA automatically or semi-automatically promotes optimization and

allocation of the permissible area-related level of sound power for partial


areas of projected industry regions (addional BPL option).
The aircraft noise in the vicinity of airports according to the German regulations AzB (Instruction for calculation of aircraft noise zone) and general
landing strips and other aeronautics facilities is calculated with the additional option AzB.
A high priority is made of the import and export of existing data from
third-party programs like ArcView, MapInfo, DXF etc. or the import of
data from databases via the ODBC-interface.

Manual

3.2 1

3.2

Chapter 3 Introduction
CadnaA - the Software Program for Noise Prediction

The sound level during by-pass with time history and auralisation of moving sources, the different project-views like 3D-special as a photorealistic
secenario which you may move through, the PCSP (Program Controlled
Segmented Processing) to accelerate calculation of big projects, the groups
and project variants and result tables are only some highlights of CadnaA
- in your daily work with the program you will find much more and enjoy
it.
For quick access to CadnaA you will find a practical introduction in chapter 4.14 Quick start which gives you an overview for some important
features.

Manual

3.3 1

Chapter 3 Introduction
CadnaAs additional options

3.3

CadnaAs additional options

CadnaA is a modular program system. This structure interlinks all possib-

le program performances. The calculated, evaluated level in the vicinity


of an airport can be added and depicted to the evaluated level of a railway
and/or roads (prerequisites are the corresponding program options)

The basic program includes all features and types of calculation except the
following mentioned options. The basic program is a prerequisite for all
options.
Options only in connection with the basic program!

Options

The option BMP imports bitmaps (e.g. BMP, PCX, TIF etc) with scanned
maps (ground plans, cadastral plans) or digital photos. Such bitmaps, when
loaded as background images in CadnaA, serve as templates for the defi-

BMP (Bitmap)

nition of sources, receiver points, buildings and other objects. CadnaA is


capable of processing serveral bitmaps at a time (see Chapter 14 Pictures).
The option BPL is for the optimisation of the area-related levels of sound
power for industrial areas. (see Chapter 8.15 Optimized Area Sources)

BPL

This option is an expert system to find the sound power spectra for many
noise sources like motors, gears, vans, ventilation systems, cooling towers
on the basis of given technical parameters. With CadnaA-SET you can
create modules with up to 10 input and 10 output channels for sound power spectra. You may define the creation of a sound power spectrum with
your own algorithms. If such a module is defined, it can be refered to all
sources in CadnaA. More than 100 predifined modules based on many
years experience and on many coupled output-inputs, so that even complex plants are simulated correctly in your project. (see Chapter 8.16 CadnaA-SET Option).

SET

Option XL allows you to both calculate the noise by taking into account
about 16 million buildings in one run, and to perform calculations with

XL

Manual

3.3

3.3

Chapter 3 Introduction
CadnaAs additional options

complete noise maps, and to evaluate a situation on the basis of given


noise levels and the number of persons living under the impact of these
levels. (see Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL).
3

Option AzB for the calculation of areas affected by air-traffic noise.

AzB

FLG
(formerly AzB)

3.3.0

The option CadnaA-FLG calculates the noise emitted from civil and military airports based on the following calculation methods:

AzB - Guidance for the calculation of noise protection areas at civil


and military airports according to the German act on aircraft noise
(Fluglrmgesetz, dated 30 March 1971)

European Civil Aviation Conference Document 29 (ECAC Doc. 29),


Report on Standard Method of Computing Noise Contours around
Civil Airports, 2nd edition, 1997 (adopted to the requirements of the
EC-directive according to AR-INTERIM-CM Adaptation and Revision of the Interim Noise Computation Methods for the Purpose of
Strategic Noise Mapping, March 2003)

DIN 45684-1 Determination of aircraft noise exposure at airfields,


Part 1: Calculation method (in German, draft 2004-03)

With these calculation methods CadnaA-FLG covers all procedures for


aircraft noise assessment relevant on the European level.
APL

3.3.0

The option CadnaA-APL marks a step by extending the features of


CadnaA to the calculation, assessment and presentation of exposure to air
pollutants. Using the CadnaA-PCSP-technique (Program Controlled Segmented Processing) for full-automatic tiling, project distribution and processing on a network exposure maps for various air pollutants are
calculated for arbitrary project limits.
CadnaA-APL combines the well-known user-friendly user interface of
CadnaA with the calculation model AUSTAL2000 developed by the German Environmental Protection Agency (UBA - Umweltbundesamt Berlin). The implemented Lagrange particle model follows the specifications
of the German guideline VDI 3945 part 3 ((Environmental meteorology -

Manual

Chapter 3 Introduction
CadnaAs additional options

3.3 3

Atmospheric dispersion models - Particle model), Dsseldorf, September


2000.

Manual

3.3

Chapter 3 Introduction
CadnaAs additional options

Manual

3.4 1

Chapter 3 Introduction
Selecting Standards for Calculation

3.4

Selecting Standards for Calculation

By selecting a desired country from the menu Calculation|Configuration|Tab Country the system will be adapted to the corresponding standards for calculation of industry, road and railways if the standards have
been implemented and purchased.

However, standards do not describe all possible situations or scenarios, so


that a logical interpretation of scopes has been made in many cases.

We must point out that the program user is responsible for the professional use. We cannot take the liability for false calculation and its
consequences which are caused by inputs and system configuration.
The licence agreement, which is accessible also in the online help
with the same-named keyword, will be accepted with program use.

Please also pay attention that not all data or values can be adapted
afterwards automatically according to the subsequently selected
standards if you switch the standards after the parameters of sources
have been entered. If necessary you must check and adapt the data
yourself.
If you e.g. choose first the German standards, input the train classes
to evaluate the emission level and afterwards switch e.g. to the
French standards you would produce a false emission level for the
French standard because in France you may not have the same train
classes and penalties.

The correct calculation will be proved with the official available test
task. The official test task is unambiguously defined test cases from authorized institutions.
For the time being the following proofs have been made:

the Test Tasks for the checking of calculation programs according to


the guidelines for Noise Abatement on Roads - Test 94 by the Federal
Ministry for Traffic, Germany.

Manual

Certificate

3.4.0

3.4

Chapter 3 Introduction
Selecting Standards for Calculation

the Draft of Test Tasks for the checking of calculation programs


according to the guidelines for Calculation of sound immission of railways - Test-Schall 03 - 95 by Deutsche Bahn AG, Akustik 03.1, Status Feb. 1996

the Test Tasks for the checking of calculation programs according to


the appendix to the Magnet Hoover Train-Noise Abatement enactment
- Test-Transrapid - Akustik 03.2 Status Januar 1997

Comparative Calculation and Certification correspondig with a test airport of the German Federal Environmental Office Berlin

the test examples, in the appendix of the RVS 3.02 Lrmschutz, per
letter of the Federal Minister for Economic Affairs on August 13th
1998 (Austria).

The future published test task according to DIN 45687 /48/ is also taken
into account to ensure the correct calculation of CadnaA. If necessary please ask for the current status.

Manual

3.5 1

Chapter 3 Introduction
System Requirements

3.5

System Requirements

IBM-compatible PC 486 with VGA-Bildschirm


Windows 95 (Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corp., USA)
minimum RAM 16 MB
at least 5 MB of free disc space for the program CadnaA
CD-Rom drive
Microsoft-compatible mouse and printer

Minimum
requirements

IBM-compatible PC Pentium
Windows2000 or higher
Screen with OpenGL graphic card and 3D-accelerator (recommended
for the 3D-special view)
1 GB RAM
CD-Rom drive
Microsoft-compatible Wheel mouse (comfortabel for zooming) and
printer

Recommend

The drive space depends on the size of the projects you want to treat. The
experience shows that the drive space cannot be big enough.
CadnaA is a 32-bit-version.

Manual

3.5

3.5

Chapter 3 Introduction
System Requirements

Manual

Chapter 3 Introduction
How to learn CadnaA

3.6

3.6 1

How to learn CadnaA

In this manual you will also find information on all features in CadnaA
and how to work with CadnaA with examples and practical hints.
The documentation assumed that you are familiar with the MS Windows
operating system, mouse operation and handling of a computer. Should
that not be the case refer to the according Microsoft manuals.
To get to know CadnaA we suggest you read at least the following chapters:

Chapter 2.4 Conventions Used in this Manual


Chapter 4.6 The Main Window of CadnaA
Chapter 4.8 The Toolbox
Chapter 4.9 CadnaA Menues
Chapter 4.14 Quick start

Afterwards you will have an overview of the technical terms and tools
used in CadnaA like icons and control elements and how to insert, edit and
delete objects and how to check your project with the different kinds of
views.
Explanations to the terms used in the CadnaA dialogs are located in the
online help or in the index of the manual with the same-named keyword.
Should that ever not be the case we would be glad to hear from you.
Read the chapter 4.14 Quick start and work with the examples. That would
take about one hour. Afterwards you will know CadnaA already quite well
so you may start with a real project.
In chapter TUTORIAL you will find practical hints and examples as PDF
files on your CD-Rom which are supposed to ease your project work. This
chapter will be continued by user request. If you have problems to solve
with CadnaA do not hestitate to contact us.

Manual

3.6

Chapter 3 Introduction
How to learn CadnaA

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 4 The First Steps
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 4 The First Steps

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Contents

4.1 1

Chapter 4 The First Steps

4.1 Contents
4.2

Installation

4.3

The Hardlock-Key (Dongle)

4.4

The Server Hardlock-Key

4.5

Language

4.6

The Main Window of CadnaA

4.7

Icon Bar

4.8

The Toolbox

4.9

CadnaA Menues

4.10

Mouse Buttons

4.11

Control Elements

4.12

Save Settings

4.13

Help

Manual

4.1

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Contents

4.14

Quick start

4.14.1
4.14.2
4.14.3
4.14.4
4.14.5
4.14.6
4.14.7
4.14.8
4.14.9
4.14.10
4.14.11
4.14.12
4.14.13

3D-Special-View
Insert a Road
Receiver Point Calculation
Insert a Barrier
Insert a Building
Duplicate Objects
Import Objects
Edit Objects
Grid Calculation
dB-Level and Text Boxes
Generate Floors
Copy to the clipboard
Summary

4.15

Create Groups

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Installation

4.2

4.2 1

Installation

Use the following procedure to install CadnaA from the CD-Rom. Note
that you cannot run the CadnaA components from the CD; you must install the program onto your hard disc.
Before you start your Computer

The program is copy-protected with a hardlock key. Connect the


hardlock plug on the corresponding interface - parallel/seriel or USB.
By a parallel hardlock you should connect the plug to the parallel
interface before you switch on your computer to prevent a damage of
the plug because of electrostatic discharge.

Start your Computer and the Windows operating system.

Before you install the program finish and close all other programs

Insert the CadnaA-CD in your drive (for e.g. drive D).

In the start menu of your operating system choose the appropriate


command to install the SETUP. EXE from the CD-Rom-Drive

The installation program is started - just follow the instruction

Execute the standard installation

Manual

4.2
Hint for
Windows 95

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Installation

If, during the starting of CadnaA under Windows 95, the message
OpenGL file not found should appear, this file has not yet been
installed with Windows 95 on your system. This file is essential to
the 3-D special view.
In this case, you can subsequently install this application by repeating
the Windows 95 SETUP, or copy it from the CadnaA CD-ROM. (We
supply the necessary data by way of precaution.) To copy the
OpenGL files from the CadnaA CD-ROM, use the following steps:

Change to the drive where you inserted the CadnaA CD-ROM (e. g.,
D), and select its Support\OpenGL95 folder.

Copy the two DLL files from that folder to the c:\Windows\System
folder on your hard disk.

The problem should be eliminated.


Hints for
Windows NT, Windows
2000 and XP or higher

When Windows NT, 2000, XP or higher is used, you must additionally


install the Hardlock driver once as follows:

Log in as administrator.

Select the corresponding Start menu|Run

Change to the drive where you inserted the CadnaA CD-ROM (e. g.,
D), and select its Support\Hardlock folder

Corresponding to your operating system run


either the HLDRV32.EXE (for Windows NT; 2000, XP)
or the HASPUserSetup.exe (for Windows XP with SP2)
files available in that folder. The Hardlock driver is being installed.

Afterwards, you can log off as administrator.

CadnaA has now been completely installed.

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Installation

4.2 3

You will find more information about how to install hardlock drivers in
the next chapter.
If you want to know how to best customise your desktop in order to conveniently start the desired programs, please refer to your Windows manual.
If you get CadnaA updates you may overwrite the older version or you
may install it in a different folder. The updates are always full versions
therefore the older version is not required.

Please pay attention to the fact that with an older version you may not
be able to correctly open files saved with a newer version. We guarantee the compatibility of the files to the newest but not to the older
versions.

Manual

Hints to Updates

4.2

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Installation

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The parallel Hardlock-Key (Dongle)

4.3

The parallel Hardlock-Key (Dongle)

The CadnaA-dongle can be either put on the parallele or on the serial port.
The plug sides are indicated correspondingly.

4.3 1

Please pay attention - do not plug on the dongle if your computer


is switched on!

Usually the dongle is plugged in the parallel port without any problemes.
Should that not be, you may use the serial port - Com1 or Com 2. But in
this case you have to make some additional settings in the AUTOEXEC.BAT as follows:

open start menu|settings|control panel|system or the analogous


menus

in Device manager double-click on ports (Com and Lpt).

Device manager in the system menu

Manual

Hardlock plug
(Dongle) parallel/
seriel

4.3.0

4.3

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The parallel Hardlock-Key (Dongle)

Choose the desired port on which you want to plug the dongle e.g.
Com1 and afterwards the bottom Options.

In register Ressources look up the entry for the I/O adress e.g. 03f8
- afterwards quit the system control with Cancel.

Enter the I/O adress in the AUTOEXEC.BAT as follows:

The AUTOEXEC.BAT is usually on the hard disc-drive \C. In Windows-Explorer click on the file with the RIGHT mouse button and
choose Edit - the file opens.

The input for the above example Com1 should be


SET HL_SEARCH=3f8s
Between SET and HL is a blank.
An eventual leading zero of the I/O entry has to be deleted and in any
case you have to attach an s behind the input.

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The parallel Hardlock-Key (Dongle)

4.3 3

Save the AUTOEXEC.BAT and restart your computer.

For Windows NT or Windows 2000 or higher set the environment variable


HL_SEARCH via Controll Panel|System|Environment.

Hint for Windows NT/


Windows 2000

Manual

4.3

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The parallel Hardlock-Key (Dongle)

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The Server Hardlock-Key

4.4

4.4 1

The Server Hardlock-Key

You may use a server license either on a computer which is only a server
but not a computer working place or on a computer working place which
is also simultaneously a server. The type of use has to be declared if you
purchase a server license so that the hardlock-key can be configured correctly.
1.

Plug the server hardlock-key on the parallele interface or an USB key


on the USB interface of the server.

2.

On the server log in as administrator (WinNT/2000 or higher) if


necessary.

3.

Insert the CadnaA-CD in the CD drive of your server and change to


the folder SUPPORT\HARDLOCK\HLSERVER.

4.

Double-click on the file HLSW32.EXE.

5.

The installation of the server hardlock starts - during the installation,


state the folder in which the server hardlock should be installed.

6.

Confirm the further installation questions.

7.

If the installation has been finished you have to install the monitor
program, too. Double-click on the AKSMON32.EXE which is located in the stated folder. If you execute the monitor program the following dialog appears:

Manual

4
Windows
95/98/NT/2000/XP

4.4

4.4

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The Server Hardlock-Key

Start dialog of the HL-Server administrator

The program is now searching in the net for the hardlock-key. The server
should be found and displayed e.g. servername_local. Mark the server
name and insert one of the following applicable numbers
Server is not working place:
1908
Server is working place:
1907
CadnaA-Calc-Hardlock1

1912

Confirm with Add and quit the program.

The hardlock monitor program must not run to use CadnaAs server licenses. After configuration it only shows a history of how many computer are
loged in and how many licenses are used.
After all this you may log out as administrator.

1. With CadnaA-Calc you cannot insert or edit objects - its only a multiuser calculation
licence.

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Language

4.5

4.5 1

Language

CadnaA is multi lingual. For the time being you may operate the program

in either German, English, Italian or French. Please asked for the current
languages. You can see the languages in the menu Option|Language.
The language option depends also on the level you have purchased.
4

But at the moment manuals and online help are only available in German
or English. Asked about the current state.
When CadnaA is started, it automatically selects the language corresponding to the country setting in the Windows system. This setting is also the
default setting for CadnaA. If a language not available in CadnaA is required, the program will be started in English.
In Options|Language, click the language in which you wish to run
CadnaA. Then terminate the program and start CadnaA again. The selection of language is active now.

Manual

Change Language

4.5

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Language

Manual

4.6 1

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The Main Window of CadnaA

4.6

The Main Window of CadnaA

Double-clicking the program icon on the Windows Program Manager or a


single click on the Cadna_A entry on the Start menu of the Windows operating system starts CadnaA and opens the main window.

Starting

Main Window

On the main window, all objects can be entered and edited using mouse,
keyboard, and digitizer in parallel. Inserting an object at the same time creates a new data record in the pertinent object list (Tables menu).
Dialogs, edit dialogs, and also the toolbox can be re-arranged on the desktop by positioning the mouse pointer on the upper edge of the box while
pressing the right mouse button. Now drag the box to the desired position
with the mouse button held down.

Manual

Parallel working with


mouse, keyboard or
digitizer

4.6
Icons

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The Main Window of CadnaA

CadnaA features icons, so-called shortcuts, which, when being clicked,

immediately trigger the function they represent.


For most icons, the pertinent function is indicated on the status bar in the
lower-left corner of the CadnaA main window as long as the mouse pointer is positioned on that icon with the left mouse button held down (see
also Help text under Show Icon Bar).

For users yet unfamiliar with handling menus, dialogs, scroll bars, or system menus, it is recommended you go through the respective chapters in
the Windows manual.
Status Bar

The status bar runs horizontally along the bottom of the CadnaA main
window.

If, with the left mouse button held down, the mouse pointer is positioned
on an icon from the icon bar or from the toolbox, information about the
pertinent function will appear on the left side of the status bar.
As the mouse pointer is moved across the screen, the right site on the status bar will show the coordinates and, after a calculation, also the levels
(L) calculated and, if applicable, also the ground hight (G), for that point
which the mouse pointer is currently positioned on.
The status bar can be turned on and off via the Options menu by clicking
the menu item Show Status Bar.

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Icon Bar

4.7

4.7 1

Icon Bar

The icon bar can be turned on and off by clicking Options|Show Icon
Bar. Following icons are available:
Scale list box to set the desired scale by selection
from the list or by entering a user-defined value.
To select a scale, click the arrow.
Listbox to choose and to display an existing variant
Listbox to choose an evaluation parameter which has
been defined before in menu Calculation|Configuration
.
Opens an existing file
Save file
Print graphic
Exports result log according to settings in the
template file
Copies contents, Section or selected object from the CadnaA
main window to the clipboard
Triggers calculation according to specified configuration for
specified receiver points (for calculation of the receiver point
grid, click Grid|Calculate Grid)
n/a: see listbox for output parameter further above

Manual

4.7

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Icon Bar

n/a: see listbox for output parameter further above


n/a: see listbox for output parameter further above

Menu calibrated digitizer


Fix objects
Display Bitmap
Help-Cursor for topic related help
Opens online help menu

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The Toolbox

4.8

4.8 1

The Toolbox

Generating and inserting various sources and objects is a piece of cake


thanks to the toolbox feature.
The toolbox is part of the CadnaA main window and contains the icons representing the different object types. It can be re-arranged on the desktop
as you like. To this end, click its upper border with the LEFT mouse button
and hold the button depressed while moving the mouse to a different position on the window. When you have reached the desired position, release
the mouse button.
An object type is activated by clicking the desired icon, or, if available, by
pressing the pertinent hotkey, i. e. the CTRL KEY plus the respective letter
key at the same time.

Toolbox

Manual

4.8
Toolbox Icons

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The Toolbox

Instead of activating a feature by clicking the pertinent icon, some icons


can also be accessed via hotkeys. In this case, you have to press the CONTROL KEY, designated Ctrl or Strg depending on the keyboard used, plus the
respective letter key at the same time. If such a hotkey exists, it is indicated below the icon it belongs to.

4
Edit Mode
(CTRL+e)
1)
Point Source
(CTRL+q)

2)
Road (CTRL+s)

1)
Tennis Point of
Service
2)
Building
(CTRL+h)
2)
Built-up Area

3)

1)

1)

Zoom +

Zoom -

Zoom all

2)

2)

General Line Source


(CTRL+l)

1)
Crossing with Traffic
Lights (CTRL+a)

2)
Optimisable Area
Source
2)
Barrier (CTRL+w)

2)
Foliage

Horizontal Area
Source
(CTRL+f)
2)
Parking Lot
(CTRL+p)

1) + 2)
Power Plant
Source

2)
Bridge

2)
Contour Line

2)
Vertical Area
Source

2)
Railway
(CTRL+b)
2)
3D-Reflector

2)
Ground
Absorption
2)
Fault Line

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The Toolbox

2)

4)
Cylinder

embankment

1)

1)

Receiver Point
(CTRL+i)

3)
Insert Bitmap
2)
Auxiliary Polygon

Building Evaluation

1)
Level Box
3)
Symbol

vertical Grid
2)
Calculation Area

3)
Text Box

2)
Designated
Land Use

3)
Section

1)
Station Mark

Note: The numbers in brackets indicate which method of positioning


the object is used (see Online help keyword: Inserting objects).

Manual

4.8 3

4.8

Chapter 4 The First Steps


The Toolbox

Manual

4.9 1

Chapter 4 The First Steps


CadnaA Menues

4.9

CADNAA Menues

In CadnaA, selecting some menu items causes functions to be executed


immediately while selecting other menu items opens a dialog. When you
choose an item followed by ellipses (...), a dialog appears. A hotkey is often indicated next to a menu item. Using this hotkey allows you to access
the pertinent command without having to open the menu first.
By means of the identification letters (underlined letters), you can call
CadnaA menu items from the keyboard as follows: Hold ALT KEY down,
type identification letter of the menu in question, release ALT KEY, and
then type only the identification letter of the desired command. If, for example, you wish to select the Save command, press ALT+F at the same
time (File menu opens), release both keys, and then type s for Save (document is saved).
But it is not only menu items that can be accessed from the keyboard. There are also some frequently used icons in the toolbox which can be activated by using a hotkey. To this end, hold down the Control (CTRL) key and
type the respective letter.

Manual

4
Keyboard

4.9.0

4.9

Chapter 4 The First Steps


CadnaA Menues

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Mouse Buttons

4.10
*

4.10 1

Mouse Buttons

"Click" means to press and release a mouse button once.


"Double-click" means to rapidly press and release the LEFT mouse
button twice.

To select an option, execute a command, select an object, or activate an


object icon, place the mouse pointer on that option, icon, command, or, in
the graphic representation, on the border or the centreline of an object or
line object and click the mouse button.

Click with Left Mouse


Button

Unless you are instructed otherwise, mouse actions always refer to the left
button. If you are left-handed, or the mouse was configured differently, use
the appropriate button instead.
CadnaA features dialogs with lists where you can highlight and select se-

Multiple Selections

veral rows at the same time.


Click the desired row using the LEFT mouse button. Clicking a different
row deselects the one selected before.

Selecting one row:

Click the first row using the left mouse button, press and hold down SHIFT
while clicking the last row to be selected. All rows lying in between are
highlighted and selected as well.

Selecting several consecutive rows:

Press and hold down the CTRL key while clicking the desired rows.

Selecting several rows in


an arbitrary sequence:

Double-clicking an existing object or a data record in a table opens the


pertinent Edit Object dialog where you can enter the relevant parameters.

Double-click with Left


Mouse Button

Clicking with the right mouse button means to rapidly press and release
the right mouse button. Depending on which mode you are working in,
using the right mouse button has two different effects.

Click with Right Mouse


Button

Manual

4.10

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Mouse Buttons

When using the mouse to insert an object in the CadnaA main window, clicking with the right mouse button
- terminates the insertion mode for the object presently entered and

- again with a subsequent click with the Right mouse key on the
object the edit dialog opens.
Edit mode

Wheelmouse

In the edit mode when the right mouse button is used to click on an
existing object or a data record in a table, a context menu appears (for
more information see online help keyword: context menu).

If you are owner of a wheel mouse (a mouse with two keys and a wheel in
the middle of them) you may use the wheel to zoom in and out of your
graphic display very quickly.

Manual

4.11 1

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Control Elements

4.11

Control Elements
Option Button

4.11.0

Option buttons are control elements indicating whether a condition is true


or false. If true = yes, a black dot appears in the option button. The mouse
pointer is used for activation/deactivation. Within one set of options, only
one option can be active at one time.

Check Box

4.11.0

List Box/
Combobox

4.11.0

Check boxes are control elements indicating whether a condition is true or


false. When the check box is activated, an X or appears in the square, indicating that the condition is true (active). Otherwise, the condition is false
(inactive).

A list box contains a list of data of which only one value can apply. The
value selected will be displayed in the list box, and the selected option is
thus activated. In combobox, you can either select a value or enter a userdefined one.
To make the list drop down, click the arrow to the right of the box.
In some cases, like in the example above, you will find an option button
next to the list box. Click this first to activate the list box.

Manual

4.11

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Control Elements

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Save Settings

4.12

4.12 1

Save Settings

If Options|Save Settings is clicked in the current version, the following


settings will be saved for later sessions of CadnaA:

options for the exporting of DXF files;


printing options as well as header/footer entries for the printed reports;
showing or hiding of icon and status bar.

If you prefer non-standard settings for your work which may not be possible to save - like e. g. a different palette for the legend of color-level, several calculation configurations etc. - these settings can still be retained
for easy access by a prototyp file .

Manual

4.12

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Save Settings

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Help

4.13

4.13 1

Help

While you are working with CadnaA, Help is always just one click away.

Online Help System

To call Help

Press F1 (or click the Help icon on the icon bar), or

Click the Help cursor on the icon bar: The mouse pointer turns into
the Help pointer icon. Now click any menu item, or

On any dialog box, click the command button Help.

1.

In the help menu, select the Search command (or click the Search
register in the online help). CadnaA opens the Search dialog box.

2.

Enter the first letter of the topic to be found. During the entry, new
index items are displayed in the list box.

3.

Double-click that index item which corresponds to the desired topic


(or select the index item and press the ENTER key). The online help
displays further topics, if any, referring to this index item.

Users who are not yet familiar with Help, please refer to the Windows manual for further information, or in CadnaA, select the Use Help option on
the HELP menu.

The Help texts may not yet be up to date! We trust in your kind
understanding - CadnaA is subject to constant progress.

Manual

Finding a Topic in the


Online Help System

4.13

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Help

Manual

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Quick start

4.14

Quick start

To get familiar with the main basic function of CadnaA, we recommend


you work with the examples offered in this chapter. By doing so you will
insert your first objects by mouse, change their data and dimensions in the
graphic presentation, execute calculations and create noise maps among
other things.
Of course you have more possibilities to insert objects in CadnaA than
only by mouse, like

digitizing from a plan with a usual digitizer with MS Windows interface


input of the object coordinates via keyboard
importing digital data using different formats e.g. for graphic files like
DXF, different GIS formats like AtlasGis, ArcView, Sicad, Windput
DGM and of course each CadnaA-file. You may also import data via
ODBC-database interfaces like MS-Access, MS-Excel, FoxPro etc. If
necessary ask for the actual interfaces.

Particularly for big projects these input possibilities minimize the expenditure considerably.

You will find the example files on your CD-Rom in the directory
MANUAL|SAMPLES|04_Quickstart. For comfortable working,
copy them onto your hard disc.

Now start CadnaA by double-clicking the program icon on your


desktop or by clicking the corresponding start menu buttom|program|cadnaa if necessary. The CadnaA main window opens.

Manual

4.14 1

4.14

Chapter 4 The First Steps


Quick start

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


3D-Special-View

4.14.1 1

4.14.1 3D-Special-View
At first - test your computer to see if all components are installed correctly
and completely to work properly with CadnaA.
Therefore open the file Racingcourse.cna by double-clicking its name in
File|Open..

The open file Racingcours.cna

The file Racingcourse.cna contains some objects which are accessible in


CadnaA like roads, bridges, contour lines and points, embankments,
screens etc. We come back to it later. Now, see what performance your
computer has.

With the RIGHT Mouse key click once on the middle axis of the road
or on the auxiliary polygon which is drawn over the road axis. As
shown in the following picture a context menu opens with a function

Manual

 Racingcourse.cna

4.14.1

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


3D-Special-View

refering to this object Road.

In the edit mode if an object is marked with a Right mouse click a context menu opens with a
different function suitable to the marked object.

Choose the function 3D (Special) by clicking the same-named command once.

Now it could be that you have to wait for some seconds till the 3D-special
window opens. How long it needs depends among other things on the dimension of the project file, on your RAM or on the quality of your graphic card. Your graphic card should have a 3D accelerator in any case.
Now you will find out exactly how it works.

Manual

4.14.1 3

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


3D-Special-View

You should not wait longer than about 3 seconds till your 3D-special window opens. If is takes longer then we recommend purchasing a new graphic card with a 3D accelerator. The newer cards will have it any way.

The file Racingcourse.cna with opened 3D-special window default placed in the upper left corner.

If necessary maximize the 3D-special window by clicking on the equivalent icon in the upper right corner. Then the window expands to the size of
your screen. You may also enlarge or reduce the window using the mouse.

Maximize

Press the RETURN-key - now you are driving through this szenario
with a speed of 100 km/h and a camera position 1 m above the road.

Is this not the case - you should arm your computer so that you can take
advantage of the CadnaAs powerful performance.
Incidentally - you do not need to wait until your trip stops. You may force
that by pressing the RETURN-key. From the stopped position you may now

Manual

Esc stops

4.14.1

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


3D-Special-View

go further by using the arrow keys from your numeric keyboard. With these keys you can navigate through the szenario independently.
Numeric keyboard:
- Key 8 and 2 ahead or back
- Key 4 and 6 left or right turn
- Key 9 and 3 upward or downward
- Key 5 back to the starting position
- Key 7 vertical upward
- Key 1 vertical downward

For more information see manual chapter 13.14 "3D-Special View".


With this view you are able to check the correctness of your project modelling and see all objects with acoustic relevance which are taken into account for a calculation.
In the 3D-Special view you may also double-click on an object to open the
edit dialog for this object and if necessary to change its data.
Try and change a parameter in the edit dialog in the 3D-Special view like
the following example:

Drive through the 3D-Special view - start with the RETURN-key and
stop pressing the ESC-key after passing the first bridge close to both
noise protection walls (barriers). If necessary use the arrow keys to
attain the right position.
As you may recognize the center of the left barrier seems to hang in
the air - there is no connection to the ground. Obviously this is an
error and has to be corrected.

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


3D-Special-View

4.14.1 5

For that double-click on the left barrier - the edit dialog of the barrier
should open.

The edit dialog Barrier - the barrier is activated as a floating screen with a z-extent of 3 m.

Inadvertently the barrier was defined as a floating screen. Correct


this by clicking on the same-named checkbox to deactivate this
option (no hook).

Manual

4.14.1

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


3D-Special-View

Afterwards confirm by clicking on the OK button. The edit dialog


closes.

Now, the noise protection wall stands correct on the ground.


Try another point of view:
4

3D-CENTER

If necessary activate the auxiliary polygon named 3D-CENTER


(its the doted gray line) by double-clicking it. In the edit dialog click
on the IDs checkbox. The ID must turn black. Close the Window
with OK.

With the mouse cursor point on the pink circle and press the RIGHT
mouse button and select 3D-Special from the context menu.
If you press return you will fligh around on the circle always with
the gaze on the bridge.

If you enter the expression 3D-CENTER in an auxiliary polygons


ID field you will always look in the direction of its first polygon
point without any matter on which object you have started the command 3D-Special View.

If you start the 3D-Special command on the road again while the 3DCENTER polygon is still activated you will then suddenly drive forward, backwards and sidewards on the road because your view is always
in direction of the bridge. Just try it.
Close Window

Close the 3D-Special window by clicking on the closing-icon and the


program by clicking File|Exit.

Hereby you have made your first excursion with CadnaA. We hope you
enjoyed it.
Do not be discouraged if your trip was not as exciting as it should have
been because your hardware was not fast enough - you may change that.
It would be best if you went on now with the next exercise.

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Road

4.14.2 1

4.14.2 Insert a Road


Start CadnaA or - in case it is still open - click File|New.
Now you enter your first object on your own - a road.

For that point to the car icon in the toolbox and click.

After clicking you are in the Insert mode. The mouse pointer is dragging
the Car icon.

Position the mouse pointer on that point where your road is supposed
to begin and use the LEFT mouse button to click. A line suspended
from the mouse pointer like a rubber band then allows you to define a
road as you wish. For each change of direction, insert a new point by
pressing the LEFT mouse button again. After the last point has been
defined, the insertion is completed by pressing the Right mouse button.

The inserted points of the road define only the road course - the
acoustical subdivision occurs separately during calculation.

Manual

4.14.2

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Road

An inserted marked in the Edit mode

An inserted graphic object is also inserted in the object table as a data


record automatically (menu Tables|Sources).

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Road

4.14.2 3

If an object is inserted a hook appears on the corresponding table description (see the above picture).
When the road has been inserted correctly,

click the Edit Mode icon (or CTRL+E). This mode allows you to edit
any inserted object.

In the Edit mode, double-click the polygon line or the centreline of


the inserted road. The edit dialog appears.

In the Edit mode if you make a double click on an object in CadnaA


the corresponding edit dialog of this object opens. It contains all data
for an object.
Another alternative is to click on the object with the RIGHT mouse
key once directly after entering the object (Insert mode) to open the
edit dialog. In that case, after closing the edit dialog, you are still in
the Insert mode. Therefore you do not need to change in the Edit

Manual

Edit Mode

4.14.2

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Road

mode if you only want to edit object parameters.


In the edit dialog in some text boxes you may enter data by choosing
them in the list boxes, by others you enter them from the keyboard by
typing the desired value.
4

Road edit dialog according to the German standard RLS90

Card Index

The appearance of the edit dialogs and the possible entries are
adjusted to the chosen countrys respective standards. You may specify this in Calculation|Configuration|Tab Country. The description of the chosen standard appears in the dialog header. If necessary
complete the textboxes accordingly.

Click the Card Index icon to the right of the SCS/Dist. (m) text box.
Another dialog box opens, allowing you to select either the width of
the road by clicking the relevant standard cross section or to enter either the distance of the centerlines of the outer lanes or the total width
of road from curb to curb.

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Road

4.14.2 5

The line source of a road is always the centerlines of the outer lanes.
In the menu Options|Appearance you can choose if e.g. an additional width for the curbs should be displayed or not.

Choose the value b2 by clicking on it. Now it is marked.


4

If the desired value is not visible use the scroll bar or the arrow keys on
your keyboard. While using the arrow keys (UP, DOWN) of your keyboard
to select an SCS value, holding the DOWN key or UP key depressed will
cause the display to show the eligible road cross sections continuously as
in a movie.

Confirm your choice with OK.

The dialog Cross Section closes and the chosen value is entered in the edit
dialog of the road. Alternatively you may also enter an arbitrary value in
the SCS/Dist. (m) text box of the edit dialog Road.

To get training just enter all data as showed in the edit dialog. You
may enter the emission values Lm,E either directly or by activating
the Counts values of the MDTD (mean daily traffic density).

Please watch how the emission values are continuously adapted as


individual parameters are modified. This edit dialog is a highly con-

Manual

4.14.2

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Road

densed version of the national guideline for the calculation of traffic


noise.
 L01.cna

Having entered all data, click OK to close this dialog box.

Road after entering a distance

CadnaA contains additional objects, with the object road you can use:

Bridge (see chapter 9.6) and


Barrier (see chapter 9.5) for a noise protection wall on roads or railways or
the Floating Screen (see chapter 9.5.1) as noise protection wall on a
bridge and
the Mound/Embankment (see chapter 9.7).

You will find further information in the online help or in the manual see
chapter 9.6.1 Entering a Bridge.
Also pay attention to the mentioned objects in the file Racingcourse.cna in
the 3D-special view.

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Road

4.14.2 7

Model of a bridge in CadnaA in Options|3D-View without hidden edges

Manual

4.14.2

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Road

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Receiver Point Calculation

4.14.3 1

4.14.3 Receiver Point Calculation


After you have inserted a road insert an receiver point at a distance of
about 20 m.

 L02.cna

Different from the receiver points in a grid for the individual receiver
points you may save all interim results from a calculation in a file.

To define a certain distance you may use a polygon and give it the desired
length.

Therefore draw a vertical line (a line with only two points) from the
middle axis of the road using the Auxiliary polygon.

Change to the Edit mode and click on the Auxiliary polygon with
the RIGHT mouse key.

From the opening context menu choose Set Length and enter the
value 20. Close the dialog by confirming with OK.

At the end of the line now insert the receiver point. Therefore at first
click on the corresponding icon in the toolbox and then on the end of
the Auxiliary polygon.

Manual

Auxiliary polygon

Edit Mode

Receiver point

4.14.3

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Receiver Point Calculation

Subsequently click with the RIGHT mouse key on the border of the
receiver point - the edit dialog opens.

Enter a Name and a Standard Level. Therefore activate the samenamed option.

If you have entered a Standard Level then, after a calculation, you


will see at once whether the level has been exceeded or not. In case
the level has been exceeded in the graphics view the receiver point
changes its color to red. The excess value will be indicated in the
corresponding field.
You also have the possibility to select standard levels from a list
which are pre-defined by the user in the menu Options|Land Use
(e.g. different types of land use, like residential area, industry area,
spa or health resort etc.) Furthermore you may determine if the standard or maximum level regards only, e.g., road or railway traffic, or
industry, or if it concerns all noise types together.

You reach the coordinates of the receiver point after clicking on the
Geometry button.

Point Geometry dialog

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Receiver Point Calculation

4.14.3 3

For all objects you may determine if the height refers to

relative to the height ground


absolute
roof
the object is situated e.g. 2 m above another object in whose layout it is
located (e.g. a ventilator on a building).

Now start the calculation via the Calculator icon on the icon bar

Calculator

Afterwards open the edit dialog for the receiver point by double-clicking its contour. In the dialog you will see the results and eventually
an exceeded value.

Edit mode

If the noise emission of a source is entered spectrally then the sound


pressure level at the receiver point is also calculated, evaluated and
indicated spectrally.

The sound pressure level of a receiver point caused by an individual


source is called Partial level.
The Partial level button in the dialog of the receiver point shows all
sound levels from all sources at the concerned receiver point. The list
of Partial Levels in the menu Tables|Partial Level also shows all

Manual

4.14.3

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Receiver Point Calculation

sound levels from all sources but for each reciever point. The list of
partial levels results, e.g., in an efficient ranking of noise protection
measures.

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Barrier

4.14.4 1

4.14.4 Insert a Barrier


After inserting a road and an receiver point you should now do something
against the noise from the road. Build a noise protection wall. Therefore

with the RIGHT mouse key click once on the middle axis of the road.
Remember, for that you have to be in the Edit mode. The context
menu opens. Click on the Paralell Object command. The samenamed dialog opens.

In the Edit mode one click with the RIGHT mouse key on an object
opens a context menu with different functions suitable to the marked
object.

Manual

 L03.cna

Edit Mode

4.14.4

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Barrier

With a click select Barrier from the list. To open the list click on the
arrow on the right hand side of the Object box.
Left or Right of the object refer to the viewing direction from the
starting to the end point. The distance screen - road axis and height
can be entered.

Enter the data as above and confirm with OK. The dialog closes and
you can see the result on the screen.

A road section with a parallel screen

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Barrier

4.14.4 3

With the Zoom icons + or - from the toolbox you can easily modify the
scale of the representation on the screen.

Zoom

Select an option by clicking the respective icon and use the left
mouse button to click the position which is supposed to remain
unchanged while the scale is modified. The scale changes by a factor
of 2 with each click. When you use the right mouse button, the scale
changes in the opposite direction.

You may also blow up an arbitrary detail of your representation on


the screen by clicking the Zoom + icon and pulling a rectangle over
the area in question.
This is usually done by pressing the left mouse button with the mouse
pointer positioned on the first corner of the area and sliding the
mouse to the opposite corner with the mouse button held down. Use
the right mouse button to undo these steps.

Enlarged detail

After clicking the tool zomm limits the whole limits will be shown in your
CadnaA window. By pressing the SHIFT-key simultaneously the scale will
be adapted so that you see all objects in the CadnaA window but not obligatorily the complete limits. In this way you can navigate very quickly through your object.

Just try it.

Afterwards switch to the Edit mode and double-click the screen. The
object edit dialog opens.

Manual

Zoom

Edit Mode

4.14.4

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Barrier

Screen edit dialog


Card Intex

You may enter either the reflection loss in decibels or the absorption
coefficient separately for each side. Again, left and right refer to the
viewing direction from the starting point to the end point. Pre-set
values for different surfaces are available via the Card Index icon.

You may also enter the name of an existing frequency spectrum in the
project database.
For more information see online help, keyword: Libraries.

The co-ordinates are always reached via the Geometry button. Double
click one set of coordinates - all edit features are now available. Even if
you want to change the height of each coordinate point you can do so. For
that you just activate the option absolute Height at every Point. If the absolute heights of some coordinates are unknown, just clear the edit field by
deleting the values (it must be empty). After closing the dialog CadnaA
now interpolates the value between the known heights. Modify any value
and, after closing the dialog by clicking OK, watch how the result is displayed on the screen

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Barrier

4.14.4 5

Object geometry dialog

In CadnaA all tables are synchronized with graphics - e.g. if you are
editing a coordinate point in the dialog Geometry the corresponding
point in the graphics is flashing simultaneously. In this way you
always know where you are.
If necessary close the Geometry dialog and move the edit dialog so
that you can see the polygon points of the screen after opening the
dialog. Watch these while you scroll through the coordinate table by
using the arrow keys. Each point flasches as soon as the data record is
marked.

Manual

4.14.4

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Barrier

The flashing polygon point and the marked data record

You may, of course, also edit the barrier graphically:

Select the barrier, then move or delete any polygon point with the
mouse button held down, or insert a new polygon point (press the
CTRL key and click the desired new point) until you get the desired
course..

Deleting a polygon
point:

Press CTRL+SHIFT key (a minus icon is dragged onto the mouse pointer)
and click on the desired point.

Inserting a polygon
point:

Press CTRL key (a plus icon is dragged on the mouse pointer) and click on
the desired point.
For more information see either online help, keyword: Polygon Point or
manual Chapter 5.4 "Editing graphic Objects"

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Barrier

4.14.4 7

To insert a barrier in an arbitrary location, first click the Screen icon, then
click the desired points of the screen polygon line.
Update the calculation with a click on the Calculator icon in the icon bar.
If you followed the example your standard level should not be exceeded
anymore and the colour of your receiver point should be black again.
By default CadnaA always calculates the day- and night-time levels simultaneously and displays the results for the day-time in the graphic presentation. If you switch to the night-levels by clicking on the
corresponding icon in the icon bar or vice-versa, the colour of the noise
map or the colour of the receiver point changes normally because e.g. you
may have defined a different pre-set standard level for the night-time.

Try it - switch to the night-time presentation by clicking on the corresponding icon.


As you may see, the receiver point discoloured to red again and
shows that the pre-set standard level has been exceeded for the nighttime.

In menu Calculation|Protocol turn on the protocol by activating the


corresponding checkbox. In that case all interim results will be recorded if you execute the calculation again.

Manual

4
Day- and Nighttime Levels

4.14.4

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Barrier

Afterwards look at the protocol by clicking on Calculation|Protocol|Print|Preview.

For more information see online help, keyword: Protocol.

)
4

Try also again the 3D-special view as described in the first chapter.
Use the road to execute the function.

 Right mouse click on the middle axis of the road and


 choose 3D-special view from the context menu.

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Building

4.14.5 1

4.14.5 Insert a Building


Buildings are inserted in the same manner as the objects mentioned before.

Click on the Building icon in the toolbox.


Click the corner points to have the building contour drawn. Contrary
to Road and Screen, buildings are closed polygon lines: When
you finish the insertion by pressing the right mouse button or the
RETURN key, the line is closed automatically by connecting the end
point to the starting point. As you are still in the Insert Building
mode, you may now insert further buildings.

Buildings may be shaped arbitrarily. To insert rectangular buildings, also


hold the SHIFT key down while sliding the mouse. After each click, you
may then continue the polygon at right angles only.

To generate a rectangular building, you should always start with one


of the longer sides and hold down the SHIFT key while inserting it.

As customary, insert the first, second and third point with the SHIFT
key held down by pointing to the respective positions and clicking.
Now position the mouse pointer, not on the fourth corner to be inserted, but on the first one already inserted while still holding the SHIFT
key down. The fourth point is thus inserted at the right position, and
you may close the polygon line to form a rectangle by pressing the
RIGHT mouse button.

Manual

4.14.5

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Building

4
Four polygon points which have to be inserted for a
closed rectangle polygon. A right mouse click matches
the last point with the first one automatically.

Just try it.

Even if you insert nothing but right angles by constantly holding the
SHIFT key down, you will be able to generate any complex/complicated
ground plan for a building with as many projections, oriels, and courtyards
as you like.

ground plan for a building


with multiple edges

3D-View
(menu Options)

Having inserted the building, switch to the edit mode and doubleclick on the edge of the building. The Buildings edit dialog opens.

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Building

4.14.5 3

The building edit dialog

Behind the button Geometry you will find the coordinates of your building. Here you may also enter the building height.

Click the Geometry button and enter the building Height e.g.
11,50 m. After you have entered all parameters of your first building,
close the dialog by clicking OK. The building should still be selected.

In CadnaA you can build houses and define them as sources by


drawing the plan ground, entering a building height and, in closing,
you just assign emission levels for the facades, caused by indoor levels with the possibility to assign a sound reduction loss. This is a particularly helpful tool for trade enterprises and industrial plants.
For more information see online help, keyword: Generate Building or
in manual chapter 9.3.4 "Generate a Building".
Moreover you have another object - the Cylinder. With this object
you can create tanks, cauldrons and other cylindrical buildings. You
just enter their radius and height. They also have a shielding and
reflecting effect.
For more information see online help, keyword: Cylinder or manual
chapter 9.4 "The Cylinder".

Manual

4.14.5

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Insert a Building

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Duplicate Objects

4.14.6 1

4.14.6 Duplicate Objects


Next you generate from one building a whole housing estate.

Open the file L04.cna.

Mark the building by clicking it in the Edit mode.

Point with the mouse pointer on the border of the building and press
the RIGHT mouse button. Again, the context menu appears. Now
select Duplicate.

The Building context menu

A dialog box opens where you may define the number of objects in the
vertical and horizontal direction and the spacings between them.

Manual

 L04.cna
4

4.14.6

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Duplicate Objects

)
 L05.cna

Enter the parameter from the above dialog box and confirm with OK.

The selected object has been multiplied according to the numbers you entered. The parameters you entered for the first building - e.g. building
height 11,50 m - also apply to the other buildings. You are now able to
quickly realise your urban development ideas.
Just select any buildings and move or delete them (using the DEL key) as
you please.

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Duplicate Objects

4.14.6 3

Instead of duplicating objects you can copy them separately. For this
you will find more information in the online help, keyword: Copy
Objects.

Delete a selected object by pressing the DEL key or selecting the Delete
option on the context menu.
In CadnaA you have the command Undo. With this feature you may undo
what has been deleted up to 32 times.

Manual

4.14.6

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Duplicate Objects

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Import Objects

4.14.7 1

4.14.7 Import Objects


Maybe you have noticed that the receiver point is missing in the file
L04.cna. After duplicating the buildings, we have saved this project in file
L05.cna. We now use this one for the following example. Please open the
file and proceed analogously if necessary.
Among other formats you can also import complete CadnaA files or only
parts of it or just one specific object type.
Now you will import only the receiver point from the file L03.cna into the
file L05.cna. Therefore

open the file L05.cna and the menu File|Import.

Choose the format type CadnaA and afterwards the filename


L03.cna and finally click on the Optionen button.

Activate the option as shown in the above figure and confirm with
OK. The reciever point will then be imported.

Manual

 L05.cna

4.14.7

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Import Objects

If you like, try the other formats as well. Use the example files for that.
The option dialog for the import changes depending on the file format you
choose.

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Edit Objects

4.14.8 1

4.14.8 Edit Objects


To stretch or squeeze an object, or to scale it, the Edit mode must be activated. Depending on the object in question the edit mode will be activated
as Polygon Point Mode (for line sources, area sources, barriers, buildings)
or as Stretching Mode (level boxes and text boxes).
If the polygon mode is activated, switch to the stretching mode using the
TAB key and select the object by clicking its edge. Then position the
mouse pointer on one of the small black markers on the lines or corners
around the selected object, press down and hold the mouse button.

The mouse pointer turns into a two-headed arrow. The entire object is
stretched or squeezed by moving the mouse in the desired direction. The
object size can be chosen arbitrarily.
Dragging a corner marker will scale the object (i. e. both dimensions are
multiplied by the same factor).
If you wish to modify the size of an object in discrete steps and/or symmetrically, depress and hold the SHIFT key (symmetrical change) while dragging the marker, or the CTRL key (change in discrete steps) or both of
these keys (symmetrical change in discrete steps).
In the polygon point mode, the object may be resized by moving any of the
polygon points.
Just try it:

Mark a building by clicking and watch the edges. Press the TAB-key.
Keep pressing the mouse button and pull a marker. Press again the
TAB-key and pull once more a marker.

Manual

Edit mode

4.14.8

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Edit Objects

By the way - in the menu Options|Appearance you may change


colors, line widths and type and filling of the objects. Also the
appearance of deactivated objects may be decided.

For more information see online help Change dimensions or manual Kapitel 5.4 "Editing graphic Objects"
4

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Grid Calculation

4.14.9 1

4.14.9 Grid Calculation


To get a representation of a colored noise map with line or areas of equal
sound level you have to calculate a grid of receiver points.
Under the menu item Options|Limits, you may enter the x- and y-coordinates for the area to be represented graphically.

Limits dialog

When the grid calculation is started, CadnaA calculates the levels for each
receiver point in the relevant limits unless a calculation area was defined.
Thus, a calculation area is always smaller than the limits.

Please watch the x- and y-co-ordinates in the dialog Limits and click
on the button Calc. After starting this command, the Limits is changed so that all objects are within this area.

If you have started a calculation and some objects are outsite of the
limits CadnaA warns you and gives you the possibility to alter it.

To avoid calculation for a limits of 1 km with the 2.600 receiver points of


the default setting we restrict the grid calculation to the area where you
have inserted your objects.

Manual

4.14.9
 L06.cna
Calculation area

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Grid Calculation

Open the file L06.cna.

Click on the Calculation Area icon. Then, in the usual Cadna way,
click the first corner of your calculation area and pull a borderline
around the area to be calculated by clicking each corner. The last corner need not be clicked, but you close this polygon by pressing the
Right mouse button.

CadnaA carries out a calculation for each receiver point within this area,
and displays the results either by lines or by areas of equal sound level.
The calculation area encloses the receiver points. Sound sources are taken
into account even if they lie outside the calculation area.

You may also define several calculation areas and have them calculated simultaneously. You even can exclude areas inside calculation
areas from the calculation. This is maybe useful if on the factory site

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Grid Calculation

4.14.9 3

itself the sound levels do not interest you but the vicinity to the
neighborhood. That saves calculation time.

Choose Grid|Properties.
Here you may define the size and the height of the receiver grid.
4

Dialog Receiver Grid

The finer the grid, the more receiver points are defined, and the more time
is needed for the calculation.

A bisection of the receiver point spacing quadrupled the calculation


time.

Check how fast your computer is by first having it calculate the 20-m grid
in the default setting. Then you may calculate with a denser grid.

Close the dialog box by clicking OK, and trigger the calculation by
clicking the menu Grid|Calc grid.

Manual

4.14.9

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Grid Calculation

In menu Option|Misellaneous you may define if you want to see the


progress of calculation by clicking the corresponding option.

The calculation may be aborted at any time by pressing the Stop button.
If you interruped the calculation in CadnaA you may continue at that
break point by pressing the SHIFT-key while you start the calculation
again.

On completion of the calculation, the graphic representation appears, showing either lines or areas of equal sound level, depending on the settings

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Grid Calculation

4.14.9 5

you chose. As you move the mouse pointer across the calculated area, the
respective levels are displayed on the right side of the status bar.
You can select the settings for the layout of the noise map in the menu
Grid|Appearance.
4

Dialog Grid Appearence

Just try out some settings: Switch from Lines of equal sound level to
Areas of equal sound level by selecting the relevant option. Change
the Class Width (dB) from 1 to 5 for Areas of equal sound level,
select Progressive Colours, etc.

In CadnaA you can integrate the color-level-scale like a legend in the


graphic representation on the screen and for your prints.
The option Width of all ... allows you to provide the lines of equal
sound level with different line widths. You could have, e.g. all lines
of x5 dB (like 85 dB), or simply all lines, printed thicker. Change the
colours of the level classes by clicking the Colour button and
modifying the colours in the window which then opens, or by
modifying the level classes themselves (they can be edited).

Manual

4.14.9

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Grid Calculation

Any change made on the Grid Appearance dialog will not become
effective until the dialog has been closed again.

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


dB-Level and Text Boxes

4.14.10 1

4.14.10 dB-Level and Text Boxes


At any time you may also display the sound level at a certain point by inserting a Level-Box. That could be useful if you have defined lines of
equal sound levels for your presentation. But of course before you can indicate sound levels you must have calculated a receiver grid. If you have
not yet done that, open the file L06.cna again, if necessary, and calculate a
grid as described in the above chapter.

 L06.cna

In menu Grid|Appearance activate the option lines of equal sound


levels. Confirm with OK.

Now, in the toolbox click on the Level-Box icon and then on the
desired point in your graphics - CadnaA indicates the sound level
value on this point in a box.

Level-Box

Before you go on inserting more Level-Boxes switch to the Edit


mode, click on the Level-Box contour and adopt the size and the layout of it by pulling on the black marker with the mouse. Try also pulling while pressing the SHIFT key.
Make a double-click on the border of the Level-Box - the edit dialog
opens - and change the font or the size of it, or just try some options.

Edit mode

CadnaA transfers the parameter of the last inserted object to the next
inserted one of the same type. So you should modify the objects after
inserting the first one and then insert all others - that saves a lot of
time.

Manual

4.14.10

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


dB-Level and Text Boxes

Dialog Level box


Text Box

The same applies to the text box but you have to enter the text on your
own. Try for yourself.

However, you have to draw the text box first. Therefore you have
to click on that place where you want to have the upper left-hand corner of the text box, press the mouse button while you pull the mouse
to the lower right-hand corner and let the mouse button go.

Change to the edit mode and double-click the edge of the Text Box.
The edit Text Box dialog opens. Now you may enter your text. If
done, confirm by clicking OK.

All other inserted Text Boxes get the same outlook and size if you
just make one click - do not draw - on the desired position.

In CadnaA you may choose additional options for Level, Text and Symbol Boxes as follows:

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


dB-Level and Text Boxes

Angle () -Inserting a value in d e g r e e s causes the box/frame to be


rotated accordingly about its centre with respect to the x-axis. You may
enter positive and negative values.
You may select the font and size for the labeling of objects.
Box with or without a frame - if the Frame option is activated, the rectangle will be framed and, at the same time, its area hides any objects
that may be lying underneath. If this option is deactivated, the rectangle has no frame and is transparent. Any object underneath shows
through.
Scale Dimensions - the dimensions of the box, the fonts or the symbol
will be scaled with the rest of the graphic representation on the screen.
Up to 33.000 characters may be entered in a Text Box.

Manual

4.14.10 3
Symbol

4.14.10

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


dB-Level and Text Boxes

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Generate Floors

4.14.11 1

4.14.11 Generate Floors


If you want to look at the receiver points more particular you may calculatate them in addition to the receiver grid.

Open the file L06.cna.

Now you may determine the noise level on several floors of a building.
Therefore you have to place receiver points at the building facade - we assume a building height of 11,5 m.

Click on the function Options|Object Snap and enter a Snap


Radius of 8 pixel.

With that you ensure that receiver points or sources at building facades are not inadvertently placed inside the buildings.

Point sources, vertical area sources and receiver points which are
positioned closer to a facade of a building than the specified snap
radius will be assigned to this facade and will be placed in front of it
at a distance defined in the edit box Distance Points Facade.
With that function other objects like roads or railways etc. can also be
seamlessly joined.

Manual

 L06.cna

4.14.11

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Generate Floors

For more information see online help, keyword: Object Snap or


manual chapter 13.5 "Object Snap".

To close the dialog confirm with OK and activate the icon receiver
point from the toolbox. Position a receiver point on a building facade
by clicking.

Change in the Edit mode and double-click the contour of the receiver
point - the edit dialog opens.

Open the Geometry dialog by clicking on the same-named button


and enter a relative height of 2,20 m.

To close the dialog confirm with OK again and enter a name for the
receiver point in the box Name, e.g. Im1 and a Standard Level of 50
dB for day-time and 40 dB for the night-time. Close the dialog by clicking OK.

Dialog Receiver Point

Now generate the floors.

Therefore click with the RIGHT instead of with the LEFT mouse button on the existing receiver point Im1. The context menu opens

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Generate Floors

4.14.11 3

again. Choose the option Generate Floors.

Enter the values shown in the dialog box Generate Floors.

Generate Floors dialog from the context menu

When the dialog box is left by clicking OK, CadnaA automatically


generates three further floors, starting from the first receiver point,
with a spacing of 2,80 m each. It also appends the respective floor
number to the existing receiver point name, and enters the relevant
height.

You may check this by selecting the receiver points table on the
Tables menu or just by clicking the key: i.

Close the table and select the 3D-View on the Options menu. It
allows you to have receiver points represented graphically according

Manual

 L07.cna

4.14.11

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Generate Floors

to floors. When selecting this option, the horizontal projection is the


default setting.

)
4

On the list box of the 3-D View dialog, select Isometric, and blow up
the relevant detail using the magnifier tool. Also try out other types
of representation.
You may also copy this representation to the clipboard and paste it in
another Windows application.

The views Isometric, Cavalier and Cabinet are projections at preset angles - just check them out.
Under the general Parallel Projection you may specify arbitrary
angles under which you can look at the model. In this view you are
able to turn your project by means of the arrow keys on the numeric
keyboard. With the keys 9 and 3 you can modify angle Theta, the
keys 4 and 6 will modify angle Phi.
In 3D-view you can also reach the edit dialog by double-clicking on
the relevant object. To do this you have to be in the edit mode (click
on arrow icon).

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Generate Floors

Also try the 3D-special view again from the context menu of the
road. (If necessary see chapter 13.14)

Should the receiver points be too big either in the normal presentation or in one of the 3D views, you may change that.
Select Options|Appearance|receiver point and change the Symbol
Size from (mm) to (m). The symbol size is then adapted to the scale.
For more information see online help, keyword: Options Appearance.

If you have generated the floors, execute a new calculation. Therefore

if necessary, close all dialogs and click on the Calculator icon in the
icon bar.

Again, the noise levels calculated for each floor are listed on the menu Tables|Receiver points.

The menu Tables|Partial Level shows a total list of all partial levels
at the receiver points of all sources. (In this example it is only a road).

Table of Partial Level from the menu Table

But of course you may also create user-defined result tables. For that see
chapter 15.3.

Manual

4.14.11 5

4.14.11

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Generate Floors

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Copy to the clipboard

4.14.12 1

4.14.12 Copy to the clipboard


All lists available on the Tables menu may be copied to the Windows clipboard by clicking the Copy button. They may also be used in a different
Windows application (such as WORD, EXCEL etc.) e.g. for the preparation of reports. (Direct printout from CadnaA is not implemented in the
demo version.)

In CadnaA you may also duplicate just a single data record from the
table.

But copying to the clipboard by just one click and pasting in another Windows application is also possible forSection

the entire limits of the graphics (make sure no object is selcted),

a section of the graphics - use the Section icon on the toolbox to draw
a box, switch to the edit mode and select the box - or
an individual object: Just select the desired object.

Manual

4.14.12

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Copy to the clipboard

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Summary

4.14.13 1

4.14.13 Summary
Now you know how CadnaA works. You may apply it to all other objects:
1.

Click on the desired icon in the toolbox.

2.

Place the object accordingly on the screen using the LEFT mouse button.

3.

The RIGHT mouse button finished the input.

4.

You may also now click once with the Right mouse key or, as an
alternative, switch into the Edit mode and double-click the object.
In both cases the edit dialog opens but in the first case you remain in
the insertion mode and after closing the edit dialog you may insert
further objects of the same type without clicking the object icon
again.

Our little introduction for CadnaA is nearly finished. It would be good if


you could just play a little bit with the other sources and object types from
the toolbox, like point source, line source, area source, parking places and
contour lines.

On the status line appears the name of the icon if you keep pressing
the LEFT mouse button while you point at the icon.

In CadnaA you may calculate either with A-weighted-levels or in


frequency bands. Even a mixture is possible - if only for a few
sources the emission is a known frequency, the contribution to the
immission level will be defined in frequency bands.

Also try out the options on the context menu for the various inserted object
types.
1.

For this purpose, in the Edit Mode use the RIGHT mouse button
instead of the LEFT one to select the existing object.

2.

Choose then by clicking with the LEFT mouse button the desired
option.

Manual

4.14.13

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Summary

Further information for the single features you will find in the online help
under their items or in the manual.

Manual

4.15 1

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Create Groups

4.15

Create Groups

In the menu Tables|Groups you may find an extremely versatile and powerful tool. A named group is a desired choice of objects. Their membership is defined by characters contained in their ID-box in the edit dialog
box.
4

With this feature you may carry out varying actions of these groups, e.g.:

deleting groups of objects


converting to another object like line sources in roads or railways or
the other way round
coordinate transformations
activate or deactivate objects for calculation
representations of results etc.

The earlier mentioned Partial Levels e.g. - you may also define them for
groups of sound sources called Partial Sum Levels.

Open the file L07.cna again and deactivate the grid appearance
(Grid|Appearance|No Grid) if necessary.

Insert some extra sources - e.g. another Road and two Point
Sources.

Change into the Edit Mode and open the corresponding edit dialog by
double-click on the object.

Enter at least a Name for the object and a Sound Power Level

Enter q for the Point Source in the box ID.

In CadnaA you may easily enter and change text boxes by editing
them in the object tables. With the command Change Column you
may change several columns for different objects with a single command simultaneously.

Manual

 L07.cna

4.15
 L08.cna

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Create Groups

The source Road already has characters in the ID-box D_1. You will find
a complete example in file L08.cna.
If you are finished with the editing,

Calculator

start calculation again with the icon Calculator on the icon bar.

choose Tables|Group on the menu.


The Group list opens containing only the heading of the group list,
showing the column with the names of receiver points. It isnt a defined group yet.

Now insert a group.

Just click on the INS-key to insert new rows, for each group one row.

Double-click the new row. The Group edit dialog opens.

Enter in the box Name industry and in Expression q*.


The group is now defined. All objects containing q as the first character in the box ID are members of this group. The star (*) is a joker for
further characters.

In the dialog Group click on the button Part.Level. You get a list
with each source belonging to the group Industry with their partial
levels caused on each receiver point during day- and night-time.

Manual

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Create Groups

4.15 3

Close this list and also the dialog Group by clicking OK.

Now you get the list of Partial Sum levels. Those are the combined levels
caused by the group Industry at each receiver point.

Create another group for roads. If you followed this example the characters D_1 or D* should be entered in the box Expression.

With this list you may determine the priority for noise protection measures. For more information see online help keyword Groups
If you click the botton Copy you may insert this list for your report in your
word processing system by clicking the corresponding command, e.g.,
CTRL+V.

Manual

4.15

Chapter 4.14 Quick start


Create Groups

Also test again the 3D-special view - remember:

 In Edit mode - with RIGHT mouse, click e.g. on the road axis
and choose the function from the context menu.

If the groups have already offered an extremly flexible logic to switch between different project versions, the inclusion of this group structure in the
management of integrated variants (Tables|Variant) results to increased
efficiency.
For more information see online help, keyword: Variant or manual chapter 18.3 "Variants".
With it our exercises are finished and we hope we could ease your lead-in.
The training to operate CadnaA is minimal and you managed it already.
Although CadnaA is intended to be an easy-to-use program it nevertheless
is a precise and professional tool for noise abatement.
Whether you only need to give a brief acoustical expert opinion now and
then, or intend to check the noise propagation caused by your plant, or to
prepare colored noise maps for entire cities - you are already familiar with
many of the necessary steps of operation.

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 5 Basics
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 5 Basics

Manual

Chapter 5 Basics
Contents

5.1 1

Chapter 5 Basics

5.1 Contents
5.2

Files

5.3

Insert Objects

5.3.1

Inserting Objects Using the Mouse

5.4

Editing graphic Objects

5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.4.5
5.4.6
5.4.7

Polygon Point Mode


Streching Mode
Change Dimensions
Moving Objects
Copying Objects
Inserting from the Clipboard
Deleting Objects

5.5

Editing Objects

5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4

Edit Object Dialog


Inserting Objects from the Keyboard
The Dialog Boxes Name, ID, INFO
Decimals in Edit Boxes

5.6

Search for Objects

Manual

5.1

Chapter 5 Basics
Contents

5.7

Context Menu

5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
5.7.6
5.7.7
5.7.8
5.7.9
5.7.10
5.7.11
5.7.12
5.7.13
5.7.14
5.7.15
5.7.16
5.7.17
5.7.1
5.7.2

Duplicating Objects
Modify Objects
Generate Station
Generate Label
Force Rectangle
Force Right Angles
Breake Lines
Connect Lines
Break Areas
Specify Length
Simplify Geometry
Spline
Parallel Object
Convert to
Break into pieces
Activation
Modify Attribute
Swap Name/ID
Delete Duplicates

Manual

5.2 1

Chapter 5 Basics
Files

5.2

Files

In CadnaA all files have the extension CNA, which need not be entered
when saving a file, but is appended to the file name automatically. The import feature (see there) allows you to also insert your own Cadna-CNA
files.
Activating the New command on the File menu opens a new, "blank" file
where you can enter objects. If a file has already been opened and edited,
but the modifications have not yet been saved, a safety check dialog appears which allows you to save the active file.

File|New

5.2

Save

5.2

Save As

5.2

Exit

5.2

see also chapter 18.8 Prototype File

When this command on the FILE menu is clicked, the currently active file
is saved (including any modifications) under its existing name. If the file
in question is new and has not been saved before, the "Save As" dialog
opens.
With the File|Save As command, the file in process can be assigned a
name and then be saved under that name. If the new file name already exists, a safety check dialog appears allowing you to cancel the Save procedure.
Clicking Yes will overwrite the existing file. Clicking No cancels the Save
procedure in which case the active file must be saved under a different
name that does not yet exist.
Select the FILE|Exit command to exit CadnaA. If the active file has been
edited but not yet been saved, a dialog appears allowing you to save this
file prior to exiting the program.

Manual

5.2
Lock Files

Chapter 5 Basics
Files

5.2

An opened file in CadnaA can be locked. In this case you cannot saving it
with the same name. To do this you just have to select Lock in the menu
File.
Each time you intend to save this file with the same name, a dialog with
refering to the locking of the file will open. In this case you can reverse the
lock by clicking Yes, or cancel by clicking No. A locked file can only be
saved with a different name.

If you have activated Auto-Save in the menu File|Auto-Save the dialog


would open if you have entered the name of the locked file as an autosave-file. Enter a different file name to auto-save your file, if necessary.

Manual

5.3 1

Chapter 5 Basics
Insert Objects

5.3

Insert Objects

All graphical elements available on the CADNA A main window are called
objects. They can be inserted in different ways:

using the mouse (see Chapter 5.3.1)


from the keyboard (see Chapter 5.5.2
via tables (see Chapter 15.2)
by digitizing (see Chapter 7.2)
by importing (see Chapter 6.2) and
single objects also via the Windows clipboard (see Chapter 5.4.6).

When inserting objects, you can always use mouse, keyboard, and digitizer (if configured) simultaneously. You do not need to switch between those
modi.
To position an object, first activate the desired object icon on the toolbox
either by clicking it with the mouse or by pressing the respective hotkey
(see Chapter 4.8). Under the insertion mode, the icon just clicked then
sticks to the mouse cursor.

Now you can insert the object selected in the CadnaA main window either
by pressing the mouse button and/or pulling the mouse or via keyboard
when entering the coordinates. At the same time, this will generate a data
record on the pertinent object table (Tables menu).
An insertion procedure is terminated by either

pressing the RIGHT mouse button, or


pressing RETURN, or
changing to a different object type by clicking the respective icon on
the toolbox or by pressing the pertinent hotkey, or
changing to the Edit mode by clicking the respective icon or pressing
CTRL+E.

Manual

Terminate
Insertion

5.3

5.3

Chapter 5 Basics
Insert Objects

Manual

5.3.1 1

Chapter 5.3 Insert Objects


Inserting Objects Using the Mouse

5.3.1

Inserting Objects Using the Mouse

There are 4 different ways of positioning or inserting objects using the


mouse, depending on which object or toolbox icon was selected. (see
Chapter 4.8).
(e. g. point source, receiver point, level box)
Position the object at the desired location on the CadnaA main window by
clicking with the left mouse button. Each click will insert one object in the
window, and generate the pertinent data record on the respective object table.
(e. g. line sources, roads, railways, barriers, buildings, areas)
To insert lines or polygon lines and polygons, activate the respective icon,
then point to the desired starting point of the line or the desired first corner
of the polygon, and click. By this click, the first polygon point has been inserted. The mouse pointer now pulls a "rubber band" line from that point
to any location the mouse is moved to. Pressing the mouse button again
defines the second polygon point. Press the left mouse button at every
point where the polygon line changes its direction. Each of these clicks
will insert a further polygon point which can be edited or deleted afterwards.

Positioning Method 1:
Insertion of Points 5.3.1

Positioning Method 2:
Polygons and Lines 5.3.1

As soon as the line or the polygon has the desired length or dimensions,
terminate the insertion procedure. In the case of polygons, the last point inserted is then connected to the starting point to give a closed polygon line.
Open or closed polygons may have arbitrary shapes. If you want to force a
right angle press the SHIFT key while moving the mouse. In this case you
can only move rectangularly after a click.

If you want to produce a closed rectangular polygon with a mouse


you should always start with the longer side and press the SHIFT key
during input.

Manual

Right Angle

5.3.1

Chapter 5.3 Insert Objects


Inserting Objects Using the Mouse

With SHIFT key pressed down enter the first, second , third and if necessary further points in the usual manner by clicking the position
with the mouse cursor.
However do not click the last point on the final edge-point but on the
already entered first point. Therefore is the last point entered on the
right position and you may close the open polygon by clicking with
the RIGHT mouse button.
5

To produce rectangular layouts afterwards see chapter 5.7.5 Force Rectangle and chapter 5.7.6 Force Right Angles.
Positioning Method 3:
Text Boxe
and Zoom +
5.3.1

After activation of the respective icon, move the mouse pointer to that location where one corner of the box or rectangle is to be positioned. Press
the left mouse button and hold it depressed while moving the mouse in the
direction of the desired opposite corner. Release the mouse button when
the desired location has been reached.

Positioning Method 4:
Cylinder

The cylinder is defined by clicking two points. The first point defines the
radius centre, the second the radius length.

Manual

5.4 1

Chapter 5 Basics
Editing graphic Objects

5.4

Editing graphic Objects

In the edit mode, you modify existing objects in the graphic representation
by editing their characteristic parameters, thus defining their properties,
positions, and shapes.
To this end, click the Edit Mode icon on the toolbox, or press CTRL+E.
Then select the object by clicking it with the mouse. The object is then
marked. All further commands will apply to the selected object only.

In the menu Options|Miscellaneous you may choose the size of the


marker displayed by a marked object by selecting the pertinent value.

For all line-like objects entered as a series of points and objects limited by
lines, such as area sources, line sources, buildings, and barriers, you can
choose between two different edit modes: stretching mode (see Chapter
5.4.2) and polygon point mode (see Chapter 5.4.1). Clicking the Edit
Mode icon automatically activates the polygon point mode. Press the TAB
key to switch between the two modes under the edit mode.
To select an object, click its border, or, in the case of roads and railways,
its centreline, using the LEFT or RIGHT mouse button. Clicking with the
RIGHT mouse button at the same time opens a context menu offering you
further commands applicable to this object (see Chapter 5.7).
Double-clicking with the LEFT mouse button opens the pertinent object
dialog (see Chapter 5.5.1).

Manual

Selecting
an object

5.4

5.4

Chapter 5 Basics
Editing graphic Objects

Manual

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Polygon Point Mode

5.4.1

5.4.1 1

Polygon Point Mode

5
selected polygon line

selected polygon

In the insertion mode (see Chapter 5.3) each click with the mouse defines a
polygon point.
In the polygon point mode, these polygon points bear markers. You can
move, insert, delete, or allocate a height to individual polygon points.
To move a polygon point, click it, and, with the mouse button held down
(the mouse pointer turns into a black arrow), drag it to the desired location.

Manual

Moving a
Polygon Point

5.4.1

5.4.1
Adding or Deleting a
Polygon Point
5.4.1

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Polygon Point Mode

To add a polygon point, select the object as described above. Now, if you
press CTRL, the mouse pointer turns into a black arrow carrying along a
box with a plus sign in it. If you click the border of the object using this arrow, a new polygon point will be added.

To delete a polygon point, press both CTRL and SHIFT at the same time.
Again, a black arrow appears, this time carrying along a box with a minus
sign. Any polygon point now clicked will be deleted.

Manual

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Polygon Point Mode

5.4.1 3

Manual

5.4.1

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Polygon Point Mode

Manual

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Streching Mode

5.4.2

5.4.2 1

Streching Mode

Selected polygon under the stretching mode. The object is


marked by an invisible rectangle. By dragging the markers of this rectangle with the mouse button held down, the
size of the object as a whole is modified.

The stretching mode (accessed via the TAB key) does not allow you to insert, delete, or move polygon points, but you can modify the size of the entire object by stretching or squeezing it (see Change Dimensions further
below in this chapter).

Manual

5.4.2

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Streching Mode

Manual

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Change Dimensions

5.4.3

5.4.3 1

Change Dimensions

If the polygon point mode (see above) is activated, switch to the stretching
mode by pressing TAB, and select the object by clicking its border.

Click one of the markers, and hold the mouse button


down in order to enlarge or reduce the object.

Then position the mouse pointer on one of the black markers at the sides or
corners of the rectangle around the selected object, and hold the mouse
button down. The mouse pointer turns into a two-headed arrow. Now you
can enlarge or reduce the entire object by moving the mouse in the appropriate direction.
Dragging the corner markers enlarges or reduces the object while maintaining its proportions.
You can also adapt the size of an object by pressing SHIFT and/or CTRL.
SHIFT
CTRL
SHIFT+CTRL

Manual

symmetrical change of dimensions


change of dimensions in discrete steps
symmetrical change of dimensions in discrete steps

5.4.3

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Change Dimensions

Manual

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Moving Objects

5.4.4

5.4.4 1

Moving Objects

To move a selected object, position the mouse pointer on the border, not on
a polygon point, of the object, or, in the case of roads and railways, on the
centreline. Then hold down the mouse button and move the object to the
desired location. The object is moved, and the co-ordinates are updated in
the pertinent object list.
To move an object horizontally or vertically along the x or y axes, press
SHIFT while you move it.

Manual

5.4.4

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Moving Objects

Manual

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Copying Objects

5.4.5

5.4.5 1

Copying Objects

In CadnaA, you can copy objects within the graphics and into the Windows clipboard. Copying within the graphics refers to a selected object,
whereas to the clipboard, you may not only copy individual objects, but
also the entire graphics or limits, or Section thereof, all at once.
Select the object to be copied. Then hold the mouse button down while
moving the object to the location where you wish to position the copy. Before releasing the mouse button, press CTRL. This generates a copy of the
selected object at the desired location.

At the same time, a further data record, with the transformed coordinates,
but otherwise unchanged data of the copied object, is inserted in the pertinent object list.
To generate a copy of an object and at the same time rotate it by 90 about
the vertical or horizontal axis, press and hold the CTRL+SHIFT keys during copying. This generates an object of the same size and parameters as
the existing object, with its centre at the same x or y coordinate as the copied object.

Manual

Copying within
the Graphics

5.4.5

5.4.5

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Copying Objects

To copy objects to the clipboard, you can either


Copying to the
Clipboard

5.4.5

click the pertinent icon on the icon bar, or


select the Edit|Copy command, or
press CTRL+C.

If objects have been copied to the Windows clipboard, you can paste them
in a different Windows application for further editing by selecting the Edit|Paste command, or, alternatively, by pressing CTRL+V.

Select the desired object and execute one of the Copy commands.

Copying a
single Object

5.4.5

Copying
Sections

5.4.5

Use the Section icon (rectangle with broken lines) on the toolbox to define
a Section.
To this end, position the mouse pointer on the upper-left corner of the desired Section. Then, with the mouse button held down, drag the mouse to
the lower-right corner of the desired Section where you release the mouse
button. The area is marked by a rectangle.
Now switch to the Edit mode, select the rectangle and press, e. g.,
CTRL+C. The selected Section is thus copied to tSectionhe clipboard.
The rectangle marking the Section is neither copied nor printed, but only
the objects lying within the Section.

Copying Limits

5.4.5

To copy the entire graphics with the defined limits, execute one of the
Copy commands. During this procedure, none of the objects must be selected.

Manual

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Inserting from the Clipboard

5.4.6

5.4.6 1

Inserting from the Clipboard

You may insert the contents of the Windows clipboard with Ctrl+V or with
the function from the menu Edit|Paste into the CadnaA graphics provided
it is a meta file.
The inserted clipboard contents will then be a Symbol object in CadnaA
(see Chapter 13.11.3) and also gets therefore its object options.
With it you are able to insert directly in your CadnaA graphics cross-section figures, 3D-special views or CadnaA tables quickly and easyly.
The inserted meta file from the clipboard may not be bigger then 1024 pixel. If that were so a frame with a cross inside appears. In that case you have
to use the CadnaA option BMP (see Chapter 14.2).

Manual

5.4.6

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Inserting from the Clipboard

Manual

5.4.7 1

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Deleting Objects

5.4.7

Deleting Objects

Press DEL to delete a selected object. The object will thus be deleted from
the CADNA A main window and also from the object table. If another object of the same type exists, this will be automatically selected after deletion of the previous one so that you could delete this one as well by
pressing the DEL key once again.
5

This method is particularly convenient for the deletion of a small number


of objects. The Delete command from the context menu (see Chapter 5.7)
has the same effect. Using this command also deletes the selected object
only.
If you wish to delete a large number of and/or different objects at once,
you can follow another convenient and quick procedure: the context menu
command Modify Objects Action Delete. (see Chapter 5.7.2)
The Edit|Undo command or the hotkey CTRL+Z allows you to retrieve the
last 32 objects deleted. Just click the Undo (CTRL+Z) command as many
times as needed until the desired deleted object re-appears on your screen.
If you wish to retrieve a data record that was deleted from a row of a table,
first close the table before using the Undo command.

Objects that were deleted via the context menu using the command
Modify Objects|Action Delete, cannot be retrieved using the Undo
command.

Manual

Undo

5.4.7

5.4.7

Chapter 5.4 Editing graphic Objects


Deleting Objects

Manual

Chapter 5 Basics
Editing Objects

5.5

Editing Objects

If an object is inserted graphically with its coordinates you must still enter
the necessary object data like, e.g., number of cars per day or hour on a
road, the speed, road surface or just the sound emission value for the
acoustical calculation. This is usualy done in the edit-dialog via the keyboard. But of cause you may also import this data from an external database via the ODBC interface (see Chapter 6.5).
To this end, to edit or to delete a object, first switch to the Edit Mode by
either clicking the pertinent icon or pressing the hotkey CTRL+E. Then in
the graphic representation, you can choose among three different methods
to open the edit dialog:
1.

Insertion Mode (see Chapter 5.3):

)
2.

5.5 1

with the RIGHT mouse button click once on the object either on
the border (e.g. area source, buildings etc.) or on the centreline
(e.g. of a road, railway etc.)

Edit Mode (STRG+E):

Double-click the borderline of the desired object (or the centreline, if the object is a road or railway), or

position the mouse pointer on the border of the object in question. Clicking with the RIGHT mouse button opens a context
menu. Use the LEFT mouse button to click Edit.

If an object has been selected, press RETURN

Editing Data Records in Tables see Chapter 15.2.3

Manual

5.5

Chapter 5 Basics
Editing Objects

Manual

Chapter 5.5 Editing Objects


Edit Object Dialog

5.5.1

5.5.1 1

Edit Object Dialog

An edit dialog of an object serves to enter all parameters characterising an


object.

Example of an Object Dialog

The desired values are entered in the boxes either from the keyboard or automatically by selecting the relevant options.
Depending on the object type selected, different boxes and options are
available. The individual boxes are accessed by pressing the TAB key or by
clicking.
Some boxes are equation boxes in which the equation will be calculated
promptly and the result displayed in the box Result.PWL for Day | Evening | Night.

Manual

5.5.1

Chapter 5.5 Editing Objects


Edit Object Dialog

Manual

5.5.2 1

Chapter 5.3 Insert Objects


Inserting Objects via Keyboard

5.5.2

Inserting Objects via Keyboard

First activate the desired object icon on the toolbox. You can now enter the
desired coordinates from the keyboard. As you enter the first number, the
dialog Input of Point opens.

Orthogonal Cartesian coordinates may be entered as x-and-y pairs, and polar coordinates as a pair of radius and angle. In the first case, which is the
default setting, the check box Polar is deactivated, in the latter it is activated.
The coordinates are entered either as absolute coordinates with respect to
the origin x/y = 0/0 (this being the default setting), or as relative coordinates with respect to the last point. In the first case, the check box is deactivated, in the latter it is activated.
When entering several points in a series, you can arbitrarily switch between the insertion modes using the mouse button, keyboard, and digitizer
on the one hand, and between orthogonal and polar, or absolute and relative coordinates on the other hand. The result of an entry can be seen upto-date at any time in the graphic representation.
Insertion of a building of 30 m x 10 m, where the left corner of the 30-m
facade is positioned at a specific location in the map and the front is inclined towards the x-axis by an angle of 40.

Manual

Example

5.5.2

Chapter 5.3 Insert Objects


Inserting Objects via Keyboard

Procedure:

Activate the Building icon by clicking the same on the toolbox or by


pressing the hotkey CTRL+h

Click the desired position of the building corner to be positioned


(using the mouse pointer in the graphical representation of the map
on the screen, or the digitizer magnifier on the paper map)

Enter the value 40, press TAB, enter the value 30, activate the check
boxes Relative and Polar, and confirm by pressing RETURN (the first
side of the building is drawn)

Enter the values 90 and 10 with the same settings and confirm (the
second side of the building is drawn)

Manual

Chapter 5.3 Insert Objects


Inserting Objects via Keyboard

5.5.2 3

Enter the values 90 and 30 (third side of the building) and press
RIGHT mouse button (the rectangle is closed)

Manual

5.5.2

Chapter 5.3 Insert Objects


Inserting Objects via Keyboard

Manual

5.5.3 1

Chapter 5.5 Editing Objects


The Dialog Boxes Name, ID, INFO

5.5.3

The Dialog Boxes Name, ID, INFO

The boxes Name, ID, and the Info button are described below since they
appear on almost every edit dialog of an object. The other features will be
dealt with in the relevant chapters.
The Name box contains an object name which appears in the first column
of the object table. It may comprise several thousand characters. However,
since the column width is adapted to accommodate the longest character
string among the names, it is recommended you use short terms. One of
the possibilities for finding an object is to search for its name (see Chapter
5.6).

Name

5.5.3

A character string of up to 15 characters entered in the ID box allows you


to group, identify, sort, activate or deactivate for a calculation or search for
objects according to different criteria.

ID

5.5.3

Objects belonging to groups (see Chapter 18.2) can be activated and deactivated via these groups. Activated objects will be considered in the calculation. Deactivated objects will not be taken into account. The latter will
appear with dashed lines in the graphical representation (default setting).
(De)activation, ID, and grouping are powerful tools for the controlling of
projects and the handling of various project alternatives while using the
same data stock.
For each defined group you can present the proportionate sound pressure
level on the receiver points as partial sum level.
The check box next to ID allows you to specify 3 different activation
states for an object by clicking:

Manual

5.5.3

Chapter 5.5 Editing Objects


The Dialog Boxes Name, ID, INFO

If the check box is grey (default), the object is activated. This is the case
shown in the figure ("ID" written in black). The state can be manipulated
by grouping.
If "ID" is written in red, the object has been deactivated via a group and
will not be taken into account in the calculation.
If the box is checked (an x appears in the square), the object will always be
active no matter what group it may belong to and whether or not that
group, if any, is active. Therefore, "ID" will always be written in black.

If the check box is white, the object will always be inactive no matter what
group it may belong to and whether or not that group, if any, is active.
Therefore, "ID" will always be written in red. In the graphical representation, these objects will be drawn with dashed lines (default setting).
Info-button

5.5.3

The Info button is available on every edit dialog of an object. When you
click it, a box opens where you can enter specific object information and/
or string variables. The contents of the info box is not printed but you can
get out the information contained in a string variable. The box may contain
up to 30,000 characters.
If the box contains any information, the button appears blue, otherwise
grey.

Define String Variable

You define a string variable by writting a name for it in the Info-box followed by a equals sign (without any space) and after that - directly behind
without any space again - the desired information or value. Now you can
revert to the contens of a variable just by writting the string variables
name on another location.

Example String Variable

GRN0=08/15
GRNO is in our example the string variable and embodies the number of
the building yard. The number 08/15 can be displayed e.g. in the Result
Table as a contents of a column for a receiver point just by entering the
variables name GRNO as expression.

Manual

5.5.3 3

Chapter 5.5 Editing Objects


The Dialog Boxes Name, ID, INFO

With the string variables you can also revert to information stored in databases, which have an ODBC-interface (see Chapter 6.5) like MS Excel or
MS Access, to save them by your CadnaA objects in the Info-box.
For that the string variable has to be stored together with the equals sign
and the information in a field of the database.
see also
chapter 15.3.3 String Variable
chapter 8.9.8 Calc Width of Roads
chapter 18.4 Date of Objects in Info box
Standard Deviation Sigma dB: Enter the standard deviation in dB if you
want to calculate the source related uncertainty (see Chapter 12.4.3) of the
emission determination.

Manual

Standard
Deviation

5.5.3

5.5.3

Chapter 5.5 Editing Objects


The Dialog Boxes Name, ID, INFO

Manual

Chapter 5.5 Editing Objects


Decimals in Edit Boxes

5.5.4

5.5.4 1

Decimals in Edit Boxes

You may choose the decimal separator comma or point in the menu Options|Miscellaneous. The default is the point.

For all numbers with decimals entered in CadnaA, you will have to use the
active separating character. In many cases, the program is able to cope
with a comma or point, mistakenly entered as a separator by interpreting it
as the active separating character. However, this is not possible in all of the
boxes.
For example, in the edit polygon point dialog, but not in the table, you may
separate the decimals of the x, y and z coordinates of a polygon point, of
track centreline distance and slope by either a comma or point. In this case,
CadnaA is able to correct the separator point or the comma by taking it as
the chosen decimal separator.
In other boxes, however, which are used for performing calculation operations, decimals must be separated by a point. Otherwise, the value will be
misinterpreted or its acceptance refused.
If, for example, you enter 98,5 dB as value for LwA in the edit box of a
general source, this value will appear in red which means it is not acceptable. This box is a formula box where you can perform calculation operations such as arithmetic and energetic level additions, or even more
complex equations. In this box, the comma is a special character (max(1,2)
= 2). So here, you must use the point to separate decimals.

Manual

5.5.4

Chapter 5.5 Editing Objects


Decimals in Edit Boxes

Use the active decimal separator if you are editing in the object tables directly. Otherwise it could be that the values are not correctly interpreted.

The correct interpretation of the decimal separator of CadnaA in


other Windows programs also depends, among other things, on the
country settings of the operating system.
It could happen, e.g., in MS Excel that values inserted from a
CadnaA table via the clipboard are interpreted as a date and not with
the correct number format. In this case you may have chosen the
comma as decimal separator in the system settings. To rectify the
false interpretation adjust the setting with a point for the decimal separator.

Manual

Chapter 5 Basics
Search for Objects

5.6

5.6 1

Search for Objects

Use this command to search within the entire data stock, to identify and retrieve objects for editing. When an object is found, it will be selected and
displayed in the window. Pressing the RETURN key will open the relevant
edit dialog box. The Search dialog must remain opened.
The Search Again button serves to start or continue the search procedure.
Either one or an arbitrary combination of the attributes Object Type, Name and ID (see Chapter 5.5.3) can be used to specify either all objects or
each of the objects to be retrieved. If more than one criterion is given, all
criteria have to be fulfilled (logical and (see Chapter 2.8).
Use the List box to select the type of object. If you select the option: ?(All)
then all kinds of objects are compared to the search criteria. Otherwise,
only objects of the type specified are examined.
Wildcards can be used as customary, e.g., the asterix (*).

This input would search for a point source named either a or c

Manual

5.6

Chapter 5 Basics
Search for Objects

Manual

5.7 1

Chapter 5 Basics
Context Menu

5.7

Context Menu

By selecting an object on the main window while in the edit mode, or by


selecting a data record in a table, using the RIGHT instead of the LEFT
mouse button, a context menu is opened offering a number of commands
relating to the object in question.
5
Selecting an object by clicking it with the
right instead of the left mouse button
opens a context menu.

The following commands may appear in a context menu depending on


which object the function has started:

Commands

Graphical 3-D view with hidden lines, taking into account the visibility of
the individual surfaces. You can also edit the objects in this view directly
and you may move through this scenario either by pressing the Return key
or by using the arrow keys on the keyboard (see Chapter 13.14).

3D-Special-View

Manual

5.7

Chapter 5 Basics
Context Menu

Break Areas

A closed polygon can be divided into several smaller areas with identical
parameters (see Chapter 5.7.9).

Break Lines

A line-like object is divided into at least two objects with identical parameters (see Chapter 5.7.7).

Duplicate

Several objects of identical properties and the same size are inserted in horizontal and/or vertical rows (see Chapter 5.7.1).

Edit

Opens an edit object dialog (alternatively: double-click an object with the


left mouse button (see Chapter 5.5).

Insert before/after

A new row is inserted in a table before or after the selected row. Another
alternative is to press INS-key (see Chapter 15.2.2).

Generate Lable

This option generates the issue of object parameters to be defined within


an automatically generated Text box located at the object. You can do that
for only one object, for all objects of the same object type or for all object
types (see Chapter 5.7.4).

Generate
Station

Inserts station marks at a desired spacing along a line-like object, with indication of distances, e. g. marking of roads by kilometres (see Chapter
5.7.3).

Force
Right Angles

An arbitrary polygon with different angles can be transformed into a polygon with right angles by specifying a snap angle (see Chapter 5.7.5).

Force Rectangle

An arbitrary quadrangle can be transformed into a rectangle (see Chapter


5.7.5).

Manual

5.7 3

Chapter 5 Basics
Context Menu

This command enables you to snap point shaped objects (e.g. point source
or receiver point) onto a building facade after the point has been inserted
or imported. The points are then attached to the facade at the distance definded (see Chapter 9.3.3).

Snap Point to facade

Generates a building with sound-radiating facades and roof (see Chapter


9.3.4).

Generate building

The length of any line-like object can be specified (see Chapter 5.7.10).

Specify Length

Calculation according to the Germany guideline RLS90 for Long Straight


Road (see Chapter 8.11)

Long Straight Road

Deletes the selected object - another alternative: press DEL KEY (see Chapter 5.4.7).

Delete

Different actions can be executed simultaneously on several objects and


also on different object-types or groups of objects. Some actions can also
be enforced on individual objects alone. These are then directly obvious in
the context-menu (see Chapter 5.7.2).

Modify Objects

Generation of objects parallel to the object selected (see Chapter 5.7.13).

Parallel Object

Deletes grid-points inside or outside of a calculation area (see Chapter


11.5.1)

Delete Grid-Points

CadnaA enables you to calculate air pollution caused by road traffic ac-

Air Pollution

cording to the MLuS 92, Issue 96 /46/ (see Chapter 19.2).


Sectional view along a line (see Chapter 13.12)

Manual

Cross Section

5.7

Chapter 5 Basics
Context Menu

Sort

Sorting of table columns in ascending or descending order, numerical or


alphanumerical (see Chapter 15.2.4).

Edit Column

Conversion of numerical values or substitution of character strings in table


columns (see Chapter 15.2.5).

Spline

A selected polygon line is replaced by the segmented curve of a cubic polynomial (see Chapter 5.7.12)

Simplify Geometry

Geometrical objects are simplified for calculation purposes by reducing


the degree to which details are taken into account (see Chapter 5.7.11)

Floors

Automatic generation of a vertical row of receiver points with corresponding heights for the different floors (see Chapter 11.2.6)

Break into pieces

Line shape objects are split into definable parts with identical parameters
(see Chapter 5.7.15).

Convert to

An object type can be converted to another one (see Chapter 5.7.14).

Connect Lines

Individual parts of line-like objects of the same object type can be connected to a single object (see Chapter 5.7.8).

Pass-By-Level

For roads, railways, and other line-like sources, you can also calculate the
time characteristic of the sound pressure level that would result if a single
vehicle with a specified emission were to travel along a certain path (see
Chapter 8.14).

Manual

5.7.1 1

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Duplicating Objects

5.7.1

Duplicating Objects

This command can be executed as well from the context menu (see Chapter 5.7) directly at the object or via the context menu Modify objects:Action: Duplicate. In the second case you can enter additional settings. It is
applicable to all graphical objects.
To insert several objects of identical properties and the same size in horizontal and/or vertical rows in the CadnaA main window, you first insert
one object of the desired size and then select it by clicking it with the
RIGHT mouse button - the context menu opens.
Before an object is duplicated, it should be allocated the desired parameters by editing. These parameters will be adopted for all duplicates.
From the context menu, select the Duplicate command. In the dialog that
opens, specify the number of duplicates and the distances between either
the borders or the centres of the objects.

The building context menu

Manual

Duplicate

5.7.1

5.7.1

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Duplicating Objects

Duplicate dialog. Specify the number of copies - define


what the distances refer to - enter the distances in meters

Horizontal: positive number placed the duplicates to the right of the existing object, a negative number to the left of it.
Vertical: positive number placed the duplicates above the existing object,
a negative number below.

Action Duplicate

5.7.1

With the command Modify Objects|Action: Duplicate you can enter additional settings:

Move Center Point

5.7.1

The center point of objects being selected can be moved. Upon activation
of the check box enter values accordingly.

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Duplicating Objects

5.7.1 3

Duplicated objects can be enlarged or minimized in horizontal and vertical


direction. Upon activation of the check box enter values accordingly.

Scaling Factor

Duplicated objects can be rotated around their center point. Upon activation of the check box enter values accordingly.

Rotation around Center


Point
5.7.1

See also chapter 5.4.5 Copying Objects and chapter 6.3.4 Coordinate
Transformation, paragraph Duplication by Transformation.

Manual

5.7.1

5.7.1

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Duplicating Objects

Manual

5.7.2 1

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Objects

5.7.2

Modify Objects

This command on the context menu allows you to simultaneously apply


various actions to several objects and also to different object types or
groups of objects. These actions are also available for individual objects
only, in which case they are directly listed on the context menu.
The following actions can also be performed for several objects or groups
of objects:

Delete (see chapter 5.4.7)


Modify Attribute (see chapter 5.7.17)
Duplicate (see chapter 5.7.1)
Force Rectangle (see chapter 5.7.5)
Force Right Angles - Orthogonalize (see chapter 5.7.6)
Snap point to facade (see chapter 9.3.3)
Spline (see chapter 5.7.12)
Simplify Geo (see chapter 5.7.11)
Break into pieces (see chapter 5.7.15)
Connect Lines (see chapter 5.7.8)
Transformation (see chapter 6.3.4)
Convert to (see chapter 5.7.14)
Generate Station (see chapter 5.7.3)
Generate Building Evaluation (see chapter 9.3.5)
Generate Label (see chapter 5.7.4)
Generate floors (see chapter 11.2.6)
Parallel Object (see chapter 5.7.13)
Activation (see chapter 5.7.16)
Swap Name / ID (see chapter 5.7.1)
Delete Duplicates (see chapter 5.7.2)
Fit DTM to Object or Object to DTM (see chapter 10.3)

Manual

Aktionen

5.7.2
Modify all
Objekts

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Objects

5.7.2

If you want to cover all objects in your project file with this function you
must execute the command Modify Objects from the context menu by
clicking with a RIGHT mouse button onto a free space in your plan. You
may not mark an object. If you call the command by marking a object
then it will be excluded from the following action.

Modify a group of
objects
5.7.2

If you do not want all objects to be affected by the chosen action you can
provisionally draw a closed polygon around the object to be or not to be
modified collectively (e.g. a Aux. polygon).
Another alternative is to use an existing polygon, e. g. a building, that is
not to be modified. Click the closed polygon under the Edit Mode using
the RIGHT mouse button, then select the Modify Objects command on the
context menu.

Objects inside, outside,


on the borderline of the
polygon
5.7.2

In the dialog that opens, an Actions list is available for selection. Choose
the action you want to apply to the objects to be defined. By activating the
pertinent check boxes, you specify the position of the object types to be
modified, i. e. inside, outside, or on the borderline of the auxiliary polygon. All these options can apply simultaneously.

If objects are placed on the borderline of the polygon or if they jut


inside or outside the polygon you may enforce the functions Break
Lines (see chapter 5.7.7) or Break Areas (see chapter 5.7.9) from the
polygon context menu to break the lines or areas on the intersection
of the borderline if desired before you excute the Modify
Objects|Action command.

Activated or deactivated
objects
5.7.2

Moreever, you can choose whether the action is only to apply to activated
or deactivated objects. If the option indifferent is checked, it does not
matter whether an object is activated or not.

Condition

Futhermore, a condition can be specified for numerical expressions to restrict the selection of objects. For the specification of a condition all attributes of the object type selected are available. From the pop-up menu
list an attribute for the highlighted object type can be selected. This allows

5.7.2

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Objects

5.7.2 3

to define even complex conditional expressions (see chapter 2.6). The operation will be executed only if the condition is fulfilled (expression <> 0).
These three types of restrictions (range/activation/condition) can be applied separately or in combination of each other.
Now select the object types to which the specified action is to apply (Multiple Selection see chapter 4.10).

Choose Object
type

5.7.2

If you wish to cover all object types, click the All button.
When the dialog box is closed via the OK button, another dialog may appear depending on the action chosen. Enter the appropriate parameters
there. As soon as you have confirmed by clicking OK, the selected action
is applied to the objects as defined. It is possible to cancel the action in
process.
Example: Deleting a
group of
objects
5.7.2

Manual

5.7.2
 Industry.cna

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Objects

The industrial enterprise in the above example, consisting of one building,


point and line sources, is deleted using the context menu command Modify Objects.

Draw a closed auxiliary polygon around the industrial enterprise.

Select the auxiliary polygon using the RIGHT mouse button.

From the context menu, select Modify Objects - the following dialog appears:

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Objects

5.7.2 5

On the Actions list box, select Delete.

Activate the checked boxes Inside Polygon and On Polygon Borderline and

choose the object type Point Source, Line Source, Building and
Aux.Polygon by clicking while pressing the Ctrl key (in this
example you may also choose all objects by clicking the All button)

confirm with OK

In the dialog appearing next, you can either confirm or cancel the selected
action.

Manual

5.7.2

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Objects

Click the All button again and see how fast an industrial area can turn
into a residential area!

In this example, the trade enterprise inside the polygon has been deleted.
If the All button is clicked, a selected action will be applied to all objects
without the need for further confirmation, whereas the Yes button requires
explicit confirmation for each object.

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Objects

5.7.2 7

The object on which the Action command is executed is excluded from


this action - in this example is it the auxiliary polygon. If desired delete
this object separately with the DEL key.

Manual

5.7.2

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Objects

Manual

5.7.3 1

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Station

5.7.3

Generate Station

The Station feature allows you to generate marks at distances to be defined alongside line-like objects, indicating the distances from station to
station. The stations are generated either automatically, if you select

the command Station from the context menu (see Chapter 5.7) , or
with the command Modify Object|Action: Generate Station (see Chapter 5.7.2)
or semi-automatically via the toolbox icon Station, in which case you
insert the stations individually.

This feature is convenient, e. g. for providing roads with kilometre marks.

To do so, click the road with the RIGHT mouse button, and select
Station from the context menu.

In the dialog that opens, specify the distance between the individual
stations.

Upon closing the dialog by clicking OK, CadnaA generates stations


along the road with the specified distance between each pair of stations.

Manual

Station

5.7.3

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Station

250

0
20

150

100

50

The distance indicated at each station is the total of preceding distances


summed up from station to station.
If you prefer the realistic value of the distance, you can specify this by entering in kilometers in the dialog Road the actual position of the road.

Open the Road dialog by double-clicking the road axis.

Click the Geometry button.

At the bottom of the dialog, enter the kilometres in metres, and

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Station

5.7.3 3

In this example the measure starts by 10 km

if required, select Ascending or Descending counting order from the


list box.

Upon closing the dialog by clicking OK, you have to update the dimensioning in kilometers via the menu command Tables|Miscellaneous|Update Station.
The station mark then displays the kilometres and metres separated by a
plus sign.

00
+2
10

If you wish to insert only single stations, use the pertinent toolbox icon,
and click at the desired locations.

Manual

Update Station

5.7.3

5.7.3
Parallel Object
between defined
station marks

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Station

5.7.3

For every line source you can define a scale related to its axis in the menu
Geometry|Station. The default setting for the initial point is 0 - but you
can also define it arbitrarily.
With the Parallel Object command from the context menu you can define
a starting and an end point related to the Station Range.

Example:

Insert an abitrary road and input in the Geometry dialog a Station


start point of 12.000 m ascending. The base point of the road is now
12 km.

Close the dialog with OK.

For clarification generate the station marks on your road (mark the
road with the RIGHT mouse button and from the context menu choose
Generate Station.

Define a distance of 10 m and confirm with OK. The station marks


are generated.

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Station

10
0
12
+0

30
12
+0
4

0
0

7
+0
12

12
+0
5

12
+0
2

6
+0
12

12
+0

Choose Parallel Object from the context menu and input the values
from the above Parallel Object dialog.

After confirming with OK a screen will be generated with a distance of


10 m from the road, with a height of 4 m and a length of 30 m between station mark 12.020 and 12050.

Manual

5.7.3 5

5.7.3

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Station

Manual

5.7.4 1

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Label

5.7.4

Generate Label

This option generates the issue of object parameters to be defined within


an automatically generated Text box located at the object. You can do that
for only one object, for all objects of the same object type or for all object
types.
Mark the object and execute the command in the Context Menu (see
Chapter 5.7) either
1.

for one object: Generate Label or

2.

for several and/or different objects: Modify Objects |Action: Generate Label (see Chapter 5.7.2).

Generate Label
Dialog

5.7.4

Placement defines the alignment of the content inside the label.

Placement

5.7.4

The font alignment, size and type can be adopted in the dialog by clicking
the same-named button (see Chapter 13.11.1).

Text box

5.7.4

Manual

5.7.4

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Label

Content

5.7.4

Select the relevant Attribute by clicking in the list box. The range of attributes at your disposal in the list box depends on the selected object with
which you have executed the command Generate Label. If you execute
the command in the menu Modify Objects to label several objects at one
time, only a restricted range will be offered.

Example

5.7.4

If you select the attribute ID in the list box, the string entered in the object
dialog in the edit box ID will be placed in the label.

User defined

5.7.4

The attribute <user-defined> allows the issue of several object parameters


by entry of the relevant attributes in the code box. If you have selected an
attribute in the list box, you can see the actual notation of this attribute
[#(ObjAtt,%1,Parameter)]. If you want to issue more than one object parameter in the label, just enter the actual notation of this attribute into the
code box. You can also enter additional text.

Manual

5.7.4 3

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Label

Entry in Code Box

Example

#(ObjAtt, %1, GRENZT, 1, 0.500) dB(A) / #(ObjAtt,


%1, LPT, 1, 0.500) dB(A)
will, after calculation at the receiver point, generate a label with e.g. the
content:
"50 dB(A) / 41,9 dB(A)",
because the daytime maximum (standard) value of this receiver point is
50 dB(A) and the calculated sound level for daytime is rated at
41,9 dB(A).
The parameters of the attribute GRENZT,1, 0.500 mean:
1 = one digit after the decimal point will be issued
0.500 = round up if the value of the last digit after the decimal point is 5
Further availible terms see Chapter 15.3.3 "(user defined)"

Manual

5.7.4
String
Variable

Example

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Label

5.7.4

You may display information from the info-box


in the edit dialog of
the Receiver point. Enter the same string in the Variable-box as you did
in the info-box. But first you must choose String variable from the Attribute listbox.
In the info-boxes of the building dialog you may have entered the floor
number of buildings, e.g. f=2, f=3, f=25 etc. In this case f is the string
variable. If you want to display these floor numbers in a label on the building you have to choose the settings as follows.

In this case only numbers would be displayed in the labels. But if you want
to add an expression to the number like floor no. or just fno.: then
you have to choose <user defined> in the attribute list-box and add the
desired expression via the keyboard.

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Label

5.7.4 5

The output in the label of this entry would be fno.: 2 or fno.: 3 or fno: 25
etc.

Manual

5.7.4

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Generate Label

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Force Rectangle

5.7.5

5.7.5 1

Force Rectangle

This command can be applied to any closed polygon with four corners.
Using this context menu command allows you to transform an arbitrary
quadrangle into a rectangle.
To this end, click the object with the right mouse button, and, from the
context menu, select the Force Rectangle command.

A quadrangle entered in CadnaA

The same quadrangle after applying the


command "Force Rectangle"

See also chapter 5.7 Context Menu, chapter 5.7.2 Modify Objects and
chapter 5.3.1 Inserting Objects Using the Mouse

Manual

5.7.5

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Force Rectangle

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Force Right Angles

5.7.6

5.7.6 1

Force Right Angles

This command can be applied to any closed polygon.


An arbitrary polygon with different angles can be transformed into a polygon with right angles by specifying a snap angle.
5

After executing Force Right Angles


Original polygon

with snap angle 20

See also chapter 5.7 Context Menu


chapter 5.7.2 Modify Objects und
chapter 5.7.5 Force Rectangle sowie
chapter 5.3.1 Inserting Objects Using the Mouse

Manual

with snap angle 45

5.7.6

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Force Right Angles

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Breake Lines

5.7.7

5.7.7 1

Breake Lines

This command from the context menu (see Chapter 5.7) can be applied to
any open polygon.
Line-shaped objects, such as line sources, roads, railways, contour lines,
etc. can be broken into separate sections. This splits an object into two objects with identical properties. Breaking down a line object is useful, if,
e. g., the parameters of the sections are supposed to be different. You can
achieve this by using this command and editing the properties of the new
section.
The breaking of line-shaped objects is done by drawing a line with only a
start and end point which intersects the line-shaped object at the point
where it is to be broken. Such a line can be generated, e. g., by selecting
the auxiliary polygon, or any other line-like object, from the toolbox.

This railway is divided into 2 sections, for example, to


allocate a different type of track to one railway section.

First click the Auxiliary Polygon tool. Then generate a line by clicking on
both sides of the point you want to breake.

Manual

5.7.7

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Breake Lines

Now switch to the Edit Mode, and click the line just generated using the
right mouse button. From the context menu, select the Break Lines command.
The railway now consists of two sections, which can be shown by deleting
one of them.

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Connect Lines

5.7.8

5.7.8 1

Connect Lines

In CadnaA you can connect sections of line-shaped objects of the same


object type to form one single object by transferring the relevant parameters of the section, which the other sections are connected to, to the other
sections.

Parameter are assigned

One possible application could be, e.g., connecting imported road sections
or buildings which have been generated in a third-party-program in the
form of an open auxiliary polygon and which do not have identical initial
and final points.

You can subject the connection of lines to certain conditions.


Mark the decisive line with the right mouse key and choose Connect Lines from the context menu.

Activate the relevant options in the dialog box and confirm with OK. The
effected sections are then connected to form one single object.

Manual

 Connect1.cna

5.7.8

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Connect Lines

Optionen

Snap Radius

Enter the radius of the circle within which a connection point is to be


searched. This snap radius is the maximum distance between the final
points to be connected.

Check Height

With this option activated, the snap radius will also relate to the 3-D distance (z-coordinate) instead of only to the 2-D distance (x/y-coordinate).

Search at first/last point

According to the options chosen, the search will be one-way or two-way.

Search recursively

With this option activated, CadnaA will, after having connected two lines,
search from the open point of the next line (etc.) as long as the given requirements are fulfilled.

Check ID

With this option activated only lines with identical ID will be connected.

Strategy for
Ambiguities

You can choose which of several possible lines shall be connected.


See also chapter 5.7 Context Menu and chapter 5.7.2 Modify Objects.

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Break Areas

5.7.9

5.7.9 1

Break Areas

This command can be applied to any closed polygon.


Just as the Break Lines command (see Chapter 5.7) from the context
menu is used for lines, you can divide areas by means of the Break Areas
command (see Chapter 5.7.7). This is useful, e. g., for dividing an existing
industrial area into several smaller areas.
An area is divided by means of a second area protruding into the area to be
broken.

A general area source.

How do you divide the above area?


Insert another area (closed polygon, such as an area source, a parking lot,
or a calculation area). The second area, which is used for breaking, must
not lie completely within the first area.

Manual

5.7.9

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Break Areas

Area 2

5
Area 1

Area 1 and a parking lot (Area 2)


which is used to break Area 1.

Area 1 is to be divided into three areas.

Click Area 2 with the RIGHT mouse button

From the context menu, select Break Areas - Area 1 now consists of
three areas.

To prove this, slightly shift Areas 2, 1a, and 1b.

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Break Areas

5.7.9 3

Area 2
Area 1b

Area 1a

5
Area 1

Area source divided using the Break Areas command

If you had selected Area 1 instead of Area 2 before triggering the command, Area 2 would have been divided.

Area 2

Area 2b

Area 2a

Area 1

Manual

5.7.9

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Break Areas

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Specify Length

5.7.10 1

5.7.10 Specify Length


You can specify the exact length of all line-shaped objects, such as roads,
railways, line sources, and also of the vertical area source, etc.
First, enter the line-like object with its approximate length. Then click this
object under the Edit Mode using the RIGHT mouse button, and, from the
context menu (see Chapter 5.7), select the Specify Length command. This
results in the line-like object being extended beyond or cut off before the
last entered point.

Manual

5.7.10

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Specify Length

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Simplify Geometry

5.7.11 1

5.7.11 Simplify Geometry


You can simplify any geometrical object for calculation purposes by reducing the degree to which its details are taken into account. This can significantly reduce calculation times - particularly for large projects. Any
object point lying at more than the specified distance from the straight line
connecting the two neighbouring points, will be deleted and neglected in
the calculation.

Click the object using the right mouse button and, from the context menu
(see Chapter 5.7), either select the Simplify Geometry command or Modify Object|Action: Simplify Geometry (see Chapter 5.7.2).

In the dialog that opens, enter, e.g., 10 m for the above road section. This
means that all points (for which the above-mentioned criteria is true will
be deleted.
Upon closing the dialog by clicking OK, the road section is "straightened".

Manual

5.7.11

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Simplify Geometry

If, also the option Vertical (m) is activated, both conditions - horizontal
and vertical - have to be true to simplify the geometry.

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Spline

5.7.12 1

5.7.12 Spline
This command directly from the context menu (see Chapter 5.7) or via
Modify Object (see Chapter 5.7.2) can be applied to any open or closed
polygon.
A selected polygon line is replaced by the segmented curve of a cubic polynomial.

Fig. A: Before applying the


Spline command

Fig. B: After applying the


Spline command

If, e. g., the polygon line illustrated in Fig. A is clicked with the right
mouse button, and the Spline command is selected, this results in the
curve shown in Fig. B.

Manual

5.7.12

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Spline

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Parallel Object

5.7.13 1

5.7.13 Parallel Object


This command can be applied to any open or closed polygon.
Execute the command either directly from the context menu (see Chapter
5.7) of an object or via Modify Object (see Chapter 5.7.2).
An object parallel to the selected one is generated by defining, in the pertinent dialog, at which distance, and to which side of the object the parallel
object is to be inserted.
The choice "to the left/to the right" is made according to the view along
the open or closed polygon line from its initial point to its final point.

If you dont know anymore which one was the starting point, just
have a look at the data record in the geometry table. The graphical
representation and the data record are synchronized. Therefore, open
the Object Dialog by double-clicking the object in the Edit mode.
Shift the dialog so that you can see your object and click to the
Geometry botton. In the polygon table the first data record is marked
and also the pertinent polygon point at the graphical object.

To enter parallel barriers for the road section illustrated above, select the
road using the RIGHT mouse button and, on the context menu which appears, click the Parallel Object command.
In the following dialog, enter the desired parameters.

Manual

5.7.13

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Parallel Object

By road and railway the graphical central axis is the reference line for
the distance of the parallel object.

If you execute the command Parallel Object at an open polygon, e.g., at


the object Road, and if you choose a closed polygon as Object type, e.g.,
the object Designated Land Use, and if you also choose the option Left
and Right from the object, CadnaA places then the closed polygon over
or under the road.
.

Manual

5.7.13 3

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Parallel Object

In the above figure three parts of roads (1, 2 and 3) are displayed. With the
command Parallel Object the object Designated Land Use has been inserted over the road part 2 with the option Object Type: Designated
Land Use, left and right, Distance 30 m.

Example

If you also define a Station Range, the parallel object will only be generated in this defined range (see Chapter 5.7.3 "Generate Station").

Station Range

In this example, the Object Type Barrier is selected from the list box.
upon closing the dialog by clicking OK, a 3-metre-high barrier is inserted
on both sides of the road at a distance of 10 m each, as defined by the parameters specified above.

You may also execute this command with Modify Object|Action: Parallel Object. This is interesting, e.g., if beyond several single road sections
parallel barriers shall be generated and if station ranges are defined.

Manual

Parallel Object with the


Modify Object
command
5.7.13

5.7.13

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Parallel Object

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Convert to

5.7.14 1

5.7.14 Convert to
Object types can be converted to other object types. For example, you can
convert a road to a railway, a contour line to a barrier, a building to foliage
or to a built-up area. Existing parameters are retained where this makes
sense.
In order to convert, e. g., the earler-mentioned parallel barriers along the
road to contour lines, select one barrier using the RIGHT mouse button to
open the context menu, and click the Convert to command.
A pop-up menu appears, listing all object types available. Click Contour
Line. This converts the barrier to a contour line with the barrier co-ordinates and height being applied to the contour line.

You can now easily re-locate the road to lie on an embankment.

Manual

5.7.14

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Convert to

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Break into pieces

5.7.15 1

5.7.15 Break into pieces


With the command Break Lines, which you can select after clicking with
the right mouse key on a line-shaped object (e.g. road, linesource) in the
context menu (see Chapter 5.7), you can either

define the desired length of the new sections - the final section will
then be of a different length - or

the number of new sections, which will then all have the same length or

you break the line-shaped object on its polygon points.

This command can be applicated, e.g., in connection with Optimize Walls


(see Chapter 9.7.1).

If you insert one Road it is described then by one data record in the object
table (Tables|Sources|Roads). After executing the command Break Lines you will find several data records in your table describing each divided
road segment.

Manual

5.7.15

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Break into pieces

Manual

5.7.16 1

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Activation

5.7.16 Activation
With the Action:Activation of Modify Objects from the context menu
you may change the activations (see Chapter 5.5.3, ID) of all desired objects without opening the object dialog.
If you have choosen all options and objects in the Modify Object dialog,
confirm with OK - the Activation dialog will appear.

The left check boxes show the possible conditions of activation, the right
one the actual state.

Choose from the listbox the kind of activation you like to have. All corresponding objects are then in that condition, no matter which condition they
have been in before.
Example: If you choose inactive - all the concerned objects are deaktivated.

(in)active

If you choose intermediate the objects are neither activated nor inactiveted (default setting of the object).

intermediate

If you choose general, you may decide individually the activation conditions by clicking in the checked boxes on the right.

general

Manual

5.7.16

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Activation

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Attribute

5.7.17 1

5.7.17 Modify Attribute


With the command from the context menu Modify Object|Action:Modify
Attribute you can change the parameters of different and/or groups of objects simultaneously.
If you, e.g., want to increase existing object heights by 5 m choose this
command and input the parameter displayed in the following figure.

Select those object types whose Attributes you wish to modify. Depending on the object type selected you have the corresponding attributes at
your disposal in the dialog after pressing OK.

With these parameters the object height (HA) is increased


in each case by 5 m after confirming with OK.

For example, you have imported roads whose base-points (polygon points)
have absolute heights. In this case the option absolute Height at every
Point is activated in CadnaAs Geometry dialog.
But you want relative heights for every base point to be able to adjust the
roads new to your digital terrain model (DTM) in your project.
The following steps are necessary:

Manual

Example:
change height
from absolute to relative
and vice- versa
5.7

5.7.17

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Attribute

Click with the Right mouse key on a free place in your file and
choose the function Modify Objects in the context menu.

In the following dialog choose the Action: Modify Attribute, mark


the object Road and confirm with OK.

In the dialog Modify Attribut choose the attribute HA (for the


height of the first point), activate the option Arithmetic and enter the
value 0 (zero). (You may enter an abitrary value - CadnaA adjusts the
heights to the ground model anyway because the heights are relative
after the action).

If you confirm all dialogs, the relative heights are then 0 m and the
option Interpolate from first/last point is activated (that means
relative for a line-like object).
CadnaA shows the new heights, which are adapted then from the
ground model after calculation.

Now, if you want define the new heights as absolut, again repeat the above
described action but this time choose the Attribute HA_ATT (attribute for
the height of the first point). Activate the option Replace String|Replace
with and enter a blank. Confirm all dialogs. The heights are now defined
as absolute and the option absolute height at every point is activated
again. They are not changed again in case of a new calculation.
For point-like objects, e.g., point sources, receiver points etc., you can
change the attribute of the height with r for relative and a for absolute instead with a blank.

Example:
Change Color

5.7

With the function Modify Objects|Modify Attribute you can also change
the colors of auxiliary polygons. Deaktivate the polygons, which color e.g.
you dont want to change and act like follows:

Choose Modify Objects|Modify Attribute|only active object type:


Aux. Polygon and confirm with OK.

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Attribute

5.7.17 3

In the next dialog Modify Attribute select the Attribute L_COLOR


for the line color from the list. In case you like to change the filling of
a polygon choose F_COLOR.

Manual

5.7.17

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Modify Attribute

Activate Arithmetisch and enter


RGB(255,0,0)
in the field new Value.

RGB embodies RED - YELLOW - BLUE, the numbers in brackets


are the corresponding values for the color red, yellow and blue. In
this example the polygons color change to red.
If your Aux. Polygons not change their colors then could that be that the
option use global properties is still active. Then you have to change this
as follows:
In the dialog Modify Attribute select the Attribut GLOBAL, activate the
option Replace String and enter a space in that field. After confirming
with OK the polygons display their corresponding color.
See also:
Attribute Abreviation (see Chapter 2.5)
Arithmetics and String-Replacement (see Chapter 15.2.5)
Context menu (see Chapter 5.7)
Modify Objects (see Chapter 5.7.2)

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Swap Name/ID

5.7.1

5.7.1 1

Swap Name/ID

With the command Swap Name/ID from the Contextmenu|Modify Object you can excange, e.g., the entry of the box Name and ID in the object
dialog.
Depending on the file format this maybe necessary after importing a file
from a GIS-system, a file e.g. like DXF with a Dxf-handle. Such systems
store non geometrical data in a seperate database. In order to merge the data, like the distance of a road or the number of cars, with the real graphical
object, the IDs have to be identical in both files.
see chapter 5.5.3 "The Dialog Boxes Name, ID, INFO"
see chapter 5.7 "Context Menu"
see chapter 5.7.2 "Modify Objects"
see chapter 6.5 "Import via ODBC Interface"

Manual

5.7.1

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Swap Name/ID

Manual

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Delete Duplicates

5.7.2

5.7.2 1

Delete Duplicates

You can delete objects of the same type and with the same parameters simultanously with the command from the context menu Modify Objects|Action: Delete Duplicates.
This function is sometimes necessary after importing from third-party programs like e.g. ArcView or DXF.
You can choose the concerned object type like, e.g. only for roads.

After confirming with OK a further dialog opens in which you can choose
conditions for the deletion if necessary.

Handbuch

5.7.2

Chapter 5.7 Context Menu


Delete Duplicates

Having chosen several conditions, then all conditions must be true before
the duplicates are deleted (logical AND). Is the condition Geometry activaed you have the possibility to input a deviation (snap in (m)). In this
case the objects may deviate from the Geometry by the value which is still
to be recognized as a duplicate.
The first objects placed in the table would be the originals the following
identical objects the duplicates.
see Chapter 5.7 "Context Menu"
see Chapter 5.7.2 "Modify Objects"

Handbuch

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 6 Import
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 6 Import

Manual

Chapter 6 Import
Contents

6.1 1

Chapter 6 Import

6.1 Contents
6.2

Importing

6.3

Import Options

6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4

Allocate Object type to Layer


Importing in Section only
Importing selected Object Types
Coordinate Transformation

6.4

Import Formats

6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.5
6.4.6
6.4.7
6.4.8
6.4.9
6.4.10

CadnaA
AutoCad-DXF
ArcView
Atlas GIS
Sicad Files
EDBS
WINPUT-DGM Files
Stratis
MapInfo
Import / Export of Tables listing number
of Trains
Special Formats
Third-Party Programs
Building Height Points
Ascii-Poly

6.4.11
6.4.12
6.4.13
6.4.14

Manual

6.1
6.5

Chapter 6 Import
Contents

Import via ODBC Interface

Manual

6.2 1

Chapter 6 Import
Importing

6.2

Importing

Data from third-party programs can be imported by CadnaA using various


file formats or via the ODBC interface (see chapter 6.5).
Any objects contained in the current Cadna file will not be deleted, but the
external file will be inserted or existing data will be updated. This enables
you to continuously complete a file by importing external and/or internal
data.
Depending on the file format, CadnaA allows you to specify certain importing options:

Import Options

Selection of layers to be assigned to specified object types (see chapter


6.3.1 "Allocate Object type to Layer").

Layer

Coordinate transformation serving to match the data to those of your


project file (see chapter 6.3.4).

Coordinate
Transformation

Specification of a target area in your project file by using the Section


tool, to where the data are to be imported in order to reduce the amount
of data (see chapter 6.3.2 "Importing in Section only").

Importing in a target area

Selection of object types - by this you may import only the needed
object types from a file, e.g., only roads.

Selection of Object types6.2

Select the Import command from the File menu if you wish to make use
of a file format to insert objects from an external file in your project file
(file formats like, e. g., GIS like ArcView, MapInfo, CAD like AutoCad
DXF and other third-party programs).
In the file selection dialog, first select the File Format from the list box,
then select the file to be imported.
The button Options allows you to specify the import options depending on
the selected file format (see further below in this chapter).
The files are imported by clicking the OK button.

Manual

File Formats

6.2

6.2

6.2

Chapter 6 Import
Importing

Manual

Chapter 6 Import
Import Options

6.3

6.3 1

Import Options

After clicking the Options button on the Open File dialog, you can specify a desired coordinate transformation and, for some file formats like AtlasGis, DXF, and SICAD, enter information concerning layer IDs and the
limits.
CadnaA makes use of the geometrical object types: point, open and closed

lines (see Chapter 10 Topography). If any object to be imported does not


comply with the geometrical object types under CadnaA like, e. g., an
open polygon being imported as an area source it will always be interpreted as an auxiliary polygon, which means it will be irrelevant for the
acoustical calculations. In such a case, you would have to select the Convert to command from the context menu (see chapter 5.7) to convert the
auxiliary polygon to an object of the desired type.

If you intend to import data from third-party programs, we recommend you ensure that the object types conform to the geometrical
object types under CadnaA.
CadnaA may interpret imported points as, e.g., point sources, height

points, crossing lights or tennis balls or imported lines as line sources, roads, railways or barriers etc.

Manual

6.3

Chapter 6 Import
Import Options

Manual

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Allocate Object type to Layer

6.3.1

6.3.1 1

Allocate Object type to Layer

The Import|Options|Layer dialog serves to identify layers of the imported data with the pertinent object types. You can Save the allocation list to
a file for re-use (Open). CadnaA will interpret all lines belonging to one
layer as objects of the type allocated to that layer in the list.

In order to allocate object types to layers, double-click the pertinent row.


In the Import: Layer dialog, enter the names of the layers containing the
geometry data of the object type in question or select them from a layer
list. A layer list could exist, e.g., in a DXF file if this attribute has been saved as well. In any case you have to know the layer names.

Manual

6.3.1

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Allocate Object type to Layer

If several layers are to be identified by common character strings, you can


also use wildcards, such as *, to substitute arbitrary strings (see chapter
2.8).

6
Example:

6.3.1

Roads A through F are on layer STR1, roads G through M on layer STR2.


You can import all of the roads A through M at once by entering STR* in
the Import: Layer dialog for the object type Road.
If roads A through F were to lie on layer STR1, and roads G through M on
layer ROAD, roads A through M could also be imported all at once by entering STR1|ROAD (i. e. STR1 "or" ROAD) in the Import: Layer dialog for
the object type Road.
This "allocation list" can be saved to a file for subsequent re-use by clicking the Save AS button, and can be opened again (Open button) as required.
The data will be imported after confirming with OK.

Manual

6.3.2 1

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Importing in Section only

6.3.2

Importing in Section only

If you activate Import only Section in the Import|Options dialog, you


must have defined at least one Section with a unique identifier (see chapter
13.10), which can be selected from the list. In this case you can only import from the file the data which lie within an area which coordinates are
identical with the coordinates of the selected Section.

Import only Section

If you enter a value > 0 in the field plus Border (m) then objects surrounding the sections with the specified distance are imported additionally.

plus Border

This option is very convenient in that it can save you a lot of memory by
importing only the area you actually need from a file of many megabytes.
Objects lying within the Section, and extending beyond it, will also be imported. If necessary, delete them using the context menu (see chapter 5.7)
Modify Objects|Action: Delete. You may need to use the Break Lines
and/or Break Areas command from the context menu before deleting.

An area imported using the above option.

You have a large project file in which you have to make an expert report
about a small area in detail. You only want to import that area in question.

Manual

Example

6.3.2

6.3.2
 ImportArea.cna

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Importing in Section only

Open the example file. This contains a Section frame named Test
Area (a name is mandatory!). Now, only in this area, shall objects be
imported from another file - Demo1.cna.

The file ImportArea.cna contains only a Section frame in the edit dialog you can see the name and the coordinates of the frame.

Select File|Import|File format: CadnaA and afterwards the file to


be imported from - in our example Demo1.cna in your program folder.

Manual

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Importing in Section only

6.3.2 3

Then click on the Option button and set the parameter as in the
following figure.

Import options available with the file format CadnaA

In the list box you can see all the identified Sections. Select one by clicking on its name.
After confirming all dialogs the objects placed in the target area will be
imported in the Section frame. As you may see, all objects which affect
respectively protrude the area will be imported, too. If necessary, these
objects have to be broken on the border of the Section frame and deleted
outside this area as follows:

Convert the Section frame into another closed polygon as an auxiliary area, e.g., in an area source (with the Section frame, lines or areas
cannot be broken). Therefore mark the object with a RIGHT mouse
click and select Convert to from the context menu.

Afterwards mark the converted object with the RIGHT mouse click
again and select one after the other Break Lines and Break Areas
from the context menu again.

Manual

6.3.2

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Importing in Section only

If you now click on the objects outside the auxiliary area they will be
marked independently of the original complete object. Also buildings
are divided, but not Bitmaps. Bitmaps have to be trimmed separately
in a graphic program.

Once more mark with a RIGHT mouse click the border of the auxiliary area and select from the context menu Modify Objects|Action:
Delete.

Activate the corresponding options as shown in the following figure.


After confirming with OK the concernd objects will be deleted.

At the end you may update the limits (Options|Limits|Calc).

Manual

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Importing in Section only

If you define an additional border area to be imported, objects within this


area will also be imported. This may be necessary if you want to calculate
a noise map for the section and if you must consider the noise impact from
sources and other objects outside the section.

6.3.2 5
Border Aera

6.3.2

Manual

6.3.2

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Importing in Section only

Manual

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Importing selected Object Types

6.3.3

6.3.3 1

Importing selected Object Types

If the function Select Object Type in menu File|Import|Options is available you may choose which object type you want to import from the file.
Multiple choice is possible.

Manual

6.3.3

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Importing selected Object Types

Manual

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Coordinate Transformation

6.3.4

6.3.4 1

Coordinate Transformation

The transforming of objects and/or complete projects is a strong aid und


distinguishes CadnaA in a special way.
When files are imported, differences in the coordinate systems may have
to be taken into account. Therefore the possibility of coordinate transformations exists in all available import formats of CadnaA.

Import files from thirdparty programs


6.3.4

But maybe you want to duplicate and/or displace a group of objects in


your project or just simply rotate a building - this can also be done easily
with the coordinate transformation. In this case use the function from the
context menu (see chapter 5.7) Modify Object|Action: Transformation.

Duplicate, displace,
rotate, distort objects6.3.4

For the coordinate transformation several possibilities are available:

Rotation and Displacement


Match Points
Affine Transformation
General Transformation
Calculated grids and bitmap files cannot be transfered with this function.

Manual

6.3.4
Rotation and
Displacement

Example:

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Coordinate Transformation

6.3.4

Enter the coordinates of the pivot, the angle of rotation and the displacements in the x, y and z directions. The rotation about the specified pivot is
performed first, the displacements follow in the three directions. The pivot
is a pair of co-ordinates to be imported from the project.
122,17/41,61 are the coordinates of one corner of a building belonging to
the project being imported. This is the pivot. With the data in the dialog
below, the imported project is rotated about that point by 45, and displaced by 100 m to the right and by 100 m upwards.

Manual

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Coordinate Transformation

The coordinate transformation option Match Points allows an easy reuniting of project files with different coordinate systems. If you enter the existing coordinates for all three points and the new coordinates for the
transformation you also can get a correction of the project file.

6.3.4 3
Match Points

6.3.4

In the edit boxes x-old/y-old insert the current coordinates of the corresponding points and in the edit boxes x-new/y-new the prospective coordinates of these points, which should be valid after the transforming.
Inserting the coordinates x-old, y-old und x-new, y-new

for one point - a simple offset occurs

for two points - in general, an offset, a rotation and a scaling occurs


(angle remained)

for three points - in general, an offset, a rotation, scaling and a bending


(not angle remained) occurs

Enter in the x/y-old boxes the still currently valid coordinates of the corresponding polyon points from the file to be imported and in the x/y-new boxes the coordinates for these points which should be valid after the import.

Manual

6.3.4

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Coordinate Transformation

Hint for Professionals: After enforced transformation you may see


the displacement vector in the transformation matrix if you open the
transformation dialog again and activate the option Affine Transformation.

6.3.4
6.3.4
Example
Match Point

6.3.4

The displacement vector in the transformation matrix after transformation

Try this effect with the help of the file Demo1.cna. From three different
objects pick out one coordinate pair in each case. For there open the Geometry dialog of the corresponding polygon point and write down the coordinates x and y. For these coordinates you now have to determine the
new coordinates. Point with the mouse cursor on the place in your project
where the polygon point should be after the translation and look up the values in the status bar.

Click with the Right mouse button on an empty area in your file and
select Modify Object from the context menu.

In the dialog which has been opened activate All objects and confirm
with OK.

In the transformation dialog activate Match Points and enter the old
and new coordinates.

Activate the option Keep Original to see the difference. In this case a
copy of the entire project will be generated.

Manual

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Coordinate Transformation

A rotation and/or a scaling is specified by the coefficients of the transformation matrix.

6.3.4 5
Affine
Transformation

6.3.4

If all objects of the imported file are to be rotated by an angle of about


the coordinate zero of the file, the values of the matrix result from:

x
y

cos
=
sin
neu

neu

sin x

cos y

To specify a displacement along an axis, enter the offsets of x and y.

The example above results in a 90 counterclockwise


rotation about the coordinate zero, which, after importing,
corresponds to point (10,20).

Manual

6.3.4
General
Transformation

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Coordinate Transformation

6.3.4

When this option is selected, every new value of the three dimensions,
xnew, ynew, and znew can be assigned an arbitrary nexus of the values of
the three coordinates of the old system. This allows arbitrary distortions,
reflections, and other modifications.
The following transformation generates a rectangle that is parallel to its
axes and transforms it into a parallelogram which is shifted to smaller values of the y-coordinate by 500 m.

Check this out yourself: Draw a rectangle

Then either

Save the file and afterwards File New, Import|Options|Transformation or not touching an object

Modify Objects|Action: Transformation and maybe Keep Original.


(If you dont see the new object then change your scale!)

Manual

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Coordinate Transformation

Delete polygon points depending on their height z


With the general transformation dialog you may also delete polygon points
from lines and areas depending on a user-defined height of the polygon
points.

6.3.4 7
Delete and interpolate
height of polygon points

This function may be useful for objects which have some points with a
height of zero while the other ones have heights greater than zero and, moreever, the distances to each other are very small. This may happen with a
file imported from a third party program.
With contour lines for e.g. you would have a very jagged digital terrain
model. In this case you may purge these objects by defining a formula in
the z-coordinate field as follows:
iif(z==0,del,z)
(if the height is 0, then delete that point, otherwise do not alter the height).
Of course you may enter a different value for zero. After confirming with
OK the affected points are deleted.
Interpolation of the height z
Instead of deleting the points if their z-heights are not desired, you may interpolate the z-height, depending on the next corresponding z-height and
the distance of these points, with the formula as follows:
iif(z==0,int,z)
Of course you may enter a different value for zero as well. After confirming with OK the affected points are interpolated.

Manual

6.3.4
Duplication by
Transformation

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Coordinate Transformation

6.3.4

If you want to transfer and simultanously duplicate several and/or different


objects you may also accomplish this by Transformation. Therefore, choose Modify Object|Action: Transformation from the context menu (see
chapter 5.7.2 "Modify Objects").
Following a simple example with all transformation possibilities in
CadnaA.
The following figure is the starting situation. Six cylinders with point sources shall be duplicated above the existing cylinders.

The central coordinates of a cylinder will be looked up in the Geometry dialog and transcribed - in our example the lower left cylinder with x 179,03
and y 51,09.
The entire construction shall be transfered 60 m going out from the lower
left cylinder up toward the top on the y-axis. The following figure shows
the layout which should emerge after the transformation.

Manual

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Coordinate Transformation

6.3.4 9

Layout after transformation with activated option Keep Original.

In this case the transformation is executed on the Section frame from the
context menu with Modify Object|Action: Transformation|inside polygon|Cylinder and Point sources.
When choosing this option enter in the column Translation only for the ycoordinate (middle box) 60. In this way the object will be transfered 60 m
upward. With a negativ value (- 60) the object will be transfered downward.

Manual

Rotation and
Displacement

6.3.4

10

6.3.4

Chapter 6.3 Import Options


Coordinate Transformation

Match Point

6.3.4

Affine
Transformation

6.3.4

General
Transformation

6.3.4

When choosing this option, you will need in every case the old and the
new coordinates. For our example enter, for a simple shift upward, only
for P1 old x 179,03 / y 51,09 and for new x 179,03 / y 111,09.
When choosing this option activate the checkbox Rotation/Scaling and
enter also 60 in this column for the y-coordinate.
When choosing this option for our example enter the following:
Xnew = x
Ynew = y + 60
Znew = z

Manual

Chapter 6 Import
Import Formats

6.4

6.4 1

Import Formats

With the extremly efficient interface for many third-party file formats it is
guaranteed that CadnaA users can take advantage of all availible data
sources. Because of continuous developement it cannot be excluded that a
file format has changed and therefore the corresponting data cannot be
correctly imported. It is recommended you check a file format by importing a little test file before importing big data volume.
If a file format, which is supported by CadnaA, cannot be perferctly imported or you require a file format which has not yet been implemented in
CadnaA, please let us know.
The following import formats are currently available:

Manual

6.4.1

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


CadnaA

6.4.1

CadnaA

CadnaAs internal file format with the extension CNA. Any CadnaA file
can be imported into any other CadnaA file.

Import options:

Select object type (see chapter 6.3.3)


Import only in a Section (see chapter 6.3.2)
Transformation (see chapter 6.3.4)

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


AutoCad-DXF

6.4.2

AutoCad-DXF

Using the DXF format to import geometry data is an option often made
use of. Many CAD programs are capable of exporting DXF files, which
means that practically all maps generated using a CAD system can be imported by CadnaA. This feature, however, is limited to geometry data
other features and parameters are not imported. If necessary, this has to be
done in a second step using the database interface (see chapter 6.5 "Import
via ODBC Interface").
CAD systems can be used in a very flexible manner. Designers are free in
their definition of objects. Buildings need not necessarily be drawn as
closed polygon. The simplest representation consists of four individual
walls (lines). Often, heights are not given, as for many maps two-dimensional representations are sufficient.
To ensure proper interpretation of the DXF data by CadnaA, observe the
following hints:

Allocate all drawing elements belonging to one acoustical object type


in CadnaA to one layer.

Prior to saving the DXF file, all those elements should be removed
from the drawing (such as lettering, structural elements etc.), which are
not required for the representation of the object in CadnaA. (A lettering, e. g., is imported as a set of vectors in many small sections. This
results in more memory being used than actually necessary, which, in
turn, slows down work with your file.).

Points, such as point sources and receiver points, are exported with x,
y, and z coordinates. When CadnaA imports them, the z co-ordinate is
interpreted as absolute height.

All lines must be saved as polygon lines.

Any object represented as a closed polygon in CadnaA (buildings, area


sources, built-up areas, foliage etc.) is to be represented by a closed
polygon line. For three-dimensional objects, such as buildings, the z
coordinate of each point means the absolute height of the roof. The

Manual

6.4.2 1

Hints for importing data


using the DXF
format
6.4.2

6.4.2

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


AutoCad-DXF

polygon, therefore, defines the outline of the roof area.

Save open lines such as roads, railways, line sources etc. as open polygon lines.

In the case of roads, only the axis (centre line) can be used as a DXF
element. If the axis of several tracks are saved as lines, CadnaA will
accordingly display several parallel roads. In this case, you would have
to assign to each road the width of one of the tracks, and the traffic density applicable to that track. It is therefore much simpler just to import
the main axis of the road and then specify the road cross section as a
parameter.

Our DXF format will intercept some of the individual inputs made by
CAD users. To be able to interpret a polygon as, e. g., a building, CadnaA
requires that the polygon is closed. CadnaA will therefore assume a building to be a closed polygon, although its walls, in the CAD system, are represented by individual lines with, however, identical first and last points
(which, a priori, is not a closed polygon). If the pertinent layer name is given, the polygon is then imported as a building.
Block saving is also supported by the CadnaA DXF format, and the objects are processed accordingly.
see also chapter 11.6.5 Closing Buildings
File extension DXF 6.4.2

File names in DXF format have the extension DXF.

Import Options

6.4.2

Use Object Heights for


Polylines

Object layer (see chapter 6.3.1)


Import only in a Section (see chapter 6.3.2)
Transformation (see chapter 6.3.4)
Use Object heights for Polylines
Import Blocks as Points
Import DXF-Handle as Name

With the activated option CadnaA adds the z-height and the object height
from the DXF file, and defines this height as object height in CadnaA.

Manual

6.4.2 3

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


AutoCad-DXF

In a CAD program the layer of an object is, e.g., defined by 15 m, the object height by 20 m. This is in CadnaA an object height of 35 m, absolute.

Example

With the activated option for the DXF-Import only, the "Insertion points"
of the blocks will be imported.

Import Blocks as Points

In a CAD program if height points are drawn as crossing lines and defined
as block, CadnaA will import crosses instead of intersection points if the
option is deactivated.

Example

Sometimes DXF files contain identifiers (ID) so-called Handle. Importing these in CadnaA is only useful if you also want to import interconnected parameters located in a separate database. The ID is the connecting
element between the graphic objects from the DXF file and the parameters
from the database (see chapter 6.5 "Import via ODBC Interface").

Import DXF-Handle
as Name

So, activate this option if the mentioned condition is to be fulfilled.


After importing the DXF file the Handle is entered automaticly in the Name box in the object dialog. Before you merge the data from a database via
the ODBC interface you have to hand over the Handle from the Name
into the ID box of CadnaA.
For that, use the command from the context menu Modify Object|Swap
Name/ID.

Swap Name/ID

Following a DXF import example in which two height references are contained in a file.

Example

Following situation: you get a DXF file in which are saved buildings with
two heights - the base point height and the object height.

DXF Import with


two heights

The base point height shall be imported for the digital terrain modell
(DTM) as contour lines.
The following procedure is started with File|Import|File format|AutoCad DXF:

Manual

6.4.2

6.4.2

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


AutoCad-DXF

The DXF file has to be imported twice with the below mentioned option
settings.
Contour line - Layer: e.g. xyz (or more layer names which include buildings, too - e.g. xyz|zyx|micky. . . .)

1. Import action

Aux. Polygon - Layer: *


Option: Use Object height for Polylines - not activated!
6

Close the dialog with OK - the file will be imported.


2. Import action:

6.4.2

Building - Layer: xyz


Contour lines - No import!
Aux. Polygon - No import!
Option: Use Object height for Polylines now activated
Close the dialog with OK - the file will be imported.

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


AutoCad-DXF

6.4.2 5

Thats it.
But there are probably too many contour lines imported with a slight
height difference which is surely not useful. If necessary, thin the contour
line model by deleting them or eliminate polygon points from the contour
lines with the function Modify Objects|Action: Simplify Geometry from
the context menu (see chapter 5.7.11) or generate new contour lines by
calculating a ground model (see chapter 10.8).

Manual

6.4.2

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


AutoCad-DXF

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


ArcView

6.4.3

6.4.3 1

ArcView

ArcView files are shape files which were generated as exported files from
the ESRI company's Geographic Information System (GIS) using ArcView or ArcInfo software.
Possible import options:

Object Layer (see chapter 6.3.1)


Transformation (see chapter 6.3.4)

The GIS system is based on layers and themes. These themes are labelled
and contain objects to be specified by the user. The themes "Buildings.shp", e. g., might comprise all buildings in a city, or "Traffic Systems.shp" might include all roads.
Via the ArcView format, CadnaA is capable of exporting shape files and
importing these files, while at the same time allocating the GIS objects to
the appropriate CadnaA objects by entering the themes in the allocation
list (Options button).
Lines (ISO-dB) and areas with equal sound sources (noise map) and the
calculated receiver grid can also be exported to ArcView or ArcInfo. Data
exchange with the ArcView GIS system is thus guaranteed.
In total you will get three files with the same name but different extensions:

the shape file with the extension shp which comprises the geometrical object data;

the database file with the extension dBf with object attributes like,
e.g., object height, MDTD of a road (Mean Daily Traffic Density),
SCS/Distance of a road (Standard Cross Section) or the sound emission
level etc.;

and a so-called index file with the extension shx.

For the importation, these files have to be placed together in the same directory.

Manual

6.4.3

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


ArcView

In the dialog Import Options enter the theme/file name without the extension shp as the layer name for the appropriate object type. The data
being imported is then allocated to that object type under CadnaA.
Clicking OK closes the dialog and imports the data.
Example Import of
Objects
6.4.3

Example of an import from ArcView into CadnaA:


You have at least three ArcView files in the Shape format (*.shp, *.shx,
*.dBf) and they are all in the same folder.
Within CadnaA import the shp-file with File|Import|File format: Arc
View. This file type comprises the geometrical object references.
After clicking the Option button you may allocate the ArcView files to the
appropriate object types by inputing the file names (themes) in the corresponding layer boxes. You may import several files simultanously.

Mark, if necessary, by multiple choice (see chapter 4.10 "Mouse Buttons"), the files you would like to import.

Afterwards click on the Option button.

Manual

6.4.3 3

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


ArcView

Enter the ArcView file name without the extension shp and - very
important - with an asterisk (*) behind the filename in the corresponding object type of the layer boxes. The data will be imported after
confirming and closing all dialogs with OK.

In this example data is being imported which is found in the files named
bahn-lin.shp and str-lin.shp.
During importation a code, a combination from the name of the shape file
(e.g. bahn-lin) and the record number (e.g. 001, 002, 003 etc.), will be assigned to the objects automatically and displayed in the ID box in the object
edit dialog in, thus "bahn-lin001", bahn-lin002 etc.

Automatic ID
definition

If further object parameters are available e.g. SCS/Distance of a road,


MDTD or also the building height, if this attribute has not already been
imported from the shp-file, they usually will be simultanously exported
into the file with the dBf extension. You may also import this data into
CadnaA via the ODBC interface (see chapter 6.5).

Parameter importation
via ODBC interface

In this case you have to assign, among others, the Attribute ID to (table+recno) from the Table Column list in order to merge the attributes
with corresponding objects with the matching IDs.

Match ID

Manual

6.4.3

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


ArcView

Swap Name/ID

If the ArcView dBf-file contains a different ID which you want to use you
may import this ID temporarily in the object field Name and swap the Name with the ID after importing it with the function from the context menu
Modify Object|Action: Swap Name/ID (see chapter 5.7.1).

Bitmap files

If Bitmap files also being delivered by ArcView, and if they are geo referenced, you may import these files with the file format Bitmap without having to calibrate them again.

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Atlas GIS

6.4.4

6.4.4 1

Atlas GIS

The extension of the file format AtlasGis is BNA.


Import options:

Object Layer (see chapter 6.3.1)


Import only in Section (see chapter 6.3.2)
Transformation (see chapter 6.3.4)
6

Manual

6.4.4

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Atlas GIS

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Sicad Files

6.4.5

6.4.5 1

Sicad Files

The allocation of the imported data to the object types is managed by the
layer names in CadnaA (see chapter 6.3.1). The layers in Sicad format are
called levels.
When doing so, please note:
You may enter four different parameters for one layer name. These four
parameters are written in capital letters so as to be separated from each
other for better alignment as follows:
Parameter

Explanation

Example

Level no.

E3

Line Style

M1

Line width

S5

Element type

KR = Circle, LI =
Line

A possible entry in the layer column in CadnaA would be:


E15M1S7TKR
If necessary, references concerning a coordinate transformation may be
entered.

Manual

6.4.5

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Sicad Files

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


EDBS

6.4.6

6.4.6 1

EDBS

The EDBS file format is a standard file format in many surveying-offices.


Importation options:

Object Layer (see chapter 6.3.1)


Import only in Section (see chapter 6.3.2)
Transformation (see chapter 6.3.4)
6

Manual

6.4.6

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


EDBS

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


WINPUT-DGM Files

6.4.7

WINPUT-DGM Files

The WINPUT-DGM file is a special Ascii file format which either contains coordinates of height points (one x-y-coordinate pair per row) or contour lines (more then one x-y-coordinate pair per row). The data can be
directly imported as a digital terrain model in CadnaA.
When calculating the sound propagation, ground attenuation and screening
will also be taken into account for height points if Triangulation is choosen for the terrain model in Calculation|Configuration|TGM (see chapter 12.4.7).

Manual

6.4.7 1

Height Points

6.4.7

6.4.7

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


WINPUT-DGM Files

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Stratis

6.4.8

6.4.8 1

Stratis

Stratis is a program system for road construction and civil engineering by


RIB company .
To export data from STRATIS and import it into CadnaA the following
formats are recommended for the corresponding objects:

in STRATIS

in CADNAA

Object

Export format

Import format

Roads

Soundplan SCA-file

Stratis

Contour lines

Soundplan SCA-file

Stratis

Dam-/Embankment lines

Soundplan SCA-file

Stratis

Build up Area

DXF

DXF

If necessary refer to the STRATIS manual for the mentioned export formats.

For better understanding open the example file Sca_hl.cna in


CadnaA and import the file S1.sca with File|Import|File format
STRATIS.

After a STRATIS file with road axis and embankment has been imported
within a CadnaA project with an existing terrain model. It had been necessary to delete the existing contour lines between road and embankment
base line by hand. This procedure is now automated to some extent.

Manual

 Sca_hl.cna and S1.sca

6.4.8

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Stratis

Example: terrain model with imported road and embankment base line from Stratis

When importing in CadnaA a closed auxiliary polygon is automatically


laid over the imported embankment base line of the road. If you open its
edit dialog with a double-click you can look up the identifier STRASSENRAUM in the ID box.
Close the edit dialog again and open with the RIGHT mouse key the context
menu of this auxililary polygon.

click on the command Break Lines and

again in the context menu Modify Object.

Choose the following in the opening dialog:

Action: Delete

the options inside and on the border of the polygon

and from the object list Contour Lines

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Stratis

6.4.8 3

Modify Object from the context menu of the auxiliary polygon

After confirming with OK click on the button All in the next dialog.

After deleting the contour lines between road and embankment base line.

Now all contour lines are deleted including the embankment base line.

Manual

6.4.8

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Stratis

Afterwards also delete the auxiliary polygon and the road, then

import the road again.

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


MapInfo

6.4.9

6.4.9 1

MapInfo

The import format MapInfo (MapInfo Corporation, USA) enables the


importing of so-called MIF files (Ascii) which contain the geometrical references for objects like, e.g., building coordinates.
The generally supplied Ascii data file with the extension MID contains
further parameters like, e.g., object height, MDTD, or road distances etc.
which you may import via the ODBC database interface (see chapter
6.4.9).
If this is a big file, open it in Excel or ACCESS first and save it again as
XLS or mdB format. If possible use an Excel driver or something else but
not a Ascii driver. Ascii-ODBC drivers work very slowly if the data volume is big.
How many columns and which kind of data these files contain can be
looked up in the third supplied file with the extension TAB. The column
headings are usualy missing in the MID file because this reference is included in the TAB file.
If necessary adapt the new saved file accordingly: In the first row write the
column headings, delete columns which are not needed etc. Use this adopted file for the import via the ODBC database interface.
Import options:

Object Layer (see chapter 6.3.1)


Transformation (see chapter 6.3.4)

Manual

6.4.9

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


MapInfo

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Import / Export of Tables listing number of Trains

6.4.10 1

6.4.10 Import / Export of Tables listing number


of Trains
Data on number of trains can be imported from text-files. During import it
has to be specified whether the data imported shall be copied to locally defined railway tracks or to library on number-of-trains.
The parameters have to be separated by TABs. The name of the track or of
the train list are in the first row (NOT=Number of Trains):
1. row:
name of track or train list
2. row:
Train_Type|NOT_Day|NOT_Evening|NOT_Night|Speed|...
Train_Length|Percentage_Disc_Brakes|Correction_Dfz|Selection_Train
3. row:
(empty line)

Remark: The last two parameters are just required for the German
calculation model (Schall 03). For all other methods these parameters
shall be zero.

Manual

6.4.10

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Import / Export of Tables listing number of Trains

Manual

6.4.11 1

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Special Formats

6.4.11 Special Formats


The import of Bitmaps only works correctly if the option BITMAP is
purchased (see see chapter 14.3.

Bitmap

6.4.11

With this import format (Deutsche Telekom MobilNet GmbH) you can import buildings and ArcView-Terrain-Grid.

T-Mobil

6.4.11

The file extension can vary, so that they cannot be used as a file filter in the
import dialog.

Transformation (see chapter 6.3.4)

Import options:

6.4.11

Special format from the program SLIP by Grolimund & Petermann AG,
Switzerland

Slip

6.4.11

Special Scandinavian file format.

SOSI

6.4.11

Special format for the environmental protection agency Lower Saxony.

Niedersachsen

6.4.11

United Kingdom National Transfer Format

NTF

6.4.11

Data interchange between programs for the calculation of sound propagation according to DIN 45687: Software products for the calculation of the
sound propagation outdoors Quality requirements and test conditions,
Juni 2004, Beuth-Verlag.

QSI

6.4.11

Import of complete project data of the program MITHRA - only possible if


the option Cadna-MITHRA is purchased.

MITHRA

6.4.11

Manual

6.4.11

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Special Formats

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Third-Party Programs

6.4.12 1

6.4.12 Third-Party Programs


With this format, files from the program LIMA by Ingenieurgesellschaft
Stapelfeld are imported.

Lima-Files

6.4.12

The files can have different file extensions like, e.g., ert, hge, ind,
spo, nut etc. and therefore cannot be used as a file filter for choosing
the files in the import dialog.
You can import all kinds of files simultanously with multiple choice.
With this format, files from the program SoundPlan by Braunstein and
Berndt are imported.

6
SoundPlan-Files (formerly Schallplan) 6.4.12

These files have no consistent extension and therefore cannot be used as a


file filter in the import dialog.
You can import all kind of files simultanously with multiple choice.
The ground heights are also imported from SoundPlan files (Geometry dialog|Option absolute Height/Ground at every point)
CadnaA imports SoundPlan receiver points as follows:

If SoundPlan receiver points are assigned to Reflex files, the option


Use next building will be activated in CadnaA automatically. This affects
the searching for buildings within 1,5 meters of the receiver point and assigns it the ground height of the next building facade. If no building is
found, the terrain model is evaluated.
If the receiver points arent assigned to any Reflex files, the control line
IHM will be appraised: The base at the receiver point will then be IHM under the Z-height (therefore the option Input of Value will be activated automatically). In case the IHM is not specified the standard of 2,8 m will be
applied.

Manual

Peculiarity

6.4.12

6.4.12

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Third-Party Programs

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Building Height Points

6.4.13 1

6.4.13 Building Height Points


Use this ASCII format to import building heights previously exported
from CadnaA using the export function of the same name, or obtained as a
separate file from the surveyor's office or the like. It may happen, however, that the file received shows the ground plans of the buildings and,
within these ground plans, points which merely provide information on the
height of these buildings. In the latter case, you will wish to allocate the
heights of these points to the respective buildings as easily as possible.
This can be managed by means of the File Import/Export function Building Height Points.

The ASCII file contains points with x-y-z coordinates which would lie within a building
ground plan. When importing, only the z-coordinates are considered, and the height is allocated to that building in whose ground plan the respective point lies.

Manual

6.4.13

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Building Height Points

It may happen that you adopt building ground plans from an automated
real-estate map where no height information is supplied. The heights
would then have to be determined in some way or another (e. g. by means
of local inspection or aerial survey, etc.).
Having determined the heights, possibly at great expense, and allocated
them manually to the buildings in your CadnaA file, you will of course
wish to keep the height information even if the building ground plans are
updated.
6

So before transcribing your building ground plans, first export the building
heights using the export format File|Export|Building Height Points, and
save them to an ASCII file by specifying a name.
Having updated your building ground plans, just re-import the heights previously exported using the function of the same name.

At the time of printing the manual, the format still had to be activated
by an entry in the Cadnaa.ini file. So if you do not find the entry
"Building Height Points" in your format list, please add the following
lines to your Cadnaa.ini. The format will then appear on the respective lists for selection.
[ImpExp]
Import=hhpkt
Export=hhpkt

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Ascii-Poly

6.4.14 1

6.4.14 Ascii-Poly
This Ascii format enables the importation of open or closed polylines with
several x-, y- and z-coordinates.
The format has three columns with or without a heading and separated
with TAB. One or two empty rows mark the begin of a new polygon (two
returns). Use a decimal point instead of comma.
The polygon will be imported as closed or open Auxiliary polygons . If
necessary convert these to the desired CadnaA object (see chapter
5.7.14).
The starting position is an Ascii-file with the extension TXT. If you have
only a MS-Excel file save it as Ascii file separated with TAB. The polygon
lines shall be contour lines.

6
Example
Import of Lines

 Contourlines.txt

In CadnaA choose File|Import|File format: Ascii-Poly, select the corresponding file and confirm the importation.

Manual

6.4.14

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Ascii-Poly

The open polylines will be imported automatically as Auxiliary polygons.


If you cannot see anything after the importation click on the icon Zoom to
Limits. Now convert the Auxiliary polygons into Contour lines. Therefore click with the right mouse key on a free spot in your graphics and select from the context menu Modify Objects|Action: Convert to. Select
the object type Auxiliary polygon and confirm with OK. In the following
dialog Convert Objects to select Contour Lines and confirm with OK
again. With that the polygons are converted into contour lines.
Example
Import of Areas

Starting position is a Ascii-File with the extension TXT with three columns separated with TAB and the individual polygons separated with one
or two empty rows each. Pay attention on the decimal digits, they must be
separated with a dot. The column headers will not be utilized. The closed
polygons shall be Foliage.

Manual

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Ascii-Poly

6.4.14 3
 Areazones.txt

In CadnaA choose File|Import|File format: Ascii-Poly, select the corresponding file and confirm the importation.

The polylines will be imported automatically as closed Auxiliary polygons.

Manual

6.4.14

Chapter 6.4 Import Formats


Ascii-Poly

If you cannot see anything after the importation click on the icon Zoom to
Limits. Now convert the Auxiliary polygons into Foliage. Therefore
click with the right mouse key on a free spot in your graphics and select
from the context menu Modify Objects|Action: Convert to. Select the
object type Auxiliary polygon and confirm with OK. In the following dialog Convert Objects to select Foliage and confirm with OK again. With
that the polygons are converted.
see also chapter 10.7 Import Ascii-File as Height Points.
6

Manual

Chapter 6 Import
Import via ODBC Interface

6.5

6.5 1

Import via ODBC Interface

With CadnaA menu File|Database you may import data from different
data sources via ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) in your project file.
Via this interface you may also import coordinates for geometrical object
points in CadnaA like point sources, tennis sources and crossing lights.
For line or area shaped objects in CadnaA you have to import the geometry from a geografical information system (GIS) like, e.g., AtlasGis, Winput DGM (Digitales Terrain Model), MapInfo or as DXF format (6.4
Import Formats). In this case you have to link the geometrical objects with
their data to their ID (see chapter 5.5.3) to match the right data.
Which objects, or which object data, you may import via the ODBC interface can be infered from the menu File|Database|Definition|Object typs.
If you wish to access the database interface, make sure the desired ODBC
drivers are installed properly on your system. They are not necessarily installed during a default Windows software setup. As a rule, however, this
can be done later by means of a setup program. Please refer to your software manual to find out whether an ODBC interface is available for your
database program. Such an interface is available for MS Access, dBase,
Excel, Paradox, FoxPro, Oracle, etc., to name only a few.
The Control Panel of your system (Main Group in the Program Manager) usually tells you if ODBC drivers are installed on your system, or database connections have been set up.

If necessary, double-click the pertinent icon and install the desired drivers,
or configure database connections.

Manual

6.5

Chapter 6 Import
Import via ODBC Interface

In other words: It is not sufficient just to have the drivers on your system.
The database with the table from which you wish to adopt the parameters
must also be configured (assign the ODBC driver to the desired database).
Only then will the selected data source appear on the list.

ODBC data source administrator started in the program manager|main group

The displayed dialogs may deviate from yours. They depend on the
installed ODBC version. In that case proceed analogously or look it
up your Windows manual.

You can then access this list under CadnaA by selecting File|Database|Definition. But you also may connect your database in CadnaA directly with that menu function.

Manual

Chapter 6 Import
Import via ODBC Interface

6.5 3

ODBC data source dialog started in CadnaA File|Database|Definition

First, select the data source in the Database dialog by clicking the card index icon. Then click the data source corresponding to your database. In
our example, this is an Excel file named EXCEL1 (data source). Then close the dialog by clicking OK.
In this Excel file, a section named "Road" (database table) was defined,
containing the road parameters to be imported. This table the pertinent
section of the Excel file is now accessible.
Next, before selecting a table from the specified database, select the object
type ("Road" in our example) for which the parameters are to be imported.
Then click the Import Object Type check box and select the table from
the Table list box.

Manual

6.5

Chapter 6 Import
Import via ODBC Interface

Then double-click in the Attribute column in the Assign Column section


that row for which data exists, and click the pertinent column name of the
selected database table to allocate it to the object attribute in CadnaA.

You always have to import the object geometry first before you can link
the pertinent object parameter. The connective element between the geometry and the data is therefore the matching ID. The ID can be seen in the
object edit dialog (see chapter 5.5.1) or in the corresponding tables. If necessary, allocate the ID with the function Change Column from the context menu in CadnaA or in the database directly.
Upon completion of the column allocation, and after closing the dialog by
clicking OK, the data can be imported using the command File|Database|Import.

Manual

Chapter 6 Import
Import via ODBC Interface

For importing, specify whether you want to update existing objects and/or
to insert new objects. Both check boxes may be activated at the same time
but the importation may be faster if only one of the option is activated at
one time.
In chapter 2.5 Attributes and Abbreviations the attribute names are listed
each with a brief description which CadnaA uses on the Column Assign
table of the Database dialog. Where the same attribute name is used with
several object types, the explanation applies analogously.
For an Ascii import example see chapter "ODBC Import Ascii".

Manual

6.5 5

6.5

Chapter 6 Import
Import via ODBC Interface

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 7 Digitalize
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 7 Digitalize

Manual

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Contents

7.1 1

Chapter 7 Digitalize

7.1 Contents
7.2

Digitizer

7.3

Digitizing

7.4

Example: Digitizing a Road

7.5

Tablet Menu

Manual

7.1

Chapter 7 DigitalizeContents

Manual

7.2 1

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Digitizer

7.2

Digitizer

If the digitizer has been connected to the computer and configured, you
can digitize the coordinates of all objects (sound sources, such as roads,
parking lots, railways, receiver points, buildings, etc.) directly from the
map. In doing so, you can change at any time between digitizer magnifier,
mouse, and keyboard without having to expressly switch from one to the
other.
Upon clicking the Digitizer command on the File menu, you can select the
digitizer to be used, and configure it. The digitizer menu on the icon bar is
only available when the digitizer has been connected and configured.

Select the appropriate digitizer from the Type list box. The default setting
after installation of CadnaA is "Auto": Most digitizers are automatically
recognised. Try this setting first. Only if the system does not recognise
your digitizer, select its type from the list box.
If the WINTAB driver is installed on your system, CadnaA will recognise
this. In this case, the WINTAB driver will configure the digitizer, and you
must specify the settings there.
You can check the success of the configuration before first using the digitizer (see further below in this chapter).

Manual

Type

7.2

7.2

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Digitizer

Note:
Before calling our hotline, devote some attention to your digitizer's
manual, configure the interface or the options, and try out the modified settings. Please remember that most digitizers also allow settings
to be made at the device itself. The recommended settings are displayed when you click the INFO button on the Digitizer dialog. If all
else fails, we will be pleased to help you.

Interface

7.2

Once a digitizer has been selected from the list of types, all settings except
the port that remains to be selected should be correct. You can still modify
the settings. To this end, select the appropriate value on the pertinent list
box. You can check the functioning of the digitizer before first using it by
clicking the Test button.

Test

7.2

1.

Test correct co-ordinate transfer:


Continuously increasing x and y values should be displayed on the
screen while you move the magnifier in a preferably straight line
from the left to the right, across the tablet, and from the bottom to the
top of the tablet, respectively, without pressing a button.
If this is not so, the settings are not yet correct.

2.

Test the magnifier buttons:


The check boxes corresponding to Buttons 1 through 4 should be
checked when you press the respective buttons on the magnifier.
CadnaA uses buttons 1 and 4 only. Button 1 is used to select a toolbar
icon, and to position polygon points. Button 4 serves to terminate the
insertion.

Manual

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Digitizer

When you press a magnifier button, the corresponding Button check


box in the dialog is activated to show you which button is button 1
and button 4 to CadnaA. The button designation need not be the
same as on the magnifier.
If, e. g., button 0 on the magnifier is pressed, and Button 1 is checked
in the dialog, button 0 on the magnifier is button 1 to CadnaA .

Manual

7.2 3

7.2
Options

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Digitizer

7.2

Clicking the Options button on the Digitizer dialog opens the bottom part
of the dialog.

In case an installed digitizer fails to function properly, enter further device


parameters in the option boxes. These depend on the device used. Guidance is given in the instruction manual of your digitizer.
7

Initial
strings:

7.2

\HexHex

represents arbitrary, and also not


printable, Ascii characters like

\1b

for Esc character

\xx

pause of 0.1 sec (for some devices


necessary)

Resolution

7.2

If the resolution of the digitizer is given in Lines per inch (lpi) or Lines per
millimetre (lpmm), the dialog will display the scale of the map for checking, once the reference points have been digitized. If more than two reference points are digitized, two values are given for checking.

Info

7.2

Depending on the type of digitizer selected from the list of types, you can
click the Info button on the Digitizer dialog to find out the recommended
hardware settings on the digitizer itself. Many digitizers allow for saving
different configurations for different applications. These configurations
can then be reactivated by pushing a button. (Please refer to the instruction
manual of your digitizer.)

Manual

7.2 5

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Digitizer

Upon clicking this button, a terminal program is opened showing you the
commands the digitizer sends when it is switched on. This information
may be important if a digitizer that seems to be properly configured does
not work.

Terminal

7.2

Once the digitizer test has been completed successfully, and all settings
have been made, you can start digitizing.

Manual

7.2

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Digitizer

Manual

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Digitizing

7.3

7.3 1

Digitizing

Use a map - one with a scale of, e. g., 1:1,000 to digitize the objects

In order to be able to digitize objects from a map, you must know either
the scale or the co-ordinates of at least two reference points on the map.
This allows you to enter or calculate the width and height (limits) of the
map in terms of coordinates.

Manual

7.3

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Digitizing

At least these limits must be defined on the CadnaA Options menu. (see
Chapter 13.2 ).
In the case of the map above, the limits would be defined by the lower-left
corner, 0/0, and the upper-right corner, 308/415. This comprises the entire
map.
If you know only the scale - 1:1,000 for example - you can draw a reference line of 10 cm on the map, and enter the coordinates of its first and last
points.

With the scale as given above, the reference line is 100 m. If you were to
position this reference line at the lower-left corner of the map, you could
enter this point as having x and y coordinates 0/0. The last point of the reference line would then have the coordinates 100/0. These points would
then be the reference points for this map.
The more reference points are given - the maximum being four - the smaller the deviations in the position coordinates of the objects to be digitized.
In order to start digitizing, select the icon on the icon bar. In the dialog
which then opens, calibrate the map on the digitizer. To achieve this, you
need the reference points.

Manual

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Digitizing

7.3 3

First, enter the co-ordinates of the reference points. Up to four reference


points can be entered. These can be saved in the reference point list to be
re-used when the map is needed again later.
In order to save, click the Save button, enter a name, and close the "Save
Reference Points" dialog by clicking OK.
In order to re-use saved co-ordinates, click the list box arrow and select the
pertinent name. This results in the co-ordinates being written to the edit
boxes.
The option "Enter Tablet Menu" (see further below) allows direct activation of the toolbox objects in the CadnaA main window by means of the
digitizer. To this end, activate this option.
Having entered all required data - the tablet menu and the map to be digitized are lying on the digitizer - close the "Calibrate Digitizer" dialog by
clicking OK.
Cadna now expects you to enter the corresponding reference points by
clicking them on the map using the digitizer magnifier. The reference point
co-ordinates entered are also displayed during this process.
You can use the zoom magnifiers at your convenience. If necessary, first
zoom out in order to facilitate finding the reference point, then zoom in
again on the area, so as to allow precise clicking of the point.
If the option "Enter Tablet Menu" is active, you will be prompted to enter
further reference points defining the position of this menu on the digitizer.
If under File|Digitizer|Options, the resolution of the digitizer has been
specified, CadnaA will display the scale of the map for checking as soon
as all reference points have been digitized.
Now you can start digitizing the individual objects.
Please note: When inserting objects by digitizing, you can choose

to start by entering all co-ordinate points belonging to one polygon


line, and assign heights to these points afterwards, or

Manual

7.3

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Digitizing

to enter the height of each polygon point immediately upon clicking it.

In this context, take a look at the following example

Manual

7.4 1

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Example: Digitizing a Road

7.4

Example: Digitizing a Road

Having entered an object, switch to the Edit mode, and open the edit dialog by double-clicking. Clicking the Geometry button opens the Geometry dialog containing a coordinate table in which the heights of the points
are entered.

First Option

We want to digitize a road. The common form for documentation of a road


indicates absolute heights at specific cross sections (see the figure below).

Second Option

356.5

358.3

10

11

12

360.4

In order to properly model the curvature of a polygon, we need to enter


points between these cross sections for which the heights are indicated.
This series of points is numbered on the figure. In the example, absolute
heights are known at points 1, 7, and 12. For all other points, which are
only required to properly model the curvature, heights are interpolated.
This calculation can be performed automatically by CadnaA.
1.

After clicking the road icon or pressing CTRL+S, we digitize the first
two points.

2.

We switch to the edit mode by pressing CTRL+E.

3.

Having double-clicked the polygon line generated on the screen, we


can enter the parameters for this section.
Although you can also do this later, it is recommended we enter all
parameters immediately because CadnaA adopts these values for the
following polygon points until you enter new values. In this example,
the cross section b2 is chosen from the list.

Manual

7.4

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Example: Digitizing a Road

4.

We enter all parameters. Then we click the Geometry button and


activate Enter Absolute Height At Each Point.

5.

Double-clicking on the first row of the coordinate table opens the


dialog in which we can enter additional coordinates, the center-line/
axis distance of the outermost tracks, if necessary, and the transverse
slope, if any exists.

Manual

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Example: Digitizing a Road

6.

7.4 3

By either
-

skipping from one box to the next using the TAB key, or
dragging the mouse pointer over the z value with the LEFT
mouse button held down, or
double-clicking,

the current value is selected (highlighted).

7.

Enter the desired z value and, after using the TAB key, the transverse
slope, if any exists.

8.

Switch to the next point by pressing the arrow button.


It may be faster using the keyboard. The hotkey ALT+SHIFT+ >
(move forward through list) bring us to the next point where we can
immediately enter the next value in the box already selected. When
using the hotkey, we will always automatically hop to the last edited
box on the preceding record.

If we do not know the height and wish CadnaA to calculate the


unknown height, we delete the value in the z co-ordinate box using
the DEL or SPACE key. The box must be blank.
CadnaA then provides interpolated values. We can check this by re-

Manual

7.4

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Example: Digitizing a Road

opening the geometry dialog when all points have been entered.
9.

We press ALT+N with the coordinate dialog still open (or we click the
New button) to create a new point.

10. Click this third point on the digitizer tablet using the digitizer magnifier. The coordinates in the active dialog are updated (when a new
point is created, its x and y coordinates are set to 0/0).
11. Enter the height of the third point from the keyboard, or delete it (the
value on the Height box is already selected).
7

12. Proceed as from 10. ....ALT+N .... etc. until all points have been digitized.

If a track distance and/or a transverse slope is given in the Geometry


table, the program will adopt these values for all following polygon
points until we insert a new value. All subsequent points are then
assigned the new value. For those points, for which the preceding
value applies, no value is listed on the table.
Consequently, when calculating, the preceeding value is taken into
account for an empty box in the table in the column Distance (m)
and Slope (%).

Manual

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Tablet Menu

7.5

7.5 1

Tablet Menu

The tablet menu consists of the toolbox icons which are suitable for digitizing.

7
CadnaA Tablet menu

The file TABMENU.BMP on the CD-ROM contains these icons. You can
open and print this file using an appropriate application (such as PAINT or
PAINTBRUSH from the Windows accessories group). Put this hard copy
on your tablet. This allows you to switch to the desired mode and to select
the appropriate object by means of the digitizer magnifier on the tablet instead of using the mouse pointer on the screen. The reference points P1,
P2, and P3 of the tablet menu must be clicked when the digitizer is calibrated (see above in this chapter).

Manual

7.5

Chapter 7 Digitalize
Tablet Menu

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 8 Sources
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 8 Sources

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Contents

8.1 1

Chapter 8 Noise Sources

8.1 Contents
8.2

General and Special Sources

8.3

Point Source

8.4

Line Source

8.5

Area Source

8.6

The Edit Dialog of a Source

8.6.1
8.6.2
8.6.3
8.6.4
8.6.5
8.6.6
8.6.7
8.6.8

A-weighted Emission Value


normalised A
Emission Spectrum
Sound Reduction Sound Radiation from Building Facades
Sound-radiating Area (m)
Attenuation
Operating Time
Ko without Ground

8.7

Directional Sound Radiation

8.7.1

Sound Radiation from Chimney Outlets


or Stacks with directivity
Sound Radiation from Building Elements and Openings According to AL
Frequency-dependent Directivity, General

8.7.2
8.7.3

Manual

8.1

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Contents

8.8

Tennis Point of Serve

8.9

Roads

8.9.1
8.9.2
8.9.3
8.9.4
8.9.5
8.9.6
8.9.7
8.9.8

Specification of Road Widths


Lateral Slope
Emission in dB(A)
Traffic Density
Speed Limit (km/h)
Road Surface
Road Gradient (%)
Correction for Multiple Reflections

8.10

Crossings with Traffic Lights

8.11

Long Straight Roads

8.12

Railways

8.12.1
8.12.2
8.12.3
8.12.4
8.12.5

Emission Level dB(A)


Train Classes
Train Classes User-defined
Traffic-Count Calculator
Purge Lists of Numbers-of-Trains

8.13

Parking Places

8.14

Pass-by Levels for Line Sources with


the Noise Levels Time History

8.15

Optimized Area Sources

8.16

CadnaA-SET Option

Manual

8.2 1

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


General and Special Sources

8.2

General and Special Sources

In the calculation CadnaA is capable of taking into account the emissions


of general sources (see there) in combination with single-number or frequency-dependent values. After a frequency-dependent calculation, the
rating level or the respective evaluation parameters (see Chapter 12.4.6) at
the receiver point will also be given in frequency bands.

General Sources

Spectra are entered in the local or global libraries (see Chapter 16.2), and
are referred to in the edit dialog of the source by entering their ID (see
Chapter 5.5.3). Spectra may have different weightings.
Special sources, such as

Roads (see Chapter 8.9)


Railways (see Chapter 8.12)
Parking Places (see Chapter 8.13)
Traffic Lights (see Chapter 8.10)
Tennis Serve Points (see Chapter 8.8)

require either an input of an emission value (Lme) or other parameters


from which the emission value is calculated (parameters, e.g., such as
MDTD, counts, speeds, or train classes). These parameters are usually
necessary according to the selected guideline or standard.
For the insertion of objects, please refer to chapter 5.3 "Insert Objects".
The general sources like

Point, (see Chapter 8.3)


Line (see Chapter 8.4) and
Area Sources (see Chapter 8.5), horizontal and vertical,

can be used to simulate various noise sources, including the sound radiation from buildings. They can also have a directional sound ratiation (see
Chapter 8.7).
By specifying an object snap (see Chapter 13.5), the point and vertical area
sources are placed at a user-defined distance in front of the building fa-

Manual

Special
Sources

8.2

8.2

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


General and Special Sources

cade. This serves to prevent any source from erroneously being placed inside a building.
For an explanation of the parameters, see Chapter 8.6 "The Edit Dialog of
a Source"

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Point Source

8.3

8.3 1

Point Source

Position the mouse pointer and click in order to place the point source at
the desired location. The source is represented by a cross.

graphic presentation of the point source

Point sources are noise sources whose dimensions are small in comparison
to the distance from the point sources to the receiver points. Examples are
ventilation inlets and outlets, pumps, motors, and people shouting.
8

Manual

8.3

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Point Source

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Line Source

8.4

8.4 1

Line Source

Line sources are open polygons.


Line sources are noise sources extending in only one direction, while the
dimensions in the other two orthogonal directions are small as compared
to the distance to the receiver points. Examples are pipelines, conveyor
belts, and traffic routes on a factory site.
When performing a calculation for an receiver point, CadnaA subdivides
the line source in a two-step procedure: First, the line source is subdivided
into sections being shielded and sections not being shielded by any of the
shielding objects lying between the receiver point and the source (see
Chapter 12.2.3 "The Projection Method for extended Sound Sources").
Then, in the second step, the distance between the receiver point and each
section is determined and, if the length of a section exceeds the mandatory
distance criterion, a further subdivision is made.

Manual

8.4

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Line Source

Manual

8.5 1

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Area Source

8.5

Area Source

Area sources are closed polygons.


Area sources are noise sources extending in two perpendicular directions,
while the dimension in the third perpendicular direction is small in relation
to the distance from the area source to the immission points.
Area sources are plane surfaces surrounded by a closed line which you
may imagine as a fine grid of point sources. This is also what CadnaA
does during the calculation: The area is subdivided into sufficiently small
partial areas, each of which is replaced at the centre by a substitute point
source with the appropriate partial sound power.
8
Horizontal area sources are inserted by entering their horizontal projection.

Area Source
horizontal

8.5

Area Source
vertical

8.5

Examples of area sources are parking lots (see Chapter 8.13), sports facilities, and even entire industrial or commercial areas.

Vertical area sources are inserted by entering their horizontal projection as


an open polygon line.
When performing a calculation for an receiver point, CadnaA subdivides
the area source in a two-step procedure: First, the area source is subdivided
into partial areas being shielded and partial areas not being shielded by any
of the shielding objects lying between the receiver point and the source
(see Chapter 12.4.4 "Projection of:"). Then, in the second step, the distance between the receiver point and each partial area is determined and, if
the largest dimension of a partial area exceeds the mandatory distance criterion, a further subdivision is made.

Manual

8.5

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Area Source

Geometric definition of the vertical area source

If, e. g., a window, as illustrated below, is to be considered as a sound-radiating area, enter the window in the horizontal projection by inserting the
vertical area source as a polygon line at a short distance in front of the facade. For a clear distinction, a distance of approximately 0.05 m is appropriate. This distance is automatically obtained by specifying it on the
Object Snap dialog (see Chapter 13.5 Options|Object Snap).
Building

Vertical area source

Vertical area source in front of a facade

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Area Source

8.5 3

In the edit dialog of the vertical area source, specify the position of the top
edge under Geometry|Height. As with any other object, this height may
be given as relative or absolute value, or with respect to the roof of a building (the latter being particularly convenient when entering vents for a lantern roof). The bottom edge is then specified according to the z dimension
as illustrated.
Complicated outlines of vertical sound-radiating areas are approximated
by several rectangular areas.
For the calculation, the vertical area source is replaced by a series of line
sources with a spacing of 1 m. These are then subdivided into sections as
described above.
8

Manual

8.5

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Area Source

Manual

8.6 1

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


The Edit Dialog of a Source

8.6

The Edit Dialog of a Source

The resulting sound power level for the three time periods Day | Evening |
Night is influenced by the following settings on the edit source dialog:

Type
Hz
Correction
PWL, PWL, PWL
Sound Reduction
Attenuation
Area (m)
normalised A:
8

The noise level is calculated and displayed when you enter the parameters.
The edit dialog of a point source is described below by means of an example. It is representative for all other general sources.
The only difference between a line source and an area source is that for the

line source
you may choose to enter the emission value in terms of the total sound
power level, PWL, or the sound power level per unit length (per
meter), PWL

area source, horizontal or vertical


you may choose to enter the emission value in terms of the total sound
power level, PWL, or the sound power level per unit area (per square
meter), PWL'.

If the sound power level per unit length, PWL, is entered for a line source,
or the sound power level per unit area, PWL, is entered for an area
source, the total sound power level resulting from the dimensions of the
source in question is displayed as Result PWL.
As the height of the terrain at the polygon points is not yet known when
the values are entered, this total sound power level will, if relative heights
were used, refer to the horizontal projection of the source. Consequently, it

Manual

Result PWL

8.6

8.6

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


The Edit Dialog of a Source

is not yet correct for inclined line or area sources. During the calculation,
however, even in this case, the absolute height at the polygon points is calculated, and the correct total sound power level is determined.

Consequence: If sound power levels per unit length or unit area are
entered for inclined line or area sources whose heights were given as
relative coordinates, the total value displayed under Result PWL is
not yet correct. It will be so, however, after the first calculation.

To be able to follow the example below, you should be familiar with

the basic techniques (see Chapter 5 Basics) and


the handling of local and global libraries (see Chapter 16.2).

Manual

8.6 3

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


The Edit Dialog of a Source

Insert a point source, and enter the values shown in the figure. Watch
the effect of single parameters being modified on the calculated emission value Result PWL.

Example: Point
Source

8.6

Enter a Name characterising the type of source. It should be a short


name because it will appear in the first column of the list of point
sources.

Also enter an ID code. This will be the actual identifier of the data
record to be refered to for different purposes, such as grouping (see
Chapter 18.2).

In the list Type we can switch between Single band and Spectrum

Choose Single band (Spectrum see Chapter 8.6.3)

Manual

Type Single band /


Spectrum

8.6

8.6

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


The Edit Dialog of a Source

Manual

8.6.1 1

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


A-weighted Emission Value

8.6.1

A-weighted Emission Value

By default the following options are available depending on the source


type:

with point sources: sound power level PWL,

with line sources: sound power level PWL, sound power level per unit
length PWL' or sound power level PWL-Pt of a moving point source,

with area sources: sound power level PWL, sound power level per unit
area PWL" or sound power level PWL-Pt of a moving point source.

This box may contain a single-number value, the reference to a spectrum,


a combination of both, or even a formula.

If we select Single Band, the sound power level entered under PWL - 104
in the example - is interpreted as the total level. All frequency-dependent
calculations are performed for the frequency entered in the Hz box to the
right.

Single band

8.6.1

To consider different emissions for day-, evening- and night-time, you can
specify a Correction for each of these periods.

Correction

8.6.1

In the example, the night-time level is set to lie 10 dB(A) below the
day-time level by entering a correction of -10.

The total level resulting from all inputs - except for operating time and
K0 - which is used in the calculation of sound propagation is displayed under Result PWL.

In the PWL box you may enter a formula up to 15 characters.

If, as in the example, the Sound Reduction box is deactivated, the dialog
deals with the direct radiation of airborne sound from an outdoor source.
(See below for the radiation from buildings, which applies when the
Sound Reduction option is active.)

Manual

8.6.1

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


A-weighted Emission Value

In the Sound Reduction box you may enter a formula up to 15 characters.

If a number is entered under Attenuation, this value is interpreted as the


reduction in level occurring during propagation from the point where the
sound is generated to the point of radiation. It is, therefore, reduced from
the sound power level.
In the example, a fan having a daytime sound power level of 104 dB(A)
could be equipped with a downstream silencer reducing the sound power
level by 8 dB(A).

Enter 8 in the Attenuation box, and watch the change in the Result
PWL.

You may also enter complex formulas or the ID of a spectrum in the


Attenuation box. The maximum characters you may enter are 63.

In the present case, with different attenuations, the airborne sound radiated into a duct by the fan could be attenuated by, e. g., bends, changes in the
pipe cross section, fittings, and silencers. The remaining effective portion
of sound radiated from the outlet is then described in terms of the resulting
sound power level. To simulate this, enter, for example,
8+4+3.5+2
on the Attenuation line. You could, of course, determine a single-number
value from this sum and enter this directly, but giving the details as shown
above has the advantage that the formula, and thus the individual attenuations, will be recorded in the pertinent column of the source lists.
The line will, however, cope with far more complex formulas.

Try, e. g.,
((8+4+3.5+2)++23)-19

As described for other input boxes, ++ stands for the energy-equivalent (or
level) addition, and for the level subtraction.

Manual

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


A-weighted Emission Value

8.6.1 3

(see also Chapter 2.6 Operators and Functions)


To model a moving point source enter the PWL of the point source, the
number of events per hour Q and the speed (in km/h). Based on these data
the resulting sound power level PWL, and - with line sources - the sound
power level per unit length PWL', and - with area sources - the sound power level per unit area PWL'' is calculated. With area sources the speed is
not required.

Sound Power Level of a


PointSourcePWL-Pt8.6.1

Line source

PWL = PWLPt + 10 lg

Q
l
v
+ 10 lg
10 lg
30 dB
1
( m)
(km / h)
(h )

Q
v
PWL = PWLPt + 10 lg 1 10 lg
30 dB
(km / h)
(h )
Area source

PWL = PWLPt + 10 lg

Q
(h 1 )

Q
S
PWL = PWLPt + 10 lg 1 10 lg 2
(h )
(m )

Manual

8.6.2

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


normalised A

8.6.2

normalised A

When the checkbox normal. A: has been activated and a number has been
entered, a constant of K dB is subtracted from or added to the frequencyband levels resulting from the PWL so as to obtain that number as the total
A-weighted sound power level.

Manual

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Emission Spectrum

8.6.3

8.6.3 1

Emission Spectrum

Frequency-dependent calculations show what this concept is really capable of. All input options described in see Chapter 8.6.1 "A-weighted Emission Value" apply here, too. The only difference is that you can enter the
names (ID codes) of frequency spectra instead of numbers.
Let us assume that the following entries are listed in the local library (siehe
Chapter 16 Libraries) of sound levels (Tables|Libraries (local)):
Name

ID

Type
Weight. 31.5

Test Spectrum SP_001


Compressor 1 SP_002

Li
Li

Compressor 2 SP_003

Li

63

125

Oktave Spectrum (dB)


250
500 1000 2000

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
133.9 120.7 110.6 103.1
87.0

88.0

89.0

91.0

Source
4000

8000

lin

0.0
97.7

0.0
94.5

0.0
93.3

0.0
93.5

0.0
7.0
9.5 Example
95.6 104.0 134.1 Example

90.0

89.0

89.0

86.0

84.0

95.1

98.1 Example

where the total A-weighted levels are 7, 104 and 95.1 dB(A), and the spectra of sound reduction index:

Name

ID

Oktave Spectrum (dB)


31.5

63

125

250

500

1000

Source

2000

4000

8000

Rw

Silencer
R_SD_01
Cross Section Jump R_QS_95

0.5
4.0

2.8
4.0

5.4
4.0

7.8
5.0

9.5
5.0

12.4
5.0

12.2
6.0

11.5
5.0

11.4
5.0

12 Example
6 Example

R_Flap

0.0

4.5

4.8

5.0

5.8

5.4

4.5

4.0

4.0

6 Example

R_001

To follow the example, you may find it convenient to enter these


values.

To calculate with frequency spectra,

select Spectrum in the Type box in the edit dialog of a source.

By entering in the PWL box the ID code of compressor 1, you refer to that
spectrum.

Enter the string SP_002

 directly from the keyboard

Manual

8.6.3

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Emission Spectrum

or first alternative

 via the local library (click the card-index icon) by clicking the
second row and then OK to adopt it,
or second alternative

 via the global library. (Hold the SHIFT key down before clicking
the card-index icon.)
This alternative kills two birds with one stone.

*
8

By clicking a spectrum in the global library via an edit dialog of a


source, the data record of the spectrum is copied to the local library,
and its ID code is adopted in the PWL box.

The resulting frequency spectrum should now be displayed on the little


monitor window of the point source edit dialog.

If you were to click the card-index icon again to select a different spectrum, clicking OK would result in the existing entry being overwritten.
To add a second spectrum to the first by energy-equivalent addition, i. e,.
respecting the rules of level addition, you have to hold the CTRL key down
before clicking the card-index icon. Upon selection of a spectrum, its ID

Manual

8.6.3 3

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Emission Spectrum

code will be appended to the existing one with a ++ operator (which symbolises energy-equivalent level addition).
Of course, you can also enter this summing formula from the keyboard. As
you enter the formula, red colour indicates that the formula is not yet complete, or not yet in a condition that can be interpreted by CadnaA.
The monitor at the bottom right corner of the edit dialog displays the frequency spectrum. Click it to have the diagram shown with a different
weighting - Linear, A, B, C or D.

Spectrum
Montior

8.6.3

Manual

8.6.3

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Emission Spectrum

Manual

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Sound Reduction - Sound Radiation from Building Facades

8.6.4

8.6.4 1

Sound Reduction Sound Radiation from Building Facades

All types of general sources explained above can be used to simulate the
sound radiation from buildings. For example, you may simulate the slottype openings on all sides of a multi-storey garage (see Chapter "Modeling Multiple Storey Garages") by entering circumferential line sources.
In order to mark a building facade as a sound-radiating area, and to be able
to calculate the emission from the indoor level, activate Reduction on the
edit dialog of a sound source and enter in the pertinent box the sound reduction index in terms of a single number or the ID code of a spectrum for
a sound reduction index. All techniques for the selection of spectra from
the libraries and the handling of user-defined formulas, which were described under Point Source, apply as always.

If the checkbox Reduction is activated, but the Reduction is zero we must


enter the value 0. A sound level cannot be calculated if the field is empty.
(see Chapter 8.6.5 "Sound-radiating Area (m)")

Manual

8.6.4

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Sound Reduction - Sound Radiation from Building Facades

Manual

8.6.5 1

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Sound-radiating Area (m)

8.6.5

Sound-radiating Area (m)

For line and point sources which simulate radiating surfaces, the sound-radiating area must always be entered when the calculation is to be performed on the basis of an indoor level. To this end, click the check box,
and enter the relevant area.
For a vertical or horizontal area source, an input is only required where the
actual sound-radiating area differs from the geometrical area of the area
source.
The sound radiation from a glass facade is simulated by a vertical area
source in front of it. The massive parts of the facade, which do not radiate
sound, are accounted for by entering the area of the actual glass surfaces.
If the Area (m) check box is not activated, CadnaA considers the entire
area source in the calculation. Enter a value, if this is not desired.

Always watch the Result PWL. As long as it is set to 0, parameters


are still missing. When calculating on the basis of the indoor level,
this might be, e. g., the area or the sound reduction index.

The length (m) of the line source and the area of the area source (m) can
be seen in the Geometry dialog. For the vertical area source - drawn with
only two polygon points - this value is 0, as the area entered refers to the
horizontal projection. The area of this source can be seen after a calculation in the field Area (m) in the edit dialog.
You can specify the exact length of a line-like object (see Chapter 5.7.10).
See also Construct Building, Chapter 9.3.4 Generate a Building

Manual

Exampel

8.6.5

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Sound-radiating Area (m)

Manual

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Attenuation

8.6.6

8.6.6 1

Attenuation

The Attenuation box also allows you to combine arbitrary spectra retrieved from the local and global libraries (see Chapter "Chapter 16 Libraries") by making reference to their ID codes. For two changes in cross
section and one silencer, the dialog could look like the one illustrated below.

Manual

8.6.6

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Attenuation

Manual

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Operating Time

8.6.7

8.6.7 1

Operating Time

If the check box Operating Time is not activated, no time-interval correction is taken into account. This means that the entered noise emission is
constant over the entire reference time (see Chapter 12.4.5). Recreationtime penalties are only applied if combined evaluation parameters (see
Chapter 12.4.6) are calculated like Lden, Lde, Ldn, Len.
If, on the other hand, the check box is activated when performing a calculation, the time intervals entered under Day/Recreation(Evening)/Night
are considered as the operating times of the source. In this case also a penalty is added to the level for the time period entered in the
Calculation|Configuration|Reference Time tab if the evaluation parameter is a combined value like Lden, Lde, Ldn etc.
Consequently the applied time-interval correction results from the operating times entered and the reference time defined globally under the calculation configuration. This gives you sufficient flexibility to apply any
method of assessment.
see also:
Special Reference Time for Industry see Chapter 12.4.5 and
Compatibility mode for Industry (Recr./Evening is added to Day incl. Penalty) Chapter 12.4.6 Absatz "Evaluation Parameter Tab"

Manual

8.6.7

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Operating Time

Manual

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Ko without Ground

8.6.8

8.6.8 1

Ko without Ground

The solid angle coefficient K0 (dB) according to VDI 2714 /16/, the directivity index D according to ISO 9613 /21/ (equivalent for other guidelines).
The excess level in the direction of sound radiation due to reflecting surfaces close to the source can be accounted for by a global penalty, the solid
angle coefficient K0/D. Since the reflection from the ground is already accounted for in the calculation according to ISO 9613-2 Equation 11 (for
calculations on the basis of A-weighted levels), or in the degree DBM,Okt /
AGround of attenuation in the ground and meteorology (for frequency-dependent calculations), only the remaining reflecting surfaces are to be considered when determining K0.
Source at arbitrary height above the ground

K0 = 0

Source at arbitrary height above the ground in front of a wall

K0 = 3

Source at arbitrary height above the ground in a corner

K0 = 6

In case K0 > 0 the reflection from the building itself must not be calculated
for the source in question, as the excess level is already accounted for by
K0. In order to retain the reflectivity of the building for all other sound
contributions, it is advisable to enter a value of 0.5 as Min. Distance from
Source to Reflecting Object on the Calculation|Configuration|Reflection tab (see Chapter 12.4.8).

Manual

8.6.8

Chapter 8.6 The Edit Dialog of a Source


Ko without Ground

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Directional Sound Radiation

8.7

8.7 1

Directional Sound Radiation

Not all sound sources radiate sound uniformly in all directions. There is,
for example, a directivity of the radiated sound for power-plant chimneys,
which depends on the exhaust velocity of the gas and its temperature. But
there are many other examples, such as the ground run-up of aeroengines
in a test facility, or the blow-off from valves, where the sound pressure level is not the same for all directions and not only a function of the distance.
In order to account for this fact, directional sound radiation was integrated
into CadnaA, both in a general way and for specific source types.
When a point source is specified, the pertinent option button in the edit
source dialog lets you assign a directivity to that source.
8

Point Source Edit Dialog

Performing a grid calculation with the inputs shown in the dialog above
will produce the following graphic.

Manual

8.7

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Directional Sound Radiation

60.0
65.0

55.0

65.0

60.0

65.0

55.0

65.0
59.9
55.0
Omnidirectional radiation from a point source

Manual

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Chimney Outlets or Stacks with directivity

8.7.1

8.7.1 1

Sound Radiation from Chimney Outlets


or Stacks with directivity

Chimney mouth directivity is integrated according to an older publication


/49/.
Upon clicking the Directivity button on the point source edit dialog,
specify the principal axis of sound radiation as the positive x axis (x/y/
z = 1/0/0) and select the directivity of a chimney. Specify an exhaust gas
velocity of, e. g., 30 m/s, and a temperature of 200 degrees.

Dialog for the calculation of the directivity of a power-plant chimney

With all other data of the point source left unchanged, the following graphic will result from the calculation.

Manual

8.7.1

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Chimney Outlets or Stacks with directivity

63.9
54.3

58.6

69.1

63.6

53.9

58.6

69.1
64.0
58.6
Radiation pattern of chimney tilted to the horizontal plane;
parameters as above

In practice, the point source will be positioned at the centre of the cross
section chimney of the outlet , and the principal direction of radiation will
be the normal vector on this outlet cross section, pointing upwards, (x/y/z
= 0/0/1). If no vector is defined, the upwarded flow is automatically chosen.
For the following simplified scenario, the chimney outlet is assumed to be
at a height of 30 m.
The chimney directivity shown above includes the lower radiation downwards - it would therefore be wrong to attach this directivity to a point
source simulating the chimney opening if this point source is screened by
the chimney cylinder. It is recommended to suppress this screening of the
chimney cylinder for the upper radiation if chimney directivity is used. If a

Manual

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Chimney Outlets or Stacks with directivity

8.7.1 3

chimney of, e.g., 30 m height should be modelled the following steps are
necessary:
1.

Enter a cylinder with radius and height of the chimney and define it
to be reflective if necessary.

2.

Enter a point source in the center of the cylinder (chimney) with the
height of 0.01 m less than the cylinder so that it is placed inside.
(Geometry|Height: -0.01|Roof).

3.

In Calculation|Configuration|Industry activate Src. in Building/


Cyl. do not shield (see Chapter 12.4.9).

4.

Select chimney directivity in the edit dialog point source and enter
the corresponding parameters.

You must take into account that now all sources in buildings and cylinders
radiate free and you get no warning if a source is located inside.

Line of section

Horizontal projection with residential buildings and power plant with 30-m chimney

Manual

8.7.1

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Chimney Outlets or Stacks with directivity

8
Oblique view of the (simplified) power plant and chimney

Now enter a height of 40 m for the auxiliary-polygon line of the cross section as illustrated above. For the sectional view thus generated, perform a
grid calculation (see Chapter 11.5.3) with a grid spacing of 1 m to obtain
the level distribution in this plane which is caused by the chimney.

Manual

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Chimney Outlets or Stacks with directivity

8.7.1 5

Level distribution around the chimney in the vertical plane

Summary of the chimney directivity predefined in CadnaA:


Simplification for determining the radiation characteristic of chimneys and
cooling towers observing certain preconditions (following VDI 3733
(draft), September 1993) and /49/:
This information is valid with the following conditions:

diameter of the outlet di m = 5...7m;

wind speed WL 3ms-1;

with emission medium: CO2 and temperature TF = 473...773K;

with emission medium: water vapour and temperature TF = 308K.

Manual

Radiation
Characteristik
of Chimneys

8.7.1

8.7.1

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Chimney Outlets or Stacks with directivity

The angle is calculated as follows::


1

= 90 + arc tan ( h s ) arc sin ( h + s 10 ) arc tan ( ( W L T F ) ( W F T L ) )

Directivity Index K

f in Hz
63

125

250

500

1k

2k

4k

8k

30

2,0

2,5

2,5

3,6

3,0

2,0

2,0

2,0

45-60

4,0

4,8

3,2

4,1

4,8

4,8

4,8

4,8

75

1,0

1,5

1,5

1,5

0,8

0,5

0,5

0,5

90

-2,0

-2,5

-3,0

-3,5

-4,8

-5,6

-5,6

-5,6

105

-4,0

-5,5

-7,0

-9,0

-10,0

-10,6

-10,0

-10,0

120

-5,0

-7,5

-9,2

-11,5

-15,2

-19,8

-20,0

-20,0

The used equation characters signify (see also the following figure):
h

source height relative (torward receiver) [in m]

distance receiver source axis (z-coordinate) [in m]

WL

downwind speed [in ms-2]

TF

temperature of the emission medium [in K]

WF

exit speed of the emission medium [in ms-2]

TL

ambient temperature [in K]

Manual

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Chimney Outlets or Stacks with directivity

8.7.1 7

Situation sketch for the sound emission of chimneys (by


Reinicke, W. and J. Danner: Schallabstrahlung von
Schornsteinen, Messung und technische Mglichkeiten zu
ihrer Minderung. Umweltbundesamt-Texte 17/81,
Forschungsber. 105.03.301. Berlin: November 1981)
(Sound Radiation of chimneys, technical possibilities for
abatement and measurement, Environmental Agency Texts 17/81, research report 105.03.301. Berlin: November 1981)

Manual

8.7.1

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Chimney Outlets or Stacks with directivity

Manual

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Building Elements and Openings According to AL

8.7.2

8.7.2 1

Sound Radiation from Building Elements


and Openings According to AL

According to the Austrian Guidelines, also the sound radiation from building elements and openings is assigned a directivity (though frequency-independent). If you select the directivity for sound-radiating elements,
according to AL, for the point source of the scenario described above,
the calculation will result in the following graphic (direction of radiation
x/y/z = 1/0/0).

65.0

60.0

55.0

65.0

Radiation from elements according to AL

The next figure also illustrates the radiation from openings according to
AL.

Manual

8.7.2

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Building Elements and Openings According to AL

65.0

60.0

60.0

70.0
65.0

Radiation from openings according to AL

In practice, the two types of sources mentioned last are located on the outside of buildings. To select the correct reference direction for the sound radiation on the Directivity dialog, leave the default setting Determine
Direction Automatically (Nearest Building) activated, as illustrated below.
Now if you position a point source next to a building facade (an object
snap of approximately 6 pixels specified under Options|Object Snap will
be helpful), CadnaA automatically determines the direction of radiation
perpendicular to the facade at this point.
For the 6-m-high, L-shaped building in the figure after the next one, the
level distribution is thus obtained without further adjustments.

Manual

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Building Elements and Openings According to AL

Automatic determination of the direction of radiation


for sound-radiating elements and openings according to AL

46.0

65.0

60.0

50.0

65.0

60.0

Level distribution calculated for elements according to


AL using automatic determination of the direction of
radiation (the sound power effectively radiated is
precisely the same as for the other grid calculations)

Manual

55.0

45.0

55.0

8.7.2 3

8.7.2

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Building Elements and Openings According to AL

You can easily assess the effect of different specifications on the calculated
level distributions. The next figure, for example, illustrates the result of a
grid calculation where no directivity has been assigned to the point source
simulating the sound-radiating element. In this case, the level distribution
results exclusively from the intrinsic shielding effect of the building.

47.8

63.9

59.9

55.6

46.8

51.8

64.2

60.7

56.7

Calculated level distribution caused by the sound-radiating element, when the directivity according to AL has
been deactivated (thus for omnidirectional radiation)

As the position of the level boxes has not been changed, the levels exactly
show the difference between the two methods. When the numerical difference of the two level distributions in the two scenarios above is calculated,
the lines of equal difference clearly show the essential differences.

Manual

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Building Elements and Openings According to AL

8.7.2 5

-2.0

1.8

1.8

1.0
2.0

1.8

2.0
-1.0
0.0

1.0

Lines of equal level difference between omnidirectional


sound radiation and sound radiation according to AL

We will not comment on these differences here, but the example is an impressive demonstration of how CadnaA's grid arithmetic allows you to
easily investigate the consequences of specific normative provisions.

Manual

8.7.2

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Sound Radiation from Building Elements and Openings According to AL

Manual

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Frequency-dependent Directivity, General

8.7.3

8.7.3 1

Frequency-dependent Directivity, General

To use any directivity that is taken from measurments or from literature, a


very general and flexible concept is integrated. In Tables|local Library|Directivity for each directivity pattern a new line can be inserted. Double click on this line opens a matrix form with frequency-columns and
lines spaced 15 degrees. This form allows to define an axial symetric directivity pattern, that is sufficient in most cases. (A complete general description would effort the directivity index in each frequency band
independance of two angles). With Name a string is entered, which can be
refered to in the PWL input line of any point-, line- or area source during
calculation.
The form allows to enter the directivity indices for all octave bands from
31.5 Hz to 8000 Hz in angular increments of 15 degrees. If values are only
available for larger increments, use the DEL key to delete the zeros for the
15-degree-increments where no such values are available. CadnaA will
then fill in these values by interpolation.

Frequency-dependent directivity indices in increments


of 30 degrees. The values for the intermediate angles are
deleted.

Manual

8.7.3

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Frequency-dependent Directivity, General

When you close the dialog above by clicking OK and open it again, the
missing values are added in the empty fields automatically by CadnaA.

Frequency-dependent directivity indices with interpolated values

Now we can assign to a point-, line- or area source a previously specified


frequency-dependent directivity by selecting its name from the list box Directivity.

A specified directivity can be selected by clicking its name on the list

In the example, the calculation will result in the level distribution shown
below.
With the example shown we get the following noise contours after a grid
calculation.

Manual

8.7.3 3

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Frequency-dependent Directivity, General

64.9
61.3

62.8

67.6

56.1
69.7

62.5

64.7

72.0

67.6
63.5

Level distribution resulting from the selected directivity

When the calculation is performed for an receiver point, the directivity index calculated on the Directivity dialog is added to the sound power level.
With the option standardized activated, the correction is increased or reduced by a constant factor for all directions so as to leave the sound level
specified on the edit dialog of the source unchanged although this directivity is taken into account. This enables you to enter directly the octave band
sound pressure levels that you have measured on a half circle with the
source as pivot.

Manual

Normalised
Directivity

8.7.3

8.7.3
Paste

Chapter 8.7 Directional Sound Radiation


Frequency-dependent Directivity, General

8.7.3

Clicking the Paste button on the edit dialog Directivity under Tables|Sources|Directivity allows you to paste ASCII format data from the
clipboard in the form.
ASCII format: Cells separated by TAB stops, lines separated by carriage
RETURNs.

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Tennis Point of Serve

8.8

8.8 1

Tennis Point of Serve

This type of noise source is only usable in Germany because the emission
is related to the mesuring procedure of the Taktmaximalpegel.

Manual

8.8

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Tennis Point of Serve

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Roads

8.9

8.9 1

Roads

The source Road is radiating to all sides if the option Self-Screening is


not activated (see below in this chapter).
The values of some parameters can vary from polygon point to polygone
point, e.g., for the parameters

cross sections or distance (see Chapter 8.9.1)


lateral slopes (see Chapter 8.9.2)
road heights and ground heigths (see Chapter 10.4).

The Parallel Object command (see Chapter 5.7.13) on the context menu
opened for a selected road allows you to generate barriers, embankments,
or contour lines at specified distances, or use the Station command (see
Chapter 5.7.3) for the automatic insertion of kilometre marks.
The parameters of a road section are entered under the edit mode on the
dialog that opens after double-clicking the roads centre-line.
The boxes in the dialog are described, by way of example, for the application of RLS-90 /9/. They apply analogously to the other guidelines.

Manual

8.9

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Roads

The Edit Road Dialog

Manual

8.9 3

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Roads

Hint: The height entered in the Geometry dialog is the road surfaces
height. CadnaA adds to this value 0,5 m automatically as the source
height for calculation. Therefore the roads z-coordinate is always
the surface height (see Chapter 10.4).

Geometry
according
to RLS90

If the option Self-Screening is activated in the Geometry dialog of the


Road screening occurs at all points below the road surfache niveau. Therefore you can insert roads which run at a slant up or down, without using
the extra element of the object Bridge (see Chapter 9.6).

Self-Screening

Because the margin of the Road in CadnaA represents the axis of the outer middle lane you should widen the Road to the real width by entering an
Additional Width > 0. The half of the entered width is added to both sides
of the road. As the case may be this entry could overwrite the entered additional width in Options|Appearance (see also 8.9.1 Specification of Road
Widths).

Additional Width

In addition to the widened road you can generate screens on the road, on
one or both sides, by entering a left or right height > 0. The screens are absorbent at both sides. This property cannot be changed. Reflecting screens
or cantilevers (overhangs) can be entered with the object Screen (see
Chapter 9.5).

Screen

In each case if you generate screens the additional width of the


road has to be >0.

The generated screens are a property of the Road and therefore only
displayed in the 3D-special view.

Manual

8.9

8.9

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Roads

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Specification of Road Widths

8.9.1

8.9.1 1

Specification of Road Widths

If you click on the card index icon of the field SCS/Dist. (m) in the Road
dialog the Road Width dialog appears and you can choose the desired
width by activating the corresponding option. Either

Distance of the centerlines of the outer lanes (noise source) or

Total width of road from curb to curb (m) or

Cross-Sections according to RAS-Q 82+96

The road width represented on the screen corresponds to the entered width.
The borderlines of the road are the centerlines of the outer lanes (noise
sources).

Distance of the
outer lanes

The road width represented on the screen corresponds not to the entered
width because a default distance of 1,75 m is presumed between the centerlines of the outer lanes to the curb. Therefore a road with a total width
of 10 m from curb to curb has a distance of 10 - (2*1,75) = 6,5 m between
the centerlines of the outer lanes.

Total width of road


from curb to curb 8.9.1

In menu Options|Appearance you have the possibility to display the real


width of roads. For that mark the objekt type Road and enter an additional
Width. In that case the road width represented on the screen is the real

Display real
Width of Roads

Manual

8.9.1

8.9.1

8.9.1

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Specification of Road Widths

width of the road (distance between the centerlines of the outer lanes plus
the additional width).

8
Inserted additional widthof 1,75 m for the object type
Road in Options|Appearance.

With the object type Road2 you can display the centerlines of the outer
lanes (sound source) supplementary, e.g. dashed.

Object type Road2 enables you to display the sound source


(centerlines of the outer lanes), too.

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Specification of Road Widths

8.9.1 3

Road layout with additional width and display of the centerlines of the outer lanes

The chosen design of the road affected all roads in a project similarly.
List box for selection of standardized (German standards) cross sections.
The standardized cross sections of roads can be selected from the list by
marking the desired parameter and confirming with OK.

The border-lines of the road represented on the screen are not identical with those of the road or the pavement, if any. They are the centrelines of the outermost lanes if no additional width is choosen (see
above: Display real Road Width)

The examples below shows the correct inputs for application of RLS-90.

Manual

Standard Cross Section


(SCS)/Distance (m) 8.9.1

8.9.1

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Specification of Road Widths

Single Lane Road 8.9.1

For a single-lane road, enter 0 in the Standard Cross Section/Distance box


in the edit dialog Road or, if 0 is displayed as the default value, leave it unchanged.
Multi-lane
Road

8.9.1

For a multi-lane road, either the distance between the centre-lines of the
outermost lanes is entered as a number, or the appropriate cross section is
selected after clicking the card-index icon. When selecting a6ms according
to RAS-Q 82 /29/ for a six-lane road, a distance of 24.75 m results between the centre-lines of the two outermost lanes which is the measured
value in the cross-sectional view and also the width of the road section
represented on the screen with the selected scale.
Widening of a Road
from 1 to 2 Lanes 8.9.1

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Specification of Road Widths

8.9.1 5

If the lane distance or the transverse slope changes along a road, each polygon point may be edited individually via the Geometry (see Chapter
10.4) button

For this click the button Geometry

double-click a row in the Geometry list.

In the edit dialog Road Polygon Point enter the appropriate values for the
distance of the axis of the outermost lanes.
The arrow buttons serve to access the next or previous polygon point, or
use the New button to insert a new point.
The roads polygon point will be flashing in the graphic while being edited
in the edit dialog. In order to see this, you may have to move the dialog
box.

We must not enter a value if the the next polygon point should have
the same distance/cross section. The entered value is valid until a

Manual

8.9.1

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Specification of Road Widths

new value is entered at another polygon point.

Widening of a road from 1 to 2 lanes

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Specification of Road Widths

The next example is a crossing with straight through-lanes.

To generate this example, just enter the two intersecting roads. If, as it
would usually be the case, the traffic densities of the four adjacent road
sections are different, it is convenient and acoustically appropriate to buttjoint the four sections in the middle of the crossing.

Even if two sections each are supposed to abut in the middle of the crossing, you can first enter straight through-lanes to split them later on.

Manual

8.9.1 7
Crossing with straight
Through- lanes
8.9.1

8.9.1

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Specification of Road Widths

Splitting of Roads into


Sections:
1. Possibility
8.9.1

Open the context menu by clicking a roads centre-line with the right
mouse. Selecting Break Lines then splits the crossing road right in the
middle. You can check this by clicking the splitted road because only the
clicked half will be selected. Afterwards, by clicking one of the road sections obtained by splitting, and by using the Break Lines command once
again, you can split the road that has not yet been split.

But pay attention: Should there be other objects being intersected


by roads, which are to be subdivided, they are split at the intersection,
too.

If this is the case, and you do not wish the other objects to be split, proceed
as follows:
8

2. Possibility

8.9.1

Instead of using the crossing roads as intersection lines for splitting, place
an arbitrary auxiliary line, such as a line source or an auxiliary polygon, on
top of the centre-line of the road to be split, and apply the Break Lines
command to this auxiliary line in order to split the road. Then delete the
auxiliary line.
After splitting the roads, you can allocate different parameters such as traffic densities to the sections thus obtained.

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Specification of Road Widths

8.9.1 9
Crossing with Filter
Lane
8.9.1

This is a combination of the arrangements already dealt with. In the transitions from the two-lane roads to the crossing and in the area of the crossing
proper, the lanes are configured by roads with SCS = 0. These are followed by two-lane roads in all four directions.

Any other geometric gradation may be easily derived from the above examples.
See also chapter 7.4 Example: Digitizing a Road

Manual

10

8.9.1

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Specification of Road Widths

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Lateral Slope

8.9.2

8.9.2 1

Lateral Slope

In addition to the distance of the lanes centre-line (see Chapter 8.9.1


"Standard Cross Section (SCS)/Distance (m)"), you can enter the percentage of the lateral slope after clicking the Geometry button in the dialog
Polygon Point. Select the option: absolute Height at every Point from
the list below the coordinate table.
The lateral slope refers to the outer lane axis which is rotated around the
roads centre-line. A positive value lifts the outer right lane, a negative value the outer left lane. Right and left refer to the initial point when looking
toward the final point.

The entered value is valid for all the following points. Therefore we
only need to enter a new value if the lateral slope changes at another
point. From this point on, this new entered value is valid for all following ones.

see also chapter 10.4 The Objects Geometry

Manual

8.9.2

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Lateral Slope

Manual

8.9.3 1

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Emission in dB(A)

8.9.3

Emission in dB(A)

The sound emission of a road caused by motor traffic is characterised by


the emission level, which CadnaA calculates automatically and online
from the specified parameters and in accordance with the selected guideline. According to RLS-90, this is the time-averaged level in a free field at
a distance of 25 m from the centre-line of an infinitely long straight road.

Activate Ld and Ln in Calculation|Configuration|Tab Eval. Parameter


to calculate the assessment level for day and night according to RLS90. In
this case the time interval Day|Evening|Night is not taken into account.

Note

Manual

8.9.3

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Emission in dB(A)

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Traffic Density

8.9.4

8.9.4 1

Traffic Density

Average daily traffic density Vehicles/24h. Number of vehicles passing a


section of the road per day, averaged over all days of the year (see also
Precise Counts below).

Counts, MDTD

8.9.4

This item is accessible after clicking the Options button in the edit dialog.
When Precise Counts is activated, the Counts, MDTD option is deactivated. The relevant hourly traffic density, M (Vehicles/hour) for the daytime and the night-time can be entered, as well as the mean proportion of
trucks p in % (vehicles with a gross weight over 2,8 t as percentage of the
relevant traffic density).

Precise Counts

8.9.4

Clicking the arrow of the editable list box allows you to select the classification of the road according to the chosen standards. On the basis of this
classification, default values for the proportion of trucks and for the hourly
traffic density are considered.

Type of Road

8.9.4

To calculate the two noise indicators Lden and Ln according to the EU-directive /58/ the diurnal patterns for each road are required. This allows to
assign the respective traffic counts to the three time intervals. To this end,
the diurnal pattern for each road type has to be entered to the global or the
lokal library first. The following figure shows an example.

Diural Patter

8.9.4

Manual

8.9.4
 DiurnalPatter.cna

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Traffic Density

Open the file DiurnalPatter.cna in SAMPLES|ROAD on your CD-Rom.

The edit dialog of a diurnal pattern

To address this diurnal pattern to a specific road it has to be referenced via


the list box Road Type on the edit dialog for roads. By default, the road
types according to RLS-90 (or according to any other guideline for calculating road noise) are selectable. In case diurnal patterns are available from
the library these will be listed at the end of the list. In this example the diurnal pattern with the ID-code "TG_1" is selected.

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Traffic Density

8.9.4 3

When calculating the noise indicators Lden for roads the assignment of the
daily hours to the time intervals day/evening/night and the time penalties
for day/evening/night (see Chapter 12.4.5) are relevant.

Manual

8.9.4

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Traffic Density

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Speed Limit (km/h)

8.9.5

8.9.5 1

Speed Limit (km/h)

We enter the maximum speed, in km/h, permissible on the relevant road


section for cars and trucks. The speed is taken into account according to
the choosen standard.
For the RLS 90 e.g., the german standard, the speed limit lies between
30 km/h and 80 km/h for trucks, and 30 km/h and 130 km/h for cars. The
default value for trucks will be the same value as given for cars. If a different speed limit shall apply for trucks, click the Truck check box (an X appears in the box), and enter the desired speed limit in the text box from the
keyboard.
If a value below 30 km/h is entered, 30 km/h will automatically be assumed in the calculation. Likewise, if a speed limit above 130 km/h is entered, 130 km/h for cars, and 80 km/h for trucks, will automatically be
assumed in the calculation.

Manual

Example RLS 90

8.9.5

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Speed Limit (km/h)

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Road Surface

8.9.6

8.9.6 1

Road Surface

Depending on the selected standard we can make a correction for road


surfaces either by entering a value in decibels (dB) or by choosing a material from the Surface list.
An example for surface correction values according to RLS-90,
Table 4
DStrO *) in dB(A)
for a speed limit of
no

Road surface material

30 km/h

40 km/h

50 km/h

1.

smooth mastic asphalt, asphalt concrete or blinded mastic asphalt

2.

concrete or corrugated mastic asphalt

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.

pavement with a smooth surface

2.0

2.5

3.0

4.

other pavements

3.0

4.5

6.0

*) For low-noise road surface materials which have proved to provide a lasting noise reduction due to recent technological developments in structural engineering, different DStrO corrections may be taken into account, e. g. minus 3 dB(A) for open-pore asphalt for speed
limits above 60 km/h.
The declared corrections as per items 5. through 9. apply to roads outside villages
where the speed limit exceeds 60 km/h (according to Allgemeines Rundschreiben
Straenbau No. 14/1991)
>60 km/h
5.

concrete according to ZTV Beton 78 with steel broom


stroke with smoothing tool

1.0

6.

concrete according to ZTV Beton 78 without steel


broom stroke with smoothing tool, textured with a jute
cloth

- 2.0

7.

asphalt concrete <= 0/11 and blinded mastic asphalt 0/8


and 0/11 without grit

- 2.0

open-pore asphalt covering layers containing at least


15 % of voids, when new

8.

- with 0/11 grain size

- 4.0

9.

- with 0/8 grain size

- 5.0

Manual

8.9.6
France

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Road Surface

Choosing the French standards (Calculation|Configuration|Country) the


road will then be calculated according to NMPB-Routes 96 /50/ and consequently a possible road surface correction will be calculated as a spectrum.
In this case we have in CadnaA the possibility of entering spectra in Tables|Libraries (local)|Sound Reduction Indices (see Chapter 16.3.4
"Spectra of Sound Reduction Index") to which we then get access in the
Road Surface list. Prerequisite is the term NMPB_(Number) in the ID of
the sound reduction spectrum (e.g. NMPB_01, NMPB_25 etc.). (Number)
is the wildcard for an abitrary integer number and of course a spektra name
which is shown in the list for selection.

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Road Gradient (%)

8.9.7

8.9.7 1

Road Gradient (%)

In the edit dialog Road we can either enter a value for the Road Gradient
(%) or CadnaA calculates the average gradient of the road in view of
their z-coordinates and the digital terrain model and inserts the values automatically if we click the menu item Tables|Miscellaneous|Calc Gradient of Roads.

Because the value applies for the entire road, we have to pay attention that, already with the inputing of the road, we divide it into
equivalent sections if the slope changes with respect to the road.

The automatic slope calculation occurs for all roads simultaneously. If this
is not intended, deactivate those roads which are to be excluded from the
slope calculation. Re-activate them afterwards.
Values less than 5 % do not have any effect on the emission value.

Manual

8
Hint for RLS90

8.9.7

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Road Gradient (%)

Manual

8.9.8 1

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Correction for Multiple Reflections

8.9.8

Correction for Multiple Reflections

According to RLS-90, first-order reflections are to be taken into account


by considering first-order mirror sound sources in addition to the original
sound source "Road". This is done automatically if, on the tab Calculation|Configuration|Road, the option Strictly according to RLS-90 (see
Chapter 12.4.10) is activated, no matter which order of reflection was
specified on the tab Calculation|Configuration|Reflection (see Chapter
12.4.8).
If the option Strictly according to RLS-90 is deactivated, however, any
reflection may be excluded by specifying 0 as the order of reflection in the
Calculation|Configuration.

If there are closed built-up areas on both sides of the road, the resulting excess level has to be accounted for by an additional correction for multiple
reflections, which depends on the average height of both built-up areas and
on the distance between them.
We can enter the correction for multiple reflections after clicking the Options button in the edit dialog.
This is the excess sound level due to multiple reflections.

Drefl dB(A)

8.9.8

The average height of the buildings making up the closed built-up area
along the road.

Average
Height (m)

8.9.8

The average distance between the buildings on both sides of the road.

Distance (m)

8.9.8

If this item is activated in the edit dialog Road, you can enter a level in the
edit box. If this item is deactivated, you can enter average height and distance and specify the absorptive properties of the buildings along the road.
These data then serve to determine Drefl in dB.

Specify the properties of the buildings as reflecting, absorbing or highly


absorbing by selecting from the list box.

Manual

8.9.8

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Correction for Multiple Reflections

But you also can force CadnaA to calculate either the multiple reflections
and/or the average height and distance and to enter the values in the corresponding fields. See the following paragraph.
Calc Width
of Roads

8.9.8

With the command Calc Width of Roads (Tables|Miscellaneous)


CadnaA determines the average height, distance and gaps proportion of
buildings straight at the roads. The results are stored in string variables and
entered in the Info-box of the corresponding Edit dialog of the roads.

Info-Box with the corresponding string variables after


executing the command Calc Width of Roads.

After that you can let CadnaA insert the values of the string variables in
the corresponding fields of the Roads edit dialog and determine the correction of multiple reflections. CadnaA calculates on the basis of the buildings average heights and distances of both sides of the roads first a value
which is displayed in the not yet activated field Drefl. If a correction of
multiple reflection has to be taken into account for calculation or not depends also on the gaps proportion of buildings located straight by the
roads. Even this you can calculate it with CadnaA.

Manual

8.9.8 3

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Correction for Multiple Reflections

Open the file XL_01.cna on your CD-ROM.

Execute the command Calc Width of Roads (Tables|Miscellaneous).

Now let CadnaA enter the average height of buildings in the field Average Height (m) in the Roads edit dialog. For that we need the value of the
string variable HBEB_L (average height left) and HBEB_R (average
height right). Both values have to be added and divided with 2. Therefore

 XL_01.cna

Example

RIGHT mouse click on a free area in your project file and choose
Modify Objects|Action: Change Attribute from the context menu
and highlight the object type Road - confirm with OK.
8

The next dialog opens - select the Attribut HBEB, activate Arithmetic und enter the following expressen:

Manual

8.9.8

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Correction for Multiple Reflections

(MEMO_HBEB_L+MEMO_HBEB_R)/2

After confirming with OK the calculated value is entered in the field


Average Height (m).

Now let CadnaA also enter the distance of the buildings (DBEB) in the
corresponding field. Therefore in the dialog Modify Attribute select the
attribute ABST and enter following formula:

Manual

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Correction for Multiple Reflections

8.9.8 5

MEMO_DBEB_L + MEMO_DBEB_R

CadnaA now calculates with both entries the correction of multiple reflec-

tion.

But if actually a correction of multiple reflection has to be taken into account depends also on the proportion of the buildings gaps. If those are
smaller than 30 % - e.g. according to RLS90 - you have to calculate with a
surcharge for multiple reflections. If you want CadnaA to calculate this

Manual

8.9.8

Chapter 8.9 Roads


Correction for Multiple Reflections

value you have to enter the following formula for the attribute DREFL in
the dialog Modify Attribute:
iif(max(MEMO_LUECK_L,MEMO_LUECK_R)<0.3,DREFL,0)
After confirming the dialog with OK the option DREFL will be activated
and if the proportion of the gaps left or right are smaller than 30 % the value already calculated by CadnaA is valid otherwise 0 (zero) will be entered and therefore for these roads no multiple reflection will be calculated.
The following string variables are created automatically by CadnaA if the
commannd Calc Width of Roads (Tables|Miscellaneous) is executed:

DBEB_L; DBEB_R

Distance of building development (left/


right)

HBEB_L; HBEB_R

average height (m) of building development (left/right)

LUECK_L; LUECK_R

proportion of gaps (left/right)

From other locations you can revert to the string variable with the prefix
MEMO_ in front of the name (e.g. MEMO_DBEB_L).

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Crossings with Traffic Lights

8.10

8.10 1

Crossings with Traffic Lights

If we allocate a traffic light to a crossing or junction, the relevant penalty


for receiver points nearby is automatically calculated according to the active standard.
The calculation takes into account at what time, day, evening or night, the
traffic light is active.
The check boxes allow us to separately specify the day-time, evening and
night-time activity of the traffic light.
For a crossing with traffic lights, if calculated strictly according to RLS90, a Traffic Lights icon is inserted at each crossing point on the outer
lanes, i. e., exactly at the corners of the crossing area in the graphic representation of CadnaA.

Click the traffic light icon on the toolbox, then click the first crossing point
on the outer lane axis in order to position the traffic light. We enter all parameters for the first traffic light before we insert the next one because the
parameters specified for the first traffic light will be adopted for all following ones.

Manual

Example for RLS90

8.10

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Crossings with Traffic Lights

EditTrafficLightdialog8.10

8
Traffic Light
is active

8.10

If a traffic light is allocated the relevant penalty for receiver points nearby
then it is automatically calculated according to RLS-90, sub-clause 4.2,
table 2.
An active traffic light is indicated by a cross within the quadrangle.

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Crossings with Traffic Lights

8.10 3

In the symbol bar you can choose one of the defined evaluation parameters (see Calculation|Configuration|Evaluation parameter) like Lden, Lde etc. In the above
example the crossing symbol (down to the right) is not
active if you choose Lde because this crossing is only
active at night.

Any road lying within a certain distance to this crossing with traffic lights
and, therefore, to be allocated to this crossing, will be considered accordingly in the calculation, and will be listed on the Associated Roads box.
The option Find Automatically is activated by default.

Associated Roads

According to RLS 90 the distance is less than 20 m.

Hint for RLS 90

We insert roads manually by clicking the Insert button and selecting the
corresponding road from the object table.

Manual

8.10

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Crossings with Traffic Lights

To allocate a road to a crossing with traffic lights, position and/or activate


at least one receiver point and start the calculation by clicking the calculator icon (pocket calculator on the icon bar).
Calculator icon on the icon bar.

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Long Straight Roads

8.11

8.11 1

Long Straight Roads

Using the Long Straight Road feature from the context menu (see Chapter 5.7) or from the menu Tables|Miscellaneous allows us quickly to perform an approximate immission calculation for roads complying with the
requirements of RLS-90, subclause 4.4.1. This calculation must not be
used in combination with the other calculation methods according to RLS90.
When you click the Long Straight Road command, the calculation sheet
appears where the sound emission LmE Day and Night as well as the result, in terms of the rating level Lr Day and Night, will be calculated
while you enter the relevant parameters.
8

We can save the calculation via the Save button, and load it again by clicking the Open button. The extension lgs is appended to the file name.
We can also open the calculation sheet via the context menu if we have inserted a road in CadnaA and click it with the RIGHT mouse button while
still in the edit mode.

Manual

8.11

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Long Straight Roads

Data that we have already entered in the edit dialog Road will be adopted
in the calculation sheet.
Press the Print button to print the calculation sheet.

Manual

8.12 1

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Railways

8.12

Railways

All guidelines and standards for railway noise (incl. SRMII) calculate the
noise immission only for two time intervals (day/night). If you like to calculate according to EU-Interim method you have to activate the option
Use Non-Standard Reference Time D/E/N = 12/4/8 in Calculation|Configuration|Tab Railway. Via this option you are able to calculate
as usal with two time intervals or also with three time intervals according
to EU-Interim method (for more information see chapter 12.4.11 "Railroad
Tab").
By way of example, the edit railway dialog is described for the application
of Schall 03 /8/. It applies analogously for the other guidelines.
8

The height (z-coordinate) of the railway in the Geometry dialog refers to


the top side of the rail. The default value is 0,6 m.
See also chapter 10.2 General Information for Working with Uneven Terrain in CadnaA.

Manual

Edit Dialog
Railway

8.12

Geometry

8.12

8.12

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Railways

Manual

8.12.1 1

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Emission Level dB(A)

8.12.1 Emission Level dB(A)


The emission level for railways is calculated according to the chosen guidline.
For Example, according to Schall03, the emission level Lm,E, in dB(A)
for railways, is the time-averaged level determined in a free field at a distance of 25 from the centre-line of the track in question, and at a height of
3.5 m above the top edge of the rail, assuming the railway track is straight
and infinitely long.
If this option is activated, the types of trains and train classes, numbers of
trains and corrections, can be edited, selected from editable list boxes, or
taken into account via option boxes. CadnaA will automatically calculate
the emission level from the specified values (see Chapter 8.12.2).

Train classes
and Penalties

Dfb (dB) will take into account the effects of different kinds of track. If
Dfb (dB) is activated, you can enter a value from the keyboard. Alternatively, use the list box to select the kind of track from a list. To do so activate the Option button next to this list box.

Correction Dfb
(dB)

8.12.1

Dbr = Correction for the effect of a bridge

Bridge
(Dbr = +3dB)

8.12.1

Level/Grade
Crossing

8.12.1

When the relevant range for the radius of curvature has been selected, the
emission value will, if necessary, be penalised according to the provisions
of the national standard.

Radius of
Curvature

8.12.1

A correction for multiple reflections is taken into account in the calculation when high-rise buildings close to railways are specified by their distance and their mean height.

Multiple Reflections
at Railways
8.12.1

If a value for Vmax is entered the train speed will be adjusted if necessary.
For the calculation the smaller value of both values is taken into account.

Vmax

Db = Correction for the effect of a level/grade crossing

Manual

8.12.1

8.12.1

8.12.1

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Emission Level dB(A)

Manual

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Train Classes

8.12.2 1

8.12.2 Train Classes


Instead of entering the Emission level we can generate a Train Class list to
calculate the emission level according to the chosen guideline.
The train class list can be edited. Therefore we have to activate the option
field Train Classes and Penalties.

We have two ways to fill out the train class list:


1.

by directly completing one row after the other in the edit dialog:
Select the local list of train classes from the list box.

2.

by refering to a numbers-of-trains table compiled under


Tables|Numbers-of-Trains: Select the identifier of the numbers-oftrains table from the list box.

Completing the local list of train classes only makes sense if one section of
railway is concerned. Otherwise, if you were to split this railway track into
several smaller sections, due to modified parameters, such as track type or
bridge penalty, you would have to enter any changes, e. g., in the numbers
of trains, individually for each section. You can avoid this by compiling a
numbers-of-trains table.

Manual

Train Class
List local

8.12.2

8.12.2

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Train Classes

Numbers-of-Trains
Table
8.12.2

The Numbers-of-Trains Table under Tables|Sources allows you to compile for a route a list of train classes from the global library (Tables|Library (global)|Train Classes) and the numbers of trains. This table can
then be referred to by its identifier. Any changes in the numbers-of-trains
table have to be entered only once. They will have an effect on all railway
sections to which that table was allocated, no matter whether you make the
changes via the Tables menu or in the list of train classes in the edit dialog.

Train Class
Boxes

8.12.2

Train Type

8.12.2

The train type is selected via Library (global)|Train Classes (see above
in this chapter), from the list of Train Types. The relevant parameters,
such as train length and speed, are thus specified.

Percentage of Disk Brakes


P (%)
8.12.2

p % = the percentage of the train length including the engine, occupied by


vehicles using disk brakes.

Numer of Trains
day and night

Specify the numbers of trains separately for daytime and night-time. (see
also Table of Numbers of Train above)

8.12.2

Note: If the numbers are given in trains per hour, multiply them by 16 for
the daytime number and by 8 for the night-time number before entering
them in the edit box.
Speed v (km/h)

8.12.2

Train Length
(m)

8.12.2

v is the speed limit for a specific railway section or the relevant travelling
speed limit for trains which may not drive at that speed.
l is the train length belonging to the relevant train class.

Correction for Train Type


Dfz (dB)
8.12.2

The correction Dfz accounts for the affect of different kinds of vehicles.
If the Train Type Dfz option is activated, a correction value may be entered from the keyboard. Alternatively, you can select a train type from the
list box, in which case the correction is allocated automatically.

Manual

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Train Classes

8.12.2 3

The emission level for a train class, resulting from the pertinent parameter
settings, is displayed here. For velocities of more than 250 km/h, a 1-dB
penalty for aerodynamic noise is included as required by the "Aktuelle Information des BZA Mnchen 021 vom 7.8.1991" /18/.

Emission Lm,E,i
incl. Dae (1dB)

8.12.2

ASCII tables of train classes can be imported via the ODBC interface.
Object variable: ZKLST_ASC.

Import Train
Classes

8.12.2

Tables listing number of trains can be im- and exported (menu FILE) - for
details see Import, chapter 8.12.2 "Train Classes".

Number of Trains

8.12.2

Manual

8.12.2

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Train Classes

Manual

8.12.3 1

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Train Classes User-defined

8.12.3 Train Classes User-defined


For different train classes you can enter user-defined data records of sound
emission (according to table 1 of S5011 /25/ and Nordic Prediction Method) and use them by refering to their identifiers (ID). A train type is defined in the library Sound Levels (see chapter 16.2) by entering the
frequency spectra of emission.
The related spectra for different speeds of a train type are indicated by
their ID.

Austria

Manual

8.12.3

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Train Classes User-defined

Spectra-ID

8.12.3

At least two spectra with different speeds should exist and be sorted
in ascending order in the library.

Requirements for spectra ID:


general description: S5011_xxxx_yyy
S5011_ is mandatory
xxxx_ wildcard for a maximum of 4 characters to describe the train type
yyy
wildcard for a maximum value of 3 digits for a train speed

 S5011.cna

Example:
S5011_UBAN_60
S5011_UBAN_100
Both IDs describe a train type with 60 km/h and 100 km/h.

Name

You can enter an arbitrary name for the spectra. But because the name is
also visible, in addition to the ID with four characters (xxxx), in the list of
train types, you should choose a short name if possible.

Nordic Prediction
Method
8.12.3

For the user-defined train classes according to Nordic Prediction Method


the above describtion applies analog. But one train class needs two spectra
A and B - this is mendatory!
Requirements for spectra ID:
NORDR_xxxx_A and NORDR_xxxx_B
NORDR_is mandatory
xxxx_ wildcard for a maximum of 4 characters to describe the train typ
A
is mandatory
B
is mandatory

Manual

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Traffic-Count Calculator

8.12.4 1

8.12.4 Traffic-Count Calculator


With the Traffic-Count Calculator in Tables|Miscellaneous you can split
comfortable present numbers of trains or aeroplanes for the time intervals
day/evening/night without additional calculation or paperwork.
If it is applied for numbers of aeroplanes you have to pay attention that the
evaluation parameters Ld/Le/Ln are selected (Calculation|Configuration|Eval.Parm tab).
By calculation according to EC-directive it is therefore possible the so far
only for the time interval day/night defined numbers of trains or aeroplanes to allocate for the three time intervals day/evening/night. The variables
for the flow figures of the three time intervals are for day nd, evening ne
and night nn.

With the example in the above screen shot the present flow figures of the
local train list for day and night will be allocated also for evening with
25 % from the day value plus 20 % from the night value. Therefore the
flow figures are lowered to 75 % of the primary value for the day and 80 %
for the night.

Manual

8.12.4

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Traffic-Count Calculator

If you mark all options Apply to all corresponding tables are taken into account simultaneously (local list of train classes and the list with number of
trains predefined in the Library and the flow figures of the aeroplans.

Manual

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Purge List of Numbers-of-Trains

8.12.5 1

8.12.5 Purge List of Numbers-of-Trains


When importing files which also contain lists of numbers of trains these
will be appended to those already available. To prevent the list from growing longer and longer, you can update it by using the Tables|Miscellaneous|Purge command. This deletes all those lists of numbers-of-trains
which are allocated to none of the railway sections.

Manual

8.12.5

Chapter 8.12 Railways


Purge List of Numbers-of-Trains

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Parking Places

8.13

8.13 1

Parking Places

For the time being we can choose to calculate the sound emission of parking lots according to

RLS-90 see Chapter /9/


LfU-Study 1993 see Chapter /6/
LfU-Study 1995 Precise see Chapter /4/
LfU-Study 1995 Approximate see Chapter /5/
LfU-Study 2003 /7/

and to calculate the sound immission or propagation according to

RLS-90, for public parking lots or


for commercial parking lots according to the standard for industry.

The boxes available in the edit dialog Parking Lot are adapted to suit the
option that is selected for the calculation.

Manual

8.13
Edit Dialog
Parking Lot

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Parking Places

8.13

Calculation
according to:

8.13.0

From the editable list box, select the method to be used for the calculation
of the sound emission.

RLS90

8.13

Guidelines for Noise Control at Roads (RLS-90); published by the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Dept. for Road Construction, Ed.
1990, Traffic Gazette 44 (1990)

LfU-Study 1993

8.13

Parking Lot Study, study concerning sound emission from parking lots,
scrap yards and bus terminals, 1993 edition, issue 89, collection of publications by the Bavarian Ministry for Environmental Protection (LfU), Munich

LfU-Study 1995
precise

8.13

Wolfgang Hendlmeier: "Noise control at parking lots and underground car


parks", clause 12.2: Precise calculation method (for parking lots where the
distribution of traffic between the parking spaces can be estimated with
sufficient precision), Bavarian Ministry for Environmental Protection,
Depts. 2/4 and 2/5, November 1994

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Parking Places

8.13 3

When calculating according to this method, you must also enter the distances covered within the parking lot and calculate them according to
RLS-90.
Wolfgang Hendlmeier: "Noise control at parking lots and underground car
parks", clause 12.3: Approximate calculation method (for parking lots
where the distribution of traffic between the parking spaces cannot be estimated with sufficient precision), Bavarian Ministry for Environmental
Protection, Depts. 2/4 and 2/5, November 1994

LfU-Study 1995 approximate


8.13

Distances covered within the parking lot in search of a parking space need
not be entered separately but are considered in the parking lot calculation.
In the new study /7/ more detailed information about vehicle movements
have been included. The number of events are referred to the number of
parking spaces and to further quantities depending on the type of lot. Additionally, two different procedures for the calculation of the noise emission
by parking lots on flat ground are described.

LfU-Study 2003

8.13

In CadnaA, both procedures are implemented, the so-called "combined


evaluation" (normal case) and the "separate evaluation" (special case).
By the combined evaluation the emission caused by the transit traffic is accounted for approximately by the parameter KD. This increase just depends on the number of parking spaces ng or any other specified reference
quantity n (e.g. per bed for hotels; per 10 m area for restaurants or stores).
The Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency (LfU Bayern) has straighten out upon request that the parameter KD is to be calculated for all kinds
of parking lots based on the number of parking spaces ng or any other specified reference quantity n, although the study just refers to the variable
ng.

combinedevaluation8.13.0

By the separate evaluation the emission resulting from parking movements


and from search resp. transit traffic is accounted for separately. In the calculation of the noise emission the parameter KD is not applied. Thus,
search and transit traffic has to be accounted for by modelling the road lines separately (e.g. according to RLS-90).

separate evaluation 8.13.0

Manual

8.13

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Parking Places

Emission
L*m,E in dB(A)

8.13.0

Counts, Parking
Spaces

8.13.0

Library Parking Lot


Events
8.13.0

8
Penalty
Dp dB(A)

The sound emission of a parking lot due to parking traffic is characterised


by the emission level L*m,E. This is the time-averaged level in a free field
at a distance of 25 m from the centre of the parking lot, assuming that the
total emission originates from this single point.
Events per hour and parking space. You may enter the values or adopt
them from a table with pre-defined numbers of events for different parking
spaces. To open this table, click the card index icon. A selected data record
is adopted via the OK button.
The table Number of Events (movements) is edited either directly via the
edit dialog Parking Lot or via the menu Tables|Libraries|Parking Lot
Events. Entries are saved globally and are thus still available when
CadnaA is re-started.

8.13.0
8.13

Dp dB(A) is a correction for different types of parking lots (when calculating according to LfU parking lot study = Dlpa).
We edit the correction for different types of parking lots by activating the
Dp option. Alternatively, we can select a type of parking lot from the list
box (Activate this option by clicking the option button next to the list
box!).

Type of
Parking Lot

8.13

When selecting a type of parking lot from the list box, e. g., motorcycle
parking lot, the corrections suggested in the selected study (Calculation
according to box) are immediately adopted.

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Pass-by Levels for Line Sources with the Noise Levels Time History

8.14

8.14 1

Pass-by Levels for Line Sources with


the Noise Levels Time History1

For roads, railways, and other line-like sources CadnaA allows us to calculate according to the choosen standards, the time history of the sound
pressure level that would result from a single vehicle or other source with
a specified emission travelling along that line.
Generating this level characteristic allows you to check very effectively,
e. g.,

whether the effect of a noise-control device, such as a barrier, would be


sufficient for all affected partial areas,

which noise reduction may be expected by providing a reflecting building facade with absorbent cladding, or

by which amount the sound pressure level resulting from single motor
vehicles travelling by is reduced if, e. g., a zone with a speed limit of
30 km/h is established in an ordinary inner-city street.

With the RIGHT mouse key we click the command Pass-By Level from the
context menu of the line object.

1.

The Pass-By Level command in the context menu of a line source is


only available if a receiver point is inserted.

that is the recorded noise level over a period of time

Manual

8.14

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Pass-by Levels for Line Sources with the Noise Levels Time History

Dialog for calculation of the time history at a receiver point


as a vehicle is passing by on a road.

The possible specification depends on the object type used for the command Pass-By Level, such as road, railway or general line source.
Source Type
User-defined

8.14
8.14

Light or Heavy

8.14

If we select light or heavy from the Source Type box we cannot enter the
sound power level, but it will be determined with the entered Speed (km/
h). The predefined sound power level for roads is determined according to
RLS 90 if the national standard does not describe anything about it.

Train list

8.14

We can choose previously entered train types (see Chapter 8.12.2 "Train
Classes") from the Source Type box if we use the line source Railway. We
select a train as source type by clicking on it.

If we select User-defined from the Source Type box we can enter our
own data for all provided parameters.

Manual

8.14 3

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Pass-by Levels for Line Sources with the Noise Levels Time History

The following table lists the average sound power levels for passenger cars
and trucks, as a function of speed, which have to be assigned to the vehicles so as to yield the emission value as an example prescribed by RLS-90
for the speed in question.

Sound Power Level


and Speed
8.14

Sound power levels, in dB(A), of individual vehicles, as a function of


speed:
Speed, in km/h
30

50

80

100

120

Passenger car

92.5

97

103

106.4

109.4

Truck

105.5

110.5

115.1

Accordingly, a sound power level of 97 dB(A) can be entered for a passenger car driving at 50 km/h. (Of course, it would be possible to automatically assign this value, but other values may have to be assumed in some
situations.)
Sampling time and speed together determine the section lengths through
which the fictitious vehicle or the source is moved between one calculation and the next. A sampling time of 1 s may suffice to check the necessary calculation time, a value of 0.1 s may be appropriate to represent a
level record showing all level variations due to shielding and reflections.

Sample Time

8.14

We can select the direction of traffic with respect to the direction in which
the road was inserted. Positive means the driving direction from the initial
to the final point and negative vice versa.

Driving direction
negativ/positiv

8.14

With the activated option Append to Diagram we are able to simulate


serveral pass-bys consecutively.

Append to
Diagram

8.14

Just try it: Keep the Pass-By diagram open and mark once again the same
object or a different one with the RIGHT mouse key and choose Pass-By
Level again from the context menu. Mark the option Append to Diagram

Manual

8.14

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Pass-by Levels for Line Sources with the Noise Levels Time History

and for the driving direction select negative instead of positive or vice
versa depending on what you have selected before.
Pass-By
Diagram

8.14

If we drag the Y-axis in the Pass-By diagram in a horizontal direction then


the vehicle symbol in the graphic will also move along the line source/
road/railway.
Another alternative is to choose a value from the Animation menu. The
Pass-By then runs with the selected speed automatically.

Auralisation

8.14

Hardware requirement: At least a sound card and loudspeaker or earhead.


In the menu Auralization|Properties the saved sound file of the relevant
process is opened after selection of a sound type in the list box and is reproduced - regarding level height - according to the calculated time history
of the pass-by level.

8.14

With the option 3D-Auralization the Doppler effect, when switching from
approach to departure, will be simulated realistically.

Listening direction at
Receiver
Point:
8.14

Automatically to source: View directly towards the source (shortest distance possible)

Direction ()

8.14

Direction: View in the given angle towards the source, relative to x-axis

Calibration

8.14

Calibration: Select the desired volume in the list box and adjust the corresponding playback on your audio-appliance.

3D-Auralisation

Manual

8.14 5

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Pass-by Levels for Line Sources with the Noise Levels Time History

For practice:

Test the Pass-By with a simple arrangement as in the following


figure.

Example
Pass-By

8.14

 Pass-By.cna

Simple arrangement of a road, buildings and a receiver point IP1.

Open the context menu by clicking the road axis with the RIGHT
mouse key and selcet the command Pass-By Level.

From the Imm.point (receiver point) list select the desired receiver
point for which the pass-by level shall be calculated - in our example
IP1.

In the next box, Source Type, select light.

Adjust the Sampling Interval to 0.1 s.


After we have confirmed with OK the diagram opens with the calculated levels time history. The calculation time depends on the complexity of the project.

Manual

8.14

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Pass-by Levels for Line Sources with the Noise Levels Time History

For a light vehicle calculated level time-history

Now move the mouse cursor in the diagram und press the LEFT
mouse key. On this position a vertical cursor line appears, whose
time and sound pressure level is indicated in the upper dialog bar and
a symbol (black box) indicates the vehicles position on the road lane
in the graphic, in the driving direction on the assigned lane axis.

If we now drag the cursor line horizontally in the diagram then the
vehicle symbol also will move along the road. We can also choose a
value from the Animation menu.

Regarding the vehicles position relative to the location of buildings we


will be able to recognise reflections (increases in level) and shielding effects (reductions in level) concerning the level fluctuation.

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Pass-by Levels for Line Sources with the Noise Levels Time History

The levels time history can by copied for other programs like Excel or
Word either as sequences of numbers or as a chart.

Therefore activate the Level-Time diagram by clicking on it - the


upper dialog bar is then highlighted, normally blue. Now copy to the
clipboard by pressing the key c.

In the other program - e.g. Excel or Word - choose Edit|Paste and


confirm either graphic or text.

8.14 7
Copy the Levels Time
History
8.14

Indicating the vehicle on the road with a symbol (black


box) and in the diagram with a vertical cursor line

Test further pass-by possibilities. Vary the reflection of single buildings by switching them on and off alternately and watching the
effect on the levels time history.

Manual

8.14

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Pass-by Levels for Line Sources with the Noise Levels Time History

This diagram also facilitates the optimisation of barriers, because you can
immediately see the effect of any modification. Going beyond the mere
consideration of time-averaged levels, the pass-by feature offers you a tool
which allows you to examine and visualise the effects of level-reducing
measures on the instantaneous levels.
Video

8.14

You can record the pass-by as video film in AVI format which you can replay with each standard video program such as Windows Media Player.
If you click on the button VIDEO you can configure the recording. Choose
a desired section either the whole limits or a userdefined section. The usderdefined section needs a name in order to select it from the corresponding list. For a try-out we recommend to defined a smaller userdefined
section that it doesnt take too much time for recording.
For the video recording you need a so-called compression program which
you can choose if you have entered a file name.

The list of compression programs shows all installed programs of your operating system. Choose and configure one of them accordingly. After confirming with OK the pass-by is calculated and recorded.

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Optimized Area Sources

8.15
*

8.15 1

Optimized Area Sources

This source is only available if the BPL module was purchased!

Clicking this icon allows you to specify the boundary of a maximized area
source. The source is characterised by the following features.

The method for the calculation of sound propagation is done as it was


for the general area source (see Chapter 8.5), i. e., the area is split into
partial areas taking into account its distance from the receiver point and
possible shielding objects. The partial areas are replaced by point
sources.

When determining noise quotas using Maximized Area Sources you


should generally activate the option so that shielding objects within do
not affect the emission of area sources. This option is available for any
area source. (see Chapter 12.4.9 Calculation|Configuration|Industry|Src. in buildings/Cylinders do not shield.)

The edit dialog can be switched from day-time to night-time. The entry
of either the area-related sound power level PWL or the total sound
power level PWL refers to the respective time.

By the other entries in the bottom part of the dialog, the Maximized
Area Sources differs from a general area source. These entries support
the maximalisation with respect to the allocation of noise quotas.

Manual

8.15

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Optimized Area Sources

65.0

65.0

(10/10)

(250/10)
70.0

8
The procedure is explained below.
If immission-sensitive residential areas are situated in the vicinity of a
planned trade or industrial area the latter is so partitioned as to provide individual areas with different maximum permissible emissions. These permissible emission values are determined under the condition that:

the relevant immission limits for the neighbourhood are complied with
in any case, and

the intended use of the individual areas is prevented or restricted in the


least possible way

This generally is called noise allotment. CadnaA supports this in an extremely flexible manner using the Maximized Area Source, without forcing the user to follow a particular program-inherent philosophy of
maximalization.
In order to achieve this, a usability function is assigned to each partial
area.

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Optimized Area Sources

8.15 3

It assigns an area-related usability in % to each area-related sound power


level. The fact that the gradient of the curve decreases as the emission values increase shows that a further increase in the permissible emission cannot be exploited due to the intended use. On the other hand, the usability
decreases excessively when a particular emission required for the intended
use is further reduced.
Thanks to this concept /20/ the individual requirements of planning concerning institutions and parties can be accounted for in the maximalisation.
The usability function of CadnaA is approximated by two lines. This requires three emission values for each partial area as a basis for the maximalisation.

PWL max

Manual

is the maximum exploitable emission (depending


on the branch of industry - value may be up to
80 dB(A) for industries with permanent truck
traffic)

8.15

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Optimized Area Sources

PWL min

is the minimum required emission [determined on


the basis of the absolutely necessary noise-relevant processes - e. g. a 10-minute truck ride
across an area of 1,000 m2 results in 55 dB(A).]

PWL Turning
Point

is the emission value where the gradient of the usability function changes. Below the turning point
level, a 1-dB reduction results in a stronger reduction in usability than a 1-dB increase in the range
above, and enhances the usability. Here we
should enter the value that should be "retained" in
the maximalisation.

8
The usability specified at the turning point determines the curve and thus
the "maximalising strategy".
Common data for industrial areas::
PWL min

57 dB(A)

Turning Point

80 % / 60 dB(A)

PWL max

65 dB(A)

The bottom part of the edit dialog for the Optimized Area Source contains a slider control serving to select an emission value within the range
from min to max like the current value which is displayed in the dialog
above. For a first test, push the slider to the extreme right, thus selecting
the maximum emission value.

Manual

8.15 5

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Optimized Area Sources

The most critical receiver points are entered with their relevant standard
immission levels as customary. Clicking the calculator icon on the icon bar
starts the calculation. If no receiver point turns red for either day or night,
the standard levels are complied with in spite of the maximum values
which were assumed - in this case it is not necessary to reduce emission
values.

Calculation
8.15.0

In the calculation, all sources existing in the project - roads, railways, industry or even air-traffic noise - are taken into account as the initial immission. The individual or group (see Chapter 18.2) deactivation, or
deactivation of entire types of noise sources allows you to generate and analyse any scenario for large limits.
The procedure described so far is the same as for the calculation of ordinary area sources.
If red colour shows that the standard levels have been exceeded at individual receiver points, the emission from the partial areas with the strongest
influence on the relevant point are reduced in steps.
CadnaA does not require a new calculation for each step. Double-clicking

the respective partial area and shifting the position of the slider will show
you the resulting change of receiver points in the graphic - practically online. Depending on the desired strategy the emission values can be reduced
until compliance with the standard levels is ensured at all receiver points.

Manual

Manual
Maximalisation

8.15.0

8.15

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


Optimized Area Sources

*
Automatic
Maximalization

8.15.0

Follow this procedure separately for day-time and night-time.

Selecting Optimized Area Sources on the Calculation menu will result


in an automatic, iterative reduction of the emission values by CadnaA. It is
always the reduction of emission resulting in the smallest decrease of the
area-related usability according to the concept explained above which is
carried out in this stepwise procedure.
With

Si

area in m of the ith partial area

wi

area-related usability in % of the ith partial area

the total usability is

w=

wi S i
Si

Its value is displayed at the beginning and the end of the maximalization.
The result calculated by CadnaA need not be the best if further aspects,
not accessible to the above usability function, are to be considered. In this
case, the automatic optimisation is a suitable starting point, whereas manual modifications of the emission values using the slider (see above: Manual Maximalisation) allow you to further adapt the scenario in the desired
way.
When the maximalisation has been completed and fixed, the Optimized
Area Source can be converted to an general area source (see Chapter
5.7.14). This is particularly useful where large data stocks are to be supplemented for noise immission maps.
See also:
Chapter "Noise Quota for Urban Land-Use Planning" and Chapter
12.4.13 "Optimisable Source Tab"

Manual

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


CadnaA-SET Option

8.16

8.16 1

CadnaA-SET Option

Technical Sound Sources Modelling, Sound Calculation and Noise Reduction with CadnaA-SET Module for Calculation of Sound Emission and Transmission

CadnaA-SET is a additional program option with a revolutionary concept.


Without CadnaA-SET immission prognoses for technical facilities you
do not hit the state of the art.

Manual

8.16

Chapter 8 Noise Sources


CadnaA-SET Option

Main Features:

The frequency spectra of radiating sound power are determined from


the technical parameters.

Complex facilities and devices with multiple sound sources and radiating areas are reproduce with their inner sound flux.

The already existing sound source models establish a pool with immediately accessible know-how

This pool can be extended arbitrarly with the userdefined models (the
work of all employees concerning projects extended the library).

The insertion of a silencer at a location in a sound flux string reduced


the emission of all following radiating areas automatically

The impact at receiver points refering to the noise reduction concepts


can be checked easily by adjusting the technical parameters accordingly (volume flux, thickness of sheet metal).

The SET-Manual:
The CadnaA-SET manual is a powerful compendium regarding technical
sound sources.

Each sound source description consists of one or more pictures

SET-Module Diagram with input (IN) and output (OUT)

Technical-physical specification

Information for the sound genesis mechanismen

Calculation basis in the SET module (name of the SET module, used
equation, parameter terms)

Additional hints for peculiarities such as tone incorporation, possible


noise reduction measure and details for the application insecurity of
this prognosis method.

Literature/References concerning the applied literature, guidelines and


standards

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 9 Obstacles
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 9 Obstacles

Manual

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Contents

9.1 1

Chapter 9 Obstacles

9.1 Contents
9.2

Reflection Properties of Obstacles

9.3

Building

9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
9.3.4
9.3.5
9.3.6
9.3.7
9.3.8

Acoustic Transparency (%)


Residential and Outbuilding
Snap Point to Building Facade
Generate a Building
The Building Evaluation
The Noise Maps of Buildings
Result Table for the Building Noise
Level-Difference-Map for Building Noise

9.4

The Cylinder

9.5

The Barriers

9.5.1
9.5.2

The floating Barrier


Barrier with Cantilever

9.6

The Bridge

9.6.1
9.6.2

Entering a Bridge
Example of a Street bridge elevated
by two embankments

Manual

9.1

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Contents

9.7

Embankment

9.7.1

Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers

9.8

Areas with Specified Ground


Absorption

9.9

The Foliage and Built-Up Areas

9.10

3D-Reflector

Manual

9.2 1

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Reflection Properties of Obstacles

9.2

Reflection Properties of Obstacles

One of three options can be activated to specify the reflectivity of the surfaces of obstacles. If the properties of the building elements, e. g. of a barrier, are known, the absorption coefficient of the surface may be entered
directly.

Example edit dialog Building

No reflection is calculated for this object.

No Reflection

9.2

Enter the acoustical loss due to reflection in decibels, or click the card-index icon and assign it in terms of the surface classification (in accordance
with RLS90 /9/, Table 7).

Reflection Loss

9.2

Enter a single-number value, a formula, or the reference to an absorption


coefficient spectrum (siehe Kapitel 16.2 The local and global Libraries).

Absorption
Coefficient
Alpha

9.2

For the following options, it is required that under Calculation|Configuration|Reflection tab (see Chapter 12.4.8), an order of reflection of 1 or
more is specified.

Manual

9.2

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Reflection Properties of Obstacles

Manual

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Building

9.3

9.3 1

Building

Buildings are objects with vertical walls and an arbitrary closed polygon
as base. The rectangular shape can be forced. The roof is not considered a
reflecting or shielding object. (If necessary, enter a barrier, the top edge of
which is defined by the roof top.)
Reflections at the outer surfaces of the building will be taken into account
according to the mirror sound source method if this option has been selected under Calculation|Configuration (see Chapter 12.4.8).
Sources will be shielded if the are lying within the building because their
facades are be taken into account as barriers. We can determine this by activating or deactivating the option Sources in Buildings/Cylinders do not
shield on the tab Industry in Calculation|Configuration (see Chapter
12.4.9 "Industry Tab").0

The heights of a building is entered as customary in the edit dialog, under


Geometry.
With the function Deactivate Point Objects in Buildings (Tables|Miscellaneous) you can deactivate point like objects (e.g. height points, point
sources) which are within the building base. That maybe sometime useful
after a third-party programs import. Now you can easily delete the deactevated objects with the funktion Modify Object (see Chapter 5.7.2).

Manual

Deactivate Point Objects


in Buildings
9.3.0

9.3

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Building

For further information concerning buildings see chapters:

Quickstart Object Building see Chapter 4.14.5


Acoustical Transparence see Chapter 9.3.1
Generate Building see Chapter 9.3.4
Force Rectangle in the contex menu, see Chapter 5.7.5
Rectangular Plan, see Chapter 5.7.6
Barriers, see Chapter 9.5
Object snap see Chapter 11.2 Allocating a Receiver Point to
a Building
Snap Point on Building Facade see Chapter 9.3.3
Building Evaluation see Chapter 9.3.5
Building Noise Map see Chapter 9.3.6
Import Building Height Points see Chapter 6.4.13

Manual

9.3.1 1

Chapter 9.3 Building


Acoustic Transparency (%)

9.3.1

Acoustic Transparency (%)

We can allocate the object Building a parameter value acoustic transparency in % by inputing a value > 0 in the corresponding edit box.

Application

With a value larger than zero the defined percentage of the sound energy
is added to the diffracted sound energy when the sound energy is attenuated by diffraction with transparency zero. This property and the described
effect in the calculation method, is only active with industrial noise, that
means with the general point-, line- and area-sources calculated according
to VDI-guideline 2714 /2720 or ISO 9613-2

VDI 2714 / 2720 / ISO


9613-2
General Sources

This feature allows the modeling of more or less open structures that are in
reality an accumulation of pipes, vessels and other technical equipment
that can be penetrated by sound energy. This modeling is performed with
the object Building which has the same shape as the described structure,
and a transparency value that is derived from the open cross section.
In the most general case several objects lie in the path of propagation.
At first we check, which of these objects influence the diffraction calculation according to the rubber-band method (small objects that don't touch a
rubber stretched from source to receiver point remain unconsidered).
If the sound energy at the receiver point is reduced by dE according to the
screening calculation, then with a collective transparency of X % the energy (X/100)*dE is added to the sound energy calculated with transparency
zero.
The total degree of transmission for many buildings is the product of all
single transmission factors.
The calculation method with CadnaA is as follows:
At the receiver point two sound contributions are added energetically. The
first contribution is the diffracted sound over and if necessary around the
arrangement and is calculated as for objects not acoustically transparent.

Manual

Effect

9.3.1

Chapter 9.3 Building


Acoustic Transparency (%)

The second contribution is calculated as direct sound energy, not taking


into account the shielding objects, but multiplying this energy value by the
resulting transmission factor defined above.
With direct sound contribution Edir and the resulting transmission factor ,
this second contribution is Edir * .

Attention: This method was implemented because of user demands.


It is not described in any standard or guideline. The expanding of
transparently defined objects has no influence on the result of calculation. The value of the acoustic transparency is considered to be the
same for all directions.

Manual

9.3.1 3

Chapter 9.3 Building


Acoustic Transparency (%)

The acoustic transparency of the building is 0 %:

Example
Case 1

9.3.1

9
50

35

50

Manual

9.3.1
Example
Case 2

Chapter 9.3 Building


Acoustic Transparency (%)

The acoustic transparency of the building is 50 %:

9
50

47

50

Manual

9.3.1 5

Chapter 9.3 Building


Acoustic Transparency (%)

If this option is activated in Calculation|Configuration|Industry the general sources as point-, line- and area sources can be placed within the
building plan. The building, in which the sources are placed, does not affect the emission of these sources. For other sources and receiver points
outside the building a shielding calculation will be taken into account according to the choosen configuration.

Sources in Building/
Cylinderdonotshield9.3.1

With this option the radiation out of almost open structures can be carried
out. So a plant, consisting of open bundles of pipelines, can be modeled as
a house with a predefined transparency considering each specific sound radiating valve as a point source.

Application

Example:

9.3.1

Manual

9.3.1

Chapter 9.3 Building


Acoustic Transparency (%)

56

56

56

Manual

9.3.2 1

Chapter 9.3 Building


Residential and Outbuilding

9.3.2

Residential and Outbuilding

A building can be labelled a "Residential Building" (default setting). If


"Residential Building" is not marked in the edit dialog, the building in
question is an outbuilding. Residential buildings and outbuildings are thus
automatically marked by different hatchings. Furthermore, only residential
buildings are considered in the automatic determination of the population
density (XL module, see Chapter 11.6.4).

Residential and
Outbuilding

9.3.2

Outbuilding

Residential building

Residential buildings and outbuildings have different hatchings

Specify the appearance of the hatching as shown on the dialog below (Options|Appearance, see Chapter 13.6)

Appearance dialog

For documantation you can enter the real number of residents and with the
option XL you can use this value for further calculations.

Manual

Residents:

9.3.2

9.3.2

Chapter 9.3 Building


Residential and Outbuilding

Manual

Chapter 9.3 Building


Snap Point to Building Facade

9.3.3

9.3.3 1

Snap Point to Building Facade

The command Snap Point to Facade in the Context Menu of the marked
object or in the Context menu|Change Objects enables you to locate objects (e.g. point, line or area source or receiver point etc.) at a defined distance in front of building facades after they have been inserted.
The objects are attached to the facade with the distance definded in the edit
box Distance Points-Facade.

Distance
Points-Facade

9.3.3

The operation is applied for all points with a distance smaller than the
snap radius.

Snap Radius

9.3.3

This could be necessary, e.g.,

if objects have been inserted without activated Object Snap (see


Chapter 13.5) but shall have a defined distance to the facade
if objects have been placed inside a building inadvertently they are moved and located with the defined distance outside the building or
if points have been imported from external sources
Point Source

Area Source vertical

House

Receiver

Initial situation: House with a point source, a vertical area


source and a receiver point. These objects shall be
dragged in front of the facade with a distance of 0,05 m.

Manual

9.3.3

SnapePoint Facade.cna

Chapter 9.3 Building


Snap Point to Building Facade

In the shown example objects are located near a building. The receiver
point and the vertical area source shall be dragged to the building facade
with a distance of 0,05 m

click with the RIGHT mouse key on a free area in your graphics

choose from the Context Menu|Modify Objects|Action: Snap


Point to Facade

mark the vertical area source and the receiver point as shown in the
following picture and confirm with OK.

The receiver point and the vertical area source are snapped to the
building facade.

Manual

Chapter 9.3 Building


Snap Point to Building Facade

9.3.3 3

With activated option Copy ID/Name of building the contents of these


fields is copied into the corresponding fields of the snaped objects.

Point Source

Area Source vertical

House

Receiver

Manual

9.3.3

Chapter 9.3 Building


Snap Point to Building Facade

Manual

Chapter 9.3 Building


Generate a Building

9.3.4

9.3.4 1

Generate a Building

To insert a building whose roof and four facades radiate sound, use the
convenient Generate Building command on the context menu (see Chapter 5.7).

First, insert a general area source in the shape of the horizontal projection of the building (see Chapter 8.5)

Switch to the edit mode and double-click the area source. This opens
the edit dialog.

Activate the Sound Reduction option, and enter an indoor level, either directly or with reference to a spectrum. Enter all further parameters for this source, and click OK to close the dialog.

Then click the area source with the RIGHT mouse button and select
Generate Building from the context menu.

In the Generate Building dialog, you can enter the parameters for the
height of the building and, if required, the height of the terrain at the base
of the building, and an absorption coefficient - either a single-number value or a reference to a spectrum (see chapter 16.2 The local and global Libraries).

Manual

9.3.4

Chapter 9.3 Building


Generate a Building

When all boxes are completed and the dialog has been closed by clicking
OK, CadnaA generates
1.

a building with a specified height 10 m in this example,

2.

the appropriate number of vertical area sources (see Chapter 5.7)


whose parameters are adopted from the first area source, at a distance
of 0.05 m in front of the building walls, and a horizontal area source
at 0.05 m above the roof (if necessary, adjust the parameters via
Tables|Sources|Vert. Area Sources);

3.

a surrounding contour line (see Chapter 10.5) with the absolute


height as entered.

Horizontal projection

3D-View

Manual

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Building Evaluation

9.3.5

9.3.5 1

The Building Evaluation

According to the requirements of RLS 90 /9/ and using the map symbols
defined in this guideline, there is a fairly simple way of demonstrating for
a building close to a traffic route whether the predefined and maximum
permissible rate levels on the basis of designated land use have been exceeded. It is also possible to ascertain which storeys this is true for and
which values are to be expected at the most exposed position of the facade
during the day and night.

Procedure:

We activate - for better understanding and not because it is necessary


- the option No calculation of Building Noise Map in the menu
Options|Building Noise Map (see Chapter 9.3.6).

Insert the object Building Evaluation with the corresponding icon


from the toolbox. For that, click inside the building plan for that building for which an evaluation is supposed to be made.

After placing the first symbol we should adjust the size if necessary
(see Chapter 5.4.3 "Change Dimensions"). All further inserted symbols then have the same size.

If several or even all buildings or only buildings with a certain condition of a project shall be evaluated we can use the command from the
context menu Modify Object|Action: Generate Building Evaluation to insert the Building Evaluation symbols all at once (see
Chapter 5.7.2 "Modify Objects").
In this case CadnaA automatically places these symbols in the
selected buildings. The name of the building, entered in the identically named edit box in the edit dialog, will be automatically transfered into the corresponding box of the Building Evaluation.

Manual

 Industry.cna
9

9.3.5
Building Evaluation
with Condition

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Building Evaluation

If you want enforce a building evaluation only for buildings e.g. with
a certain height and/or base area you can define a corresponding condition for that.

To insert an expression for a condition activate the pertinent checkbox and either enter the abbreviations (see Chapter 2.5) via keyboard
or select them from the list which opens by clicking the button with
the double-arrows.
9

With the above example would be generated symbols for all buildings which have a relative height heigher than 3 m and a base area
bigger than 50 m. In this case both conditions must be true.
We adjust the symbol sizes via the table Building Evaluation
(Tables|Other Objects) with the context menu command Change
Column (see Chapter 15.2.5) and define the pertinent Land Uses.
But also you can first insert one symbol from the toolbox and make
all settings you wish. CadnaA accept the settings of the last symbol
in the table for the following building evaluation symbols generated.

Manual

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Building Evaluation

Initial situation for a building evaluation. The icon has been placed
on the top left building. The calculation has not yet been performed.

When a building is evaluated, levels computed by CadnaA for all storeys


and in front of all facades are compared to the pertinent limit values or
standard values. The latter can be defined in two ways.

Double-clicking on the building evaluation icon opens the corresponding dialog. Activate the appropriate option for the standard values
(see Chapter 11.2.1).
If the option Determine from Designated Land Use is deactivated,
you can select the type of area by clicking the card-index icon next to
the Land Use box, and the type of noise can be selected in the Use
Standard Values for list box.

Although this building evaluation was originally aimed at traffic noise,


this flexible concept can also be applied to other types of noise like, e. g.,
industrial noise.

Manual

9.3.5 3

9.3.5

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Building Evaluation

Evaluation of a building in a General Residential Area


with respect to road traffic noise

The second way is to click the Designated Land Use icon and assign a type
of land use to an area by drawing a closed line around it. Then activate Determine from Designated Land Use. The standard values to be compared
should then be known.
When all buildings have been provided with a building evaluation symbol,
and the calculation is triggered by clicking the icon Calculator on the icon
bar, the progress bar window will first display the calculation for the specified receiver points and then the progress of the building evaluation.
In this building evaluation, calculations are performed and evaluated one
after the other

for all buildings bearing this symbol


for all storeys which result from the ratio of building height to storey
height (storey heights may be edited under Options in the edit dialog
Building Evaluation.)
for all outer facades.

Manual

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Building Evaluation

Upon completion of the calculation, the top semicircle of the icon indicates the range of storeys where excess levels occur. If it remains blank, no
excess levels occur, or no area of designated land use has been assigned.
The bottom quarters display the highest levels determined for the day and
for night.
I-VII
7060

I-II
6858
I-III
6757

I-II
6959

I-III
6858

I-II
6959

I-II
7161

I-II
7161

I-II
7261

I-II
6252

Labelling of the building after calculation

Manual

I-II
6959

9.3.5 5

9.3.5
Excluding
Facades

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Building Evaluation

9.3.5

In the edit dialog Building Evaluation if you click on the button Option|Exclude Facade another dialog opens in which you can mark facades
not to be taken into account for a calculation.

The exclusion of irrelevant facades for a calculation of a noise map of


buildings can save a lot of calculation time.
To exclude a facade, click on the identifier of the facade, in the upper part
of the dialog, e.g., F01. Marked identifiers exclude the corresponding facades from a calculation. In the graphic represantation, in the lower part of
the dialog, the currently marked facade is marked by a thick black line. If
the black dot of a facade is faded it indicates the deactivation of this facade. If you click again on the identifier of a facade it will again be included
in the calculation. In this case the black dot is visible.

Manual

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Noise Maps of Buildings

9.3.6

9.3.6 1

The Noise Maps of Buildings

With the symbol for Building Evaluation (see Chapter 9.3.5) already given in CadnaA, which shows the maximum sound levels and, if necessary,
the storeys with exceeded levels, you are also able to produce a coloured
noise map of a building with each storey possessing its own sound level.
This corresponds to the 16. BImSchV /10/ for establishing passive noise
protection measures for buildings on streets.

In interplay with variants (see Chapter 18.3) - calculation of different


scenarios - we can also quickly generate level-difference-maps of
buildings (see Chapter 9.3.8) and represent them comfortably in a
simply way.
9

Procedure

Insert the symbol Building Evaluation with a mouse click on the


building plan.

In the edit mod,e double-click the Building Evaluation symbol and


define a standard value by selecting the pertinent option.

Manual

9.3.6

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Noise Maps of Buildings

If you want to execute a correct building evaluation according to the


16. BImSchV, please do not forget to deactivate all noise sources that
are not to be evaluated (see Chapter 18.2 Groups)

The representational parameters of the building noise map can be reached


via the menu Options|Building Noise Map (see Chapter 9.3.6).

If necessary deactivate the checkbox No Calculation of Building


Noise Map and set the further desired parameters by input or selection.

Start the calculation with the Pocket Calculater from the symbol bar
or with Calculation|Calc

Parameter in the
edit dialog Noise Map of
Building
9.3.6

Edit Dialog Noise Map / Evaluation of Buildings in the Option menu

Manual

9.3.6 3

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Noise Maps of Buildings

CadnaA subdivides the facade on the basis of the entered length and in-

serts a level symbol into each section.

Parameter
Calculation for minimum/
maximum Length of
Facade
9.3.6

You can choose the calculation method for the characteristic noise level of
the building from the noise level of the facades (arithmetic or energetic average value, minimum or maximum value)

Averaging Method

By activating this option no noise map is calculated and displayed for the
building but the building evaluation is still executed. If you want to save
calculation time then deactivate the corresponding symbols.

No Calculation of Noise
Map for
Buildings

Choose the facade points/levels you want to display in the noise map for
buildings from the listbox.

Appearence of
Building
Noise Map
Show Facade
Points:

9.3.6
9.3.6

You can also display the identifiers of these generated receiver points in
the Result Table with the <Textvariablen> STW (see Chapter 15.3.3).
Enter a corresponding value - the unit (m) will ajust the size of the symbol
according to the change of scale, (mm) will not do this. If you wish you
can choose different sizes for symbols which contain either exceeding or
non-exceeding noise levels.

Size of (non) Exceeding


Symbol:
9.3.6

Activation of this option will color the level symbols according to the colour palette in the menu Grid|Appearance.

Color Symbols according


to Level:
9.3.6

Activation of this option will show either the level value - in addition to
colouring, if necessary - within the level symbol or as alternativ the number of the program internal numbering of the facade symbols.

Print in
Symbols:

9.3.6

Apply

9.3.6

These levels can also be shown in the Result Table (see Chapter 15.3) by
activating the corresponding option in the field Receiver from Building
Noise Map. Also the number of the facade symbols can be displayed in
the Result Table with the <Textvariablen> FASSNR .
By clicking the Apply button we can look at the settings before closing the
dialog box - a possible change of the facade length only has an effect after

Manual

9.3.6

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Noise Maps of Buildings

a new calculation. By clicking the Cancel button the altered setting will
not be accept.
3D-Special
View

9.3.6

Arithmetic

9.3.6

The buildings facades are also colorfully displayed in the 3D-special


view according to the chosen color-level key after a calculation.
With the Arithmetic field you are able to calculate different formula for or
with the noise map of buildings, e.g. level-difference-map for building
noise (see Chapter 9.3.8)
In case a horizontal receiver grid has already been calculated you can allocate interpolated grid values to facade points. A separate calculation of a
noise map for buildings is unnecessary which would save calculation time.
Independent from the number of defined evaluation parameters (see Chapter 12.4.6) the calculation results of the horizontal receiver grid provides a
bases for the building evaluation.

Procedure:

9.3.6

Precondition for the allocation is the existing Building Evaluation


symbol within the relevant buildings and the facade points, which
can be generated by a dummy calculation with only one point
source.

1.

calculate desired receiver grid

2.

generate face points with calculation of one single noise source (e.g.
point source - all other noise sources deactivated with Modify
Objects|Activation|Deactivate|All - except buildings and building
evaluation symbols)

3.

calc the dummy noise map of buildings with the pocket calculater
from the symbol bar

4.

in Option|Building Noise Map|Arithmetic enter the expression r0


and click on the button Perform Calculation

Manual

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Noise Maps of Buildings

9.3.6 5

With the expression r0 the interpolated calculation results of the horizontal


grid will be allocated to the corresponding evaluation parameters of the facade points. Subsequently if you choose one of the defined evaluation parameters from the list in the symbol bar the allocated relevant result is
displayed in the facade points.
For allocation to the facade points of interpolated results of the horizontal
receiver grid, coordinates or the ground height the following expressions
can be additionally used for general formula:

Manual

9.3.6

9
Example

Chapter 9.3 Building


The Noise Maps of Buildings

Input

Result

r0

allocation of the results from the horizontal grid to all the


corresponding evaluation parameters

r01 bis r04

allocation to the corresponding evaluation parameter


LP1 - LP4
(r01 allocates the result to LP1, r02 to LP2 etc. special application)

x|y|z

evaluates the corresponding x-, y- or z-coordinate of the


facade point
(z allocate the z-coordinate to the facade point special application)

evaluates the ground height at the facade


iff(STW==1;r0;LP)

(if it is the first floor, then allocate the interpolated result from the grid
otherwise not - kept the existing value)

Manual

Chapter 9.3 Building


Result Table for the Building Noise

9.3.7

9.3.7 1

Result Table for the Building Noise

With the generator of the new result table you can define a table showing
the results in a desired form.
Immission Point
Land
Name
ID Storey
IP 01
IP 02
IP 03
Building 01
Building 01
Building 01
Building 02
Building 03
Building 05
Building 06
Building 07
Building 08
Building 08
Building 13
Building 19
Building 19

EG
EG
EG
EG
EG
1.OG
EG
EG
EG
EG
EG
1.OG
1.OG

MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI

Limiting Value
Day
Night
dB(A)
dB(A)
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54
64
54

rel. Axis
Station Distance Height
m
m
m
22
21.51
0.50
0
53.58
1.50
51
35.94
1.50
123
9.19
2.50
126
8.80
2.50
133
12.08
2.50
107
9.70
2.50
91
8.83
2.50
61
12.24
5.30
43
11.82
2.50
26
11.71
2.50
165
9.57
2.50
162
9.67
2.50
81
8.59
2.50
141
12.78
5.30
138
12.81
5.30

Lr w/ Noise Control
dL req.
Day
Night
Day Night
dB(A)
dB(A) dB(A) dB(A)
59.6
49.3
53.2
43.0
51.2
41.0
68.3
58.1
4.3
4.1
68.7
58.5
4.7
4.5
65.1
54.9
1.1
0.9
68.1
57.9
4.1
3.9
68.6
58.4
4.6
4.4
66.7
56.5
2.7
2.5
66.9
56.7
2.9
2.7
66.8
56.6
2.8
2.6
64.5
54.2
0.5
0.2
64.5
54.2
0.5
0.2
65.7
55.4
1.7
1.4
66.4
56.2
2.4
2.2
66.4
56.2
2.4
2.2

Result table with receiver points taken from the noise map for buildings

If you want to look at the results for the receiver points taken from the
noise map of the building in addition to the standard receiver points, please
activate the option Immpoints from Building Noise Map in the result tables edit box and choose the desired levels/storeys from the listbox.

Manual

9.3.7

Chapter 9.3 Building


Result Table for the Building Noise

Edit Dialog Result Table

To show also the column Storey, insert a new line in the edit boxs result
table if necessary.
A double-click on the line will open the edit boxs table column.

Manual

Chapter 9.3 Building


Result Table for the Building Noise

9.3.7 3

9
Column-Edit dialog of the Result Table

Enter the parameters shown above and close the dialog box by clicking
OK. The String variable STW represents the corresponding storey.

The (String variable) STW shows the pertinent storey identifier.

Manual

Storeys
(Textvariable)
STW

9.3.7

9.3.7
String variable for
BNM
9.3.7

Chapter 9.3 Building


Result Table for the Building Noise

Following String variables can be used in the Result Table to view more
information about the facade points of a Building Noise Map:
STW

Floor Identifier

FASSNR

Numbered the level icons of the building


noise map continuously starting with the
first polygon point of the building. These
so-called facade numbering can be displayed in the result tabel, too.Example:On
the basis of the facade partitioning (Options|Building Noise Map) 12 level icons are
generated together for all sides of the building. Consequently they will be covered
intern with the facade numbering from 1, 2,
3 etc. till 12. If each level icon has even 5
storeys so each storey will be assigned to
the corresponding facade number.

DIR

Degree No. 0-360 with 0 symbolized


North direction

HIRI

Direction with one letter (N-North, O-East,


S-South, W-West)

HIRI2

Direction with two letters if necessary (e.g.


NW-North-West, SO-South-East)

Manual

Chapter 9.3 Building


Level-Difference-Map for Building Noise

9.3.8

9.3.8 1

Level-Difference-Map for Building Noise

With the Noise-Map for Buildings and activated variants we can quickly
calculate the differences in levels at buildings in various project scenarios
and can represent them easily.
Therefore, at first we calculate the noise maps for buildings for all variants
with Calculation|Calc|All Variants. If we switch through the variants by
selecting the variant name at the symbol bar the pertinent result is displayed on the screen.
To better recognize the levels, displayed in the symbols, deactivate the option Color Symbols according to Level, if necessary, or choose a different color palette with Open Palette in the menu Grid|Appearence|
Option (see Chapter 11.5.2).
9
We calculate the level differences by subtracting the results of the variants.
For that, open the dialog Options|Building Noise Map and enter the pertinent formula in the box Arithmetic/actual Variant.

Calculate Level
Differences

We calculate the first variante V01 with the actual situation and the second
variant V02 with the actual situation plus noise protection measures, e.g. a
noise protection wall. What level differences does the noise protection
wall gain at the facades?

Example: Noise Map in


Levels differences for
Buildings

After calculating all variants (Calculation|Calc|All Variants), we create


another variant, e.g., V03 - differences - and activate this by selecting its
name from the list box in the symbol bar.
In the dialog Options|Building Noise Map|Arithmetic/actual Variant
we enter the following:
LPT1 - LPT2
Click the button Perform Calculation. The button Apply displays the result immediately without closing the dialog. Otherwise close the dialog by
clicking the OK button.

Manual

9.3.8

Chapter 9.3 Building


Level-Difference-Map for Building Noise

We can enter LPT01 or just LPT1.

In this example the variant V03 will be overwritten if we calculate all


variants again. The calculation of the level differences must be
refreshed. The map of level differences for buildings is always displayed in the activated variant and therefore overwrites the existing
result.

The functions, which you can use in the Arithmetic box, are identical with
those from the Result Table.
Function and Operators see Chapter 2.6

Manual

Chapter 9 Obstacles
The Cylinder

9.4

9.4 1

The Cylinder

A Cylinder can - like a building - shield and/or reflect. It is defined with


two points.

The first point defines the central point and


the second point the radius through its distance to the first point.

The height is entered, as customary, in the edit dialog under Geometry


(see Chapter 10.4).

Line source

9
Source

Immission
point

Reflecting cylilnder

Rays reflected by the cylinder

Lines of equal sound levels

Sources inside the cylinder are shielded because the walls are considered
barriers. This standard effect can be switch off by activating the option
Sources in Buildings/Cylinder do not shield (see Chapter 12.4.9).

Manual

9.4

Chapter 9 Obstacles
The Cylinder

Manual

Chapter 9 Obstacles
The Barriers

9.5

9.5 1

The Barriers

Reflections at the outer surfaces of a barrier are taken into account according to the mirror sound source method if
1.

a reflection > 0 is selected (see Chapter 12.4.8) and

2.

a barrier is defined as reflecting by entering a Reflection Loss or,


alternatively, an Absorption Coefficient Alpha in the edit dialog.

The standard setting of a barrier is No Reflection. But we can define a Reflection Loss or an Absorption Coefficient Alpha for the left and/or right
side of a barrier. Left and right refer to the view from the inital point to the
final point of a barriers polygon points.
Strict provisions are made by RLS-90 /9/ concerning the neglecting of lateral diffraction and of ground attenuation in the calculation of the shielding effect. For all other sources you may define on the tab
Calculation|Configuration|Industry (see Chapter 12.4.9) to what extent
lateral diffraction shall be taken into account and, if necessary, you may
modify the barrier coefficients.
See also
the following chapter 9.5.1 The floating Barrier and
chapter 9.7.1 Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers

Manual

9.5

Chapter 9 Obstacles
The Barriers

Manual

Chapter 9.5 The Barriers


The floating Barrier

9.5.1

9.5.1 1

The floating Barrier

The Cadna object Barrier was modified to also include barriers on bridges.
The Floating Barrier option is available in the edit dialog Barrier. If this
option is activated, the height of the barrier from its bottom to top edges
can be entered in the z dimension box, in addition to the height specified in
the Geometry dialog. If the height of the barrier (i. e., the relative height
of its top edge) is, e. g., 10 m, and 3 m have been entered as its
z dimension, the bottom edge is 7 m above the ground.
Such a barrier whose bottom edge does not rest on the ground has the following properties:
1.

The shielding effect is calculated as customary for each ray hitting


the actual barrier surface, considering all three propagation paths
(over, under and laterally around the barrier), if necessary.

2.

Rays passing underneath the barriers edge are not attenuated. This
effect is therefore calculated correctly.

3.

Diffraction around the bottom edge is currently not taken into


account.

4.

Reflections of rays hitting the barriers surface are calculated according to the principle of mirror image source, if necessary. This allows
you tocalculate the increase in level caused by, e. g., large indicator
boards and similar items.

If a barrier is installed on a bridge (see below), the height of the barrier section on the bridge must be entered as either
-

Manual

the height of the top edge above the base plate of the bridge, and
the Building Height button in the Geometry dialog must be
activated - that means 3 m in our example - and the same value
must be entered for the z dimension after Floating Barrier has
been activated, or

9.5.1

Chapter 9.5 The Barriers


The floating Barrier

the height of the top edge as an absolute value thus 13 m in


our example. The z dimension remains the same (3 m).

In both cases, further polygon points must be inserted (see Chapter


5.4.1) for the barrier where it intersects contour lines.

The barrier is calculated correctly in both cases.

10-m
contour line

Bridge

2 additional polygon points

Interpolate height of contour li


first point 10 m, last point 0 m

First point

Barrier on bridge
0-m contour line

9
Inserting a barrier on a bridge

 Bridge.cna

In the two dialogs below enter the height of a reflecting barrier as 3 m


above bridge level .

3-m-high barrier on a bridge in the 3-D front view

Manual

Chapter 9.5 The Barriers


The floating Barrier

Activate Floating Barrier in the edit dialog

Specify the barrier height above the


bridge by selecting the building roof
option.

If the cross-section view of the noise map is calculated, the level distribution is as illustrated below. The distortion of the lines of an equal sound
level in the top right hemisphere - which is due to the reflection at the barrier - and the shielding effect of the 3-m-high barrier on the left side of the
bridge - can be clearly seen.

Sound level distribution in a vertical plane for a road on a bridge with a barrier

Manual

9.5.1 3

9.5.1

Chapter 9.5 The Barriers


The floating Barrier

Manual

Chapter 9.5 The Barriers


Barrier with Cantilever

9.5.2

9.5.2 1

Barrier with Cantilever

Also barriers with cantilevers can be constructed and calculated in


CadnaA. In this case we activate the option Cantilever and insert a corresponding value for the cantilever horizontal and vertical.
The barrier height in the dialog Geometry is, as with the upright barriers,
the height of the defracting upper edge.

If the barriers height is specified as 3 m in the dialog Geometry and the


cantilever horizontal and vertical as 1 m, each a barrier is constructed as
displayed in the following image.
By selecting left or right the cantilever points to the corresponding side
according to the first polygon point entered when looking toward the final
polygon point. The cantilever is displayed graphically as a dotted line.

Manual

9.5.2

Chapter 9.5 The Barriers


Barrier with Cantilever

Barrier with cantilever displayed in 3D front view

Barrier with cantilever in 3D special view

Manual

Chapter 9.5 The Barriers


Barrier with Cantilever

9.5.2 3

The slope area of the cantilever is supposed to be completely


absorbed in each case.

Manual

9.5.2

Chapter 9.5 The Barriers


Barrier with Cantilever

Manual

Chapter 9 Obstacles
The Bridge

9.6

9.6 1

The Bridge

The object type "Bridge" considerably extends the modelling capacities,


particularly with respect to road-traffic and railway noise.

CADNA A's 3-D view of a bridge

The CadnaA bridge is a horizontal slab with a closed polygon as its


borderline. All sound rays not hitting the bridge remain unaffected
by it.

If a source lies above the bridge level and a direct sound ray intersects the slab, the shielding by the slab (edges) will be calculated for
receiver points not directly under the bridge-slab.

For sound rays from sources lying below the bridge, which, on their
path to receiver points above the bridge, intersect the slab, the shielding effect is also calculated considering the top edge of the bridge as
the diffracting edge.

Manual

9.6

Chapter 9 Obstacles
The Bridge

Diffraction to the space below the bridge is not considered results


under the bridge are irrelevant!

For the time being, the bridge-slab is always a plane and parallel to
the reference plane, regardless of the contour of the terrain.

The height is always that of the first point (accessible via the Geometry dialog, or directly via Tables|Obstacles|Bridge). Heights
entered for the other corner points in the Geometry dialog are irrelevant. (The currently used standard dialog for the entry of polygon
lines will be adapted for bridges at a later point in time.)

When objects on the bridge-slab are to be allocated a height, the


slab is regarded as a building roof which means that you can
directly enter the height above the level of the bridge-slab in the Geometry dialog after activating the Building Roof option.

In the sectional view, the bridge-slab is not represented (for the time
being).

This means that road constructions of this kind can be correctly considered acoustically. The sound at ground level resulting from a road or a railway on a bridge nearby are calculated correctly and directly by
considering diffraction around the edges of the bridge.

Rays passing below the bridge, which, for a bridged gap in an


embankment, result in sound sources on one side of the embankment
and cause a sound on the other side, are considered automatically
(see example "Bridged Gap in an Embankment").

Thanks to an extension of the definition of barriers, even barriers on a


bridge can be calculated correctly (see Chapter 9.5.1 "The floating Barrier").
See also self-screening of Roads chapter 8.9.

Manual

Chapter 9.6 The Bridge


Entering a Bridge

9.6.1

9.6.1 1

Entering a Bridge

We recommend you enter all coordinates from the keyboard to be able to


follow this example best.
Click the pertinent toolbox icon and enter the x and y coordinates in pairs
on the dialog serving to enter a point. This dialog opens as soon as you
have typed the first number. Close the dialog by clicking OK, then type
the necessary numbers.
To be able to view your entries, set the scale to 1:1,000, and drag the right
scroll box downwards, and the bottom scroll box to the left, as required.
Save this practice file, if you wish to work through the following examples.

Click the bridge icon on the toolbox.

Enter the co-ordinates 50/50, 250/50, 250/70 and 50/70. The bridge is
drawn as a rectangular closed polygon.

Open the edit dialog by double-clicking its borderline, and enter a


height of 10 m relative in the Geometry dialog.

Edit dialog for a bridge object

Manual

9.6.1

Chapter 9.6 The Bridge


Entering a Bridge

Geometry dialog

Furthermore, enter a point source at 150/30/1 with a sound power


level of 100 dB, and a

calculation area with the co-ordinates 35/15, 280/15, 280/150, and


35/150.

Under Grid|Specifications, enter an receiver point spacing of 2 m


and a height of 5 m.

Calculate the grid.

The model entered in the 3-D frontal view. (Options


menu)
The point source lies below the bridge.

Manual

Chapter 9.6 The Bridge


Entering a Bridge

After the calculation, the representation of lines with same sound levels in
steps of 1 dB should be similar to the following illustration.

9.6.1 3
 Bridge1.cna

Calculation area

Bridge

Source

The lines of equal sound level demonstrate the passing of rays below the bridge.

As the source and receiver point grids lie below the bridge-slab, the resulting graphics are those typical of free sound propagation.

Now change the height of the source to 15 m so it lies above the


bridge level.

The model entered in the 3-D frontal view. (Options


menu) The point source lies above the bridge.

After the calculation, the level distribution should show the shielding effect of the bridge slab as in the following illustration.

Manual

 Bridge2.cna

9.6.1

Chapter 9.6 The Bridge


Entering a Bridge

Calculation area

Bridge

Source

Level distribution on the ground when the point source lies above the bridge level

Below you will find some important notes on the proper handling of this
object.

In practice, ramps and other passages should be defined by contour


lines on both sides of the bridge, and point 1 of the bridge-slab
should "rest" on ground level (relative height = 0). The road section
on the bridge is then specified so as to have two additional points not
lying on the bridge slab and at a relative height of 0 at the contour
line level. Remember: CadnaA always interpolates heights between
points.

Manual

Chapter 9.6 The Bridge


Example of a Street bridge elevated by two embankments

9.6.2

Example of a Street bridge elevated


by two embankments

Now we model a gap in an embankment below an existing bridge. If necessary, edit the limits (Options menu) for the following example (bottom
left corner x = -100). Switch off the representation of the grid (Grid|Appearance|No Grid).

Use the contour line icon to draw a rectangle lying at a height of 10 m


around the first section of the bridge. If right angles are desired, use
the SHIFT key. Start by drawing the longer side of the rectangle.

Upon completion, copy this rectangular contour line and move it to


the end of the bridge.
10-m
contour line

Bridge

10-m contour lines around the beginning and end of a bridge.

Enter two more contour lines adjoining the edges of the rectangular
contour lines, and activate Interpolate Height From First and Last
Points, first point at 10 m, last point at 0 m. (Use the Copy feature in
combination with the CTRL key!)
Interpolate height of contour line
first point 10 m, last point 0 m
10-m
contour line
Bridge

Contour lines adjoining rectangular contour lines

Manual

9.6.2 1

First point

 Bridge2.cna

9.6.2

Chapter 9.6 The Bridge


Example of a Street bridge elevated by two embankments

To finalise the gap in the embankment, you need one more 0-m contour line to describe the base of the embankment. Enter this as illustrated below.
Interpolate height of contour line
first point10 m, last point 0 m
10-m
contour line
Bridge

First point

0-m contour line


Point Source

Example of a bridged gap in an embankment

In the 3-D frontal view, the model should look similar to the illustration
below.

3-D frontal view

Manual

Chapter 9.6 The Bridge


Example of a Street bridge elevated by two embankments

3-D isometric view

Now draw a road over the bridge. Its relative height should be 0 m.
Enter a standard cross section, such as b2.

If the road over the bridge only has a first and last point, it will
remain at a height of 0 m which means it does not lie on the bridge.
You can easily check this on the 3-D frontal view. Although undesired, this interpolation by CadnaA is correct, because interpolations
of heights can only be performed between the existing points. In this
case, there are two points (first and last points) at a height of 0 m.
Consequently, it is necessary to enter more points for the road.

Specify two more points at each end of the road. At each end, place
one point inside the 10-m rectangular contour lines and one just outside between the two parallel contour lines with their first points at a
height of 10 m. To this end, select the road in the edit mode, hold the
CTRL key down (the mouse pointer drags along a plus sign) and click
the road at the desired location.

Manual

9.6.2 3

9.6.2

 Bridge.cna

Chapter 9.6 The Bridge


Example of a Street bridge elevated by two embankments

The road now correctly bridges the gap in the embankment, as illustrated
below (see also chapter 10.3 Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects).

Two more points for the road were entered on each side of
the bridge, one inside the rectangular contour-line, and
one just outside.

Finally, please note that the bridge object was developed to allow the
correct and guideline-compliant calculation of road-traffic and railway noise taking into account the passing of rays below the bridge
and the shielding of the noise from above. As no complete threedimensional barrier calculation is performed, the object should be
used for this purpose only and should not be combined with arbitrary
other objects.

Manual

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Embankment

9.7

9.7 1

Embankment

An embankment with crest of a specified width has a shielding effect due


to diffraction around its two top edges. For the calculation of the insertion
loss DE, these two edges are considered as one non-reflecting double barrier. In the sectional view (see Chapter 13.12), the embankment is therefore
represented by these two barriers.

Display of the embankments cross section

There are two ways to insert an embankment:


1. Manual insertion using the toolbox icon, or
2. using the Parallel Object command from the context menu (see Chapter 5.7.13).
Using the toolbox icon:

Click the toolbox icon,

enter the line for the base of the embankment.

In the edit mode, double-click the base line to open the edit dialog.

Manual

9.7

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Embankment

Enter the appropriate parameters.

Upon closing the dialog by clicking OK, the embankment is shown with
its slope.
9

Crest

Slope

2-D view of the embankment


relative height

The relative height in the dialog Embankment describes the upper edge
of the embankment and the height in the Geometry dialog the height of
the base.

Manual

9.7 3

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Embankment

If the slope is positive, the sloped side will be drawn to the right, as seen
along the base line in the direction of insertion, otherwise to its left.

Slope

The Parallel Object command from the context menu allows you to insert
an embankment running parallel to a road by specifying the distance.
(see also chapter 9.7.1 Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers)

Manual

9.7

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Embankment

Manual

Chapter 9.7 Embankment


Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers

9.7.1

9.7.1 1

Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers

CadnaA is able to determine autonomously the required height of a noise

protection wall/barrier which is needed to obey given maximum levels by


means of iterative calculation.

Because of the objects structure, for such an optimization we have to


use the object Embankment and n o t the object Barrier.

The following simple example shows the course of events:

Road with a Noise Barrier and a Receiver Point

The represented road exceeds the permitted value at the receiver point.
Therefore a noise barrier shall be constructed in the given position in such
a way that the permitted value is not exceeded.

To perform an optimizing calculation it is absolutely necessary to


assign the relevant maximum value as Standard Level (dBA) to the
receiver points. It is of no significance if you enter the maximum
value directly or have it determined out of the type of land use. (In
that case, do not forget to insert an area of Designated Land Use, see
Chapter 11.4)

Manual

9.7.1

Chapter 9.7 Embankment


Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers

To perform an optimizing calculation the relevant


maximum value must be assigned to the receiver
points

The object Embankment must be given

a slope of 1:0 and


a top width of 0
Do not enter a value for height - this is what CadnaA is supposed to
determine.

To opitmize the height of the Noise Barrier automatically


in the edit dialog Embankment all values have to be
zero.

Manual

Chapter 9.7 Embankment


Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers

9.7.1 3

In the next step we subdivide the noise barrier with the Break into Pieces
command from the context menu of the Embankment. In the example 10
sections of identical size have been formed. Now select an appropriate
view in the menu Options|3-D-View, e.g., isometric.

Options|3-D-View|Isometric

In the symbol bar of this dialog you can find the symbol Optimize Barrier.
After clicking, the parameter dialog will open and we can define our strategy of optimization.

Settings A

Settings B

Both dialogs show examples for possible settings.

Manual

9.7.1

Chapter 9.7 Embankment


Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers

In the upper text box a pattern similar to the group definition can be entered by which only the walls with identical ID codes will be integrated
into the optimizing calculation. On the left hand side only the activated
Embankments are integrated, on the right hand side only the Embankments with the string Barrier plus two additional characters.
With every step of the calculation a barrier section is raised by the value
given in element height. The longer the calculation takes the shorter the
subdivided elements are and the lower the value of the elements height is.
The result of multiplying Element height by Maximum number of elements is the upper limit for the height of the barrier.

In the following combo box you can select the name area or enter any
other name, e.g., the product name of a noise barrier. In the first case the
value 1, in the four subsequent boxes, will remain unchanged and optimization is executed in a way that the entire surface of the noise protection
wall is minimized. With the setting A the further sample calculation is executed.
The setting B in the right figure takes into consideration the fact that the
costs per square-meter can depend on the height of the noise barrier because costs for a foundation have to be apportioned and because, with the
increasing height of the wall, greater wind pressures will have to be withstood. Optimizing is then executed in a way that will minimize the total
cost.
Please note that the combo box cost/m must not be left without an entry.
The cost schedule of a noise barrier can be saved/deleted with the corresponding buttons. A saved cost schedule, valid for all projects, will be at
your disposal in the combo box.
After the setting A has been confirmed, the optimizing calculation will begin.

Manual

Chapter 9.7 Embankment


Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers

Subdivision of the noise barrier into sections of 10m


each - Calculation with the setting B

An element width of 3m leads to the following representation:

Subdivision of the noise barrier into sections of 3m


each - Calculation with setting A

CadnaA first checks if the maximum value (Standard Level (dBA)) has
been exceeded at the maximum height of all wall elements - in this case a

Manual

9.7.1 5

9.7.1

Chapter 9.7 Embankment


Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers

message box will pop up. After the corresponding modification of the configuration the calculation will be restarted.


OptimizeBarrierGap.cna

Please note that with optimizing barriers all settings of the program
will be considered. This is valid for projection, reflexion and consideration of all activated elements. Owing to the large number of steps
of calculation it is always advisable to deactivate all objects that have
no effect on the result. Another alternative is to cut the relevant part
out of the entire project - the optimized wall will then be imported
into the project.

In the following example a noise barrier will be positioned in the given location in front of a gap in a way that a maximum value, given for the receiver point behind the gap, can be maintained.

Initial Situation

In this case the wall is subdivided into 42 elements with a width of 1 m.


This leads to a contour of the upper edge of the wall as shown in the graphic below. Calculation was executed strictly according to RLS90 with
buildings considered as non-reflecting.

Optimizing a barrier with calculation strictly according to RLS90

Manual

Chapter 9.7 Embankment


Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers

9.7.1 7

Now calculation is repeated with builidings considered as reflecting, and


integration of reflexions up to the 5th order are included. Inclination will
also be considered in deviation from the regulations of RLS90. This is appropriate because the represented situation can only be dealt with insufficiently by following the RLS90. As the result shows, a much higher wall
would be necessary to meet this non-trivial situation.

Optimizing a barrier with a 5th order reflexion

With the optimization of barriers CadnaA is able to perform an efficient


positioning of noise protection facilities.

Manual

9.7.1

Chapter 9.7 Embankment


Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers

Manual

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Areas with Specified Ground Absorption

9.8

9.8 1

Areas with Specified Ground


Absorption

By default, CadnaA calculates point, line, and area sources on the basis of
the frequency-independent excess attenuation due to the effects of the
ground and meteorological effects as specified in the guideline VDI 2714 /
16/, sub-clause 6.3. It is to the disadvantage of this method that special
sound propagation conditions such as the considerably enhanced sound
propagation over, e. g., reflecting water surfaces or concrete-sealed industrial courts is not taken into account.
In such cases, it is possible to apply the calculation method described in
VDI 2714, Annex D, or in ISO 96132 /21/.
This method is frequency-dependent. The levels in the individual frequency bands are affected to different extents. For the application of this method, CadnaA therefore requires:

frequency spectra to be entered for the emissions of sound sources


instead of the mere A-weighted sound power levels.

frequency-dependent calculation must to be selected in the edit dialog of the source.

the option Calculation|Configuration|Industry|Ground


Attenuation Spectral must to be activated.

Running CadnaA and inserting a point source near the left border of
the screen; entering as its sound power level PWL, a value of
100 dB(A). Then

inserting an receiver point near the right border of the screen.

Calculating the level by clicking the calculator icon; recording the


noise level displayed on the edit dialog receiver point. (In our
example, this level was 44.1 dB(A)).

Manual

Frequency-dependent
Calculation

9.8

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Areas with Specified Ground Absorption

9
Calculation configuration for ground attenuation in frequency bands and ground absorption 0

Under Calculation|Configuration|Industry activate Ground Attenuation in Frequency Bands. The default value of 1 for the ground
absorption G is not edited.

When the dialog is closed, a new calculation must be given the same
level as the first one. This is not remarkable because only an Aweighted level of sound power has been entered for the source so far,
meaning its spectrum is not known.

Now double-click the point source to open its edit dialog and select
Spectrum in the Type box. Even if nothing is entered, CadnaA now
assumes the specified form of the spectrum and thus identical levels
for each band of A-weighted spectrum. For the calculation, the spectrum is normalised to the sound power level entered before, i. e.,
100 dB(A).

Manual

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Areas with Specified Ground Absorption

9.8 3

A new calculation is now performed on the basis of the data entered with
frequency-dependent ground attenuation. Compare the values before and
after.

Now enter in the Calculation|Configuration|Industry a ground


attenuation of G=0 for sound-reflecting ground - the calculation
results in a level higher than the first level.

Beside this global specification of the ground absorption, which refers to


the entire project, individual areas may be assigned specific absorption coefficients. Upon clicking the Ground Absorption icon on the toolbox, enter the borderlines of the area. The ground absorption is specified in the
edit dialog (opened by double-clicking on the borderline of the area). For
areas to which no such area has been assigned, the global settings as defined under Calculation|Configuration will apply.
Try, for example, to enter sound propagation conditions for a reflecting
water surface within a lawn area by entering G = 1 for the global calculation configuration, and G = 0 for the area of the water surface. With an appropriate calculation area, the grid calculation will yield the level
distribution as illustrated below.

Manual

9.8

Chapter 9 Obstacles
Areas with Specified Ground Absorption

9
Level distribution calculated with frequency-dependent
ground attenuation. The source is located close to an area
covered by water.

If overlapping areas are entered, the one entered last (so-to-say the one on
top) will always be taken to apply in the overlapping area. Under Options|Appearance, such areas with specified ground absorption can be assigned any colour, such as an opaque blue for the lake in our example.
A list of these entered areas can be found under Tables|Obstacles|
Ground Absorption.

Manual

9.9 1

Chapter 9 Obstacles
The Foliage and Built-Up Areas

9.9

The Foliage and Built-Up Areas

A built-up area is defined by the closed polygon forming its borderline. It


is taken into account in the calculation according to VDI. If only traffic
noise is to be calculated strictly according to RLS-90 or strictly according
to Schall03 /8/, this entry has no effect on the calculation.

Built-Up Areas
9.9

A foliage area is defined by the closed polygon forming its borderline. It is


taken into account in the calculation according to VDI and Schall03. If
only road-traffic noise is to be calculated in accordance with RLS-90, this
entry has no effect on the calculation.

Manual

Foliage
9.9

9.9

Chapter 9 Obstacles
The Foliage and Built-Up Areas

Manual

9.10 1

Chapter 9 Obstacles
3D-Reflector

9.10

3D-Reflector

The object 3D-Reflector models a plane reflector freely orientated in


space. The 3D-reflector is a screening surface where the shortest deviation
path between source-receiver governs the screening effect. Lateral screening and 1st order reflections are considered. In addition, individual edges
of the 3D-reflector can be excluded from the calculation of lateral screening (see paragraph Exclude Edges). This option allows to restrict the
screening at an edge e.g. at adjoining buildings.

3D-Reflector

The reflector's surface has to be plane. When polygon points not forming a
plane have been entered a quadratic averaging is used to generate a plane
surface. However, in these cases the reflector will be still displayed as entered.
If reflections are entered reflections at boundary surfaces of barriers will
be taken into account according to the mirror sound source method. Strict
provisions are made by RLS-90 concerning the neglecting of lateral diffraction and of ground attenuation in the calculation of the shielding effect.
For all other sources it may be defined under Calculation|Configuration|Industry to what extent lateral diffraction shall be taken into account, and the
barrier coefficients may be modified/specified.
When clicking on button "Exclude Edges" on dialog 3D-Reflector a dialog
box opens allowing to mark reflector edges not to be taken into account for
the calculation of diffraction.
To exclude an edge, click once on the name of the edge in the upper part of
the dialog, e.g., E01. Marked identifiers exclude the corresponding edge
from a calculation of diffraction. In the graphic representation, in the lower part of the dialog, the currently marked edge is marked by a thick
black line. If the black dot of a edge is faded it indicates the deactivation of
this edge. If you click again on the name of an edge it will again be included in the calculation. In this case the black dot is visible again.
The function is restricted to max. 32 edges. If a 3D-reflector has more then
32 edges further edges cannot be excluded.

Manual

Exclude Edges

9.10.0

9.10

Chapter 9 Obstacles
3D-Reflector

see also Technical-Notes:


TN02012004_Special_Objects.pdf
3D_reflector_e.pdf

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 10 Topography
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 10 Topography

10

Manual

Chapter 10 Topography
Contents

10.1 1

Chapter 10 Topography

10.1 Contents
10.2

General Information for Working with


Uneven Terrain in CadnaA

10.3

Fit Objects to DTM or


DTM to Objects

10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4

Point-like Objects
The Line-like Objects
Two-Dimensional Objects
Three-dimensional Objects

10.4

The Objects Geometry

10.5

Contour Lines

10.6

Fault Lines

10.7

Height Points

10.7.1

Generate Contour Lines from Height Points

10.8

Display Ground Height

Manual

10

10.1

Chapter 10 Topography
Contents

10

Manual

Chapter 10 Topography
General Information for Working with Uneven Terrain in CadnaA

10.2

10.2 1

General Information for Working with


Uneven Terrain in CadnaA

The contour of the terrain has two major effects on the calculation of
sound propagation.
1.

It determines the heights of sources, shielding objects, and receiver


points, if the heights of these have been entered as relative values.
For short distances, this, in turn, may affect the length of the sound
path, thus the propagation loss, the path length difference around the
barrier, and, consequently, the insertion loss.

2.

The average height of the sound ray, thus the ground attenuation, is
determined from the contour of the terrain.

Any program calculating immission must approximately calculate the


heights of the terrain from the input information available. Modelling the
terrain completely - using, e. g., an overall system of contour lines in fine
steps - is often ruled out because data is missing and would lead to a considerable increase in calculation times.
Therefore, the most effective method with regard to data input is to use
only as much detail in the height information as is needed, from the acoustic point of view, taking into account the two above-mentioned effects.
This is particularly true where data collection and input require time and,
consequently, expenses. It does not apply where existing data can be imported. In this case, it may become necessary to reduce the amount of data
by Simplifying the Geometry (see Chapter 5.7.11).
Being somewhat familiar with the program-internal procedures will help
you to determine the degree of detail needed and reasonable. Therefore,
we will give you a brief description of how contour-line information is
processed by CadnaA.
For each contour line and fault of line, the program internally generates a
barrier with this line as its top edge and which is perpendicular to the reference plane with an absolute height of 0.

Manual

10

10.2

Chapter 10 Topography
General Information for Working with Uneven Terrain in CadnaA

Where the height of an object has been given as a relative value, i. e., as
height above the ground, the program calculates, prior to the actual calculation of propagation , the absolute height of the terrain at the object base or the height of the terrain above the reference plane - for the polygon
points determining the object height. This is achieved by evaluating the information on the nearest contour lines.
This evaluation is done for

10

the first point (corner entered first) of closed polygon lines defining
buildings

each point entered for open polygon lines defining roads, and for general line sources, barriers, and similar objects

each point entered for closed polygon lines defining parking lots, general area sources, and similar objects.

In the calculation of propagation, the sound ray from the source point to
the receiver point intersects the horizontal projections of all contour lines
and fault lines and any path length difference. Thus the shielding effect of
the elevated terrain is determined. Furthermore, the height of the sound
ray above the contour lines and fault lines at all intersections along with
the path lengths between these points serve to determine, by numerical integration, the average height of the sound ray, and from this value, the
ground attenuation. The heights of the terrain at source and receiver point,
determined, if necessary, from the contour lines near these points, are taken into account.
The procedures and program strategies described above lead to the following conclusions regarding correct data input.

Manual

Chapter 10 Topography
Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects

10.3

10.3 1

Fit Objects to DTM1 or


DTM to Objects

CadnaA calculates the heights of objects and of the terrain at the pertinent

polygon points of the objects. For the area in-between, a linear interpolation is performed.
Therefore, the user may have to enter additional points where contour lines
and objects intersect to allow the change in slope of the terrain at such
points to be taken into account.
To evaluate the heights between contour lines with only a few polygon
points you can also insert additional polygon points for the contour lines
automatically in CadnaA. For that, you have two possibilities when executing the command: either directly at the objects context menu, this would
affect only that object or its sourrounding terrain, or with the Modify Object command and the corresponding Action which would affect the desired objects which you have selected in the dialog (see Chapter 5.8):
1.

Fit Objects to DTM. This command uses contour lines and edges of
triangulation to fit the object to the surface of the digital terrain
model.

2.

Fit DTM to Object. This command changes the whole terrain model
by cutting existing contour lines and inserting new ones.

1.

Digital Terrain Model

Manual

10

10.3

Chapter 10 Topography
Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects

An example with the object Road:


The existing DTM in the cross-section view

and in the top view:

10

Exampel:
Fit Objekt to DTM

A road on a DTM with only an initial and a final point. Therefore the
object is unable to adjust to the ground..

Top View

3D-Special View

Manual

Chapter 10 Topography
Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects

10.3 3

The road after executing the command in the Context menu|Fit Object to
DTM. Additional polygon points are inserted for the road at the intersection of the contour lines. Therefore, the object adjusts itself to the ground.

Top View

3D-Special View

After executing the command Fit DTM to Object the following dialog
appears in which you can set the parameters for the adjustment of the objects.

Example:
Fit DTM to Object

In this box define the additional width for the ground around the object
which shall be located at the same height. CadnaA than inserted parallel
contour lines in the defined distance and deleted them between road and
parallel contour lines.

Width/Additional Width

Because the margin of the Road simbolizes the middle axeses of the outermost lanes you have to insert an additional width for the real width of the
road which is taken into account with the half width for each side.

Manual

10

10.3

Chapter 10 Topography
Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects

With open objects like Roads, Railways, Line sources etc., the parallel contour lines are placed at the distance of the half value of the
defined additional width; with closed objects like Buildings, Area
sources etc., contour lines are placed around the objects with the
defined value.

10

Top View: 1 Width/Additional Width, 2 Sampling Distance, 3 Distance from Curb

Sampling Distance

For the best adaptation on the DTM you can define a distance (box Sampling Distance) in the cross-section of the object in which a base-point
should be placed for the new contour line.

Manual

10.3 5

Chapter 10 Topography
Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects

Top View

3D-Special View

The Situation after the command Fit DTM to Object has been executed
with the Sampling Distance of 20 m. The parallel contour lines are clearly
visible.
When inputting a slope the resulting angle adjusts the DTM in this area by
inserting new base-points of contour lines.

Manual

Slope 1:

10

10.3

Chapter 10 Topography
Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects

Cross-Section

Top View

Situation after executing the command Fit DTM to Objects with a


Slope 1: 1.50.
10
3D-Special View

Manual

Chapter 10.3 Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects


Point-like Objects

10.3.1 1

10.3.1 Point-like Objects


Point-like objects such as point sources, receiver points and tennis points
of service have three co-ordinates - x to the right, y upwards, and z for the
height - which describe their position. These values are listed in the columns of the pertinent object tables.
The z coordinate can be entered as a relative height, an absolute height, or
the height above the building roof. If a relative height is given, the absolute height z results from the height of the terrain at the position given by
the x and y coordinates of the point plus the relative height entered. If, for
a point, a definite height is to be achieved, it is convenient to enter an absolute height.

10

Manual

10.3.1

Chapter 10.3 Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects


Point-like Objects

10

Manual

Chapter 10.3 Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects


The Line-like Objects

10.3.2 1

10.3.2 The Line-like Objects


The line-like objects such as line sources, roads, and railways, are defined
by an open polygon line or by a series of points.
The first and last points of the polygon line may have the same, or different, heights (relative, absolute, or above the building roof, see Chapter
10.4). The heights of the points inbetween are determined automatically
by linear interpolation. Another alternative is to enter each point of the
polygon line with a different absolute height.

10

Manual

10.3.2

Chapter 10.3 Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects


The Line-like Objects

10

Manual

Chapter 10.3 Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects


Two-Dimensional Objects

10.3.3 1

10.3.3 Two-Dimensional Objects


Two-dimensional objects, such as area sources and parking lots, are described by a closed polygon line or by a series of points.

Two-dimensional
Objects (Excluding
Vertical Ones)
10.3.3

By entering the height of the first point, all points can be assigned the
same height (relative, absolute, or above the building roof). Another alternative is to enter each point of the polygon line with a different absolute
height.
Two-dimensional vertical objects such as vertical area sources and barriers
are defined by an open polygon line or by a series of points describing
their top edge plus a z dimension describing their bottom edge. The top
and bottom edges are always parallel and have identical horizontal projections. Refer to "Line-like Objects" above for the entering of the height, or
z coordinate, of the points of the polygon line defining the top edge.

Two-dimensional
Vertical Objects 10.3.3

10

Manual

10.3.3

Chapter 10.3 Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects


Two-Dimensional Objects

10

Manual

10.3.4 1

Chapter 10.3 Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects


Three-dimensional Objects

10.3.4 Three-dimensional Objects


Buildings are defined by a closed polygon line or by a series of points defining their top edge. They always extend from the ground to the top edge
thus defined. Refer to "Two-dimensional Objects (Excluding Vertical
Ones)" above for the entering of the height, or z coordinate, of the points
on the polygon line defining the top edge.

Buildings

If the height of the building has been given as a relative value, the absolute
height of the top edge results from the height of the terrain at the first point
(corner entered first) plus the relative height of the building.
Cylinders are defined by the position of their centres in the horizontal projections, and also by their radii and heights (relative, absolute, or above the
building roof).
If the height is entered as a relative value, the absolute height of the cylinders top edge is the sum of the height of the terrain at the centre and the
relative height.

Manual

Cylinders

10

10.3.4

Chapter 10.3 Fit Objects to DTM or DTM to Objects


Three-dimensional Objects

10

Manual

10.4 1

Chapter 10 Topography
The Objects Geometry

10.4

The Objects Geometry

Any line-like, two-dimensional or three-dimensional object, except cylinders, can be forced to be rectangular while entering the defining polygon
line by positioning the points using the mouse with the SHIFT key pushed
down. If rectangles are to be generated, it is convenient to enter the longer
side first. When clicking the third point to define the shorter side, the
mouse pointer is positioned on the first point, and when clicking again, the
third, longer side is automatically drawn with the correct length. A final
click with the right mouse button suffices to close the rectangle. This procedure is particularly advisable when inserting buildings having right angles in their horizontal projection.

Horizontal Projections
With Right Angles 10.4

The geometry dialog shows the coordinates of an object. It is accessible


via the Geometry button in the edit dialog. The edit dialog can vary from
the displayed dialog of a building depending on the selected object..

Geometrie
Dialog

10.4

10

Example of geometry dialog

The table of coordinates in the edit dialog can be edited. For that, doubleclick on the corresponding row.

Manual

Coordinates
Polygon point

10.4

10.4
x-y-z-Coordinates
Ground height

Chapter 10 Topography
The Objects Geometry

10.4

Cross section/Distance/
Slope of Roads
10.4

Depending on the selected options from the list under the table of coordinates you can either edit only the x-y-coordinates and/or the z-height and/
or the ground height.
Also in the road dialog Geometry you can enter the Standard Cross Section (SCS)/Distance of the central axis from both outer lanes and/or the
slope of the road for each polygon point.
If the distance of a lane and/or a slope is entered, CadnaA adjusts the value for all further polygon points until a new input ensues.
The corresponding fields of the table remain empty. A new value is entered only if a value changes. Consequently for the calculation the next
above entered value will be considered for an empty table field in the columns Distance and Slope.
Depending on the selcted option from the list, the following parameters in
the coordinate table are possible:

More Options

10

Interpolate from
First/Last Point

10.4

Only the x- and y-coordinates are editable in the table of coordinates.

Enter the heights, or z co-ordinates of the first and, if necessary, last


point. For that mark the identically named option.
After a calculation - if an initial and final height, for the First and Last
point, was entered - the interpolated heights on each point are displayed in the table of coordinates.
If the height is equal for each point of an object then the checkbox of
the Last Point should be deactivated. The initial height of the First
Point will be assigned to the whole object (standard setting).

relative Height

10.4

With the following options determine the kind of height by activating


its check box.

Height, in metres (m), above ground. The absolute height of the ground
can be different for different locations due to contour lines, fault lines, and
the default height specified under Calculation Configuration.

Manual

10.4 3

Chapter 10 Topography
The Objects Geometry

The absolute Height is the height above a reference plane, usually mean
see level (M.S.L.)

absolute Height

10.4

This option allows you to directly enter the height above the roof of a
building in order to facilitate the specification of the height for external
sound sources on the roof of the building. If the source lies within the horizontal projection of the building, its height will be calculated as the sum
of the height of the building and the height above the roof specified here.

Roof

10.4

If different heights for polygon points are assigned to a building, the height
for that object will be calculated with the first height point of the building.
An area source, e.g., placed within the horizontal projection of a building
and whose height is assigned to the option "Roof" will have a uniform
height even if the heights of the polygon points are different. You may
have to input the height on each point directly by using the option "absolute height at every point".
In CadnaA buildings are modelled like "open boxes" without a roof.
Therefore K0 will be calculated according to the height above the digital
terrain modell for point-, line- and area sources placed within the horizontal projection of the building.

K0

10.4.0

This option may also be activated for Floating barriers (see Chapter
9.5.1) on bridges. The height of the top edge of a barrier then results from
the bridge height plus the specified height above the buildings roof.
If this option is activated, the z co-ordinate can be specified individually
for every point. The given value of z is the absolute height of the object in
this case.
To this end, double-click on the relevant row in the coordinate table of the
edit dialog. The edit dialog polygon point appears. When the desired z coordinate has been entered, by clicking the arrow buttons, or pressing
ALT+SHIFT+> or ALT+SHIFT+<, you will be taken to the next or previous
set of coordinates, respectively, without leaving this window.

Manual

Enter Absolute Height


at Every Point
10.4

10

10.4

Chapter 10 Topography
The Objects Geometry

The advantage of using the hotkeys is that the cell currently selected will
remain selected while switching, and that the corresponding entry will be
overwritten when you enter a new value. This procedure allows you to easily enter all heights for a polygon line one after the other.
unknown Heights

10.4

Usually, to correctly model the course of a polygon, you will also have to
enter polygon points whose heights are unknown and which would have to
be interpolated. This task can be performed by CadnaA as well.
If the absolute height of some points is unknown, the value of the height is
deleted for these points. The default height is 0 m. Just press the DEL key
to delete it (the box is now empty). When the dialog is closed, CadnaA updates the value by interpolation. You can check the interpolated values by
opening the dialog again.

Absolute Height/Ground
at every point
10.4

10

With the option absolute Height/Ground at every Point we can enter the
ground height for each point additionally.
All other possibilities are the same as described above for Enter Absolute
Height at Every Point.
See also Chapter 5.7 paragraph "Example: change height from absolute to
relative and vice- versa"

Reference Point

10.4.0

CadnaA has an internal list of reference points which is helpful to transmit

coordinates automatically, e.g. for transformation of objects or for calibration of bitmaps. Particular if you have big coordinates you could produce
mistakes while entering values via the keyboard yourself. With the list of
reference points you can easily transmit coordinate into the corresponding
fields automatically.
Example:

Calibrate a bitmap using reference points without entering a single coordinate.

 Demo2.cna

Therefore open the file Demo2.cna on your CD-Rom in the directory


SAMPLES. This is a copy of the file Demo1.cna in which originally
a bitmap is contained. But you will calibrate a bitmap yourself now.

Manual

Chapter 10 Topography
The Objects Geometry

10.4 5

To calibrate the bitmap as accurate as possible you should choose four reference points in your opened file. Therefore

double-click an object which coordinates shall be the first reference


point. Open its Geometry dialog and double-click the corresponding
data record of the coordinates.
In this example you must remember the buildings corner because
subsequently you have to click on the corresponding corner in the
bitmap for the first reference point if you calibrate the bitmap.

10

Click on the buttom RefPoint - the following dialog opens.

Manual

10.4

Chapter 10 Topography
The Objects Geometry

As you can see the coordinates of your reference point is entered


automatically in the corresponding fields New Reference Point. If
you now want to use it - like in our example - as first reference point
you have to activate the pertinent option Reference Point 1:.

10

Proceed with the other three reference points analogously. You only
have to activate the pertinent option for the respective coordinates.
Therefore for the next reference point the option Reference Point 2:
etc.

If you have defined all four reference points

 Demo1.bmp

insert an arbitrary frame of a bitmap anywhere in your file and open


its edit dialog.

Click on the card-index icon beside the field File and choose the
bitmap file Demo1.bmp on your CD-Rom in the directory SAMPLES. The path and the file name has to be displayed in the field File.

Afterwards click the button Calibrate Bitmap and activate all four
reference points by clicking the corresponding options. As you can
see all coordinates are entered in the pertinent fields automatically.

Manual

Chapter 10 Topography
The Objects Geometry

10.4 7

Now if you confirm with OK you will be asked for the individual reference points by CadnaA which you have to click in the bitmap point by
point.
After clicking the fourth reference point and confirming with OK your bitmap should now be placed correctly in your file.
For further information see Chapter 14 Pictures.

Manual

10

10.4

Chapter 10 Topography
The Objects Geometry

10

Manual

Chapter 10 Topography
Contour Lines

10.5

10.5 1

Contour Lines

Contour lines and fault lines serve to create a model of the topographical
conditions or of the contour of the terrain. They are entered with absolute
heights.
A contour line allocates to the terrain along these lines a defined height
above the reference plane. The height at any point of the line is specified
as generally described for line-like objects.
The contour of the terrain between the contour lines is interpolated for the
calculation, depending on the settings specified on the Calculation|Configuration|DMT tab.
The topographical conditions or uneven terrain may cause shielding effects and affect ground attenuation in the propagation calculation. Furthermore, the absolute height of objects whose height has been given as a
relative value is determined by taking into account the height of the terrain
at the base of the object as resulting from contour lines and fault lines.
For the calculation of the shielding effects of elevated terrain, contour
lines are treated like the top edges of barriers. Elevations generated by interpolation between the contour lines are not taken into account in this calculation.
The table Contour Lines (Tables menu) only lists the first and last points.
The listed heights are absolute values (see above).
The geometry data of the contour lines can be exported or printed by refering to the key word #(Table, Hline_GEO) .

Manual

10

10.5

Chapter 10 Topography
Contour Lines

10

Manual

Chapter 10 Topography
Fault Lines

10.6

10.6 1

Fault Lines

Contour lines and fault lines serve to create a model of topographical conditions or of the contour of a terrain.
A fault line is interpreted as a discontinuity in the terrain surface between
the heights of the terrain defined by the adjacent contour lines or the
heights applying directly to the terrain on both sides.

10

A fault line is defined by a line in the x-and-y plane. The fault lines table
(Tables menu) lists these lines with their automatically generated serial
numbers.
The geometry data of fault lines can be printed or exported using the key
word #(Table, Bruch_GEO) (see Chapter 17.4).
The height of the terrain near fault lines is interpolated arithmetically if the
option Determine Height from Contour Lines is active and is not easily
predictable in the individual case.

Manual

10.6

Chapter 10 Topography
Fault Lines

If a specific discontinuity is to be forced, it is always advisable to activate


the option Enter Height at Every Point and to directly assign the z values
to the left and right of the fault line by editing the coordinates table (see
Chapter 10.4).
For the calculation of the shielding effects caused by elevated terrain, fault
linesfault lines are treated like the top edges of barriers, with their heights
as determined by the contour line model.
Elevations generated by interpolation between contour lines and fault lines
are not taken into account in the calculation of the shielding effect.
fault lines are entered as line-like objects. Once the line has been inserted
and double-clicked, the edit line-of-fault dialog opens. You can then enter
the co-ordinates like for any line-like object. (Giving the height is optional).
see also Calculation Configuration|DTM tab
10

Manual

Chapter 10 Topography
Height Points

10.7

10.7 1

Height Points

The topography, i.e., the geographical structure of the ground surface, can
be constructed with Contour Lines, Height Points and Fault lines. Note
that only lines, that means contour lines and fault lines, are considered
screening objects. Although the ground surface constructed with height
points is used to determine the height of objects with relative heights, it
does not influence the average height of a ray above ground (ground attenuation!) and is not taken into account as diffracting, except when the option Triangulation is activated. In this case the height points are
connected by additional lines and these are used in the screening calculation and for ground attenuation (see Chapter 12.4.7 "DTM Digital Terrain
Model Tab").
With the height points a defined height will be assigned to the ground
above the reference plane at the relevant location. This height will be defined generally as it was for Point Objects .

10

The shape of the ground between the height points will be interpolated in
the calculation according to the Calculation|Configuration.
The uneven surface of ground defined exclusively by height points is not
affected by screening. The absolute height of objects, for which a relative
height has been defined, is calculated according to the ground height resulting from the height point model at the base point of the object.
If Triangulation is not activated, no screening effect will be taken into account for uneven ground defined only by height points.
After inputting and double-clicking on the Height Point, the dialog opens,
containing edit boxes for the input of coordinates as is usual with point objects.
Many height points will occupy many memory and therefore your project
file would be very big because height points can also have an ID or a name which has to be managed.

Manual

Use Contour line


as Cluster of
Height Points
10.7.0

10.7

Chapter 10 Topography
Height Points

To save memory you can convert (Modify Object|Convert to|Contour lines) the height points into contour lines which produces a cluster of height
points. A cluster exists of about 1,000 height points which are linked to a
contour line. The contour lines can be converted back again to height
points.
 HP.cna

Open the file HP.cna on your CD-Rom (Samples|Topography). The file


contains about 4,000 height points.

From the context menu execute the command Modify Object|Convert to|Contour lines.

Afterwards open Tables|Obstacles|Contour Lines.

You can see now that in this example only five contour lines exist. If you
click on a datarecord the corresponding contour line will be highlighted.
10

Delete Height Points 10.7

If the height point information for the digital terrain model is too detailed
you can delete them with the command Delete Height Points in Tables|Miscellaneous. After executing the command and entering a height,
the height points are deleted which deviate from each other less then the
defined height. By that, the height point model will be reduced accordingly.
(see Chapter 10.7.1 Generate Contour Lines from Height points.)

Import Ascii-File as
Height Points
10.7

If you get an Ascii-file with x-y-z-coordinates which symbolize Height


Points you could either import this file via ODBC interface (see Chapter
6.5) or with the function File|Import|Import format:ASCII-POLY. The
following describes the import via File|Import.
In both cases the Ascii-file should have three columns with column headers e.g. x, y and z and the columns should be separated by TAB.

Manual

Chapter 10 Topography
Height Points

10.7 3

Ascii-file separated with TAB

If you import this file with File|Import|Import Format: ASCII-POLY


you get all points joined to a line, as Aux. Polygon, with different heights
for each base point.
Click with the RIGHT mouse button on this line and choose Convert
to|Contour Line from the context menu. Now you have one Contour
Line in your file. Again with the RIGHT mouse button convert this Contour Line into individual Height Points.
If you now want to create from the Height Points different Contour Lines then see Chapter 10.7.1 "Generate Contour Lines from Height Points"

Manual

10

10.7

Chapter 10 Topography
Height Points

10

Manual

Chapter 10.7 Height Points


Generate Contour Lines from Height Points

10.7.1 1

10.7.1 Generate Contour Lines from Height Points


In contrast to contour lines height points usually have the disadvantage
that ground attenuation and shielding will not be taken into account in the
calculation of sound propagation (except if you have activated the DTM
Triangulation see Chapter 12.4.7).
To avoid this you can generate contour lines from the height points.
1.

First define a grid in the menu Grid|Specification in which the


heights are to be calculated.

2.

Click on the icon Show Ground Height.

3.

Execute a grid calculation (Grid|Calc. Grid).

For definition and representation of the lines of equal height the dialog boxes of the receiver points grid are used analogously. For the
representation of the lines of equal height use also the dialog of the
receiver points grid (Grid|Appearance). The lines of equal sound
power level are now lines of equal height. You can also use colour
settings in the menu Options.

In the menu Level Range (upper limit, lower limit, class width) you can
define - from which height (lower limit) to which height (upper limit) and
with which height differences (class width) - these lines shall be represented. If you quit the dialog with OK, you can see which contour lines will be
generated in the next step. Now press ALT+F12 - the represented lines of
equal height are now converted into the object type Contour Line.

Manual

10

10.7.1

Chapter 10.7 Height Points


Generate Contour Lines from Height Points

10

Manual

Chapter 10 Topography
Display Ground Height

10.8

10.8 1

Display Ground Height

At the individual points of a calculated grid (beside the sound level for the
evaluation parameters) the ground height is also calculated and saved as a
separate value from the contour lines, height points and fault lines as taken
into account from the standard height defined in Calculation|Configuration if necessary.
After the grid calculation beside the coordinates (x/y) and the sound level
(L), the ground height (G) will also be displayed in the status bar at the position of the mouse cursor.

You do not need a sound source if you only calculate the ground
height.

If you choose Ground from the evaluation parameter list in the symbol bar
not the sound level is shown longer, but the value of the ground height
will be activated and displayed on the screen equivalent to the settings
made in Grid|Appearence. The Lower and Upper Limit should now be
entered, and it should include all current ground height values.
If you activate Line of Equal Sound Level, the contour lines calculated
with interpolation will be displayed.

Hints for professionals: If you want to generate proper contour lines


in your project just press ALT+F12.

see Chapter 10.7.1 "Generate Contour Lines from Height Points" and 10.7
Height Points: Use Contour line as Cluster of Height Points

Manual

10.8.0

10

10.8

Chapter 10 Topography
Display Ground Height

10

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 11 Immissions
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 11 Immissions

11

Manual

Chapter 11 Immissions
Contents

11.1 1

Chapter 11 Immissions

11.1 Contents
11.2

Receiver Points

11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3
11.2.4
11.2.5
11.2.6

Utilization - Standard Level - Infringement


Calculation and Presentation of Results for Receiver Points on the Display
Check Consistency
Sound Pressure Level
Partial Levels
Floors

11.3

Designation of Land Use

11.4

Land Use

11.5

Grid of Receiver Points

11.5.1
11.5.2
11.5.3
11.5.4
11.5.5
11.5.6

Grid Specification
Appearance of Grid
Vertical Receiver Grid
Calculating a Grid
Grid Arithmetic
Creating a Grid of Receiver Points
from Iso-dB-lines

Manual

11

11.1

Chapter 11 Immissions
Contents

11.6

CadnaA Option XL

11.6.1

Noise Maps and their Evaluation


with CadnaA
Conflict Maps
Evaluation
Population Density
Closing Buildings
Object-Scan
Monetary Evaluation of Noise according
to BUWAL

11.6.2
11.6.3
11.6.4
11.6.5
11.6.6
11.6.7

11

Manual

11.2 1

Chapter 11 Immissions
Receiver Points

11.2

Receiver Points

A calculation of sound immission can be performed for a grid of points


(see Chapter 11.5) or for points specified individually after clicking the
Pocket Calculator in the icon bar. The icon shown above serves to insert
single receiver points at the desired position in the project.
As opposed to receiver points in a grid you can save all intermediate values for the individually placed receiver points (see chapter 12.6 Calculation Protocol).
You also can display the sound rays of the corresponding order of reflection (see Chapter 12.3). Therefore activate the option Generate Rays in
the edit dialog of the receiver point. The rays are deleted if you calculate
again with deactivated option Generate Rays.

Generate
Rays

To allocate a receiver point with the same distance to a building, you can
activate the Object Snap in the menu Options. The receiver points will
then be placed in front of the building at the defined distance from the facade. The default distance is 0,05 m. Therefore no receiver point disappears accidently inside the building.

Allocating a receiver
point to a building 11.2.0

To open the edit dialog Receiver Point click either with the RIGHT mouse
click (insertion mode) on the border of the receiver point or make a double-click (in the edit mode).

Manual

11.2.0

11

11.2

Chapter 11 Immissions
Receiver Points

Receiver Point Edit Dialog

The presentation and number of calculated values depend on the defined


evaluation parameters (see Chapter 12.4.6).
As default if the results at a receiver point exeeded the defined limiting values its symbol changed red. Alternative you can choose a different color
via a formula (see Chapter 13.6).

11

Object Geometry see Chapter 10.4


11.2.0

Manual

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Utilization - Standard Level - Infringement

11.2.1 1

11.2.1 Utilization - Standard Level - Infringement


If standard levels are allocated to receiver points after a calculation you
can easily notice in the graphic if the standard level has been exceeded or
not. In the case of infringement the receiver point has been colored red on
default or in a color defined via a formula (see Chapter 13.6 "Object Appearance").
The standard level can be entered either directly in the pertinent edit field
or can be defined by the kind of utilization (land use) and their allocated
standard levels. Choose one kind of land use from the combo box, which
has been previously entered in the menu Options|Land Use (see Chapter
11.4).
If the checkbox Determine from Areas of Land Use is activated, the
standard level will be determined through a calculation from the kind of
land use inside of whose area the receiver point lies. The standard level is
displayed after the calculation in the corresponding field.
11

Manual

11.2.1

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Utilization - Standard Level - Infringement

11

Manual

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Calculation and Presentation of Results for Receiver Points on the Display

11.2.2 1

11.2.2 Calculation and Presentation of Results for


Receiver Points on the Display
In CadnaA since release 3.5 for single receiver points can be calculated simultaneously up to four evaluation parameters (see Chapter 12.4.6).
Start the calculation of the evaluation parameters for the individual receiver points either in the menu Calculation|Calc or via the icon in the icon
bar.
If you have defined different evaluation parameters after a calculation, the
colors for receiver points may change when a limiting value has been exeeded (see Chapter 13.6 "Object Appearance").
To see the results of the calculated evaluation parameters select its identifier from the symbol bar. Also in Tables|Partial Level you will see the result of the choosen evaluation parameter.
see also chapter 11.2 paragraph: Allocating a Receiver Point to a building.
11

Manual

11.2.2

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Calculation and Presentation of Results for Receiver Points on the Display

11

Manual

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Check Consistency

11.2.3 1

11.2.3 Check Consistency


If receiver points or point sources lie within a building, CadnaA will draw
your attention to this by opening the dialogue Check for Consistency as
soon as you trigger a calculation.

If required, this allows for modifications before the calculation.


Click a line on this window to select the pertinent object in the graphic. If
the object in question lies outside the area visible on the screen, click the
line again while holding sown the SHIFT key. This brings the object on the
screen.
Double-clicking a line opens the pertinent edit dialog.
Click the Cancel button to stop the calculation, or click Continue to proceed.

Manual

11

11.2.3

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Check Consistency

11

Manual

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Sound Pressure Level

11.2.4 1

11.2.4 Sound Pressure Level


If a frequency-dependent calculation has been performed, levels will be
displayed for each frequency band. If, for a noise source, only one band is
missing, no spectra will be displayed.

Level Spectra

11.2.4

The calculated levels of the evaluation parameters are displayed in the


Level (dBA) box. As time-averaging has already been performed, this will
usually be a rating level (if other corrections needed for the calculation of
the rating level have been taken into account when entering the emission
data.).

11

Results in frequency bands for Day (Ld) and Night (Ln)

The value of infrigiment is displayed in the box Excess Level if the standard level has been exceeded for this receiver point.

Manual

Infringement

11.2.4

11.2.4

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Sound Pressure Level

11

Manual

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Partial Levels

11.2.5 1

11.2.5 Partial Levels


The sound level at a receiver point resulting from a specific sound source
is called a partial level.
Clicking the Partial Levels button on the edit dialog opens the list of partial levels.

11

List of partial levels at a receiver point with all noise


sources and calculated evaluation parameters

The list of partial levels displays, for the specified receiver point, the partial levels of the calculated evaluation parameters - in frequency bands, if
necessary - of all sound sources accounted for in the calculation. The list
of partial levels determines, e. g., the ranking of priorities for effective
noise control measures.
Select the Sort Column (see Chapter 15.2.4) command from the context
menu to have the columns sorted by, e. g., partial levels in ascending order.
Double-clicking the cell of the receiver point opens the edit dialog of the
source that causes this partial level.

Manual

11.2.5

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Partial Levels

Selecting the menu Tables|Partial Levels opens an overall list of the partial levels at all receiver points caused by all sources accounted for in the
calculation.

11

Manual

11.2.6 1

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Floors

11.2.6 Floors
This context menu command allows you to generate at a receiver point a
row of further receiver points for the floors above or below.
Insert a receiver point in front of a building. (Be sure the object snap is activated.)

Example

A building in CadnaA with a receiver point at a distance


of 5 cm (object snap) from the facade.

Click the receiver point using the RIGHT mouse button. From the context menu (see Chapter 5.7) select Generate Floors.

Select/enter the values as on the dialog Floor above, and click OK to


close the dialog. CadnaA then creates three more receiver points in a
vertical row above the first one. They have the same name as the first

Manual

11

11.2.6

Chapter 11.2 Receiver Points


Floors

one, plus the storey number.

Afterwards open the Table|Receiver Points.

When all heights have been entered, and the storey numbers have been appended, the table of receiver points should look similar to the above illustration.
11

If necessary, use the 3-D view (see Chapter 13.13) to check if the storeys
were entered correctly.

3D-Wire model View Cabinet

Manual

Chapter 11 Immissions
Designation of Land Use

11.3

11.3 1

Designation of Land Use

Areas of different land use allow for the description of the designated land
use in accordance with the Land Use Ordinance. Points within such areas
can thus be assigned the standard levels for the different types of noise
(Options|Land Use). This feature allows you to adopt the types of designated land use for the entire CadnaA project directly from development
plans, and to calculate sensitivity maps. This leads to conflicting maps
where the differences between the rating levels calculated for each type of
noise and the standard levels, as per the designated land use, are calculated
(Prerequisite: XL module).
CadnaA can also automatically assign the pertinent standard levels to all

receiver points lying within a defined area of Land Use. The prerequisites
are
1.

that the checkbox Determine from Areas of Land Use is activated


in the edit dialog of the receiver point and

2.

an area of designated land use is inserted in which the receiver points


are included.

Enter the borderlines of the areas of designated land use after clicking the
icon on tool box.
In the edit mode double-click the borderline of the inserted area and select
the type of land use from the list box.

Manual

11

11.3

Chapter 11 Immissions
Designation of Land Use

Population /
km

11.3.0

Monetary Data

11.3.0

(Prerequisite: XL module) - The menu command Grid|Population Density allows CadnaA to approximate the population density from the buildings, and to assign it to the areas of designated land use (see Chapter
11.6.4).
(Prerequisite: XL module) - A technique to evaluate the noise is described
in the study /55/. This method has been integrated into CadnaA (see Chapter 11.6.7).

11

Manual

Chapter 11 Immissions
Land Use

11.4

11.4 1

Land Use

Via the menu Options|Land Use, the standard levels for the defined evaluation parameters (see Chapter 12.3.6) applying to the different types of
noise and the appearance - filling pattern and colour - are assigned to the
different types of land use. These different kinds of land use can be selected in the edit dialog of the object Area of Designated Land Use (see
Chapter 11.3).

11
In this dialog you can define new kinds of areas. Therefore

select a blank line in the Land Use table. (Just click the white area.)

Then enter a name and the pertinent standard levels in the boxes.

Colours, line style, and filling pattern for representation of the area can
then be selected as customary after clicking the colour button.
In practical work it will be useful to switch off the filling pattern of areas
with a certain land use for the clarity of the colored noise maps.
User-defined types of land use are saved with the project. They are not
available for other projects.

Manual

11.4

Chapter 11 Immissions
Land Use

11

Manual

11.5 1

Chapter 11 Immissions
Grid of Receiver Points

11.5

Grid of Receiver Points

In the menu Grid you can specify a grid of points on which the immission
level is calculated for all defined evaluation parameters (max. four grids,
additionally to the ground) and the result displayed as colored noise map
with lines or areas of equal sound levels. The calculation of the sound level for this grid of points is started with the command Grid|Calc Grid (see
Chapter 11.5.4).

Calc Grid

11.5.0

Save Grid as

11.5.0

Open Grid

11.5.0

Keep Current
Grid

11.5.0

If you want to display a calculated specific grid choose its identifier from
the list in the symbol bar.

With the command Grid|Save as only the calculated grids will be saved,
not the project file with the objects.
The following formats can be saved: CadnaA, ASCII, LIMA.
With the command Grid|Open you can load calculated grids (noise map)
only when it has been saved before either as a grid with the command
Grid|Save or from a CadnaA file which included a calculated grid. For
that, select the corresponding file in the dialog. With multiple selections
you are able to load several grids simultaneously into the current file. A
grid cannot be opend via the menu File|Import!
In case a grid file contains several grids of different evaluation parameters
they will only be displayed if the same evaluation parameters also exist in
the current file.
Following grid formats can be opend: CadnaA, ASCII, LIMA, SoundPlan.
If the Option Keep Current Grid is activated you can load grids in the
current file without deleting the existing ones. The first existing calculated
grid in the current file sets the mash of the grid. By different widths the
loaded grids will be adjusted to the first grid by interpolation.

Manual

11

11.5

Chapter 11 Immissions
Grid of Receiver Points

This function enables the calculation of a big file with divided calculation
areas on different computers sharing the file by calculating only one of the
calculation areas one after the other. Afterwards all the grids will be loaded together into the original file with Grid|Load and activated Option
Keep Current Grid (see Chapter 18.6 "PCSP - Program Controlled Segmented Processing").
Delete Grid

11.5.0

A calculated grid can be deleted with the command Grid|Delete. The


command cannot be undone.

11

Manual

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Grid Specification

11.5.1 1

11.5.1 Grid Specification


Enter the distance between receiver points for the x and y directions and
the receiver point height, in meters. By default, the receiver point height is
relative, with regard to the ground.
If you wish to calculate an absolute grid height, activate the pertinent option. In this case, the grid does not follow the topography. Receiver points
lying in the ground are omitted.
A finer grid results in a higher density of receiver points. This enhances
contrast in the graphic representation of the areas or lines of equal sound
level, but it will also require more time for calculation.

11

Determine the limits of the grid under Options.


If the option Define Grid over entire Limit is activated the grid covers
the entire defined limits (Options|Limits) of the project file.
If the option is deactivated you can restrict the calculation area by input of
the x- and y-coordinates for the upper and lower edges of the receiver

Manual

Define Grid over


entire Limit
11.5.1

11.5.1

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Grid Specification

point grid. Another alternative is to draw a Calculation Area with the icon
from the toolbox (see Chapter 12.5 "Selecting Data for the Calculation").
Exclude Sound Sources/
Buildings
11.5.1

This default setting means that, as far as possible, no receiver points are
placed, and thus calculated, within the horizontal projections of sound
sources and buildings.

Use Height
of Buildings

When Use Height of Buildings and Exclude Buildings are activated at


the same time, the horizontal projection of a building is excluded from the
grid where the building height exceeds the height of the immission point
grid.

Example:

11.5.1

11

Building 1 = 3 metres high


Building 2 = 5 metres high
Immission point height 3. 5 metres
Under Grid specification, Exclude Buildings and Account for Building Height are activated.
Under Options|Appearance|Buildings, the setting is "transparent.
On the tab Calculation|Configuration|General, the option Extrapolate Grid under Buildings is deactivated.

A grid calculation with an appropriate sound source at an appropriate


height would, for example, result in the following graphic.

Manual

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Grid Specification

Graphic representation after calculation of a receiver


point grid at a height of 3.5 m with the option Use Height
of Building active

To see this effect make sure that the buildings colour is not opaque!
(see Options|Appearance)

Manual

11.5.1 3

11

11.5.1
Delete
Grid Points

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Grid Specification

11.5.1

The command Delete Grid Points from the context menu of a calculation
area is useful to cut out calculated noise maps either to replace that portion after a new calculation or to use only a section of a big noise map. The
PC-memory used for the deleted section of the grid will be deallocated..

The whole Noise Map

Calculation area (horse ;-) with deleted


grid points inside the polygone

11

New calculated grid for a portion


of the noise map

the small noise map imported with


Grid|Open| Keep current Grid

Insert an abitrarily shaped calculation area over a calculated noise map,


highlight the polygon and select Delete Grid Points from the context menu. Choose either inside or outside the polygon.
The settings of the current grid will be assigned to the imported grid.

Manual

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Appearance of Grid

11.5.2 1

11.5.2 Appearance of Grid


Grid|Appearance determines the layout of the graphics after a grid calculation.

If this item Lines of equal Sound Levels is activated, lines with the same
value of the calculated sound level are displayed. The width of the level interval is defined under Class Width.

Lines of equal Sound


Levels
(Iso-dB-Lines)
11.5.2

11

When displaying Iso dB lines, make sure, before the calculation, that the
option Extrapolate Grid Under Buildings on the Calculation|Configuration|General tab has been deactivated.
Otherwise, lines could be drawn under buildings if, as a result of the grid
specification, some grid points were to lie within buildings.
The Boundaries of the areas are interpolated geometrically.
If the option Exclude Sound Sources/Buildings (see Chapter 11.5.1
"Grid Specification") has been activated, there may be uncolored areas
close to buildings or area sources as a result of the specified receiver point
grid.
In order to avoid this, you may, under Calculation|Configuration, activate the option Extrapolate Grid under Buildings (see Chapter 12.4.3
"General Tab") before carrying out the calculation. The colored areas will

Manual

Area of equal Sound


Levels
11.5.2

11.5.2

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Appearance of Grid

then reach up to the contours of the objects in question as closely as possible.


Grid

11.5.2

Areas where the calculated sound level lies within pre-defined intervals
are given the same color in the representation. You determine the intervals
under Options, either by loading an appropriate palette or by editing the
allocation of colors to level intervals.

Oversampling

11.5.2

With the default setting oversampling value 1 the representation occurs


with a resolution resulting from the settings made in the choosen grid.
If the value is > 1 more intermediate points will be generated on which the
sound level is determined by interpolation of the already existing points.
The option Class Width does not affect the display.

11

No Grid

11.5.2

No noise map is displayed if this option has been activated. However, you
will always see the coloured map in the 3D-special view. To avoid this,
switch to the mode Display Ground Height before you change to the 3Dspecial view.

Level Range

11.5.2

The range over which Iso dB lines or areas of equal sound level are represented starts at the value given as lower limit and ends at that defined as
upper limit.

Class Width

The value given in this box will only have an effect if one of the options
Lines of Equal Sound Level or Areas of Equal Sound Level is activated.
The width of a class defines the steps between subsequent Iso dB lines.
Lower and upper limits define the level range.

Grid Points
Show Dots
or Values

After a calculation, executed with the command Grid|Calc Grid, you can
either display the receiver grid points or the sound levels calculated at these points. For that in Grid|Appearance option Grid Points select either
Dots or Values.
If you have activated the view Display Ground Height (see Chapter 10.8)
the values of the ground height in meters will be displayed instead the
sound levels or if you have executed an Object-Scan (see Chapter 11.6.6)
the values of the corresponding attribute.

11.5.2

Manual

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Appearance of Grid

11.5.2 3

Activating this option results in continuous transitions being generated between one color and the next. The appearance of the printout will depend
on the selected printer.

Progressive
Colors

In this part of the dialog, individual colors can be assigned to each respective range of noise level.

Apperance of Grid
Options
11.5.2

Clicking a color button opens either the "Line Style" dialog (if the option
Iso dB Lines is selected) or the selection box Colours (if the option Areas
of Equal Sound Level is selected).

Assign Colors

11.5.2

Iso-dB-Line
Intervals

11.5.2

11.5.2

It is possible to integrate this palette with its allocation to the classes of


noise levels either directly in the graphical display with the object icon
Symbol (see Chapter 13.11.3) or as a key in the default printout of the
graphic or in the user-defined printout.
You can emphasise Iso dB lines at specified intervals. In order to draw
thicker lines for the multiples of, e. g., 10 dB, click the arrow button to the
right of the list box and select ??0.0". (The question marks serve as wildcards for any other figure). If the lines for multiples of 5 dB are also supposed to show, then select ??5.0" from the second list box. Now all that
remains to be done is defining the line widths by specifying the desired
widths in tenths of millimetres in the second box on the right. When the
window is closed by clicking OK, you can check the settings on the
screen.

Manual

11

11.5.2

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Appearance of Grid

11

Manual

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Vertical Receiver Grid

11.5.3 1

11.5.3 Vertical Receiver Grid


Grid calculations can be performed for arbitrary vertical sections, and the
results can be displayed as lines of equal sound level or as coloured noise
maps. This representation may be printed, copied or saved or displayed in
the 3D-special view.

vertical noise map in 3D-special View

The following example illustrates an initial situation that is easily generated. On both sides of a road are two buildings.

Click the pertinent icon Vertical Grid and draw a line with only two polygon points to determine the position of the desired vertical grid. You may
enter an arbitrarily number of vertical grids. Open the edit dialog and under Geometry, assign a height to the vertical grid polygon up to which a
grid calculation is to be performed. In our example we have set 50 m.

Manual

11

11.5.3

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Vertical Receiver Grid

11

The vertical grids dialog

Calculate automatical

Trigger the calculation of the grid by clicking the button Calculate. The
edit dialog remains open. If the option autom. right to the button Calculate is activated the grid would be calculated together with the horizontal
grid. In that case the dialog would be closed.

Global

In the edit dialog of the Vertical Grid the settings of the grid can be specified directly if the option global right to the button Specification is deactivated . The settings can be different to the horizontal grid. In the other case
the specifications of the horizontal grid will be used.

Save as

Save the grid as usual as *.CNR file. If you do so the grid will be kept and
displayed again if you open the edit dialog after closing otherwise not.

Manual

11.5.3 3

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Vertical Receiver Grid

The pertinent noise level is displayed at the particular position of the


mouse pointer in the cover bar of the dialog.
Via the button Copy you can copy the graphics into the clipboard and you
can inserted it again with STRG+V in a third-party program.

Copy

11
Scenario in 3D-Special view - the path on the road

If you have inserted several vertical grid sections you can see them all in
the 3D-special view if you use e.g. an Aux. Polygon as path.
For printing the vertical grids can be referred to in the plot-designer as
3D-speical view or as cross-section view from the edit dialog.

Manual

11.5.3

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Vertical Receiver Grid

11

Manual

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Calculating a Grid

11.5.4 1

11.5.4 Calculating a Grid


The command Calculate Grid in the menu Grid starts the calculation for
the specified receiver point grid.
If no particular calculation area has been defined - either using the toolbox
icon (see Chapter 12.5 "Selecting Data for the Calculation") or via the
menu Grid Specification - the calculation is performed for the entire limits (see Options|Wrap-around). Otherwise, only the specified area will
be calculated.
The grid calculation takes into account all objects and sound sources, even
if they lie outside the specified calculation area.
see also Check Consistency chapter 11.2.3.
With the activated option Update during Grid Calculation the calculated
grid is built up by colored areas while the calculation is still in progress.

Update during
Grid Calculation 11.5.4

A grid calculation may be stopped, or interrupted to be resumed later on, at


exactly the point where it was stopped.

Stop Grid
Calculation

To stop the calculation, click the Stop button.


Some time may elapse before CadnaA reacts to your input and stops the
calculation.

Manual

11.5.4

11

11.5.4
Press Shift key to continue

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Calculating a Grid

If you wish to resume the calculation where you stopped it, save the
project file. CadnaA "memorises" the progress made in the calculation. To
continue the calculation, hold down the SHIFT key while clicking
Grid|Calculate Grid.

11

Manual

Chapter 11 Immissions
Grid Arithmetic

11.5.5 1

11.5.5 Grid Arithmetic


In the field Expression for New Grid you may enter a formula from
which a new noise map is generated using the grid currently displayed on
the screen, r0, and the grid files specified under R1 through R6.
The expression r0 for the current grid referes to the grids of all defined
evaluation parameters (max. four). Therefore a grid arithmetics will be executed for all grids of evaluation parameters.
For clarification a simple example is shown in the following screen shot:

11

If you enter in the first field Expression for New Grid r0+1 and if the
checkboxes of the other evaluation parameters are deactivated the grids of
all evaluation parameters will be taken into account automatically. (the
same effect would be if you activate the corresponding checkboxes and
enter in each field starting with the first one: r01+1 - second field r02+1
and so on).

Manual

11.5.5

Chapter 11 Immissions
Grid Arithmetic

The checkboxes of the single evaluation parameters have to be activated


only for special cases.
In the further example given here, the levels of the grid RK_STR.CNA are
numerically subtracted from the energetic sum of the levels of the current
grid (r0) and those of the grids saved as R_B.CNA and RK_G.CNA. Also
in this examaple all grids of evaluation parameters are taken into account.

11

As a test problem calculate the grid for a point source in front of a reflecting barrier and save it and refer to it in field R1. Now deactivate reflection
and calculate the energetic difference between r0 and the saved grid using
the command sequence r1-- r0. The ISO-dB lines in the graphics illustrate
the sound field of the mirrors sound source.
The referencing of the itemization grids of evaluation parameters field Expression for New Grid 1 till 4: r01 for the grid of the first evaluation parameter; r02 for the second grid etc. till r04.
see Chapter 11.5.5 "Grid Arithmetic"
see Chapter 11.5.6 "Creating a Grid of Receiver Points from Iso-dB-lines"

Manual

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Creating a Grid of Receiver Points from Iso-dB-lines

11.5.6 1

11.5.6 Creating a Grid of Receiver Points


from Iso-dB-lines
You can also generate a grid of receiver points in CadnaA from Iso-dBlines of an external file. In some cases you will only get certain Iso-dBlines, e.g., aircraft noise areas. If you now wish to add this information to
your already existing grid you will also need a grid of receiver points (see
Chapter 11.5.5 "Grid Arithmetic").
Try out this function by, e.g., first exporting the Iso-dB-lines to DXF (with
activated option Height is Level and deactivated option No Grid points)
and then using this file to generate a grid of receiver points from these IsodB-lines. For that use a separate new CadnaA file to avoid to calculate the
maybe existing grids of evaluation parameters again.
1.

File|Import|Format: DXF
In the Options dialog import the Iso-dB-lines as Contour Lines! Layername *. Deactivate the auxiliary polygons.
But of course this way only works if the values of sound levels are
integrated as height in the file of importation.

2.

Subsequently calculate ground grid (its calculated automatically with


Grid|Calc Grid - if necessary, enter class width as well as upper
and lower limit (When calculating only the ground grid, no source is
needed - but first specify the desired spacing of the receiver point
grid in Grid|Specification).

3.

Raster|Arithmetik - Expression for new grid: r0g

That's it. This has turned the ground grid to a grid which you can save for
further use but make sure that an evaluation parameter from the symbol
bar is choosen - not Ground, then Grid|Save. Now this grid file can be
used for grid arithmetik. Open it in one of the fields R1 to R6 and refer to
it in your expression.
If necessary do not forget to delete the contour lines.

Manual

 IsodB.dxf

11

11.5.6

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Creating a Grid of Receiver Points from Iso-dB-lines

But what is happened, if the value of sound level is only integrated as textual information, e.g., like an entry in the ID box after the file has been imported as contour line?

Sound level values as textual information in the ID box the values are not yet assigned as height.

A resolution also exists here - keyword Modify Attribute.

11

Go on as described above with point 1 and 2 but integrate the following


steps
 Raster_IsodB.cna
Step 2 a

Change the entry in the ID box with the function Change Column
(see Chapter 15.2.5) so that only the entry of the sound level value
exist. In the example in the above figure leads the following entry to
the desired result.

Manual

11.5.6 3

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Creating a Grid of Receiver Points from Iso-dB-lines

Expression for the command Replace String

The results are the sound level values only

Now you have to swap the sound level values from the ID box into the
field Geometry|Height (First Point). Therefore

Click with the RIGHT mouse key on a free space in your project file
and select Modify Object|Action|Modify Attribute|Object type
Contour Line from the context menu and confirm with OK.

In the dialog Modify Attribute select HA as Attribute (for the


height of the first point) and the option Arithmetric|New Value= ID
(you can choose this attribute from the list if you click on the doublearrow button)

Manual

Step 2 b

11

Double-arrow key

11.5.6

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Creating a Grid of Receiver Points from Iso-dB-lines

Settings to insert the sound level value from the ID box into the height field

Close the dialog with OK and confirm also the following dialog with
button ALL. The sound level value from the ID box is then inserted
into the height field as z-coordinate.

11

Now go on again as described with point 3. In this example we have specified a grid spacing of 5 x 5 m.

Manual

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Creating a Grid of Receiver Points from Iso-dB-lines

11.5.6 5

Iso-dB lines imported as Contour lines and

11

converted into a grid (apperance with ares of equal sound levels)

Manual

11.5.6

Chapter 11.5 Grid of Receiver Points


Creating a Grid of Receiver Points from Iso-dB-lines

11

Manual

Chapter 11 Immissions
CadnaA Option XL

11.6
*

11.6 1

CadnaA Option XL

The Option XL (formaly SIP) is an additional modul for CadnaA


and only runs with the basic version. The following menu functions
are accessible only if the option XL has been purchased:
Calc Map of Conflicts, see Chapter 11.6.2,
Evaluation, see Chapter 11.6.3
Population Density, see Chapter 11.6.4, and
Object-Scan, see Chapter 11.6.6
Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL,
see Chapter 11.6.7

The CadnaA option XL is an extremly flexible tool for creating noise


maps. If all the data exists for a given scenario and a corresponding project
file has also be created, the final process is easily done with the XL-option
of CadnaA.
We will not discuss the accumulation of data any further here, but we
would like to point out that the difficulty, for the production of noise maps,
considerably depends on whether a part of or all the essential data can be
optained in a digital format and if the program can import them.

Manual

11

11.6

Chapter 11 Immissions
CadnaA Option XL

11

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Noise Maps and their Evaluation with CadnaA

11.6.1 1

11.6.1 Noise Maps and their Evaluation


with CadnaA
The following picture is an excellent example of this situation. A heavily
traveled road with a mean daily traffic density of about 15.000 vehicles per
24 hours leads through a built-up area.

Initial Situation

11

A built-up area with 13.000 inhabitants for which a noise


map and a noise reduction plan is to be produced.

Manual

11.6.1
Noise Maps

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Noise Maps and their Evaluation with CadnaA

11.6.1

The complete data of the project - this is valid for our built-up area as well
as for a big city - is contained in a single file which can be opened with a
double-click on its file name. Anyone who has already suffered under other programs with its numberless run files, command files and the modules
which have to be loaded one after the other will very much appreciate this.
On the basis of the mighty group concept of CadnaA it is easily possible
to calculate noise maps consecutively for road traffic and/or railways, for
industry and trade plants, for sport and leisures facilities, for aircraft noise
and for any other source of noise. For that, it is only necessary that each
source is allocated a noise type with at least one character in its ID code.
If, for example, the ID codes of all roads contain the characters S30 as
first digits, then all roads will be deactivated for a calculation with the following entry in the edit dialog Group.

 Test this with the


example file
XL_01.cna

11

Edit dialog Group

If all noise sources are deactivated - except those which have to be calculated - you can start the calculation (Grid|Calc Grid) with the desired settings made in Calculation|Configuration.
In our example for the built-up area with the through-road it has been calculated in a 10 m grid. Switch on the option Raster, Oversampling 1 in
Grid|Appearance.
The noise exposure for each city or built-up area can be easily discovered
with such a colored noise map with the corresponding legend .
see Chapter 11.5 "Grid of Receiver Points"

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Noise Maps and their Evaluation with CadnaA

In CadnaA the areas of diverse land use can be allocated different permitted or standard values for the individual noise types. Therefore you have to
draw a closed polygon (with the icon Area of Designated Land use from
the toolbox) around a region which you can allocate a certain usage. After
double-click on this polygon you can enter the pertinent ranking of land
use.

The hatched area is in our example a pure residential area


(PR) with standard values for the individual noise types

Edit dialog Land Use in which the classification of land


use can be allocated.

Manual

11.6.1 3

Noise Maps Maximum


Values
11.6.1

11

11.6.1

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Noise Maps and their Evaluation with CadnaA

In the edit dialog Land Use the density of inhabitants (population/km)


can also be entered. This value is required if, e.g., an evaluation is to be
carried out according to a noise impact value. The population density can
determined, also automatically, by counting the buildings in this area with
CadnaA.
Digital Zoning Plan/
Land Utilisation
Plan
11.6.1

The mentioned land uses result from the zoning plan, urban land use planning or the legally binding land use plan or by consideration of the actual
present usage. We pracitally have a digital zoning plan if all areas are allocated such land use.
see Chapter 11.3 "Designation of Land Use" and chapter 11.4 "Land Use".

11

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Conflict Maps

11.6.2 1

11.6.2 Conflict Maps


A conflict occurs where the relevant maximum receiver value has been exceeded. In the same way as the actual noise impact is illustrated as a level
in the noise map, the conflict maps can depict the degree of excess and deviation from the relevant standard receiver value in a coloured map.
Prior to the calculation of the conflict map the file with the noise map
should be saved (File|Save As).
After the areas of designated land use (see Chapter 11.3) have been specified, the conflict maps can be calculated because CadnaA then knows the
relevant maximum sound levels at the receiver points for each type of
noise.

To this end, select from the list the type of noise which was used to
calculate the current noise map on the dialog opening. In our example
we only have calculated the traffic noise.

 XL_01.cna

11

In the calculation, the standard receiver values specified for this type of
noise will be considered for any type of land use. (They are specified under Options|Land Use - see Chapter 11.4.)
As a rule, the coloured representation of the map disappears upon completion of the calculation, because the palette was not matched to the differences in level occurring in the conflict map. It is therefore convenient to
generate a specific palette for maps of conflicts under Grid|Appearance|Options, and to save it as conflict.pal. A negative value for the lower
limit of the representation range should also be selected here.

Manual

 conflikt.pal

11.6.2

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Conflict Maps

With such created conflict maps it becomes immediately clear which residential buildings lie in red areas or by which buildings the standard or permitted level has been exceeded.

11

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Evaluation

11.6.3 1

11.6.3 Evaluation
Although the conflict maps (see Chapter 11.6.2) neatly illustrate problem
areas, this information is still far too detailed for an evaluation of different
planning alternatives. An unambiguous scaling in terms of a singlenumber rating is required here.
There are numerous ways for such a single-number rating. Presently, however, there is no generally accepted and standardised algorithm. As the
purpose is to quantify the noise impact on a complete area, all these concepts agree in raising the noise impact quantity with an increasing number
of persons concerned and with increasing sound level or increasing excess
level. The number of persons concerned, N, is generally considered as a
linear influence. The influence of the sound level, however, is a matter of
controversy. An exponential term is certainly appropriate since the effect
of an increase in level by x dB is the more detrimental the higher the original level, or the excess level, is.
In order to accommodate different concepts and to remain open to future
developments the evaluation formula may be specified arbitrarily by the
user. The following example illustrates the simplest possible concept, i. e.,
adding the excess levels per inhabitant for the entire area.

LB = N i i
with
LB

Noise impact value

Ni

Number of persons subject to excess level i

Excess level in dB

Manual

11

11.6.3

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Evaluation

Such an evaluation can only be carried out for an area, if

the calculated noise map is available in CadnaA and

all areas to be considered in the evaluation are assigned a designated


land use, and thereby a standard receiver value.

Then, under Grid|Evaluation, open the dialog and - as a simple test - enter the characters fl in the field Expression. This entry fl causes the
addition of all grid surfaces which results in the total area.

11
Since fl shows the area in m of each grid point when scanning them all,
and consequently, adding up these areas, clicking Calculate will yield the
total area covered by the grid. For a noise map the entry shown in the following dialog may appear as an example. The total area here is approximately 2.3 km .
If you click on the double arrow button on the right hand side of the field
expression a list with predefined expressions and formulas opens - e.g. you
also could mark the identifier Area of grid rectangle of the expression fl
instead of entering it via keyboard. The expression will be inserted automatically.

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Evaluation

11.6.3 3

The following variables are available for an evaluation formula:


Variable

Meaning

fl

area of a grid element in m2

r0

current level on this grid element

na

limiting value

naein

population density in inhabitants/km2

nages

limiting value of noise caused at the receiver point


from all noise types together

naind

limiting value of noise caused at the receiver point


from industry

nastr

limiting value of noise caused at the receiver point


from road traffic

nasch

limiting value of noise caused at the receiver point


from railway

naflg

limiting value of noise caused at the receiver point


from air traffic

Manual

11

11.6.3

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Evaluation

naog

grid point in area of land us, yes/

nagfz

Floor Space Ratio FSR

namiete

Rent/m/a

namind

Abatement of rent (in monetary unit, by increase of


the noise level by 1 dB), e.g. 1% percent abatement
of rent per 1 dB (according to BUWAL)

All the usual operators (see Chapter 2.6) like +,-,*,/,<,> can be used. The
sign ++ allows an energetic summing and the sign -- an energetic subtraction. The command iif(criterion, expression1, expression2) results in the
criterion being checked and the value resulting from expression1 being returned if the criterion has been fulfilled; the one resulting from
expression2 being returned if the criterion has not been fulfilled.

11

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Evaluation

11.6.3 5
Example with
functions

Function

Result after Calculation

number of raster elements

fl

total raster area

naein*fl/1e6

number of inhabitants in all areas of


designated land use

iif(r0>=65,naein*fl/1e6,0)

number of inhabitants subject to levels


of more than 65 dB

iif(r0>=nastr,naein*fl/
1e6,0)

number of inhabitants subject to excess


road noise

max(naein*fl/1e6*r0,0)

the above-mentioned value of noise impact, if applied to the conflict maps

iif((r0<Lo)*(r0>Lu),fl,0)

qm-area of a certain level


(Lo = upper level, Lu = lower level)

With this, subtly differentiated analyses can be created quickly an simply.


After an expression has been specified, it is convenient to enter an identification in the field Name for the quantity to be calculated. This identification appears in the list box Evaluation as soon as another line in this box
is clicked. Now you may enter a further expression for a single-number
evaluation. For a noise map, e. g., with the evaluation dialog below, the
noise impact results in a value of 1430 (inh.*dB) for the night-time.

Manual

11.6.3

11

11.6.3

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Evaluation

Clicking the line "Inhab with exceeding" results in the following display:

11

Thus 190 inhabitants are subject to excess night-time levels. The average
excess level is:
mittel = 1430 / 190 = 7,5 dB
You can find a list with pre-defined expressions if you click on the arrowbutton. To insert a pre-defined expression just click on its identifier. You
can change and save the expression with a new name in the user-defined
list Evaluation.

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Population Density

11.6.4 1

11.6.4 Population Density


The density of inhabitants for a certain area or the numbers of residents
per building will be required if an evaluation like the noise impact value is
to be performed.
Either we have these numbers and enter them via keyboard and import or
we evaluate and enter them. This estimation can, however, be a laborious
job. CadnaA can settle this automatically in an effective way.
The following is required to calculate the density of inhabitants/km:

areas of designated land use (see Chapter 11.3) have to be inserted


in these areas buildings (see Chapter 9.3.2) are included and
a formula (see Chapter 2.6) has to be entered for the calculation of
inhabitants.
We do not need areas of designated land uses if we calculate only the
residents of buildings.

With Grid|Population Density we open a dialog for entering a formula


with the variables indicated in the dialog for the calculation of the inhabitants.

In the above figure we have presupposed that in each case, on average,


40 m of floor space can be allocated to one person and that the floor
height is on average 3 m.

Manual

11

11

11.6.4

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Population Density

Calc Residents per


Building
11.6.4

After confirming the dialog with OK all buildings which are marked as
residential buildings will be allocated a population according to the entered formula and the number of inhabitants will be entered in the dialog
Building. The population is also displayed in the table Building
(Tables|Obstacles).

Calculate Population
Densiy in areas of
Land Use
11.6.4

After confirming the dialog Calculate Population Density with OK all


individual areas with designated land uses - and here again all buildings will be run through to determine the population with the entered formula.
The calculated number of inhabitants will be entered in the field Population/km in the dialog Area of Designated Land Use. In each case this results in the population per km in each area of designated land use.

Normalise to actual
number of
Inhabitants and
Number of
Inhabitants in Entire
Area
11.6.4

The number of inhabitants determined while considering the buildings


may deviate from the actual number of inhabitants. If the latter is known, it
may be entered in the edit dialog Number of Inhabitants in Entire Area:
when Normalise to Actual Number of Inhabitants has been activated.
CadnaA then converts the population densities determined for the individual areas of designated land use using an appropriate factor to match the
total number of inhabitants in all areas of designated land use to the total
number specified.
Afterwards, when the edit dialog for an area of designated land use is
opened, the calculated population density is displayed. In the menu Tables|Other Objects|Areas of Designated Land Use all values are listed
in the table.

Manual

Kapitel 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Closing Buildings

11.6.5 1

11.6.5 Closing Buildings

This command is only available if you have purchased the option XL


(see chapter 11.6)

With the command in the menu Tables|Miscellanous|Close Buildings


you are able to connect individual polygon lines to a closed polygon and to
represent them as the object Building. This is helpful if you have to import
buildings in CadnaA with files from a third-party program (like AutoCad
DXF file), buildings which are drawn with individual lines instead of with
closed polygons.

11

Initial situation: An imported DXF file where buildings


are drawn with individual lines. Those have to be imported first as the object Auxiliary Polygon. Then the lines
have to be connected to a closed polygon and are automatically converted to buildings afterwards.

Handbuch

11.6.5

Kapitel 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Closing Buildings

First import (see chapter 6.2) the third-party file with the corresponding
file format into CadnaA. Make sure that the open buildings are imported
as object type Auxiliary Polygon. After importing them, delete elements
which you do not need or use the group function (see chapter 18.2) to
deactivate elements. If you execute the command Close Buildings, all
existing and activated Auxiliary Polygons are connected to the corresponding settings and converted to the object Building automatically.

11

The imported DXF file after transaction of the command


Close Buildings. The buildings are now closed polygons.

In the provided picture the open buildings have the layer name building. This identifier appears in the ID field in the edit dialog of the object
after being imported into CadnaA. Therefore you can create groups very
easily.

Handbuch

Kapitel 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Closing Buildings

11.6.5 3

Group definition in CadnaA

The first group for the buildings is activated and the second group with the
asterix * in the field Expression is deactivated for all remaining objects.
Therefore only the lines are closed and automatically converted in the object Building with the identifier building in their field ID.
After clicking the command Table|Miscellanous|Close Buildings the following dialog appears with self-explanatory settings.

11

With the activated option Combine Buildings terraces are combined to a


single Building with barriers lying inside, replacing the indoor walls.

Handbuch

11.6.5

Kapitel 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Closing Buildings

With the command Close Building the option Combine Buildings has
been activated for the buildings in the right-hand picture. For those buildings all indoor walls are replaced with barriers and the buildings are combined in a single building as a closed polygon. The objects in the upper
left-hand picture are eight individual buildings. The option Combine Buildings was not activated.
11

After combining the lines to create a closed polygon and converting them
to buildings, the original identifier in the ID is overwriten with an identifier containing the character L and a number, e.g., L1, L2, L3 etc. This
identifier indicates what has happend while connecting and combining auxiliary polygons into buildings or barriers.

Handbuch

Kapitel 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Closing Buildings

L1

a detached building or barrier

L2

building inside a building or barrier inside a building

L3

building inside a building inside a building or barrier inside a


building inside a building etc.

So just create groups to check if the connection and converting has been
successful in all cases.

Handbuch

11.6.5 5

11

11.6.5

Kapitel 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Closing Buildings

11

Handbuch

11.6.6 1

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

11.6.6 Object-Scan
The Object-Scan in the menue Grid is a powerful tool. With the selected
object type you can add an arbitrary attribute value or a calculated attribute
value of a user-defined link for all objects of the choosen type.

Object Type

11.6.6

The adding and displaying of the final value can occur in the following
ways:

Action / Sum
into:

11.6.6

1.

As a target in Action / Sum into you choose Single Values. The evaluation then takes place for the entire project file and the result value
is displayed in a message dialog.

Single Values

11.6.6

2.

As a target in Action / Sum into you choose Specified Aereas /


Polygons. Then you can choose a Target Object Type whose
objects are closed polygons. Furthermore you have to choose an
Attribute which belongs to the selected Target Object Type in
which the, inside the closed polygon, added values are assigned to.

Specified Areas/
Polygons

11.6.6

As a target in Action / Sum into you choose Grid and as Window


Size define the length of a side of a square inside of which a result
should be determined in a grid. This square is arranged so that its
pivot is a grid point. The entire grid is run through in that way, by
shifting the window step by step to the next grid point.

Grid and
Window Size

11.6.6

4.

As a target in Action / Sum into you choose Table. The evaluation


then takes place in a table either with user-defined intervals (min max) of an arbitrary attribut or by predefined formulars (button Predefined).

Table

11.6.6

The procedure using the mentioned methods are described with one
example each at the end of this chapter.

3.

Manual

11

11.6.6
Pay Attention!

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

Due to the fact that now can be calculated up to four evaluation parameters (chapter 12.4.6) simultaneously the name of the fields Day
and Night (Formula for summation and formula for total) are not
anymore topical. Analyses are not only made for day and night but
for abitrary evaluation parameters. Anyhow we have deceided to
keep these names Day (field 1) and Night (field 2) for the time being
so that files calculated with an older release of CadnaA still can be
analysed. But de facto with the appropriate expression in field 1 (day)
or/and field 2 (night) you can refer to the corresponding evaluation
parameter, e.g. GW1 till GW4 (limiting value of evaluation parameter 1 - 4) to analyse the desired inquiry.

Open the dialog Object-Scan in Grid|Object-Scan.

11

The Dialog Objekt-Scan


Target Object Type
Expression for ID
Attribute D/N
11.6.6

You can only choose a Target Object Type if Specified Areas /Polygons
are selected in the field Action /Sum into.

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

11.6.6 3

The result is then written in the selected Attribute (e.g., Name for the corresponding field in the edit dialog of the object)

Dont use the same attribute for Day (field1) and Night (field2). The
results will be overwritten then.

In the field Window Size (m) you can define the side length of an invisible quadrate within which a result in a grid is calculated. This quadrate is
arranged so that a grid point its central point is. The whole grid will be calculated by shifting iteratively the window to the next grid point.

Window Size (m) 11.6.6

11

The window only has an effect if the option Grid (Action/Sum into) is
selected.

For Day (field 1) and Night (field 2) we can enter or choose from the variable list a term determining which value should be added up for each located object.

Manual

Formula for
Summation

11.6.6

11.6.6
Variable list

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

We open the variable list by clicking the double-arrows button beside the
corresponding field. Only the pertinent variables of the chosen object type
are displayed. For inserting a desired variable just click on it. To overwrite
an existing variable in the field, double-click the variable before you open
the variable list.

11

Variable list in the Dialog Object-Scan


Variable

The variable list is separated with a horizontal line. The variables below
this line are object specific. You will find an explanation for these abbreviations in chapter 2.5.
Above this line are all special variables listed which we can use for the object-scan.
prop

Part of the object which is inside the window. With extended objects it is the proportion of the area; with line objects
the proportion of the length..

area_p

Total area of an object (by closed polygons).

area_i

Area of an object which lies inside the window.

area_w

Area of the window

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

prop_l

The proportion of the length of open or closed lines which


are lying inside the window (well in distinction to prop
with areas determined by the protortion of the perimeter )

len_p

The total length of an open or closed line (therefore also the


perimeter line of an area)

len_i

The length of the part, of an open or closed line, which is


lying inside the window

int_lo

lower limit of an interval

int_hi

upper limit of an interval

To determine the total kilometers of roads in a project, choose the following

11.6.6 5

Example of formulas

object type Road Action/Sum in Single Values


and enter the following term into the box
Formula for Summation len_p
(Add the total length of the line objects)

To determine the total residents of buildings in a project, choose the


following
object type Building Action/Sum in Single Values
and enter the following term into the box
Formula for Summation iif(WG_NUM, EINW,0)
(If it is a residential building, add the residents, otherwise add zero)

Manual

11

11.6.6

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

To determine the total floor area of the building, enter the following
object type Building Action/Sum in Single Values
and enter the following term into the box
Formula for Summation
iif(WG_NUM, area_p,0)*PO_HREL_P1/3
(If it is a residential building, add the ground area of the buildings,
otherwise do not and multiply the total area with the relative height
of the first building point for each building and divide this with 3 m
floor height)

Calculation

After completing the inputs for all desired fields and closing the dialog by
confirming OK the results are automatically written in a local Textblock.

Textblock

The name of the local textblock created automatically for the results is for
Day #(Text, OBJSCANT) and for
Night #(Text, OBJSCANN).

11

The Textblocks are located in Tables|Libraries (local). You can use them
as usual, e.g,. for reports, legend or for export files.
If you want to determine different object attributes you should rename the
Textblocks because a new result overwrites the previous result.
In case you have determined the road kilometers of a project then rename
the textblock, e.g., in RdKm. CadnaA creates a new textblock OBJSCAN
if you repeat the Object-Scan.
But we can also display the result in a Textbox in the graphics by refering
the Textblock in the Textbox, e.g., as follows:
Roadtraffic = #(Text, OBJSCANT) km
Formula
for Total

11.6.6

Grid

11.6.6

An entered expression determines which value is calculated with the value


saved in the variable sum from the above Formula for Summation.
By choosing Grid, in the field Action/Sum into, the result is assigned to
the grid point in the pivot of the Window.

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

11.6.6 7

We can use the variable sum for both fields - Day or Night - instead sumt
or sumn. The saved result for Day or Night will be recognized and used
from CadnaA by entering sum in the corresponding field.
A total evaluation for the entire calculation area can also be determined.
For this choose Single Values in field Action/Sum into. With the variable
sum is the term, defined in the field Formula for Summation, evaluated
for all objects in the whole calculation area and displayed in a message dialog. With the following example results the number of all residents in the
existing area.

Single values

11

Dialog Object-Scan and the corresponding terms

Result Dialog

Manual

11.6.6

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

A common way of using the Object-Scan is the calculation and representation of Noise Impact of Residents (NIR).
Example of the three mentioned methods:
 SmallCity01.cna

The basis is the example file SmallCity01.cna (If you want to see the english or German textboxes you can switch to variant V01 or V02 in the
symbol bar).

11

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

The total length of all roads in the project shall be determined .

11.6.6 9
Example
Single Values

11
Selected is the Object Type Road and Single Values in Action/Sum into.
In the field Formula for Summation the term len_p is entered for the
Attribute or via the list selected.
len_p shows generally the polygon length of the object representation.
The alternative is to select the object-specific parameter PO_LEN from the
variable list.
After confirming with OK the result dialog appears with the following
message

Manual

10

11.6.6

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

The road net has consequently a total lenght of 3226 m.


In the same manner the number of buildings can be evaluated or the whole
sound level of all point sources, or each other computable or deducible value from the attribute parameters of the choosen object type.
Example:
Areas

In the Name box of each area of Land Use, in the above displayed
example, the number of buildings shall be displayed.
Object Type: Building, Action / Sum into: Areas, Target Object:
Land Uses.

11

With these settings and with the list box Attribute D/N you have access to
all attributes of the Object Type Land Use. The summed final value, for
the selected attribute, is assigned to each existing area of Land Use. With
selection of Name as attribute this value is written in the Name box of the
Land Uses.
Just counting the formula 1 for the summation could be used. But then
buildings also placed on the border of the areas are completely counted the sum of the entered buildings is bigger than the real number of buildings in the whole project.
If this final balance is to be correct a building on an area border must be
counted as only a part < 1, which correspond to the area part of the building inside the area of land use. This is happen with an entry of prop as
Formula for Summation via the variable list.
After confirming OK the numer of buildings are entered in the Name box
in the edit dialog of the Land Uses.

Manual

11.6.6 11

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

In the following example each building, with a symbol of Building Evaluation, is assigned to a representative sound power level..

Example:
Grid

11

Furthermore for each building is the population known.


The amount of the noise impact shall now be evaluated for each building.
This is dependent on the number of residents n and the sound level L of the
buildings.

LEG Haus = n 2 0.1(L L0 )


wereas L0 is the valid maximum value.
This impact measure shall be added for the whole area and a coloured map
shall be generated, which displays the impact measure corresponding to
1000 m in each case.

Manual

12

11.6.6

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

The Object-Scan achieves this with the following dialog:

11

The Formula for Summantion correspond to the above term.


 SmallCity02.cna

In this example the population is assigned to the individual buildings.


On a coloured map the buildings could be coloured equivalent to the population but cannot be optically distinguished when they are displayed in a
big scale. For that reason the population density shall be averaged over a
larger area of 100 m x 100 m and displayed as a coloured map with population/100 m.

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

11.6.6 13

Open the dialog Grid|Object-Scan as shown in the following:

Select in the first box for Object Type Building because the evaluation
shall refer to the population in buildings
The variable prop supplies for each building inside the Window the value 1 and for buildings on the border of the Window a value from 0 to 1
which specifies the part of the building area located inside the Window.
With the product prop*einw therefore the population which has been alloted to the specified square is added. The result is saved in the variables
sumt for the day and sumn for the night (the bulding attribute population is for day and night equal).
In the example the area of the specified Window and therefore 100 m x
100 m = 10000 m, is divided by the area_w and multiplied by 100. The
division leads to the population per m and the multiplication to the population per 100 m.

Manual

11

14

11.6.6
Example Table

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

We want to determine the number of buildings with heights predefined


within the intervals in a table. Therefore choose the settings shown in the
following picture:

11
int_lo < = HA
- the building height is smaller equal the defined lower limit of the interval.
int_hi < HA
- the building height is smaller then the defined upper limit
You have to enter the desired height intervals in a table. Therefore click on
the button Table, insert as many lines (Ins-key) as necessary and enter the
corresponding limits in the columns min and max .

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

11.6.6 15

If you close the table and the dialog Object-Scan with OK the evaluation
will be executed and the result is shown in the table.
If you choose a predefined entry via the button Predefined both a corresponding formula is entered in the field Formula for Summation and an
appropriate table is created automatically.

Predefined

11

Manual

16

11.6.6

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Object-Scan

11

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

11.6.7 1

11.6.7 Monetary Evaluation of Noise according


to BUWAL

The CadnaA Option XL is required for the evaluation!

A technique to evaluate the noise is described in the study /55/. This method has been integrated into CadnaA.

The method

This method takes into account the reduction in value of rented flats that
results from high noise levels. This is done by converting the noise load of
residential areas into amounts of money. If the value of a noise reduction
measure is to be evaluated, then this is done by calculating the noise distribution with and without this measure. The difference in the two amounts
of money is represented by the reduced value according to the noise expressed in value of the measure.
The philosophy behind this technique shall not be discussed in detail here.
It shall only be mentioned that this method of evaluating and assessing the
noise is conservative and tends to underestimate the negative aspects of
noise. The use of the influence of the noise on the rent prices of residential
areas doesn't take into consideration many other negative consequences,
like the long term health of the population and the development of a city.
But nevertheless this technique is a pragmatic and transparent way of assessing cost-benefit relations when noise is evaluated. And this is always
positive.

Manual

11

11.6.7
Application with areas
of designated land use
(Example 1)
11.6.7

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

The evaluation method is applied to areas of designated land use. The following diagram shows a simple and easily understandable example.

area of designated land use

calculation area

road

Area of designated land use with road

11

and the edit dialog of this object (example 1)

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

The edit dialog of the RA-residential area shows (see chapter 11.3) that
when "Monetary Data" is activated three further values can be entered

11.6.7 3
Monetary Data
(local)

Floor/Ground Ratio (NAGFZ)


Rental/m/a (NAMIETE)
Rental abatement (NAMIND)

The bracketed abbreviations are the names of variables needed later to perform necessary operations.
In the edit fields for rental abatement in the dialog Area of designated
Land Use the two variables

LP sound pressure level


NA_STR maximum value for noise from road traffic (defined in Options|Land Use|Limiting Value)

are used to express the loss in value for all areas with sound levels within
5 dB under the maximum value.
The floor/ground ratio is a factor that that, when multiplied by the
ground area, gives the maximal residential area of buildings permitted on
this area. Rental/m/a: can be entered in any currency unit. The calculated
results are then related to this currency.
The factor in the equation of input line Rental Abatement - 0.01 in the
first example - is the loss of rent due to a level increase of 1 dB. 0.01, meaning rentals are reduced by 1% if the level raises 1 dB.
Further variables needed in the expressions of evaluation :

Area of a grid element in m (FL)


Logical value (0-false, 1-true) as a definition if a grid element is inside
an area of designated land-use or not (NAOK)

Manual

11

11.6.7

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

Calc Grid

In the first step, to come to a monetary evaluation of the noise, the noise
level is calculated on a grid for the whole area.

Evaluate Grid

With the second step the evaluation, with the defined formula in
Grid|Evaluation, is calculated for all grid points and the result is added
up.
The following results are obtained when using the expressions on the right
side. The accuracy depends on the size of the grid elements because a grid
element is taken to be in an area if the grid point is located in it. It is therefore recommended you use grid spacings as small as possible.
FL

Calculation area in m

FL*NAOK

Area of designated land use in m

FL*NAOK*NAGFZ

Total residential area in an area of


designated land use

FL*NAOK*NAGFZ*NAMIETE Rental for all areas of


designated land use
11

FL*NAOK*NAGFZ*NAMIETE*NAMIND
Reduction in rent caused by noise
With example 1:

the calculation area (FL) is 10080 m.


The size of the area of designated land use is 8000 m.
The floor/ground ratio is 0.8.

So the maximal residential area on this estate is 0.8 x 8000 m = 6400 m.


The rental with 100 per year and m is therefore 640.000 .

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

11.6.7 5

The three above mentioned values floor/ground ratio, rental/m/a and


rental abatement have been entered in the edit dialog of this area - the values are therefore only valid for this individual area (local). It is also possible to enter these values in Options|Land use for each type of general
land use (global) - in this case they are valid for all areas of this type. If the
values have been entered globally and locally, the local values for an area
dominate. Globally defined values are used for all areas of this type where
no local ones exists.

Evaluation example 1-loss in value based on


residential areas 11.6.7

The calculation of levels for example 1 with a grid spacing of 1m x 1m and


a receiver height of 4m (see chapter 11.5.1) leads to the result shown in the
following diagram.

Step 1 Calculation of sound


pressure
levels
11.6.7

60
area of designated land use

calculation area

65
70

Manual

road

Result of the grid calculation with a grid spacing of


1m and a receiver height
of 4m

11

11.6.7
Step 2 Evaluation

 Monetary1.cna

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

11.6.7

After noise levels have been calculated on the specified grid, the evaluation in the form of a reduction in value is carried out in Grid|Evaluation.
The example file Monetary1.cna just includes the correct expressions.
The expression for calculating the annual reduction in rent resulting from
noise is
FL*NAOK*NAGFZ*NAMIETE*NAMIND

11

After a click on Calculate the reduction in rent of 60416 caused by the


noise is shown.
Changing the number of cars (MDTD) to 10000 cars/24h, recalculating
and evaluating with the described steps shows a reduction in this noise induced loss to 40789 . With the same technique all possible measures like
screens and barriers or reorganisation of traffic flows can easily be evaluated and ranked.

Manual

11.6.7 7

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

Evaluation example 2a - loss in value based on residential premises as single digit value
With example 1 the residential area was calculated from the whole area
and the floor/ground ratio was the basis for the evaluation. This meant that
the probability of people living at any certain position in this area was regarded to be the same for all positions.
It is also possible to use the exact position of all buildings and their geometric location - this gives a result that is more accurate because the screened and therefore quieter facades reduce the buildings noise level and
lead to a better result for well designed buildings and residential areas.
Example 2 uses this technique. With example 2a the noise induced loss of
value for all buildings is calculated as a single number value. This is the
best procedure if different strategies for noise reduction are to be ranked.
The following diagram shows example 2, a scenario with roads, buildings
and areas of designated land-use. The above mentioned values are defined
globally (Options|Land use).

 Monetary2.cna

Building evaluation and calculation of a buildings noise map


for all residential premises

Step 1

In Options|Building noise map select energetic for the Averaging Method (see chapter 9.3.6).

Manual

11.6.7

11

11.6.7

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

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Noise induced reduction in value: 513038.35

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Scenario with buildings, roads and areas of designated land use


(and symbols for building evaluation)

The building evaluation symbols have been attached to all buildings automatically using the Modify Object command. Then the calculation for defined receiver points is started (this includes calculation of faade levels
and building evaluation.
Step 2

11.6.7

Evaluation as single digit result using Object-Scan


Evaluation is carried out using the command Grid|Object-Scan (see
chapter 11.6.6). The parameters and expressions that should be used for
this type of evaluation are shown in the following window. Leaving this
window with OK, the single digit result is calculated taking into account
the faade levels of all 97 buildings.

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

11.6.7 9

Edit Dialog Objekt-Scan

The following parameters are used:


PO_AREA

ground surface covered by the building


(area of polygon)

PO_HREL_P1

relative height of the building at point 1

The other parameters are explained above.


After confirmation with OK the noise induced reduction in value for all
buildings is shown. In this case: 513038,35 .

Manual

11

10

11.6.7

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

Evaluation example 2b - loss in value based on individual residential premises for all areas of designated land-use
The same scenario shown in example 2a is used again, but now the result
is to be evaluated for all areas separately.
 Monetary2.cna

Step 1

Load example2.cna and open Tables|Other Objects|Areas of designated


Land use. You see that the column Name is empty.
11.6.7

Building evaluation and calculation of a buildings noise map


for all residential areas
This calculation has just been done - if not look to step 1 in the last chapter.

Step 2

11

11.6.7

Evaluation for each separate area using Object-Scan


The reduction of value due to noise shall be calculated separately with regard to the buildings in in each area. This resulting value shall be written
into the attribute Bez (that means that the result is written in the field
Name in the edit dialog - any other attribute can be chosen).
Open the dialog Object-Scan with Grid|Object-Scan and in Action /
Sum into: select Specified Areas / Polygons as shown in the following figure.

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

11.6.7 11

The parameters in the dialog Object-Scan to write the


results in the field Name of each area

Target object type is Area of Designated Use. With Bez as attribute the
result is written in the field Name of each area. After doing this evaluation
you find the result value in column Name of Tables|Other Objects|Area
of Designated Use as shown in the following table.

Results in column Name after evaluation

Manual

11

12

11.6.7

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

The value 0.00 (zero) in the field Name indicates that either the assessment level is more then 5 dB below the maximum sound level (and therefore no rent reduction occurs) or that non building is placed in that area.

Evaluation Example 2c - Evaluation of average loss


in value in a gliding window and presentation
as a coloured map
Only to be complete, this further method shall be mentioned. Calculation
of facade levels and building evaluation is the same as in the examples before.
To present the result as a coloured map a grid must be calculated. This is
necessary because the grid points must already exist before you can allocate a value to a grid point calculated for a window with Object-Scan.

11

To save calculation time, this is best done with all roads switched off. Calculate the grid, e.g., with a spacing of 5 m. For evaluation use Grid|Object-Scan with the parameters and adjustments as shown:

Manual

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

11.6.7 13

Parameter settings to calculate the reduction in rent

The reduction in value for all buildings is added up in a window of 100m x


100m, normalised to 100 m and attached with the grid point in the center.
Then the window is moved one grid spacing and the same is repeated. At
the end all parameters in Grid|Appearance must be chosen so that all values can be presented in the map (colours, the lower and upper limit etc).

Manual

11

14

11.6.7

Chapter 11.6 CadnaA Option XL


Monetary Evaluation of Noise according to BUWAL

11

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 12 Configuration ofCalculation

12

Manual

Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation


Contents

12.1 1

Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation

12.1 Contents
12.2

Sound Rays and Reflection

12.2.1
12.2.2

12.2.4
12.2.5
12.2.6

Sound Rays from Point Sources


Sound Rays from extended Sources
such as Line and Area Sources
The Projection Method for
extended Sound Sources
Reflection
Reflection of the 1st Order
Reflections of Higher Order

12.3

Displaying Sound Rays

12.4

Configuration

12.4.1
12.4.2
12.4.3
12.4.4
12.4.5
12.4.6
12.4.7
12.4.8
12.4.9
12.4.10
12.4.11
12.4.12

Country Tab
Implemented Calculation Methods
General Tab
Partition Tab
Reference Time Tab
Evaluation Parameter Tab
DTM Digital Terrain Model Tab
Reflection Tab
Industry Tab
Road Tab
Railroad Tab
AzB Tab

12.2.3

Manual

12

12.1

Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation


Contents

12.4.13 Optimisable Source Tab

12.5

Selecting Data for the Calculation

12.6

Calculation Protocol

12.7

Compact Protocol

12

Manual

Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation


Sound Rays and Reflection

12.2

12.2 1

Sound Rays and Reflection

CadnaA enables the calculation of sound propagation according to stand-

ardized procedures (calculation according to standards like CRN, CRTN,


ISO 9613 etc.) and with settings that are defined by the user.
This chapter deals with the second task and its possibilities with CadnaA
and is therefore more concerned with the pysical aspects of sound propagation. This is very important for us because CadnaA is used increasingly
for expert work, in scientific work at universities and in lectures. Although
the professional usage requires a strict application of the pre-determined
guidelines and standards it can be very helpful in correctly processing special problem-orientated cases which are not covered by the regulations.
This especially concerns the treatment of reflections of a higher order.
With the above regulations a reflection of the first order is only dealt with
according to the mirror image method and therefore the reflection of a ray
at one acoustically even surface.
The contribution of more orders of reflections to the total result, e.g., at the
building facades on both sides of a closed built-up road, will be taken into
account by calculating analytically a correction for multiple reflections
from the geometrical and acoustic parameters.
This strategy fails if the geometries of the road built-up at both sides is
completely different and varies from building to building. The same problem exists with the noise level in backyards - it must be calculated taking
into account high order reflections.
CadnaA is able to calculate reflections completely up to higher order. It is

clear that this increases calculation times, because the number of rays
grow exponentially with this reflection order. With the possibility to show
all these calculated rays at the screen, CadnaA is a very helpful tool in
learning and teching about sound propagation.
Chapter 12.3 explains how paths of rays can be displayed. Because of the
selective display possibilities for the different orders (by using groups), the
handling might look a bit complicated, but it is an excellent tool for clari-

Manual

12

12.2

Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation


Sound Rays and Reflection

fying the executed calculation and therefore can be helpful in a technical


report in many cases. We recommend that the detailed examples be understood step by step. Once you have taken this initial hurdle the inclusion of
ray representations in drawings and text documents is easily possible.
12.2.0

12

Manual

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Sound Rays from Point Sources

12.2.1 1

12.2.1 Sound Rays from Point Sources


In a physical sense a wave field goes out from a source Q which transports
the sound power in all directions via the movement of the air particles. Because the surface of the spheres hull expands with increasing distance,
and the sound power is distributed over the hull over a certain period of
time, the sound intensity decreases and therefore the sound pressure level,
too. With increasing distance source - receiver it becomes quieter.

Sound propagation from Source Q to Reciver Point RP physical (left) and numerical (right)

If CadnaA calculates, the distance between source Q and receiver RP will


be determined and, with the sound power level of the source, the sound
pressure level at the receiver point will be calculated with analytical formulas which have been derived from the physical model. The wave field is
in a certain way replaced by one ray from source to receiver.

Manual

12

12.2.1

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Sound Rays from Point Sources

If there are many sources there are also many sound rays which have to be
considered in the calculation. For all receivers affecting sound rays the calculated proportion of the level will be added energetically.

IP1

IP1

Q6

Q6

Q1

Q1
IP2

Q2

IP2

Q2

Q3

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q4

Q5

IP3

5 Sources and 3 Receiver (IP)

12

IP3

The Sound Rays

12.2.1

Manual

12.2.2 1

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Sound Rays from extended Sources such as Line and Area Sources

12.2.2 Sound Rays from extended Sources


such as Line and Area Sources
Even in the case of calculating the noise level from an extended source as
the area source shown in fig. A, a distance has to be found that can be used
in the equation of propagation. This may be wrong if the pivot of the extended source is used as starting point of the ray. Since, actually, each arbitrary portion of the area source emits sound, the same value of a level
must result if the total stripe according to figure B is to be subdivided and
the sound pressure level at the receiver point is calculated as the sum of the
levels of the 5 contributions from the partial sources FQ1 till FQ5.

IP

FQ

IP

FQ1 FQ2

FQ3 FQ4

FQ5

12
A: Area source with sound ray

B: Partitioning of the area sources

However, the partial sources, according to figure B, result in different partial levels because of the different distances. On the basis of the energetic
addition a higher sound pressure level results from fig. B than from taking
into account only one ray emitted from the pivot as shown in fig. A.
This error has been avoided in CadnaA by partitioning each extended line
or area source in sufficiently small parts for automatic calculation.
But these partial areas do not have the same size as shown in figure B.
They become even smaller the closer the corresponding section of the extended source is to the receiver.

Manual

12.2.2

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Sound Rays from extended Sources such as Line and Area Sources

This dynamic division, which must newly be calculated for each receiver,
leads to a considerably faster calculation in comparison to the equal division. The following figure shows the sound rays, which CadnaA takes into
account, with the irregularly shaped area source provided below.
IP

The sound rays for the area source which CadnaAis taking into account for the calculation.

12

Manual

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Sound Rays from extended Sources such as Line and Area Sources

12.2.2 3

The same applies to line sources. By the road shown in the following figure the borders of the stripe are the axis of the outer lanes which are each
considered as line sources and taken into account in the calculation of level .
IP

The sound rays for the roads which CadnaA is taking into
account for the calculation.

12.2.2

12

Manual

12.2.2

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Sound Rays from extended Sources such as Line and Area Sources

12

Manual

12.2.3 1

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


The Projection Method for extended Sound Sources

12.2.3 The Projection Method for


extended Sound Sources
The automatic division of an extended sound source into smaller partial areas depending on the distance of the receiver (see Chapter 12.2.2 "Sound
Rays from extended Sources such as Line and Area Sources") is not sufficient to avoid errors in the calculation of sound pressure levels.

IP

Figure 1: Calculation of the area source soccer field with two sound rays

Let us take the example of a soccer field as in the upper figure. For a noise
calculation at the remote receiver point IP CadnaA would split the soccer
field into two partial areas and would therefore take into account two
sound rays. This is correct for the shown situation.

Manual

12

12.2.3

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


The Projection Method for extended Sound Sources

Now a shielding club house with a height of 8 m is located in the position


shown in the following figure.

IP
Clubhaus

Figure 2: Soccer field with partially shielding club house

In the calculation of both displayed sound rays, screening and therefore a


lower sound pressure level occurs in each case. But, in fact, not all partial
areas, which are included in the calculation with the paths of the two rays,
are shielded by the building. The resulting sound pressure level would be
too low in the present example.
CadnaA avoids this error by using a projection method.

12

With that, in the first step the area sources will be divided into shielded
and non-shielded areas and in the second step subdivided according to the
relation of area size to receiver distance. In this way, in the present example, 12 partial areas are created: altogether, nevertheless, because of the
large distance from the receiver (340 m), 8 areas are not shielded and 4 areas are shielded.

Manual

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


The Projection Method for extended Sound Sources

12.2.3 3

IP
Clubhaus

Figure 3a: Two step division according to shielding


objects in the path of rays and the distance of the receiver

In the present example the calculation results in 44 dB(A) of free sound


propagation according to figure 1, 39 dB(A) in the calculation of the situation with the club house without using the projection method according to
figure 2 and 42 dB(A) with correct division resulting from the use of the
projection method according to the figure 3a.
Figure 3b shows the projection method with a road

Figure 3b Projection method for a road

Both axis of the outer road lanes - that is the margin of the road stripe in
the CadnaA presentation - are first divided according to the shielding ob-

Manual

12

12.2.3

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


The Projection Method for extended Sound Sources

jects between receiver and road. Then a subdivision occurs according to


the distance criteria.

Figure 3 c: Projection method for reflecting sound parts

Much more complicated are the relations in the projection of the reflecting
sound parts dealt with in the next chapter. Figure 3 c shows the construction of both sections for the axis of the outer road lanes which are necessary because of the reflecting building. The same method - graphically
hardly to explain - will also be applied by CadnaA for the multiple reflections dealt with futher on.
12

Although the projection method naturally extends the calculation considerably it should always be switched on for a detailed calculation like
acoustical zoom. After all, even in the simple situation figure 3a, 12
paths of rays instead of 2 must be calculated.

Manual

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Reflection

12.2.4 1

12.2.4 Reflection
Additional sound rays appear in the sector of the path of sound propagation from reflective objects which affect the receiver and could increase
the sound level.
The mirror-source method will be applied regularly by the calculation of
reflection and it is therefore assumed that the reflective areas are acoustically even. In the experience of engineering the numerical calculation of
diffuse reflection has only been achieved over the statistical approach for
the density of scattering objects (see e.g. /32/). A numerically correct resolution for point-precise calculation with diffuse reflection is dealt with in /
33/. But this is still a lavish resolution for the professional practice.
On the other hand the mirror-source method has been proved excellent for
the propagation of sound, also in cases strictly without even areas. The
propagation of sound including reflection up to an extremly high order has
been described precisely (see to this /34/ and /12/) for industry halls in
which the surfaces areas are anything but even (through extensions such as
pipelines and so on).
12

Manual

12.2.4

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Reflection

12

Manual

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Reflection of the 1st Order

12.2.5 1

12.2.5 Reflection of the 1st Order


You are required to calculate the reflection of the first order if such a reflection contributes to the sound level at the receiver according to the
guidelines RLS90 /9/, Schall03 /8/ and ISO 9613-2 /21/.
The calculation occurs in three steps which have to be carried out for each
reflective area according to each Q-IP pair.
1. Step:

Constructing the position of the mirror sources

2. Step:

Sectioning the connecting line of the reflected source - receiver


point with an area and determining the breakhrough-point.

3. Step:

Calculating the part of the sound level according to the longer


path of the ray over the reflecting area including the absorption
coefficient of this area.

In the example shown below two parts of sound level are taken into account at the receiver (IP) which are calculated from the displayed paths of
rays.
12

Figure A: The paths of rays with the reflection of the first order

Manual

12.2.5

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Reflection of the 1st Order

Important for the correct calculation of reflection, according to the mentioned guidelines, is that all reflections of the first order be checked and, if
necessary, be included in the calculation. That is not obvious - software
programs exist which check, starting at the receiver, a ray only till the first
reflector crosses the path of the ray in the plan, even if this reflector is not
affecting anything because of the low height and the area lying behind
which reflects the ray. The calculation of reflection must, as in the example of picture A, also find a level-raising contribution if, as in picture B, a
low obstacle at the base seems to block the rays path.
H=8m

IP

H=1m

12

Q
Figure B: The paths of rays for the reflection of the first
order with obstacles in the path of the ray.

A typical example of this case is shown in figure C. The program only investigates up to the first reflector which is found, then at the house on the
left side of the road the amount of reflection which is caused by the high
building is not taken into account only because a 1 m high wall is located
between this high building and the four lane road. This calculation is not in
accordance with RLS90 in this case.
Besites this, CadnaA takes into account reflections if screening objects
obstruct the path of the reflected sound ray. The part of the sound level
which was caused by the reflecting sound at the receiver point is then re-

Manual

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Reflection of the 1st Order

12.2.5 3

duced by the value which results from the screening calculation for the
path: mirror-source - receiver.

12

Figure C: For the calculation of the sound level at the left residential building, according to
RLS90, the reflection of the traffic noise on the high right building has to be calculated despite the low wall between the road and the building.

CadnaA also calculates the reflection for extended sources such as line or
area sources, but these objects will be split into sufficiently small partial
sources. Figure D shows the already familiar soccer field with three buildings located in the neighbourhood and the paths of rays taken into account.

Manual

12.2.5

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Reflection of the 1st Order

Figure D: The paths of rays taken into account in a calculation of sound levels on a soccer field

12

Manual

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Reflections of Higher Order

12.2.6 1

12.2.6 Reflections of Higher Order


In calculating reflections of second order all valid mirror-sources have to
be reflected again on all reflecting areas to prove the validity of each reflection and to calculate the corresponding path of the ray.
The number of rays with a further order of reflection results from the product of the number of reflections from the last order multiplied by the
number of valid reflectors. The specification of this numeric method is
found in /33/.
It is obvious that the number of possible reflections explodes with an increasing number of orders. Calculations up to higher orders are only completely possible for very restricted arrangements. On the other hand, a
reflection has to be calculated first before its contribution can be evaluated
as irrelevant.
CadnaA enables the calculation of reflections of high orders for all type of

sources. The paths of ray can be displayed and the sound level contributions of the reflections are separately identified. According to the specifications of the standards for the source type Road and Railway with
activating these standards only reflection of first order are calculated using
mirror-image method - reflections of higher order are taken into account
with a penalty for multiple reflections.
An example for the complete calculation of reflection up to the 10. order is
shown with the backyard in figure A. A point source located in front of
the opening beams into the backyard, and the sound level shall be calculated at the represented receiver IP.

Manual

12

12.2.6

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Reflections of Higher Order

Figure A: Radiation in a backyard

12

Manual

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Reflections of Higher Order

12.2.6 3

12

Manual

12.2.6

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Reflections of Higher Order

Figure B: All paths of rays for each individual order of reflections in the backyard

12

Figure C: All possible paths of rays in a calculation up to the 10. order

By the way - CadnaA needs only a fraction of a second with a Pentium


computer for a complete calculation up to the 10. order as in this example.
Abitrary arrangements of objects can be taken into account for a calculation of reflections. With this technique it is possible to perform the calculation of the sound level corresponding to the reality in cases not
corresponding to the valid guidelines.

Manual

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Displaying Sound Rays

12.3

12.3 1

Displaying Sound Rays

If Generate Rays is activated in the edit dialog of a receiver point all calculated rays with this target point are inserted as auxiliary plygon lines.
With double-click on such a ray its contribution to the sound level at the
receiver is indicated. This sound contribution is shown in the field ID with
its proportionate level, e.g., RAY_419_00 which signifies that the direct
sound ray (_00) contributes 41.9 dB.
The rays are shown on screen as if they cross screening objects straightly nevertheless screening is calculated taking into account vertical and lateral
diffraction. In this case an s will be attached in their identifier. A shielded
ray of the eighth order for which a calculation of diffraction has been enforced may have an identifier RAY_419_08s.
On this base, rays with a certain order of reflection can be displayed or
switched off easily in CadnaA with the efficient group function
(Tables|Groups see Chapter 18.2 "Groups"). If the rays are displayed, all
diffracted sound rays can be switched off in the representation by deactivating the group with the expression *_??s.
With corresponding settings for all deactivated objects in Options|Apperance (see Chapter 13.6 "Object Appearance") you can enforce the diffracted and non-contributed, mostly
irrelevant rays to disappear
completely.
But the best is learning by doing - trace step by step the following example.

Start CadnaA

In Options|Limits enter the values for the limit as shown in the following dialog.

Manual

12

12.3

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Displaying Sound Rays

Insert the following objects

12

Point source with PWL 100 dB, Name Q1 - coordinates 20/5/5

2 buildings with a height of 25 m and Reflection loss of 0 dB


- building 1 (80/60 , 85/60 , 85/100 , 80/100)
- building 2 (0/130 , 5/130 , 5/160 , 0/160)
 Click in the toolbox on the icon and enter the value 80 via the
keyboard - hereby an edit dialog opens to enter a polygon point
- press the TAB-key and enter the value 60 - confirm with OK
and enter the next value for the second pair of coordinates.
 After inserting the coordinates of the first building, quit the
insertion mode by clicking with the RIGHT mouse key.
 Again with the RIGHT mouse key, click once on the line of the
building plan - the edit dialog opens.
 Click on the button Geometry and enter a building with a relativ height of 25 m.
 Repeat this for the second building. The building height is
adjusted automatically.

Manual

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Displaying Sound Rays

12.3 3

2 Receiver points
-

I2 (35/110/5) and
I3 (35/170/5)
Click on the corresponding icon in the toolbox


 Enter the coordinate via keyboard and close the edit dialog



polygon point by clicking OK


Open the edit dialog by clicking with the Right mouse key on
the margin of the receiver point.
Confirm with OK.

In Calculation|Configuration|Reflection adjust a max. reflection


order of 2 or more

The rays for the receiver I3 shall be displayed.

In the edit mode, open the edit dialog for receiver I3 by double-clicking on its border and activating the option Generate Rays.

12

Now start the calculation with a click on the Pocket Calculator in

Manual

12.3

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Displaying Sound Rays

the icon bar.


The following representation occurs after the calculation. CadnaA has calculated the direct ray, a reflection of the first order and a reflection of the
second order. (CadnaA calculates reflections completely up to the specified order - shall we bet that there are no more possible paths?)

H o us e 2

I3

I2

12

H o us e 2

H o us e 1

S our c e

The scenario

I3

I2

Ho us e 1

S o ur c e

after calculation and display of rays

After double-clicking a ray - or by Tables|Other Objects|Aux.Polygon you can identify the rays on the basis of its ID, e.g., RAY_419_00 which
means that the level contribution of this ray is 41.9 dB and the last two
digits indicate the order of reflection. Double zero is the direct ray without
reflection, 01 is a reflection of the first order, 02 of the second order and so
on.

Manual

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Displaying Sound Rays

12.3 5

Now pay attention to the possibility of CadnaA in the tables - if you


click on a data record, e.g., of the table Other Objects|Aux. Polygon
the corresponding ray in the diagram will be marked and can easily
be identified.

Now only rays of the second order shall be displayed . This is in our example simplified by directly switching off the non-desired ray in the corresponding edit dialog on its ID field. But the deactivation of rays described
in the following way is, however, with complex layouts the only realistic
alternative.

Insert in Tables|Group a new table row (press the INS-key), doubleclick it and enter the expression *_02 in the same-named field and
confirm with OK.

12

Insert a second line after the first one and enter the expression R*
and

Manual

12.3

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Displaying Sound Rays

)


DisplayRays.cna

deactivate this group (just enter a minus character - in the column


Marking). After confirming with OK you will only see the desired
group with rays of the second order.

If the deactivated rays are displayed as bright grey dashes, let them disappear completely - this representation would still cover all activated rays in
more complex situations. For this, use Options|Appearance| (deactivate) see Chapter 13.6 "Object Appearance".
To get to know the deleting of rays and the handling with shielded rays we
recommend you do the following exercise.

Activate all groups again in Tables|Group

Click on the House 1 and copy it in a position with a left offset so that
only a ray of the second order is intersected (see following figure)

House 2

I3

12

I2

House 1

Source

Manual

12.3 7

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Displaying Sound Rays

You do not need to delete the rays! If you start the calculation again,
the rays are updated.

Now start a new calculation - click on the Pocket Calculater in the icon
bar. The ID of the ray which intersects the new building now contains the
identifier RAY_220_02S. To eliminate only the shielded rays from the
representation

DisplayRays2.cna

insert a new row in Tables|Group, enter *s in the field expression


and deactivate this group. The shielded ray disappears.

Maybe you should save this file as a default file for some tests on your
own and open this file if you want to create such situations. You can delete
all existing objects before. The correct groups then exist and you only need
to change the order of reflection in the middle row to display all orders of
reflections, one after the other.

12

Manual

12.3

Chapter 12.2 Sound Rays and Reflection


Displaying Sound Rays

12

Manual

Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation


Configuration

12.4

12.4 1

Configuration

In developing CadnaA, it was, and continues to be, our goal to give the
professional user the desired freedom of choice and control while relieving
those only interested in overall results from having to master all the available options. This complexity and flexibility of CadnaA is particularly evident when large stocks of data have been entered which are then to be
processed under the Calculation|Configuration menu.
To meet the requirements for the calculation according to EC-directive on
environmental noise CadnaA since release 3.5 possesses a brand-new concept for defining and calculating evaluation parameters (see Chapter
12.4.6). In this concept you have beside a multitude of pre-defined noise
levels (for single or combined time intervals) also different evaluation parameters (like uncertainty sigma). Furthermore you can define evaluation
parameters by formulas.
In CadnaA since release 3.5 can be calculated simultaneously up to four
evaluation parameters either for single receiver points or in a receiver grid
(additionally to the ground).
The Calculation Configuration dialog serves to specify all settings required for the calculation, and, quite conveniently, to save these settings
with the calculated project file.
There are various tabs for groups of options within this dialog. Click the
tab for the desired group to specify and select the options.
By way of example, the tabs are described here for application of the German guidelines. They apply accordingly to those of other countries.
also see chapters
11.2.2 Calculation and Presentation of Results for Receiver Points on the
Display
11.5.4 Calculating a Grid
18.7 Batch Operation
18.6 PCSP - Program Controlled Segmented Processing

Manual

12

12.4

Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation


Configuration

12

Manual

12.4.1 1

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Country Tab

12.4.1 Country Tab

In the field Country we choose from a list the name of a country or group
according to whose guidelines and standards we want to calculate our
project. Thereby the fields Industry, Road, Railway, and Air-traffic display the corresponding guidelines/standards used to calculate these noise
types.
If you select User-defined, you can choose among the calculation procedures implemented or purchased for the different types of noise.
For example, to calculate according to the TA-Lrm enforced since Nov.
1, 1998, select Germany(TALrm) as the country setting. The tabs and
the available options may differ depending on your selection.
The button Configuration allows you to save your calculation configuration and load it again if required (see also chapter 18.8 Prototype File).

Manual

Country

12.4.1

12

12.4.1

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Country Tab

12

Manual

12.4.2 1

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Implemented Calculation Methods

12.4.2 Implemented Calculation Methods


Germany:

12.4.2

VDI 2714 " Outdoor sound propagation", January 1988, Beuth-Verlag,


Berlin, Kln

VDI 2714

12.4.2

VDI 2720 Sheet 1, " Noise control by barriers outdoors", March 1997,
Beuth-Verlag, Berlin, Kln

VDI 2720-1

12.4.2

DIN 18005-1 : 1987-05


Noise abatement in town planning; calculation methods, Beuth Verlag
Berlin

DIN 18005-1

12.4.2

RLS90 Guidelines for Noise Control at Roads (RLS-90) Published by the


German Federal Ministry of Transport, Dept. for Road Construction, Ed.
1990, Traffic Gazette 44 (1990)

RLS90

12.4.2

Schall03 Guidelines for the Calculation of Sound Immission from


Railways Schall 03, Akustik 03, Ed. 1990, DB (German Railways), Central Administration, Munich

Schall03

12.4.2

Current Information of BZA Munich - Akustik - BZA Mnchen


103.10313, 962/6302, Sheet 1, 021 from 17.8.1991, DB (German
Railways), Central Administration, Munich

Schall03 - Aerodynamic
Influences
12.4.2

TA-Lrm: Sixth general administrative regulation concerning the Federal


Immission Control Act (Technical instruction for noise protection TALrm) dated 1998-08-26, published in Gemeinsames Ministerialblatt dated
1998-08-28, enforced since 1.11.1998

TA-Lrm

12.4.2

Zur Bestimmung der meteorologischen Dmpfung - Eine Anleitung mit


Beispielen - Landesumweltamt NRW, Postfach 102363, D-45023 Essen

TAL98

12.4.2

18th regulation for the execution of the Federal Immission Protection Act
(Regulation concerning the protection from noise from sports facilities 18. BImSchV) dated 1991-07-18, Bundesgesetzblatt, annual set 1991, part
1, p. 1588

18.BImSchV

12.4.2

Manual

12

12

12.4.2

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Implemented Calculation Methods

ISO 9613

12.4.2

ISO 9613
Acoustics - Attenuation of sound during propagation outdoors Part 1: Calculation of the absorption of sound by the atmosphere, 1993
Part 2: General method of calculation (ISO 9613-2:1996)
ISO International Organization for Standardization, Switzerland
Beuth Verlag, Berlin

Meteorology:

12.4.2

according to ISO 9613 and CONCAWE - selectable on the Tab Industry

VDI 3770

12.4.2

VDI 3770 Characteristic noise emission values of technical sound sources;


Sports and recreational facilities; First working draft as of February 1996

AzB

12.4.2

AzB Guideline for the calculation of noise areas in the vicinity of civilian
and military airports according to the law for the protection of aircraft
noise ed. 30.3.1971 (BGBI I, S. 282)

MLus92

12.4.2

Merkblatt ber Luftverunreinigungen an Straen - Teil: Straen ohne oder


mit lockerer Randbebauung, Ausgabe 1991, Genderte Fassung 1996, Forschungsgesellschaft fr Straen- und Verkehrswesen e.V., Kln, Arbeitsgruppe Verkehrsfhrung und Verkehrssicherheit.

European
Standards:

12.4.2

Directive
2002/49/EC

12.4.2

ECAC.CEAC
Doc. 29

12.4.2

Harmonoise

Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of


25th June 2002 relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise, Official Journal of the European Communities, L189/12,
EN, 18.7.2002
ECAC.CEAC Doc. 29 "Report on Standard Method of Computing Noise
Contours around Civil Airports", 1997. Of the different approaches to the
modelling of flight paths, the segmentation technique referred to in section
7.5 of ECAC.CEAC Doc. 29 will be used.
Harmonised Accurate and Reliable Methods for the EU Directive on the
Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise: WP3: Engineering
Models. Programming The Point-To-Point Propagation Model. Type of
Document: Technical report; Document reference: HAR34TR-041124CSTB01; Level of confidentiality: Public, Date: 24/11/2004; Author: Dir
Van Maercke

Manual

12.4.2 3

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Implemented Calculation Methods

Schallabstrahlung und Schallausbreitung AL Nr. 28, Dezember 1987,


sterreichischer Arbeitsring fr Lrmbekmpfung, A-1200 Wien, Wexstr.19-23

Austria:

12.4.2

AL 28

12.4.2

NORM
S5011

12.4.2

RVS 3.02
Lrmschutz

12.4.2

Switzerland:

12.4.2

STL-86

12.4.2

SEMIBEL

12.4.2

(AL Guideline #28, Sound Radiation and Sound Propagation, December


1987, Austrian Association for Noise Abatement)
Berechnung der Schallimmission durch Schienenverkehr, Zugverkehr,
Verschub- und Umschlagbetrieb, 1. Dezember 1994, sterreichisches
Normungsinstitut (N), Heinestr. 38, Postfach 130, A-1021 Wien
(NORM S 5011 : 1995-04 Determination of noise immission caused by
rail traffic - Railway traffic, shunting and cargo handling operations)
Richtlinie der sterreichischen Forschungsgemeinschaft Strae und
Verkehr (FSV) - Arbeitsgruppe Verkehr und Umwelt" - Arbeitsausschu
Immissionsschutz Lrm", RVS 3.02 Lrmschutz, Stand Dez.1997
(RVS 3.02 Protection from Noise, December 1997, Austrian Research Association for Road and Traffic, Echenbachgasse 9, A-1010 Wien, Austria)
Schweizer Schriftenreihe Umweltschutz Nr. 57 - Anleitung zur Ermittlung
und Beurteilung von Lrmimmissionen an Straen, Herausgegeben vom
Bundesamt fr Umweltschutz Bern, Januar 1987
(Swiss Report Environmental Protection No. 57 - Instruction for investigation and evaluation of Noise Immission from Roads, published by Federal
Office for Environmental Protection, Bern, January 1987)
Schweizerisches Emissions- und Immissionsmodell fr die Berechnung
von Eisenbahnlrm, Herausgegeben vom Bundesamt fr Umwelt, Wald
und Landschaft, Bern, Mrz 1990
(Swiss Method for the calculation of railway noise, published by Federal
Office for Environmental, Forest and Conservation, Bern, March 1990)

Manual

12

12

12.4.2

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Implemented Calculation Methods

Nordic
Guidelines

12.4.2

Industry

12.4.2

Environmental noise from industrial plants - General prediction method.


Danish Acoustical Laboratory, The Danish Academy of Technical Sciences, Report no. 32, 1982

Railway

12.4.2

Railway Traffic Noise - The Nordic Prediction Method, TemaNord


1996:524, Nordic Council of Ministers, Store Strandstraede 18, DK-1255
Copenhagen K, ISBN 92 9120837 X, ISSN 0908-6692

Road

12.4.2

Road Traffic Noise - Nordic Prediction Method, TemaNord 1996:525,


Nordic Council of Ministers, Store Strandstraede 18, DK-1255 Copenhagen K, ISBN 92 91208361, ISSN 0908-6692

United
Kingdom:

12.4.2

CRTN

12.4.2

Calculation of Road Traffic Noise, Department of the Environment Welsh


Office, London: Her Majestys Stationery office, 1988

CRN

12.4.2

Calculation of Railway Noise - 1995 - Deparment of Transport, HMSO,


London

BS 5228

12.4.2

Noise immission by construction sites: British Standard BS 5228

Frankreich:

12.4.2

NMPB Routes 96

12.4.2

Mthode de calcul incluant les effets mtorologiques, version exprimentale, Bruit des infrastructures routires, Janvier 1997 - Centre dtudes sur
les rseaux, les transports, lurbanisme et les constructions publiques
Service dtudes techniques des routes et autoroutes - Laboratoire central
des ponts et chausses - Centre scientifique et technique du btiment

Netherland

12.4.2

SRM II

12.4.2

Railway Noise: The Netherlands national computation method "Standaard-Rekenmethode II" published in "Reken- en Meetvoorschrift Railverkeerslawaai '96, Ministerie Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en
Milieubeheer, 20. November 1996".

Concawe

12.4.2

Concawe - the oil companies international study group for conservation of


clean air and water - europe (established in 1963), report no. 4/81, the

Manual

12.4.2 5

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Implemented Calculation Methods

propagation of noise from petroleum and petrochemical complexes to


neighbouring communities, Prepared by C.J. Manning, M.Sc., M.I.O.A.
Acoustic Technology Limited (Ref.AT 931), CONCAWE, Den Haag May
1981
Swedish guideline for air turbine noise selectable for industry - Ljud fran
vindkraftverk
Kozak, J., Liberko, M.: Updated Method for Calculation of Road Traffic
Noise (in Czech), Annex of the Newsletter of the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic. 1996, No. 3, p.1-16

Sweden

12.4.2

Czech Republic

12.4.2

Liberko

USA

Still in process: FHWA Federal Highway Administration Model (http://


www.trafficnoisemodel.org) TNM Version 2.5, McTrans Center University of Florida, 2088 Northeast Waldo Road, Gainesville, Fl 32609, http://
mctrans.ce.ufl.edu

Air Pollution Standard (only include in APL additional option of CadnaA):

12.4.2
Germany:

Bundesministerium fr Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit: Erste


Allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift zum BundesImmissionsschutzgesetz
(Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft TA Luft) vom 24. Juli
2002, Gemeinsames Ministerialblatt vom 30. Juli 2002 (GMBl. 2002, Heft
25 29, S. 511 605) Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strae
449, 50939 Kln (Tel.: 0221/943730)

TALuft 2002

Calulation method AUSTAL2000 (propagation method Air Pollution, see


http://www.austal2000.de

AUSTAL2000

22.Verordnung zur Durchfhrung des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes


(Verordnung ber Immissionswerte fr Schadstoffe in der Luft - 22.
BImSchV) vom 11.9.2002 (BGBl. I S. 1819, gendert durch VO v.
27.5.1994, BGBl. I S. 1095) BGBl. III/FNA 2129-8-22

22. BImSchV

Manual

12.4.2

TNM

12.4.2

12

12.4.2
Europe
EC-Standard
1999/30/EG

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Implemented Calculation Methods

12.4.2

COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 relating to limit


values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air

12

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


General Tab

12.4.3 1

12.4.3 General Tab

Sound sources, whose contribution to the sound immission at the receiver


point is negligible, will be disregarded in the calculation if the overall error
induced by this simplification is not larger than the defined value. Therefore, the larger the maximum permissible error in the final result, the
shorter the time required for the calculation.

max. Error
(dB)

12.4.3

The search radius defines a circle around the receiver point. Only sound
sources within this circle will be considered in the calculation. This is
helpful with very large projects - 2000 m maybe a good choice in those
cases.

max. Search
Radius (m)

12.4.3

The Minimum Distance Source to Receiver Point serves to avoid calculations near the area around a sound source.

Min. Dist. Source to


Imm. Point
12.4.3

For expertise work and not very large projects the setting 0 should be chosen. If noise maps of cities are calculated a value of 0.5 or 1 should be a
good compromise.

Manual

12

12.4.3
Uncertainty

Propagation
Coefficient
Uncertainty

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


General Tab

12.4.3

In CadnaA you also have the possibility to evaluate the accuracy of noise
prediction. This accuracy depends on the accuracy of the emission values
used and the accuracy resulting from the calculation of propagation.
In addition to the uncertainty of the emission levels you also can take into
account the uncertainty of the propagation calculation (meteorology etc.).
For that enter the corresponding value in the box Propagation Coeff.
Uncertainty.
For the time being a standard deviation D for the attenuation D which depends on the distance is taken into account by CadnaA with the following
formula
d

d0

D = k lg

where k can be defined by the user, d is the distance source receiver and
d0 is a reference distance of 10 m. Based on experience a value of K = 3
maybe used.

12
Standard
Deviation

An entered sigma or a coefficient of propagation does not change the


assessment levels.

To take the uncertainty into account you have to enter a Standard Deviation sigma in dB in the Memo Window (see Chapter 5.5.3) of all noise
sources. If the sound power level of the source has been measured, this is

Manual

12.4.3 3

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


General Tab

the standard deviation of reproducibility according to grade 1, 2 or 3 (see


ISO 3740 series)

The MemoWindow in the Edit Dialog of a Source

Make sure that you have chosen at least one of the evaluation parameter
SIGMA (for day | evening | night) in the Evaluation Parameter Tab.

Sigma

After confirming the dialog with OK and executing the calculation with
Grid|Calc Grid (see Chapter 11.5) you get the distribution of uncertainty
in a grid.

12

The calculation of sigma for single receiver points (see Chapter 11.5) is
executed with the command Calculation|Calc or by clicking on the calculater icon in the icon bar.
You can display the sigma for the receiver points either in the Result Table (see Chapter 15.3) choosing the expression e.g. Level SigmaD (for
sima day-time) from the column list in the dialog of the Result Table or in
a Label (see Chapter 5.7.4) directly at the receiver point.
In /52/ is showed how the uncertainty of calculated assessment levels and
the uncertainty of calculated noise propagation can be determined. The
application of the system realized in CadnaA is demonstrated in this publication with an explicit example.

Manual


950_22_Uncertainty.pdf

12.4.3

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


General Tab

Extrapolate Grid Under


Buildings
12.4.3

Selecting this option will generate "seamless" transitions from the horizontal projection of an object to coloured areas and lines of equal sound
levels regardless of the calculation grid selected. This is achieved by interpolation of the levels calculated for the grid points (see also chapter 11.5.2
Appearance of Grid).
We recommend, however, that you deactivate this option before the calculation if lines of equal sound level are to be displayed with the option Exclude Grid under Buildings active (see Chapter 11.5.1 paragraph
"Exclude Sound Sources/ Buildings").

Grid
interpolation

12.4.3

If this option with the settings n*n is selected, then a calculation is made at
each of these (n+1) points of the specified grid points (Grid|Specification), in the first step only and at the pivot of every rectangle, limited by
4 points.
If one of the following conditions is not fulfilled for one of the 4 edge
points and the center point of a n*n arrangement of grid points then this
rectangle is subdivided into 4 equal quadrangles and, for each quadrangle,
the same test is again performed. If one of these conditions is still exceeded, then a further subdivision recursively occurs until the conditions are
fulfilled or all points, in accordance with the grid specification, are taken
into account in the calculation.

12
Conditions:

The conditions are:


1.

The mean level calculated from the levels at the 4 edge points should
not differ from the level at the center point more than the specified
maximum deviation (default setting 0.1 dB). This must be fulfilled
for both diagonal lines.

2.

The difference between the largest and the smallest calculated level
at the 4 corner points of the rectangle is, at most, equal to the specified maximum value (default setting 10 dB).

If these conditions are fulfilled, then the interpolated values match the real
values inside the rectangle sufficiently and the levels at the remaining

Manual

12.4.3 5

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


General Tab

points inside the rectangle are interpolated from the levels calculated at the
4 corner points.
You can use this approximation method to accelerate advantageously the
time consuming calculation of diffraction for road and railway traffic with
many buildings.

fast
Screeing (exp.)

12.4.3

In the calculation of diffraction you only take into account objects which
protrude into a predefined gradiation of a parabolic ray - low buildings
will not be checked in this way at all.
If this option is activated obstacles which are not cutted by the ray are not
displayed in the cross-section (see Chapter 13.12) either.

This method should not be used for the calculation of point, line and
area sources according to VDI 2714 /16/ or DIN ISO 9613-2 /21/.

Selection of calculation method: Ray Tracing (RT) and Angle Scanning (AS)

12.4.3

Basically two methods or calculation strategies are used by noise prediction software - the Ray-Tracing or the Angle Scanning model. CadnaA is
the only software program which both models offers to use. The Ray-Tracing model is used by default.
The ray paths between sources and receivers are constructed deterministically. Extended sources are subdivided dynamically using the projection
method. The parts covered by a single calculation ray are smaller in small
distances and larger in large distances. Screening objects and all gaps between them produce one ray minimum.
With deactivated option Angle Scan Method the Ray-Tracing model is
used.

Manual

12
Ray Tracing (RT)

12.4.3

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


General Tab

Ray-Tracing-model - with projection - extended sources


subdivided dynamically

12
Angle Scanning (AS)

With activated checkbox Angle Scan Method the following described


method is taken into account.
It was additionally implemented to be compatible with Mithra a french
software program (CSTB).
Calculation of the level at a receiver point is done by rays starting from the
receiver and spaced in equal angle steps. Only objects crossed by the ray
are taken into account in the calculation. Point sources in the angle cone
are virtually moved to lay on the calculation ray.

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


General Tab

12.4.3 7

Angle Scan Method - Rays starting from the receiver and


spaced in equal angle steps

If MITHRA Compatibility is activated, all the approximations used in


Mithra are also used in CadnaA - this is the mode that should be used if
existing MITHRA projects are loaded and the results in CadnaA should be
the same.

The checkbox is only available if the option CadnaA-Mithra is


purchased.

Manual

12
Mithra Compatibility

12.4.3

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


General Tab

12

Manual

12.4.4 1

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Partition Tab

12.4.4 Partition Tab

For line sources and area sources the largest dimension of a section, generated by splitting, equals the product of the grid factor and the distance of
the centre of the section from the receiver point.

Raster Factor

You may specify the maximum and minimum section lengths to be generated by automatic splitting. The min. section length may also be given as
percentage of the total length.

Length of
Section

Method 1 is the so-called "precise" method according to /31/, which yields


the longest possible sections.

Partition Acc. to RBLrm 92, Method


1
12.4.4

When this option is activated, the calculation will be executed by projecting the obstacles and applying the propagation rules. Otherwise, only
propagation rules will be considered in the calculation.

Projection
of:

Extended sources such as line or area sources will be - according to the


normative requirements - divided into such small elements that their big-

Manual

12.4.4

12

12.4.4

12.4.4

12.4.4

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Partition Tab

gest expansion is smaller then the distance of source-receiver points when


multiplied by the Raster Factor.
If the option projection is activated, also a pre-partitioning of shielded and
non-shielded elements takes place before the partition according to criteria
of distance (pre-partitioning of all rays of sound from the immission point
to both outermost points of each shielding object).
For noise maps of cities it is recommended to deactivate this option to accelerate the calculation.
See also chapter 12.2.3 The Projection Method for extended Sound Sources
Projection at
Terrain Model

12.4.4

With this option also elevated areas defined by Contour Lines, are also
taken into account in the pre-partitioning of line- and area sound sources.

Maximum
Distance SourceReceiver:
12.4.4

If the receiver point is further away from the source than the entered distance then no projection is taken into account.

Search Radius
Source:

12.4.4

For the partitioning of sources according to the projection requirements


the only obstacles which are taken into account are those within the entered distance from the source.

Search Radius
Receiver:

12.4.4

For the partitioning of sources according to the projection requirements


the only obstacles which are taken into account are those not as far from
the receiver point as the entered distance.

12

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Reference Time Tab

12.4.5 1

12.4.5 Reference Time Tab

The average level of sound pressure over a period of time ist to be computed, taking into account the actual duration of the sound impact from a
source in accordance with the basic requirements for the evaluation.
To calculate the noise indicators at single receiver points with CadnaA according to the requirements of a guideline the configurations of the calculation have to be preset (menu Calculation|Configuration). On the tab
Reference Time the required settings for the reference times and the assignment of each hour of the day with respect to the intervals day/evening/
night can be selected.

The calculation of the noise indicators Lde , Ln and Lden is possible


with the standard version of CadnaA. However, the evaluation and
the assessment of the number of people living in dwellings with a
certain noise level applies with the method "Object Scan". Prerequisite is the CadnaA option XL.

Manual

Reference
Time:

12.4.5

12

12.4.5

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Reference Time Tab

The reference time is applied for all noise types and concerns primarily the
combined evaluation parameters like Lden, Lde, Ldn and Len (see Chapter
12.4.6). For the single evaluation parameters like Ld, Le and Ln no time
correction is taken into account except by industry sources if the Operating Time is activated and an operating time is entered in the industry dialog.
Allocating Hours/Time
Periods
12.4.5

In the 24 input boxes in the dialog each hour is assigned to the three time
intervals day/ evening/ night. As variables the letters D (daytime), E
(evening), and N (nighttime) can be applied. Enter the corresponding letters respecting the requirements of the relevant guideline. From the assigned time intervals it follows for which relative parts of the day the
corresponding penalties have to be considered.
It is not mandatory to fill all fields with letters you can let them empty and
you can write either with capital letters or lower cases. Therefore if you
like to calculate the loudest hour at night-time according to TA-Lrm it is
sufficient if if you enter only one N (and of course in the industry dialog
you have to activate the checkbox Operating Time and you have to enter
the operating time in minutes during this loudest hour in the field Night).

12

Penalties

12.4.5

Penalties are only taken into account for combined evaluation parameters
like e.g. Lde, Ldn etc. Enter the desired penalty according to your requirements, e.g. according to the definition of Lden enter penalties for Evening/
Recr. Time Penalty 5 (dB) and for the Night 10 (dB).
With all these setting both total levels for single receiver points and for
grids will be calculated.

Special Reference Time


for Industry
12.4.5

On the lower part of the tab Reference Time special reference times for
industrial sources can be entered (in minutes).
This option is interesting if standards or guidelines require not the whole
hour but e.g. a half hour (30 minutes).
This option has also an historical meaning - it assured the compatibility
with projects calculated with older CadnaA releases. If an older project is

Manual

12.4.5 3

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Reference Time Tab

opened this option and the option Compatibility Mode for Industry from
the evaluation parameter tab are activated.

With the option Special Reference Time for Industry activated the
allocation of hours (see further above) is ignored and the entered time
intervals are considered.

The default value is 960 minutes (16 hours) for the daytime (the evening is
considered being a part of the daytime), 480 minutes (8 hours) for the
night-time - these times have been the default settings in older releases of
CadnaA.
Therefore if e.g. the loudest hour of the night is to be calculated as required by TA-Lrm you can either enter the reference time here for night
60 minutes or alternative above in the dialog Allocation Hours with only
one N for one hour. The operating time in the source dialog must then, of
course, be the operating time of the source during this loudest hour in both
cases.


You will find further information about the EU directive and CadnaA in
the threee files RefTime_Eval_1/2/3.PDF on your CD-Rom in SAMPLES|DATAKUSTIK_INFO.

RefTime_Eval.PDF

If this option is activated, you can select the areas for which to calculate
recreation time penalties. This is only possible if

Recreation Time Penalty


only for:
12.4.5

areas of designated land use have been specified using the Designated
Land Useicon on the Toolbox

or immission points have been assigned a Land Use on the pertinent


edit dialog.

In accordance with the requirements of the TA-Lrm, this option allows


you to apply the recreation time penalty only to "general" and "purely" residential areas while excluding mixed and industrial areas.

Manual

12

12.4.5

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Reference Time Tab

12

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Evaluation Parameter Tab

12.4.6 1

12.4.6 Evaluation Parameter Tab


To meet the requirements for the calculation according to EC-directive on
environmental noise CadnaA since release 3.5 possesses a brand-new concept for defining and calculating evaluation parameters. In this concept
you have beside a multitude of pre-defined noise levels (for single or combined time intervals like Lden, Lde, Ld etc.) also different evaluation parameters (like uncertainty sigma). Furthermore you can define evaluation
parameters by formulas. The following evaluation parameters can be chosen or entered:

Noise levels for single time intervals: Ld (day), Le (evening), Ln


(night)
Noise levels for combined time intervals: Lden, Lde, Len, Ldn
Uncertaintiy for time intervals: SigmaD (day), SigmaE (evening), SigmaN (night)
Formulas (total noise levels or noise type specific, day|evening|night,
singular value or spectral values, total level or levels in octave, linear/
A-/B-/C- or D-weighted)
12

Evaluation Parameter Tab in Calculation|Configuration

Manual

12.4.6

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Evaluation Parameter Tab

If no formula is entered (which would exclude noise types for calculation)


all defined evaluation parameters will be calculated for all existing noise
types.
In CadnaA since release 3.5 can be calculated simultaneously up to four
evaluation parameters either for single receiver points or in a receiver grid
(additionally to the ground).
Listbox Type

In the listbox Type choose the evaluation parameter you like to calculate.
In the corresponding dialogs, like e.g. receiver point edit-dialog, up to four
evaluation parameters are displayes depending on how many you have defined.
The evaluation parameters according to e.g. TA-Lrm are Lde (noise level
for day- and evening-time) and Ln (level night-time) or one parameter according to EC-directive e.g. Lden (for the day-evening-night index).
The evaluation parameters are internal serially numbered with alias LP1,
LP2, LP3 and LP4 starting with the inital field. With these alias you can
refer to in formula or expression.

12

Field Name

In the listbox Name you may enter an user-defined expression (alias) for
the selected evaluation parameter, e.g. Day. You have to activate the
checkbox on the left hand side of the field before you can enter an alias..

Field Type with selected noise index Lde and activated


field Name with an entered user-defined alias Day.

With the checkbox Name activated the alias of the evaluation parameter
will be displayed in the corresponding dialogs instead.

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Evaluation Parameter Tab

12.4.6 3

Receiver points dialog with three defined and calculated


evaluation parameters - the first parameter with an alias.

Additionally in the field Unit you may enter an identifying item (e.g.
dB(A) or sigma) wich will also be displayed if the checkbox is activated.

Unit Field

If you have chosen the type formula (=f(x)) from the listbox Type you can
either enter an user-defined formula and/or you can define one with predefined expression by clicking on the double arrow on the right-hand side
of the expression field..

Formula Field

With the example formula the noise level index Ld will be


calculated only for industry sources spectral and linear
weighted.

Manual

12

12.4.6

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Evaluation Parameter Tab

If you click on the double arrows you open sub-lists with


pre-defined formulas.

With these pre-defined expressions and corresponding operators you can


define your own formulas.

RefTime_Eval.PDF

12

Compatibility mode
for Industry
12.4.6

You will find advanced information about reference time and evaluation
parameters with CadnaA in the three files RefTime_Eval_1/2/3.PDF on
your CD-ROM in directory SAMPLES|DATAKUSTIK_INFO.
This option is implemented to be compatible with files calculated with older releases of CadnaA.
This option is active automatically (together with option Special Reference Time for Industry on Reference Time tab) if these files are opened because the time interval day (Ld) includes the evening and the
penalties accordingly. Therefore this option can only be used with single
evaluation parameters like Ld but not with combined evaluation values
like Lde. In the last case an error message would occur with the possibility
to change the evaluation parameter.

Manual

12.4.7 1

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


DTM Digital Terrain Model Tab

12.4.7 DTM Digital Terrain Model Tab

The ground height defined by this option is used in the calculation if no


other information, given by contour lines or height points, is available in
an area. To each source, receiver point and object, an absolute ground
height is assigned which results from its position within the system of contour lines .

Standard
Height

12.4.7

Triangulation meshes existing height points and contour lines to form triangular planes. This speeds up the calculation. In this case you must not
calculate a grid to be able to look at the terrain model in 3D (Special) (see
Chapter 13.14).

Terrain
Models

12.4.7

Manual

12

12.4.7

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


DTM Digital Terrain Model Tab

DTM: Triangulation
The edges of the triangle is taken into account
for shielding

12

Explicit
Edges Only

12.4.7

DTM: Search Contour Lines


This DTM shows the ground height which is taken into
account when positioning objects with relative heights.

In addition, if you activate the option Explicit Edges Only, only the entered contour lines will have a screening effect and not the edges of the
formed triangular planes. The activation of this option does not effect the
3D (Special) view.

Objects with Ground at


every Point influence
DTM
12.4.7

If this option is activated, the height of the base point of the objects, whose
heights have been entered in the Geometry dialog with the option absolute Height/Ground at every Point, determines the terrain height at their
position.

Search Contour Lines


(Average)
12.4.7

Search Contour Lines (Average) - (Average of a contour line information according to squared-distance).

Local Inclined
Plane

Search Contour Lines (Local Inclined Plane) (approximation of plane


surfaces by using the defined contour lines).

12.4.7

Normally the triangulation method should give the best results because it
also takes into account - according to the physical reality - the convex sur-

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


DTM Digital Terrain Model Tab

12.4.7 3

face planes between the contour lines and the height points, which are
formed by the newly set edges during screening.

When applying triangulation you should always keep in mind,


though, that the contour lines should be formed by a dense succession
of points because these represent the corners of the created triangles.
A surface modelled by contour lines with only two end points will
form a very coarse and extended plane.

You can show triangulation lines in CadnaA. The setting is "invisible" by


default. Select a corresponding line type in Options|Appearance (see
Chapter 13.6)..

Representation of
Triangulation
Lines:

12.4.7

12

DTM: Triangulation (rough)


plan presentation

Manual

DTM: Triangulation (fine) plan presentation after using the command Spline

12.4.7

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


DTM Digital Terrain Model Tab

DtM: Triangulation (rough)


3D-Special view

12

DTM: Triangulation (fine)


3D-Special view

Search Radius for


Contour Lines (m) 12.4.7

In order to determine the height of the terrain at a point, all contour lines
within the radius specified here are considered. The greater the search radius, the longer the calculation time.

Lift Sources under


Ground to Ground
Niveau
12.4.7

If objects lie underneath the terrain height, e.g., this may happen after importing digital data from different data sources, it will be assumed, that the
relativ height is zero during the calculation. The terrain model is not changed.

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Reflection Tab

12.4.8 1

12.4.8 Reflection Tab


If we calculate reflections we have to pay attention to two things
1.

that you enter in Calculation|Configuration Reflection Tab the


maximum order of reflection you want to take into account and

2.

that the objects settings (buildings, barriers, cylinders), which have


to be included into a calculation with reflection, are adjusted for
reflection.

Although CadnaA calculates reflection with an extremly fast algorithm,


the number of essential steps of calculation explodes with an expanding
number of order and with the amount of reflecting surfaces. A calculation
with an order of reflection higher than 1 should therefore always be applied to well defined scenarios with few objects. For such special investigations a corresponding small part from the total scenario of the project
file should be separated (see Chapter 5.7.2 "Modify Objects").

12

Reflection Tab in Calculation|Configuration - input of the


max. order of reflection and search radius (m) for reflectors.

Manual

12.4.8
max. Order of
Reflection

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Reflection Tab

12.4.8

The maximum order of reflections, which are taken into account as mirror
image sources, strongly influences the calculation time. In most cases, taking into account first-order reflections is sufficient. Considering the calculation times, it is recommended you use higher orders of reflection only for
limited scenarios containing few objects.
For calculations of road traffic noise according to RLS 90 /9/ and railway
noise according to Schall03 /8/, first-order reflections shall be considered
exclusively. Therefore, if values 1 are entered, the user input is ignored,
provided that the options Strictly according to RLS-90 (see Chapter
12.4.10) or Strictly according to Schall03 (see Chapter 12.4.11 have been
activated

At present, CadnaA calculates reflections up to a maximum order of


20.
It is possible to view the sound rays contributing to the level at a
receiver point (see Chapter 12.3 "Displaying Sound Rays").

12

Search Radius for


Reflecting Objects
Around Source/
Receiver Point
12.4.8

Criteria for the Calculation of Reflections


If the field is empty or the value 0 is entered, no reflecting areas will be
checked in principle.
If a value other than 0 is entered, this is interpreted as the distance, in metres, from the source point, or receiver point, within which all reflecting
objects are taken into account.

Max. Distance Source


to Receiver Point 12.4.8

If the receiver point lies outside the distance here specified, no reflections
are calculated.

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Reflection Tab

If the distance entered here is smaller than the one mentioned above, the
proportion of reflected sound is continuously reduced between these two
distances to avoid discontinuities in the representation of the Iso-dB lines.

Settings: max. distance Source-Receiver: 100 m, interpolate from: 100 m and reflection of 1st order. The Iso-dBLines show leaps because of reflections.

Manual

12.4.8 3
Interpolate from:

12

12.4.8

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Reflection Tab

For interpolate from: Leaps will be avoided for Iso-dBLines with a value which is smaller (in the example 30 m)
than the distance source-receiver

12

Min. Distance Immission


Point to Reflecting
Object
12.4.8

If, for the calculation of the sound level in front of a window, a receiver
point is placed in front of the building wall, the reflection from the building itself must not be taken into account in the determination of the characteristic immission level.
It is therefore recommended you enter approximately 0.5 m or 1 m. In accordance with the guidelines, no reflections are then calculated for those
immission points which have been assigned to the building by means of
the Object Snap (see Chapter 13.5).

Interpolate
up to:

12.4.8

If the distance entered here is larger than the one mentioned before, there
is a continuous transition from "no reflection at all" to "maximum" reflection.

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Reflection Tab

You should enter approximately 0.5 m if the increase in radiation in the


half- or quarter-space due to the sources of reflections from the building is
accounted for by assigning a global directivity index K0. This reduces calculation time without preventing the calculation of reflections for other
sources (see chapter 8.6.8 Ko without Ground).

12.4.8 5
Min. Distance Source to
Reflecting Object 12.4.8

12

Manual

12.4.8

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Reflection Tab

12

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Industry Tab

12.4.9 1

12.4.9 Industry Tab

The settings made on the Industry tab have an effect on the following
sources:

12

the general point, line, and area sources, vertical and horizontal (see
chapter 8.3, 8.4, 8.5)
optimisable area source (see chapter 8.15)
parking lot according to VDI (see chapter 8.13))
tennis point of service (see chapter 8.8)

Three options for lateral diffraction are available for selection:

non-lateral diffraction

only one object - lateral diffraction is not calculated if more than one
object intersects the line connecting the source to the immission point.

some objects - the two shortest possible convex rays around the
arrangement are determined and taken as a basis for the calculation.

Manual

Lateral
Diffraction

12.4.9

12.4.9

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Industry Tab

Under Only up to Distance (m), enter the distance between source and receiver point for which lateral diffraction is to be taken into account.

12

Noneg.pathdifference12.4.9

With activated option by ISO 9613-2 no barrier attenuation is calculated if


the ray from the source to the receiver is above the upper edge of the barrier.

Ground
Attenuation

For taking into account the ground attenuation you may choose the following options:

12.4.9

Exclude Ground Attenuation over Barrier 12.4.9

No ground attenuation will be taken into account for shielded sound rays
according to VDI 2720 equation (5) De = Dz - DBM,0 0 dB or ISO
9613-2 equation (12).

Include Ground Attenuation over Barrier 12.4.9

The ground attenuation is calculated for a sound ray diffracted over an object, taking into account the change in the average height above the ground
of the sound ray passing over the barrier according to VDI 2720, equation
(2) De = Dz - D0 + Dm 0 dB

10m-Criterion

12.4.9

If a source is more than 10 m above ground and at least one edge of the
barrier is more than 10 m above the ground then it is calculated according
to VDI 2720 equation (6) De = Dz or ISO 9613-2, annotation 15 equation
(13) will be taken into account.

No sub. of neg.
Ground Att.

12.4.9

With this option activated, negative ground attenuation is not subtracted


from screening attenuation (according to ISO 9613-2 equation (12)). So
the effect of reflecting ground is not distroyed by barriers.

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Industry Tab

The calculation method according ISO 9613-2 offers two alternatives to


calculate the ground attenuation Agr:
1.

method in frequency bands according to section 7.3.1 with the


ground absorption G as parameter,

2.

method for a-weighted levels according to section 7.3.2 not applying


the ground absorption G.

12.4.9 3
Ground
Attenuation
spectral

12.4.9

As in project files the sound emission of sources can either be given in


spectral form or as A-weighted levels, several possibilities exist to calculate the ground attenuation. In CadnaA four calculation options are offered

Designation

Procedure

none

no ground attenuation at all

not spectral

method 7.3.2 is used in all cases

spectral, spectral sources


only

The method 7.3.1 is used for all spectral


sources, in all other cases the method
7.3.2 is used. (This is the same as in CadnaA, version 3.3, with "Ground Att. spectral" being checked.)

spectral, all sources

12

method 7.3.1 is used in all cases, for nonspectral sources the corresponding octave
band is used
12.4.9

When calculating the ground absorption in frequency bands the global


ground absorption for areas not covered by the object "Ground Absorption" can be defined here (0 <= G <= 1). By default, a value of G=1 is assumed (porous soil).

Ground
absorption G:

12.4.9

We recommend to activate the option Use Map of Ground Absorption if


a lot of areas of ground absorption are inserted in your project file. This
would accelerate your calculation because a program internal map of
ground absorption will be preestimated and be used for the final calculation.

Use Map of
Ground Absorption

12.4.9

Manual

12.4.9

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Industry Tab

AL

Hint for the calculation according to AL: The ground absorption is


always calculated by the selected country setting Austria regardless
whether this option is activated or not.

see also chapter 9.8 "Areas with Specified Ground Absorption"


Insertion
Loss

For the insertion loss you may choose the following options:
12.4.9

Dz without limit
Dz with limit
De,o with limit

According to ISO 9613-2 and VDI 2720 the insertion loss caused by barriers and screens is, at most, 20 dB if a single - and 25 dB if more than one screening edge is crossed by the ray (the latter is also the case with one
thick barrier). With the option Abar /Dz without limit activated in menu
Calculation|Configuration|Tab Industry the barrier equations of this
guideline are used for any height without this limitation.
The insertion loss De,o with a limit is a former option in CadnaA (in order
to prevent alterations with older projects).
12

Obstacles within
Area Source do not
Shield
12.4.9

When this option is active, any obstacle, such as buildings, foliage, barriers etc., lying within area sources, including parking lots and optimisable
area sources, are ignored.

Example: Area source "Industry South" with obstacles

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Industry Tab

12.4.9 5

When the option is active, the levels at the immission point are calculated
as if the obstacles did not exist.
Source

Partial Level
WG 1

Name

ID

Industry South

Daytime

Night-time

74.5

54.5

Level resulting from the area source - option active in which obstacles do not shield the area source.

For any other source, the obstacles will act as shielding objects even if this
option is activated.
Source

Partial Level
WG 1

Name
Industry South

ID

Daytime

Night-time

71.4

51.4

Level resulting from the area source - option inactive in which obstacles shield the area source.

Buildings and cylinders are included in a calculation of sound propagation


as if the walls where screens or barriers with the defined height and without a closed roof or ceiling.

Buildings/Cylinders
do not shield
12.4.9

12

Buildings: This option activated allows to model complex industrial facilities with pipes, motors, gears and pums as building. the sources are located correctly inside but sound from soruces outside is screened. If this
technical block is partially transparent for noise from sources outside,
this can be taken into account with the parameter Transparency in the edit
dialog of the object Building (see Chapter 9.3.1).
Chimneys/stacks: This option is important if the radiation from the upper
chimney opening is modelled by locating a point-, line- or area source. In
this case the cylinder, which may be necessary to reflect and shield noise
from sources outside, does not falsify the chimneys directivity by additional screening. In this case the point source should be positioned at a
height a little bit lower than the chimney height (otherwise the cylinder reacts again as a screening object). With the same option it is possible to

Manual

 950_21_Chimney.pdf

12.4.9

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Industry Tab

simulate the emission of a thick tube, which shall be taken into account as
a screening object for sources and immission points at opposite sides, by a
line source positioned in it's axis /57/.

Cylinder 3D-View with a vertical line source inside

see also chapter 9.3.1 "Acoustic Transparency (%)"

12

Barrier
Coefficient

12.4.9

The barrier coefficients C1, C2 and C3 according to VDI 2720 /13/ and
ISO 9613-2 /21/ can be edited. This allows you to adapt the barrier equation to special applications. The default setting is correct for ISO 9613-2.
C3=0 means that the different values recommended for single and multiple
screens in ISO 9613-2 or VDI 2720 /13/ are used automatically.
If a value of 0 is given to C3, this value will be considered according to the
cases distinguished in VDI 2720 (single or double barrier).

Downwind
Conditions
(VDI only)

(Select Country Tab|Industry: VDI)


12.4.9

If this option is activated, the downwind conditions according to


VDI 2714 /16/ is taken into account in the calculation.
If this option is deactivated, a correction for the long-term noise impact,
DLang, according to VDI 2714, Equation (18) is taken into account.

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Industry Tab

12.4.9 7

Temperature and rel. Humidity are used as a basis for the calculation of
the attenuation by the atmosphere in accordance with the selected guideline. The temperature also serves as the ambient temperature when calculating the exhaust stacks directivity.

Temperature / Rel.
Humidity
12.4.9

From the listbox Meteorology you can select the methode which will take
into account the meteorology if you have chosen the corresponding guideline for Industry in the dialog Configuration|Calculation|Country.

Meteorology

This option is available when calculating sound propagation according to


ISO 9613-2 /21/.

Correction for Meteorological Effects C0


(dB)
12.4.9

12.4.9

If the option is deactivated, the equivalent level of continuous sound pressure in octave bands, under downwind conditions, is calculated according
to ISO 9613-2, Clause 6, Equation (3).
If the option is activated and a value is entered, the A-weighted long-term
level of equivalent continuous sound pressure is calculated according to
Clause 6, Equation (6) of this standard. To determine the correction for
meteorological effects, Cmet, which is additionally considered here, the
factor C0 is required according to Clause 8, Equations (21) and (22). According to Clause 8, this factor is estimated after fundamental analysis of
the local meteorological statistics, or (this is another useful hint) is specified by the local authorities.

12

See chapter Calculation of the Meteorological Correction Cmet

Calculation of C0
from the
Wind statistic
12.4.9

According ISO 9613-2 it is possible to take into account the influence of


meteorology according CONCAWE /51/. Therefore choose ISO 9613 for
Industry in Country and CONCAWE for Meteorology. In that case
Cmet is replaced by K4 in the ISO-calculation.

CONCAWE

Manual

12.4.9

12.4.9

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Industry Tab

12

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Road Tab

12.4.10 1

12.4.10 Road Tab


The following is based on the RLS90 /9/ Standard but most of the explanation about input, modification and calculation are the same for all standards implemented in CadnaA. Ask for special information in case of other
standards.

12

If the Strictly according to RLS-90 check box is activated, CadnaA will


calculate, for roads,

only the first-order reflections, irrespective of the value specified on


the Reflection tab.
the two outermost lanes separately as line sources with a height of
0.5 m above road , and
neither lateral diffraction
nor attenuation due to foliage and built-up areas
nor meteorology.

Manual

Strictly according to
RLS-90
12.4.10

12.4.10

Example

12.4.10

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Road Tab

Note: All other settings made on the Reflection tab under "Criteria
for the Calculation of Reflections:", such as the search radius for
reflecting objects, will apply even if the Strictly according to RLS90 option is activated.

Deactivate all options on the Road tab by clicking them (no check
marks)

Enter a road with the pertinent values. For illustration purposes,


select, e. g., a broad road with the standard cross section a6ms.

12

Edit road dialog

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Road Tab

12.4.10 3

Define a line across the road using the auxiliary polygon.

Road with auxiliary polygon

Enter a height of 30 m for the auxiliary polygon in its edit dialog


Geometry.

Activate the context menu by clicking the auxiliary polygon with the
right mouse button, and select Section.

Under Specification, select a grid of, e. g., 1/1/1.

Then click Calculate.

As you see, CadnaA has calculated the road as if the source were positioned at its centreline, because the option Calculate Outermost Lanes
Separately was deactivated on the Road tab.

Grid calculation in the road area, not "strictly according to RLS-90"

Select again Calculation|Configuration |Road tab.

Activate the option Strictly According to RLS-90 by clicking it


(check mark), and close the dialog.

Manual

12

12.4.10

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Road Tab

From the context menu of the polygon, select Section again.

Restore the grid specification 1/1/1, and calculate again.

The result clearly demonstrates that CadnaA has calculated the lanes separately this time, as required by the guidelines.

Grid calculation in the road area, "strictly according to RLS-90"

You may repeat this calculation with other variants.

Insert, e. g., reflecting buildings along the road.

Enter a reflection order of 0 and, first, calculate not Strictly According to


RLS-90. Then repeat this procedure, but this time Strictly According to
RLS-90 etc.
12

Note STL86
(Switzerland)

12.4.10

When calculating the road noise according to STL86 you can choose the
calculation of propagation according to STL. Therefore, deactivate the option Calc Propagation acc. to RLS90 in the tab ROAD.

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Railroad Tab

12.4.11 1

12.4.11 Railroad Tab


The following is based on the Schall03 /8/ Standard but most of the explanation about input, modification and calculation are the same for all standards implemented in CadnaA. Ask for special information in case of other
standards.

12

If the Strictly according to Schall03 check box is activated, CadnaA will


calculate, for railways,

only the first-order reflections, irrespective of the value specified on


the Reflection tab.
the railway bonus of 5 dB (the calculated levels are 5 dB lower than
they would be measured) , and
neither lateral diffraction
nor attenuation due to built-up areas
nor meteorology.

Manual

12.4.11
Deactivating the selfscreening of buildings
12.4.11

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Railroad Tab

For calculations according to the German railway guideline Schall 03 the


self-screening of buildings with backside receiver points can be alternatively considered or not.
To do so, a memo-variable SCREEN_TEST_ID=1 has to be defined for
the respective building. With the variable being set it will be checked
whether the ID of each receiver point corresponds to the building-ID. With
corresponding IDs the respective building is screening, otherwise not.

Use Non-Standard Reference


Time

12.4.11

Country Setting
Austria
12.4.11

If Use Non-Standard Reference Time=(12/4/8) ist activated the time intervals on the Reference Time tab is taken into account for the calculation.
The values (12/4/8) in this example will be updated to the defined time intervals (hours day/evening/night).
If Austria is chosen in menu Calculation|Configuration|Tab Country
(Selection box Country) the standard NORM S 5011 /25/ is used as the
default for the calculation of noise from railroads.

12

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Railroad Tab

With this option activated, the height of the ground at the position of the
source, which is used to calculate the attenuation by absorption of the
ground, is assumed to be 0.5 m less than the z-coordinate of the source.
This is a requirement of the standard NORM S 5011.

12.4.11 3
Source Height 0,5 m (for
Ground Attenuation)

If it is not activated, the height of the ground is derived from the topografic
model defined by contour lines, but a minimal distance of 0.5 m between
source and ground is assumed. With this last condition the noise from a
railway in a cut can be calculated correctly without the necessity to designing the bottom of the cut with contour lines. In this case the outer diffracting edges of the cut are modelled by two contour lines and the zcoordinate of the railway track is defined with the correct lower value. The
bottom of the cut is then assumed to be 0.5 m below the source.

12

Manual

12.4.11

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Railroad Tab

12

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Aircraft Tab

12.4.12 1

12.4.12 Aircraft Tab


This tab is only relevant, if you have purchased the option FLG (formerly
AzB). See the CadnaA manual on air-traffic noise.

12

Manual

12.4.12

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Aircraft Tab

12

Manual

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Optimisable Source Tab

12.4.13 1

12.4.13 Optimisable Source Tab

This command is only available if you have purchased the CadnaA


BPL option (Commercial Areas).

12
With the optional feature BPL of Cadna the object optimal source can be
used. This is an area source with an adjustable sound power level per m.
With one or more of these radiating areas and immission points with defined maximum values for the noise levels in the vicinity, the emission of
these sources can be adjusted automatically by an iterative process. This
option is used to find the maximum noise emission of planned industrial
areas that is possible without an inadmissible noise load for residential areas nearby.
This calculation of the maximum permissable emissions can be carried out
with different strategies (according to the governmental requirements in
different countries). The relevant options can be selected in menu Calculation|Configuration|Tab Opt.Src. These options for the Calculation of
Optimisable Sources are

Manual

12.4.13
like IndustrySources

12.4.13

Freefield
(4*pi*r)

12.4.13

Freefield
(2*pi*r)

12.4.13

Chapter 12.4 Configuration


Optimisable Source Tab

like Industry-Sources: all calculations with optimisable sources use the


settings as they are defined in the menu Calculation|Configuration|Tab
Industry
Freefield (4*pi*r): sound propagation is calculated with only geometrical divergence in a free-field being taken into account. No other damping
effects like air absorption and diffraction are inserted in the calculation
L= Lw - 11 - 20 lg(r).
Freefield (2*pi*r): sound propagation is calculated with only geometrical divergence in a semi-free-field being taken into account. No other
damping effects like air absorption and diffraction are inserted in the calculation
L= Lw - 8 - 20 lg(r).

12

Manual

Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation


Selecting Data for the Calculation

12.5

12.5 1

Selecting Data for the Calculation

For a partial calculation, deactivate existing objects. Various tools, which


may be combined, are available for this purpose. These tools are described
below.
We either include or exclude objects for the calculation

individual objects via the ID in the edit dialog of the object (see Chapter 5.5.3) or
with groups (see Chapter 18.2) or
with variants (see Chapter 18.3)

Exclude Objects
for the
calculation

12.5.0

Deactivated objects are displayed by default with dashed lines. You can
change this in Options|Apperance (see Chapter 13.6).
After clicking this toolbox icon, you insert a closed polygon around the
area for which you want to calculate the level distribution over a grid of receiver points (see Chapter 11.5). You can insert several calculation areas.
With the option Exclude Area in the edit dialog Calculation Area it is
possible to exclude for a calculation another area inside the existing calculation area. Inside this area the receiver point grid is not calculated.
The inserted calculation areas are also registered simultaneously in Tables|Other Objects|Calculation Areas. The order of the records also determine the order of calculation.
For these calculation areas, CadnaA will take into account all objects,
even outside the calculation area, unless they are deactivated.
You may specify several calculation areas. The total area of all defined
calculation areas essentially determines the time required for the calculation. It is therefore advisable, for the first test, to specify a large spacing
between the receiver points under Grid|Properties, in order to watch the
progress of the calculation once it has been started and, if required, to
abort the calculation and restart it with a different spacing between the receiver points.

Manual

Calculation Area
calculating
defined Areas
12.5.0

12

12.5

Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation


Selecting Data for the Calculation

The level distribution was calculated for this calculation


area with all objects within the limits.

12

The calculation for a calculation area is started via the menu Grid|Calculate Grid (see Chapter 11.5.4). If several calculation areas exist, these are
calculated one after the other.
see also Check Consistency Chapter 11.2.3.

Manual

12.6 1

Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation


Calculation Protocol

12.6

Calculation Protocol

The command Calculation|Protocol allows you to save all intermediate


results from the calculation for individual receiver points (not for a grid of
receiver points). You may then generate a formatted printout of this protocol file, or import it, as ASCII format, to another application, such as a
spreadsheet program, for further processing.
But be careful - even with normal projects this tables will be enormously
large. You should deactivate all sources and activate only those that shall
be analysed. (For that: after a calculation in Tables|Partial Level sort your
partial levels ascending to see which noise sources are the loudest.)

12

To this end, activate the check box Write Protocol in the Calculation
Protocol dialog. The default log file is cadnaa.log. If a different file name
shall be used, click the Select button to enter a file name or select an existing file. Activate one of the options Overwrite File or Append to File.
Close the dialog by clicking OK.

Write Protocol

12.6

Compress
Spectra

12.6

Dont forget to deactivate the option Write Protocol afterwards.


If this option is activated, not the entire calculation will be entered for all
frequency bands. An A-level calculation with the accordingly weighted
levels will then be issued for the attenuation values dependent on frequency (e.g. De).

Manual

12.6

Chapter 12 Configuration of Calculation


Calculation Protocol

see also 12.7 Compact Protocol)


Protocol

12.6.0

When the calculation for defined immission points - no grid point calculation - has been performed via the calculator icon on the icon bar, the specified file will list all intermediate results for each ray from sound source to
immission point.
To view the log file, either click

Edit or
Print on the Calculation Log dialog.

In the first case, the text editor opens the log file as ASCII text. If an error
message appears, the text editor cannot open the file because it is too big.
In this case, run a different word processor, such as MSWord, and open the
file as customary.
If you click the Print button, the Print Protocol dialog opens where you
select the printer to be used and the paper size and enter the desired printing range option. Then click Preview. The formatted protocol appears in
the print preview window.
12

The Preview window displays the individual formatted tables. Depending


on the size of the project, completing the print preview on the screen may
take several minutes, because also for each partial level, all intermediate
results are shown. Therefore, if necessary, specify one immission point as
printing range in the print dialog. The completion of the print preview
cannot be aborted.
The legend of the protocol can also be printed. The file PROT_END.TXT
is copied to the program directory during the installation of CadnaA. This
file generates the key at the end of the protocol. If you prefer having the
legend at the beginning, rename the file to PROT_BEG.TXT.
You can also edit the file to suit your needs. To this end, open it using an
editor (see Chapter 17.2.1 "Template Files").

Manual

Chapter 12.6 Calculation Protocol


Compact Protocol

12.7
*

12.7 1

Compact Protocol

The Compact Protocol works only for industry sources and if it is


calculated according to ISO9613.

Use the Compact Protocol to produce a value for the effective screening
coefficient and the proportion of reflected sound, referred to the overall
source, line by line for each source, even extended sources such as area or
line sources. .
Name

ID

Freq

LxT

LxN

LrT

LrN

Refl

Abar,eff

When calculating, e. g., an area source with screening, the values with and
without a screen are calculated automatically, and the effective screening
coefficient is indicated as the difference Abar,eff.
For the compact protocol, generate a protocol using the function Calculation|Protocol (see Chapter 12.6). Then compress it using File|Export|Export format: Compact protocol and specify a filename. CadnaA does
not automatically add the extension TXT to the filename. Click OK to
confirm and CadnaA will create a tabulated ASCII file allowing further
editing as required.

Manual

12

12.7

Chapter 12.6 Calculation Protocol


Compact Protocol

12

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 13 Graphics
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 13 Graphic

13

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Contents

13.1 1

Chapter 13 Graphics

13.1 Contents
13.2

The Limits

13.3

Scale

13.4

Coordinate Grid

13.5

Object Snap

13.6

Object Appearance

13.7

Layer

13.8

Fix Objects

13.9

Auxiliary Polygon

13.10 The Section


13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames
13.11.1
13.11.2
13.11.3
13.11.4

Manual

Text Box
Level Box
Symbol
Station Mark

13

13.1

Chapter 13 Graphics
Contents

13.12 The Cross Section


13.13 3D-Wire Model
13.14 3D-Special View
13.15 Paths of 3D Special View
13.16 Video Recording

13

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
The Limits

13.2

13.2 1

The Limits

The diagram in the CadnaA main window displays all objects that have
been entered so far, irrespective of whether they were entered via the
mouse, from the keyboard, by digitizing or importing. The graphic representation can be displayed in different scales by zooming (see Chapter
13.3), copying (see Chapter 5.4.5) and printing out (see Chapter 17.2.3).
The graphic objects are synchronized with the corresponding data record
in the object tables. The current data recorded in the table automatically
marks the corresponding graphic object so that you can always see which
object or which polygon point you are working on (see Chapter 15.2).
The limit is a rectangular area to which the graphic representation on the
screen and thus the accessibility of objects is restricted.
It is specified in Options|Limits. You can enter the coordinates of the bottom left and top right corners in the dialog which then opens.
The limits may be edited at any time.

13

The Edit Dialog Limits

Manual

13.2

Chapter 13 Graphics
The Limits

Background of the
Limits
13.2.0

The background of the limits is the area outside the specified limits. The
default color is grey. You can change the background color in Options|Miscellaneous in the usual way by clicking on the color button.

Scroll bars

Calculations can be restricted to shielding objects only (buildings and barriers) within the limits. If, for the currently selected scale, the limits extend
beyond the area represented on the screen, scroll bars will be shown at the
bottom and/or right sides of the window. These serve to position the visible area within the limits. If the limits do not extend beyond the area visible on the screen, the scroll bars will be hidden.

13
13.2.0

Manual

13.2 3

Chapter 13 Graphics
The Limits

Instead of adjusting the sector of the graphic with the scroll bars you can
also drag the graphic representation, with the mouse key depressed, like a
sheet of paper, freely to all sides. With the mouse key depressed on a free
area in the graphic the mouse cursor changes to a mouse pointer looking
like a hand. In this mode you can move the representation accordingly.

Drag Graphic

13.2.0

With the activated option Options|Miscellaneous|Update during Drag


the graphic is either built up continously while moving the representation
or after letting go the mouse key.

Update during
Drag

13.2.0

The coordinates of a point can be seen in the status bar at the bottom right
of the CadnaA main window when the mouse pointer is positioned on that
point. After a grid calculation, the status bar will also display the levels (L)
and the ground height (G) at the point where the mouse pointer is positioned.

Information
in the Status Bar 13.2.0

Sources lying outside the limits are also considered in the calculation. Obstacles that lie outside the limits, however, are not automatically considered. In this case, a warning message will appear.

Objects outside the


limits
13.2.0

Manual

13

13.2

Calc
Limits

Chapter 13 Graphics
The Limits

13.2.0

Ignore

causes the objects outside the limits to be disregarded


in the calculation.

Repeat

results in the limits being modified so as to comprise


all objects.

Cancel

aborts the calculation.

As a further tool for correcting the limits when objects lie outside, you can
select the menu command Options|Limits and click the Calculate button
in the dialog. The limits will then be modified so as to comprise all objects. The dialog will then display the x and y co-ordinates of the updated
limits.

13

Manual

13.3 1

Chapter 13 Graphics
Scale

13.3

Scale

Use the zoom tools to modify the scale of the diagram, either via the editable list box Scale 1: on the icon bar, or via the three global tools in the
toolbox
Zoom +
Zoom -
Zoom to Limits
By clicking the arrow to the right of the box Scale 1: on the icon bar, a list
of predefined scales drops down. You may click the desired scale on that
list. The graphic on the CadnaA main window will be modified accordingly

Combo box

You may also enter an arbitrary scale. Click the edit box and enter the desired value. Then press RETURN.

Manual

Combo Box
"Scale 1:

13.3

13

13.3
Zoom +

Chapter 13 Graphics
Scale

13.3

The "Zoom +" icon on the toolbox allows you to enlarge the graphic representation of a specific area. After clicking this icon, the mouse pointer
drags along a little magnifier icon with a "+" sign.
There are two comfortable ways of enlarging a selected area:
1.

Clicking an object with the LEFT mouse button enlarges the graphic
by a factor of two with each click. The position of the mouse pointer
becomes the new centre of the displayed area.

2.

If you hold the LEFT mouse button down, you can draw a rectangle
around the objects you wish to enlarge. Upon releasing the mouse
button, the area within the rectangle will be enlarged so as to fill the
screen.

The enlarging is undone in reverse order by clicking with the RIGHT


mouse button.
Zoom -

13

13.3

The "Zoom -" icon on the toolbox allows you to reduce the graphic representation of a specific area. After clicking this icon, the mouse pointer
drags along a little magnifier icon with a "-" sign.
Clicking an object with the LEFT mouse button reduces its size by a factor
of two. You may repeat this several times.
The reducing is undone in reverse order by clicking with the RIGHT mouse
button.

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Scale

All objects lying outside the visible area will immediately be shown on the
CadnaA window when you click this icon. The scale of the representation
is automatically selected according to the dimensions of the limits and the
size of the CadnaA window.

13.3 3

Zoom to Limits

13.3

If you hold the SHIFT key depressed while clicking the "Zoom to Limits"
icon, CadnaA will recalculate the limits and will also show all objects in
the window. However, the new limits are only temporary (analogous to
the command Options|Limits|Calc), which means the limits specified by
the user are not overwritten.
This feature is convenient where the specified limits cover a wide area
containing relatively few objects, or if the objects all lie within a small
proportion of the limits.

13

Manual

13.3

Chapter 13 Graphics
Scale

13

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Coordinate Grid

13.4

13.4 1

Coordinate Grid

By selecting the command Coordinate Grid in Options, you can have a


user-defined grid displayed on the screen, serving, e. g., as an aid for positioning and/or reading of coordinates. If this grid is shown on the screen,
it will also be copied and printed.
The grid spacing and the appearance are defined in the dialog Coordinate
Grid.

Activate the option Show Coordinate Grid by clicking the check box.
The grid spacing is given in metres, and the grid size is given as a percentage. With a grid size of 100 % the grid lines are solid.

Example
13

Grid spacing 10 m, Grid size 20 %

Grid spacing 10 m, Grid size 100 %

You can select line style and colour via the Line Style button to match
your preferences. Click this button and select appropriate values.

Manual

13.4

Chapter 13 Graphics
Coordinate Grid

13

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Object Snap

13.5

13.5 1

Object Snap

Open the Object Snap dialog via the menu command Options|Object
Snap.
If a line is supposed to connect to an existing line, the new first point will
be positioned precisely on the last point of the existing line, if the distance
of the two points is less than the specified object snap.
Likewise, points sources and receiver points located within that distance in
front of a building side are assigned to that building side. They will then be
positioned at a userdefined distance in front of it. The default distance is
5 cm. The object snap also allows the seamless joining of partial areas to
give one combined area, for example, for the purpose of determining noise
quota for area sources in the process of noise allotment.

13

If the object snap is given in pixels, the snap radius on the screen will be
independent of the selected scale. If it is given in metres, the scale must be
considered. In both cases, checking is facilitated by the effective snap radius being displayed on the monitor box.

Manual

13.5

Chapter 13 Graphics
Object Snap

13

Manual

13.6 1

Chapter 13 Graphics
Object Appearance

13.6

Object Appearance

Use the menu command Options|Appearance to specify the line widths,


colors and hatchings, if any, of the object types in the graphic representation on the screen. This is valid for all objects of the same type. Only the
auxiliary polygone can be defined directly in its edit dialog in a different
way additionally .
Clicking this command opens the dialog Appearance.

13
The settings refer to the selected object type. Upon clicking the Apply button, the modifications are applied to the objects on the main window while
the dialog remains open. Clicking Cancel results in the dialog being
closed and the modifications being undone. Clicking OK also closes the
dialog, but the modifications are adopted.

Apply

13.6.0

If the Transparent option is active (box is checked), objects of the selected type appear transparent. If this option is inactive (box is not checked),
the objects appear opaque. This is useful when, e. g., a background bitmap
is used in a project. With the Transparent option activated, the bitmap is
still visible through the CadnaA objects on top of it.

Transparent

13.6.0

Manual

13.6

Chapter 13 Graphics
Object Appearance

If, despite the Transparent option being active, an object does not appear
transparent, this is not an error in Cadna, but in your graphics driver. (Request a new driver from the manufacturer, if necessary.) You can see
whether the current driver supports the Transparent feature by checking
the Monitor box which gives a preview of the effects of the specified settings.
Via the Color button you can either choose a color directly by activating
the option Direct Input of Color and clicking the colored button or you
enter the color with a formula. In this case activate the option Use Formula for Color.

Color

13

Direct Input
of Color

13.6.0

After clicking the colored button choose the desired color by clicking on it
and confirm with OK.

Define
Color

13.6.0

With the button Define Color you can mix your own color and add it to
the color palette with the corresponding button.

Use Formula
for Color

13.6.0

If you activate the option Use Formula for Color you can display an object colored depended on a certain value of an attribute. The following figure shows area sources colored depended on their area related sound
level (LWST).

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Object Appearance

13.6 3

You can either enter the usable attribute abbreviations (see Chapter 2.5) directly or select them from the popup list after clicking the arrow button.

13

Popup list to select the attributes

Manual

13.6
Color Palette

Chapter 13 Graphics
Object Appearance

13.6.0

In the box Color Palette you can either choose the color palette of the current grid (Grid|Apperance|Option) by selecting the option (current
grid) or you can define a color by entering the value of the color. Therefore select the option (direct, w/o palette). This function is usefull if you
want to emphasize a certain value with a color.
In the following figure the road sections are colored green if their mean
daily traffic density (MDTD) is < 10,000 and red if their MDTD 10,000.

For that mark the Road in Options|Apperance and enter the formula as
shown in the following figure.

13

13.6.0

When clicking the color palette button a Windows-color can be selected.


The RGB-value is written into the input box of the formula.

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Object Appearance

13.6 5

With this possibility you also can display an object transparent (value -1)
or opaque (RGB) depended on a value of an object attribute. This is valid
for all objects which are filled out and/or are bordered with a continuous
line.
If you want display, e.g., a noise map with Iso-dB-Lines and the Iso-dBLines shall only run over buildings which hights are lower as the calculated receiver point grid otherwise not, then mark the object building and
enter the following formula:

In the following figure is one height of a building 4,5 m and the other 6 m.
The receiver point grid is calculated with a height of 5 m. With the above

Manual

13

13.6

Chapter 13 Graphics
Object Appearance

entered formula and with the option Grid|Properties|Option|Use Height


of Buildings activated you would get the following presentation.

Iso-dB-Lines drawn over buildings depending on the building height

13

 Color.cna

Color Attributes for


aux. Polygons

With the functions Modify Objects or Import via ODBC interface you
can allocate colors to aux. polygons.

Open also the file Color.cna on your program CD (Samples|Graphic)


and have a look on the examples (Options|Appearance Road and
Building). Also deactivate all roads and recalculate the file. You will
see that the building changes its color depending wether the defined
standard value is exceeded or not.

The meaning of the attribute ?_COLOR is:


L_COLOR defines the color of the line and
F_COLOR defines the color of the filling.
?_COLORR is r, the red component (in[0,255])
?_COLORG is g, the green component (in[0,255])
?_COLORB is b, the blue component (in[0,255])
?_COLOR and ?_COLORX is the sum r+256*g+256*256*b. ?_COLOR
is a dezimal value and ?_COLORX a hexadecimal.

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Object Appearance

Deactivated objects, which are invisible displayed (Appearance/Line


resp.Fill) in the graphic, cannot be highlighted anymore. This prevents the objects to be highlighted by mistake.

13.6 7
deactivated objects

13

Manual

13.6

Chapter 13 Graphics
Object Appearance

13

Manual

13.7 1

Chapter 13 Graphics
Layer

13.7

Layer

In Options|Layer you can determine the order in which objects are drawn.
With that you can manipulate the object type which will be covered by another one. Therefore, click onto the corresponding object type and drag
this, with the mouse key held down, to the desired order. The object on the
top of the layer list is drawn first and the object on the bottom of the layer
list last.

If you click the button Apply, then all alterations will be applied without
closing the dialog.

Manual

Apply

13

13.7

Chapter 13 Graphics
Layer

13

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Fix Objects

13.8

13.8 1

Fix Objects

You can protect all objects from inadvertently shifting with the icon Fix
Object in the icon bar. If you click on it, all objects are then frozen. Editing is still possible. Another click on the icon removes the fixing.

Fix Objects

13

Manual

13.8

Chapter 13 Graphics
Fix Objects

13

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Auxiliary Polygon

13.9

13.9 1

Auxiliary Polygon

The auxiliary polygon is an object without any acoustical meaning. It allows you to generate open or closed polygon lines to enhance the graphical
representation or to do other things. Check or un-check the box Closed
Polygon in the edit dialog as required.

Auxiliary Polygon

You can change the appearance of the polygon either globally


(Options|Appearance) or directly in its edit dialog. Each polygon can
have a different color, line width or line type. For that deactivate the check
box Use global Properties.

Auxiliary polygons are not be adjusted to the digital terrain model. If


this is desired you can convert them to line sources. Switch to the
Options|3D-View so that CadnaA can determine the heights and
convert them back again.

13

Manual

13.9

Chapter 13 Graphics
Auxiliary Polygon

13

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
The Section

13.10 The Section

13.10 1
Section

This object has no acoustical meaning. You can use a section

to copy objects inside a section to the clipboard (see Chapter 5.4.5


"Copying Objects" ). For that, the section has to be marked.
to print objects inside a section. For that you have to give it a name (see
Chapter 17.2.3 "Print Graphics").
to modify objects (see Chapter 5.7.2 "Modify Objects").
to import objects only inside an existing section (see Chapter 6.3.2
"Importing in Section only").
to calculatate in the PCSP mode (see Chapter 18.6 "PCSP - Program
Controlled Segmented Processing").

The margin of the section is neither printed nor copied. You can insert a
text in the field description which can be printed via the Plot-Designer. For
that use the keyword #(Range, Parm1, Parm2) either in a textbox directly
in the file or in a textcell in the Plot-Designer (keyword see Chapter
17.4.25).

13

You can insert sections arbitrarily. These are clearly registered with their
names and coordinates in Tables|Other Objects|Section.
Insert section see Chapter 5.3.1 "Inserting Objects Using the Mouse".

Manual

13.10

Chapter 13 Graphics
The Section

13

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Settings for Objects with Frames

13.11 1

13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


With respect to their appearance in the graphics, objects with a frame
around them are edited individually via their edit dialog. Only the object
Symbol is exempted. The following toolbox icons appear in a box:
Text Box
Level Box
Symbol
Station Mark
They are used for explanatory information or to refine the graphic representation and are acoustically irrelevant.
We will use the text box as an example to explain all settings which apply
analogously to all such objects. Special settings are explained in the pertinent sections.
The chapter Inserting Objects (see Chapter 5.3.1 "Inserting Objects Using the Mouse") describes how to insert the individual objects.

Adjust the size and all other settings immediately after inputing the
first object. All further objects of the same type adopt the settings. In
this case insert the following objects only by clicking once on the
desired position.

Any inserted box is listed on the pertinent object table under Tables|Other Objects. You may use this table to change settings for all existing boxes
at once without clicking each individual box. Select the Change Column
command (see Chapter 15.2.5) and define the desired settings.

Manual

13

13.11

Chapter 13 Graphics
Settings for Objects with Frames

13

Manual

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Text Box

13.11.1 Text Box

13.11.1 1
Text Box

This tool allows you to insert up to 30,000 characters of text in your graphics.
Open the dialog of the text box to enter text in the corresponding field.

13

The edit dialog of the text box.

Manual

13.11.1
Font

13.11.1

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Text Box

As soon as the box is closed, the text you entered appears. The fonts size
and style are specified via the Font button. In the example below, this is
Arial, 10 pt, italic at a scale of 1 : 1,000.

Inthis text boxyoucanenter


upto30,000characters.
For anewlinepressthereturnkey.
Thefont type, its sizeandcolor canalsobe entered.

A text box with frame in CadnaA


Frame

13

13.11.1

If the Frame option is active, the box will hide objects lying under it, as is
the case in the figure above. If this option is inactive, no frame is drawn
around the text, and objects that were hidden before will become visible.

Manual

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Text Box

13.11.1 3

Inthis text boxyoucanenter


upto30,000characters.
For anewlinepressthereturnkey.
Thefont type, its sizeandcolor canalsobe entered.

Text box with option frame inactive

If you select the Scale Dimensions option on the edit dialog, the box and
the text are scaled in accordance with the current scale.

If this option is active, it is convenient to switch to the intended printout scale before you enter the text for the first text box. Then specify
the font size you consider appropriate for the scale you chose. You
may then return to the scale which is appropriate for the work on the
screen. The selected setting is adopted, although re-scaled, for all further text boxes, until you edit it again. This makes sure that all text
boxes have the same font size.

Manual

Scale
Dimension

13.11.1

13

13.11.1

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Text Box

Otherwise:

Pkt 1 M1
= Pkt 2
M2
Pkt1

= Size of the font in the box at scale M1

M1

= Scale under which the font size was selected

Pkt2

= Font size under different scale M2 of the graphic


representation

M2

= New scale chosen after inserting the text box.

13

If you wish to globally edit the frame sizes, font sizes or fonts of all
boxes after having inserted them, you can do so via the tables by
selecting the Change Column command (see Chapter 15.2.5
"Change Column Content"). It is then not necessary to edit each individual box.

Enter the centre coordinates to precisely position each box.

Frame
coordinates

13.11.1

Frame size

13.11.1

The size of the boxes/frames can be given to millimetre precision by entering width and height.

Manual

13.11.1 5

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Text Box

Enter an angle to continuously rotate the box.

13.11.1

Alignment
Text

13.11.1

d.
re
r
te
te
y. en
en
n s. ke e
ca cter urn o b
t ls
u
yo ra re a
x ha he an
bo 0 c s t r c
xt 0 s l o
te 0,0 pre co
is 3
d
th to line an
In up w ze
ne si
s
r a , it
Fo pe
ty
nt
fo

e
Th

Angle

Rotated text box with angle -45

The options on the Alignment dialog serve to align the text in the box.

13

Manual

13.11.1

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Text Box

13

Manual

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Level Box

13.11.2 Level Box

13.11.2 1
Level Box

After performing a grid calculation, this tool allows you to display the calculated value at any point within the calculated grid (see Chapter 11.5) also the height of the ground at that point.
By default, the calculated value displayed in the box is updated automatically. This corresponds to the Update Automatically option. It means that
each time a calculation is performed or a other evaluation parameter is
choosen from the listbox on the symbol bar, the actual result calculated for
that point is displayed in the level box in the graphics.

Update
automatically/
Hold Value

13.11.2

If Hold Value is activated, the level box will not display the new value after a calculation, but the "old" value is retained. Iso-dB lines and areas of
equal sound level, however, will always be updated.
This is an interesting option when, e. g., calculation variants with and
without noise-control measures are to be represented. In that case, however, the Update Level option would have to be activated for the second level box inserted at that point.
The other options are explained in chapter 13.11.1 Text Box.
13

Manual

13.11.2

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Level Box

13

Manual

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Symbol

13.11.3 1

13.11.3 Symbol
This tool allows you to insert various symbols in your graphic. You may
specify an angle to position them accordingly.

Symbol

13.11.3

If the check box Maintain Aspect Ratio is active, the symbol will always
be displayed with the original aspect ratio, which means it will not be distorted when the size of the box is edited.

Maintain
Aspect Ratio

13.11.3

For the symbol Caption:Grid you can choose any suffix you like, the default suffix is dB. For that enter the variable SUFFIX and its value into the
INFO-window of the Symbol dialog (e.g. suffix=dB(A)).

Suffix for Symbol Caption:


Grid
13.11.3

If you insert something from the MS-Windows clipboard in a CadnaA


graphics - e.g. a table or image - CadnaA automatically creates a Symbol
object. You can change its settings with regard to its Symbol options.
After clicking the Symbol tool and with a further click in the CadnaA
main window, a dotted frame appears (default setting is "no frame"). Double-clicking on this frame opens the edit dialog where you click the arrow
of the list box and select the appropriate symbol. A preview of the selected
symbol is shown on the monitor.

Symbols inserted in the graphics will simultaneously be registered in the


symbols table on the Tables|Other Objects menu.
The other options are explained in chapter 13.11.1 Text Box.

Manual

13

13.11.3

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Symbol

Symbol dialog

The symbols list also contains, as symbols, the outlines of tennis courts
and soccer fields. You can thus easily label these types of sports facilities
in CadnaA. (A typical soccer field is 110 x 70 m, a tennis court is 24 x
11 m)

13

But you can also create your own symbols. They are stored in the local
symbol library in menu Tables and will be displayed also in the listbox in
the edit dialog of the Symbols for selecting (see Chapter 16.5).
Make your settings for the appearance of the symbols in Options|Appearance (see Chapter 13.6).
The other options are explained in chapter 13.11.1 Text Box.
see also chapter 5.4.6 Inserting from the Clipboard.

Manual

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Station Mark

13.11.4 1

13.11.4 Station Mark


Generate Station see Chapter 5.7.3.

The reference point indicates the coordinates of the station.

Reference point 13.11.4

With the activated option (default) the station marks are automatically and
perpendicularly directed torward the line or the polygon point.

Angle automatic
update
13.11.4

Deactivate this option in the dialog of a station mark to enter a different


angle for the alignment. This angle is kept if the stations would be updated
(Tables|Miscelleanous|Update Station).
The other options are explained in chapter 13.11.1 Text Box.

Manual

13

13.11.4

Chapter 13.11 Settings for Objects with Frames


Station Mark

13

Manual

13.12 1

Chapter 13 Graphics
The Cross Section

13.12 The Cross Section


If you define a line on the map on the screen by entering its first and last
points, you can view a section along this line in an additional window.
This section shows the height of the terrain as well as the cross sections
through any three-dimensional objects encountered, e. g., buildings and
barriers.

The sources can also be displayed in the cross Section

To insert a line on the map, activate any toolbox icon for a line-like object,
such as an auxiliary polygon, and enter the first and last points. Then
switch to the Edit Mode and click the line with the RIGHT mouse button.
This opens the context menu (see Chapter 5.7) where you select the Cross
Section command.

13

In the cross section all sources cut by the section line are also displayed if
the checkbox Source is activated.

Source

13.12

The path of a ray from the initial to the end point - how it is considered in
the calculation by the program - can be displayed by activating the corresponding option.

Ray

13.12

The z-coordinates in the sectional view are multiplied by the value of the
Z-factor to enlarge arbitrarily and, therefore, to clarify the difference in the
height.

Z-Factor

13.12

Manual

13.12
Copy/Print

Chapter 13 Graphics
The Cross Section

13.12

With the Copy button you can copy the sectional view in the clipboard and
with the Print button you can print it out.
In the cross section you can also calculate a vertical grid (see Chapter
11.5.3 "Vertical Receiver Grid").

Hint to insert a image of a cross section from the clipboard into


CadnaA with the right scale:
The sectional drawing includes in its width a margin of 3 mm for
each side. In case this picture shall again be inserted, according to
scale, in CadnaA via the clipboard, the total 6 mm margin has to be
taken into account in the length of the object Symbol.
Remember: The contents of the clipboard are again inserted in
CadnaA as Symbol (see Chapter 13.11.3 "Symbol").
In the edit dialog of the Symbol take into account the 6 mm margin
as follows:

13

Activate the option Maintain Aspect Ratio

Enter the corresponding length plus the margin in meters

6mm
------------ Scale = Meter
1000

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
3D-Wire Model

13.13 1

13.13 3D-Wire Model


The diagram on the screen is a projection of the entire model on the horizontal reference plane, x/y. Points and lines are thus the shadows of all object outlines, assuming that the model is illuminated by a very distant light
source located vertically above it.
Like any individual view, this top view has the disadvantage that objects
which lie one behind the other, as viewed along the direction of projection,
cannot be distinguished. The height of an object, its dimension in the z direction, cannot be seen from the horizontal projection.
In the following representation in CadnaA, the diagram will not enable
you to judge whether the immission point on a building is a single point or
a group of several points.

There are further viewing options under OPTIONS|3-D View which are
helpful here. For the example shown here, the Front View is as follows:

This representation immediately clarifies that there are two points, one
above the other. Position the mouse pointer on one of the points to read its

Manual

13

13.13

Chapter 13 Graphics
3D-Wire Model

z co-ordinate on the status bar. (Of course, it would also be possible to find
that value on the pertinent table, but this would be too inconvenient if you
were to check the co-ordinates of many receiver points.)
A side view of the same situation would look like this:

Checking the height is most conveniently done using the front view (looking along the y direction towards higher values of the co-ordinates, which
means upwards with respect to the screen) and the side view (looking
along the x direction towards smaller values of the co-ordinate, which
means to the left with respect to the screen).
13
Side View

Front View

The views Isometric, Cavalier and Cabinet are projections at pre-set angles - just check them out.

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
3D-Wire Model

13.13 3

Under the general Parallel Projection, you may specify arbitrary angles
under which to look at the model. Phi is therefore the angle relative to the
positive x-axis whereas positive means counterclockwise. Theta is, in line
of sight, the elevation angle towards the horizontal plain.
You can change the angles by inputing a value via the keyboard or with the
arrow keys via the numerical key block: the angle Phi with the keys 4 and
6 and Theta with 3 and 9. Just test it.

13
see also chapter 9.7.1 Automatically Optimize Noise Barriers.

Manual

13.13

Chapter 13 Graphics
3D-Wire Model

13

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
3D-Special View

13.14 1

13.14 3D-Special View


The 3-D special view is a graphic representation with hidden lines, taking
into account the visibility of the individual surfaces. You can move
through this 3D-Scenario on specified ways or move freely by using the
numerical keyblock (see Chapter 13.15).
All acoustically relevant objects are displayed, if they are not deactivated.
Auxiliary polygons are never displayed in the 3-D-special view.
You can also edit objects in this view. Just double-click on the relevant object to open the edit dialog. Changes that will have an effect on the 3DView are updated at once.

13

Model with a road on a bridge and an embankment created with contour lines. The DTM is calculated with triangulation.

Manual

13.14
Ground Model

Chapter 13 Graphics
3D-Special View

13.14.0

Display Ground height

Also the digital model of terrain (DTM) is displayed automatically without


enforcing a grid calculation by the user if the option Triangulation (see
Chapter 12.4.7 "DTM Digital Terrain Model Tab") is activated. Otherwise
you have to calculate a grid. You do not need a sound source if you only
want to calculate the terrain model.
If a receiver points grid had been calculated the coloured areas of equal
sound levels are shown in the 3-D-special-View for day as well as night. If
this is not desired, just switch to the Ground Height View before you
open the 3-D-special-View.
You can move into the 3D-special view by pressing the RIGHT mouse key
on an object which opens the context menu. Click here on the command
3D-special-View. To do so you have to be in the edit mode before
(CTRL+E). How you move through the 3D-special-View is described in
detail in the chapter 13.15 Paths of 3D Special View.
In the dialog Properties in 3D (Special) the following possible settings
are given:

13

Manual

13.14 3

Chapter 13 Graphics
3D-Special View

Camera offset: with

Camera offset:

vertical: you can modify the height of your view


horizontal: lateral transfer,
positive value = to the right, negative value = to the left

The entered value will adapt the speed accordingly. However, the real
speed depends on the project size and on the hardware.

Speed (km/h)

With this value you can determine the angle of the visible area to the left
and to the right. There are limitations, however. A default angle of 45
should be appropriate.

Field of
view ()

13.14.0

This setting has been integrated for a possible adjustment to your graphic
card. It defines the visible area of your model from the front (near plane)
to the back (far plane - horizon). Some graphic cards cannot handle the default settings. If this should be the case, adjust the values accordingly. In
both text boxes a value > 0 must be entered.

Distance
Range

13.14.0

Select Resolution factor in the dialog Properties. This factor determines


the resolution of the representation of your 3D-model as metafile for the
transfer to another program or for the printout.

Copy to
clipboard:

13.14.0

13

Attention: The actual resolution of your bitmap depends on the resolution settings of your monitor. If you already have a high resolution
on your monitor and then select the factor 10, copying will take long
time. So start your approach very cautiously.

Copying is executed by clicking on the menu Copy or by pressing the


shortcut ALT+K. However, CadnaA accepts your representation only up
to a maximum resolution of 1024 pixels. In the other case you will see
only a frame with an X. If this should occur, transfer the copy to another
graphics program first and save it in a bitmap format. With CadnaA Option BMP you can open your graphics as usual.
You can record your 3D animation. This maybe useful if the animation is
very slow because you are working on a big project or your computer does

Manual

Video
Frame Rate:

13.14.0

13.14

Chapter 13 Graphics
3D-Special View

not have a good performance or you just want to give the Wave-file to
your customer to give him an impression of his project. In that case enter a
value for the number of pictures which should be recorded in a second.
The default setting is 15 frames.
Record
Video

13.14.0

Then click to the menu Video after confirming the dialog Properties with
OK . You will be asked for a file name in which the video is saved as AVIfile. After clicking the Save button an option dialog appears for compressing the video. Make your corresponding settings dependent on which video drive (codec compressor and decompressor) you use. After confirming,
the video is recorded.
We recommend that you record the video over night if it takes a long time.
The playback of the video can be made, e.g., with WINDOW MEDIA
PLAYER or a comparable one.
See also see Chapter 13.16

13

Settings in menu Properties in the 3D-special view

Manual

13.14 5

Chapter 13 Graphics
3D-Special View

You can adjust the brightness and/or the color of the 3D-special view:

Lights

Camera Point: is light from the position of your head.

Camera Point

Camera Parallel: parallel light (as if the sun were shining from behind
you).

Camera Parallel

Sun Parallel: sun shines perpendicular (high noon).

Sun Parallel

Ambient: defuse light

Ambient

13.14.0

13

Manual

13.14

Chapter 13 Graphics
3D-Special View

13

Manual

13.15 1

Chapter 13 Graphics
Paths of 3D Special View

13.15 Paths of 3D Special View


How do we move through our virtual 3D model?

Initial Situation:
You have a complete CadnaA project with DTM, buildings, roads, streets
and miscellaneous sources.

Function for control


of your model

You would like to check your model in the Special-3D-View. You want to
have a closer look at different sections of your model. These are:
a certain section of a road
several sections of a road
a certain area without roads and, of course,
also the entire project model in the survey, seen from all directions.
For this example we are going to use the file demo1.cna, which you already know and which is on your CD-Rom.

Open the file Demo1.cna (File|Open).

If there is a coloured grid activated in the file, deactivate it in the


menu Grid|Appearance|No grid. A calculated receiver point grid is
also represented in the Special-3D-View - from CadnaA version 3.0
upward - regardless whether this view is activated in the normal
view.

In Calculation|Configuration (see Chapter 12.4.7) we have activated


DTM|Search Contour Lines (Average). You can also activate the option
Triangulation . There is no terrain model in this example, therefore this aspect is insignificant.
Nevertheless we would like to describe some features related to the alternative terrain models in 3D (Special):

You do not have to calculate a grid to see the terrain model in 3D (Special) when Triangulation is activated.

Manual

 Demo1.cna

Example

13

13.15

Chapter 13 Graphics
Paths of 3D Special View

The terrain model will build up faster with Triangulation than with
the option Search Contour Lines.

The coloured representation of the receiver points grid is more coarse


in 3D (Special). You can modify this a little if you select a value >1 in
Grid|Appearance|Raster, Oversampling.
Just try it: Enter the value 5. After that you can activate the option No
grid again. This has no effect on the 3D (Special) view, as you already
know.

Maximize

In our example we click on the Sandrachweg - the street running


straight from the lower left-hand corner to the upper right-hand corner - with the right mouse key at an optional point on the middle axis
and select in the context menu 3D (Special). The 3D (Special) dialog
opens.

The dialog is usually located in the upper left-hand corner by default.


Extend the dialog by dragging or clicking on the symbol Maximize
in the upper right-hand corner (the symbol in the middle!) of the 3D
(Special) dialog.

13

3D-special view, the view from the object road called Sandrachweg

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Paths of 3D Special View

Press ENTER/RETURN - you are now moving at a speed of 100 km/h


and with a camera position at a height of 1 m from the beginning of
the road until you reach the end or until you press Esc and therefore
stop your move.

Click on the menu Properties in the 3D (Special) dialog.

Enter the value 5 in the textbox Vertical in Camera Offset. Confirm


with OK and press Enter. You are now moving at a height of 5 m
above the street. (Try out different heights.)

Stop the movement with Esc and click on a railway in your project without closing the 3D (Special) dialog - with the right mouse key and select 3D (Special) again. Minimize the 3D(Special) window so
that you are able simultaneously to look at your project in the normal
view. As soon as you click with the right mouse key on another
object and select 3D (Special) while the 3D (Special) dialog is still
open, the dialog will show the view from the current object.

Also try out different speeds in the dialog Properties.

13.15 3
Automatic drive by
pressing the Return-key

Different sights

Enter Speed

If you press Enter or click on the menu Animation, the move will start at
the first point of the relevant object and will end at the last point.
Also have a look at your model from the top of a building. To do this press
RETURN. You will then move "around the roof" at the given speed.
Stop your movement with Esc. If you have stopped the movement, you
can easily continue it with the numeric keys on your keyboard. With
Keys 8 and 2 move forward or backward
Keys 4 and 6 turn left or right
Ctrl + key 4 or 6 sideways left or right
Keys 9 and 3 move upward or downward (maintaining the view on the
object)
Key 5 return to initial position
Key 7 move vertically upward
Key 1 move vertically downward

Manual

13
Numeric keyblock
or arrow keys

13.15

Chapter 13 Graphics
Paths of 3D Special View

3D-dialog must be active

During this process the 3D (Special) dialog must be activated - just click
on it, if necessary. The entered speed in the dialog Properties has no effect
on the key movements. These depend on the performance of your hardware!

Summary

With the numeric keys on your keyboard you can move freely in your virtual model, starting from the initial point. Any object can be your starting
point. You can also move around this object by pressing ENTER. The settings in the dialog Properties are valid then.
Another little exercise -

enter an auxiliary polygon with the following coordinates into your


file Demo1.cna:
Point x 55, y 96, z 100 relative
Point x 122 y 147 z 50 relative
(Remember: activate the icon in the toolbox and just enter the value the polygon point dialog opens!)

After you have entered the auxiliary polygon

)
13

click on it with the RIGHT mouse key and select 3D (Special).


You now look on the demo example from 100 m (first point) down to
50 m (second point). You are looking again from the first to the last
point. If you press Return, you will move along this line.

Play a little with the length of the polygon - shorten or extend it and have a
look at the effect. Select initial and final height or shift the polygon. Leave
the 3D (Special) window open.
Road Sections

In practice it will happen that a road consists of several sections, due to


changing data (not as smooth as in our demo example). So what can you
do to move along this partitioned road (by pressing RETURN) in your virtual model without interruption?
You can insert a continuous auxiliary polygon along the road you want to
move on. If you did this with your mouse, you would probably be stopped
by the virtual police for an alcohol check.

Manual

Chapter 13 Graphics
Paths of 3D Special View

13.15 5

You better duplicate the road, join the duplicates to form a continuous road
(Connect Lines ) and convert it into an auxiliary polygon afterwards. Just
try it.

Auxiliary polygons are not visible in the Special 3D-View.

If this leads to sharp bends, straighten them out by selecting Spline in the
context menu (right mouse key) and, if necessary, correct the design of the
lines. You would move along this center line anyway - even if you had not
executed Spline - in case the automatic movement around the bend was
impossible at the given speed.
You have now learned that you either can use an arbitrary CadnaA object
from your project to start and to move along in the 3D-special view or you
additionally insert a polygon with a initial and/or final height. Undoubtedly the second possibility has the advantage that you have a defined 3Dpath, which you can re-open again without recovering the view you had
before. Afterall you have still another possibility.
If you move through your project within the 3D-special view and you find
a position which suit you, then you can press the C key on your keyboard
to fix this camera position. CadnaA inserts then a auxiliary polygon automatically and writes in its ID box the expression 3D-CAMERA. This view
can also be displayed in your printout with the Plot-Designer (see Chapter
17.2.4) in a 3D-cell.

Manual

3D-Camera

13.15.0

13

13.15
3D-Camera with a fixed
Viewpoint
13.15.0

Chapter 13 Graphics
Paths of 3D Special View

By a 3D-drive above a road or by a virtuell flight along a air route


with the command 3D-special from the context menu the point of view is
always equal to the moving direction.
In a lot of cases you may wish to keep an object as your center on which
you are looking during bypassing. You can manage it - insert a short auxiliary polygon with the center as starting point. The auxiliary polygons
first point is decisive. This point is always the point of view from each arbitrary object or polygon if you write in its ID box the expression
3D-CENTER
(pay attention to the capital letters!). During each movement of the automatical animation - caused by pression the RETURN key - is now the initial
point of the auxiliary polygon the focus.

 Racingcourse.cna

For an example open the file Racingcourse.cna. The red circle symbolized
the air route. Click on it with the right mouse key and select 3D-special.
The 3D window opens and if you press the return key you will fly along
this circle but always with the focus on the first polygon point of the small
auxiliary polygon 3D-CENTER. This must not be so long as in our example because only the first inserted point is relevant.
see also:

13

Duplicate (see Chapter 5.7.1)


Connect Lines (see Chapter 5.7.8)
Spline (see Chapter 5.7.12)
Quick Start: another example of 3D-Special (see Chapter 4.14.1)

Manual

13.16 1

Chapter 13 Graphics
Video Recording

13.16 Video Recording


The simulation of a Pass-By Level (see Chapter 8.14) and the movement
in the 3D-Special view (see Chapter 13.14) can be recorded in a video.
Such a file, like an AVI-format, can be replayed with a corresponding
Windows Media Player independent of CadnaA.
A powerful tool for presentational purposes.
In order to use the video function, you need on your system the corresponding video driver which is able to decode and encode pictures.
Annotation: For the time being we are using the DivXCodec5. You can
download this decoder for free (http://www.divx.com). Please understand
that we are not responsible for this software and that we cannot support it
either.
For the video recording of a pass-by a lot of receiver point grids are calculated. The number of calculated grids depents on the number of pictures
which are recorded per second (Framerate (fps)).

Recording
a Pass-By as
Video

If you enter, e.g., the value 15 in the field Framerate, for the replay, 15
grids per second are calculated and recorded while the entered speed is
taken into account for the object which is passing by.

13

So, before you select the command Pass-By Level from the context menu
make all your desired settings for a grid calculation in menu Grid and
maybe also in the menu Calculation|Configuration.
Afterwards choose the command Pass-By Level from the context menu of
the corresponding line object and enter the desired setting
Open the example file, which already has been calculated and recorded,
and look at the settings. Also pay attention to the menu Calculation|Configuration.

Manual


Pass-ByVideo.cna

13.16

Chapter 13 Graphics
Video Recording

The Dialog Pass-By Level


Pass-ByVideo.avi

13

Open the corresponding video AVI file with a double-click. Should this
file not open, then the appropriate Windows Media Player is missing. If
this is so then you have to install it from the CD-Rom of your Windows
operating system.

Section

If you choose a section, then this one is the calculation area for the receiver point grid.

follow source

By activating the option follow source the section of the graphics is


moved with the source.

Scale

By activating this option the entered scale is used, in other cases, the current scale in the project.

Manual

13.16 3

Chapter 13 Graphics
Video Recording

By activating this option and entering a value this resolution is used, in the
other case, the settings of your computer screen are used. The bigger the
value, the finer the resolution and the bigger the file.

Resolution (dpi)

After clicking the button Video, the dialog Save as opens. Enter the name
of the file in which the video is saved.

Video

After confirming with Save a further dialog opens in which you can select
the desired video driver.
In the example of the Pass-By the grid calculation and the recording of
the video starts. This created AVI-file can be run with the corresponding
Windows Media Player.
In the 3D-Special View the recording of the video starts after clicking on
the menu Video and entering a file name as described in the preceding paragraph on the pre-defined path.

Video recording in the


3D-Special View

Individual movements made by the user with the arrow keys are not recorded.
See also see Chapter 13.14
13

Manual

13.16

Chapter 13 Graphics
Video Recording

13

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 14 Pictures
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 14 Pictures

14

Manual

Chapter 14 Pictures
Contents

14.1 1

Chapter 14 Pictures
*

The Option BMP is an additional modul for CadnaA and only runs with the basic version.
The following described functions are accessible only if the option BMP has been purchased

14.1 Contents
14.2

Insert Bitmaps

14.2.1

Bitmap Size and Position

14.3

Import Bitmap

14.3.1

Delete Bitmap

14.4

Web-Bitmaps
14

Manual

14.1

Chapter 14 Pictures
Contents

14

Manual

14.2 1

Chapter 14 Pictures
Insert Bitmaps

14.2
*

Insert Bitmaps

The option BMP is only available if you have purchased it.

There are two types of computer graphics: Bitmaps and Vektor graphics. In
CadnaA we can open or import (see Chapter 14.3 "Import Bitmap") dif-

ferent formats of Bitmaps.


Bitmaps use a color grid (pixel) for the display of images. Each pixel is assigned a certain position and a color value. With bit-mapped images pixels
are worked on, not objects or figures.

Bitmaps

14.2

Vector graphics

14.2

Bitmaps are the current electronic medium for half tone images as, e.g.,
photos or digital drawings because the shades and colors can be reproduced in fine gradations. Bitmaps are resolution dependent, that means
they have a solid number of pixels. Scaling on the screen or during print
out with a resolution which is too low can therefore result in the losing of
details or in irregularities in appearance.
Vector graphics contain lines and curves which are defined by mathematical objects - so-called vectors. Vectors describe images on the basis of
their geometric properties. This type of graphics is not used in CadnaA.
The bitmap option is frequently used to insert scanned maps such as surveyors plan, land register or catastral plan. They serve as a background
pattern for inputing noise sources, receiver points and other objects with
acoustical meaning. But also photos, e.g., digital pictures of machines,
buildings or others which have the JPEG format. The number of pictures
you can insert depends, of course, on your hardware, on the memory capacity of your equipment and on the resolution (DPI) of your image files.
CadnaA does not save the bitmaps in the cna-file but refers to the bitmap
files with their file name and pathes. If you now shift your project cna-file
and the bitmap into a different folder on your hard drive, CadnaA will find
the bitmap if the cna-file and the bitmaps file are in the same folder.

We have several different possibilities for inserting bitmaps in our project


file:

Manual

14

14.2

Chapter 14 Pictures
Insert Bitmaps

via the table (Tables|Other Objects|Bitmap)


with the toolbox icon and
by importation via File|Import (see Chapter 14.3 "Import Bitmap") or
ODBC interface (see Chapter 6.5). This procedure is advantageous if a
lot of bitmaps shall be included in one CadnaA-file and if a list exist
(e.g. MS-Excel file) which contains all file name of the bitmaps and
their corner coordinates. In that case all bitmaps will be imported and
placed in the CadnaA graphics automatically.

Pull up an arbitrary sized frame with the icon from the toolbox . If no bitmap has been inserted yet, a frame with a bitmap sign appears.

An empty bitmap frame - a bitmap file has not been selected yet.

If you have already defined a bitmap and if you insert another frame, the
new frame will also contain the last selected bitmap file.
14

If you click with the RIGHT mouse key on the margin of the frame the edit
dialog will open in which you can select the desired bitmap file.

Manual

Chapter 14 Pictures
Insert Bitmaps

14.2 3

After clicking the folder icon on the right side of the File box, select the
bitmap file in the usual manner.
As an alternative you can also insert a bitmap file via Table|Other Objects|Bitmap. In this tabel all inserted bitmaps are clearly registered.
In the box Name enter a more meaningful name than the file name if necessary. This name is displayed in the first column of the table.
14

Manual

14.2

Chapter 14 Pictures
Insert Bitmaps

14

Manual

14.2.1 1

Chapter 14.2 Insert Bitmaps


Bitmap Size and Position

14.2.1 Bitmap Size and Position


To avoid a distorted representation of the background image on the
CadnaA main window, you must specify its dimensions and its intended
position within the main window or the limits.
You may do so by entering
1.

the co-ordinates of the bottom left and top right corners, or

2.

the resolution of the map in dots per inch (DPI) and the scale, or

3.

reference points, the coordinates of which are known (calibration).

Coordinates

14.2.1

If the Resolution option is activated, you must know the resolution in DPI
(e. g. 150, 200, 400 etc.) used when the map was scanned and the scale of
the map. This method is particularly convenient if only the relative positions of objects matter, and their absolute coordinates are irrelevant.

Resolution

14.2.1

The Calibrate Bitmap button opens a dialog which allows you to enter up
to four points with known coordinates on the map. As soon as you have
entered these points and confirmed by clicking OK, CadnaA will load the
bitmap and prompt you to click the reference points on the bitmap which is
displayed on the screen. CadnaA will then determine the correct coordinates for the representation. Under this mode, you may use the zoom magnifiers to enlarge the reference point to be clicked.

Calibrate
Bitmap

14.2.1

You should always select this method when more than one bitmap file is to
be inserted because in this case the absolute position of the bitmaps is decisive for a correct representation. In practice bitmaps will overlap, particularly near the edges because the scanning causes discontinuities not
present in the original map.
When all reference points have been identified, you can save this calibrated bitmap under a different name. You need not do so, however. It is con-

Manual

14

14.2.1

Chapter 14.2 Insert Bitmaps


Bitmap Size and Position

venient, when the calibrated bitmap is large, up to several Megabytes, and,


moreover, has been rotated because of the calibration. CadnaA calculates
the position of the bitmap, which may take several minutes. Saving the bitmap in the right position means not having to re-calculate it when the file
is opened again.
Save the entered coordinates under a name so you can reload them by just
selecting that name.

14

Bitmap file as background information for input of acoustically relevant objects.

Manual

Chapter 14.2 Insert Bitmaps


Bitmap Size and Position

14.2.1 3

Insert the objects on the map which is now displayed on the main window.

The background information of the scanned maps allows


you to quickly insert and calculate the acoustically relevant objects in CADNAA. A representative diagram of the
calculation results can be printed.

Manual

14

14.2.1

Chapter 14.2 Insert Bitmaps


Bitmap Size and Position

Bitmap fix

14.2.1

As long as the option in the dialog Bitmap|Fix Bitmap is activated, size


and position of the bitmap cannot be modified.

Show Bitmap

14.2.1

The bitmap icon on the icon bar allows you to show or hide bitmaps by
activating or deactivating the Show Bitmap check box.

see also chapter 10.4 The Objects Geometry, Reference Points

14

Manual

Chapter 14 Pictures
Import Bitmap

14.3
*

14.3 1

Import Bitmap

The import of bitmaps only works properly if the Option Bitmap


has been purchased.

The bitmap format used for File|Import enables you to automatically


place bitmap files (e.g., tif files) in bitmap frames, provided that the corner
coordinates of the bitmap are saved in the equally named additional file
with the extension TFW and both files are in the same directory (e.g., bitmap file named 34139ca2.tif and coordinate information file named
34139ca2.tfw).
You can select the files to be imported by multiple choice . It is of no significance whether you mark the TFW file or not - CadnaA will find the
corresponding information and will automatically load all files one after
another.
You can also import other bitmap files with the same method. In this case
you do not have to create a bitmap frame from the toolbox. CadnaA will
automatically create this frame in the lower left corner of your limits, giving it a size of 10 x 10 m. You can adjust this frame accordingly in the edit
dialog as usual.
Following Bitmap formats can be imported for the time being (modifications subject to change at any time):
CALS Raster, DCX, GEM Image (IMG), GIFF, IOCA (ICA), JFIF,
JPEG, JTIF, LEAD CMP, Macintosh Pict (PCT Macintosh QuickDraw),
MacPaint (MAC), Microsoft Paint (MSP), MPT (Multipage TIFF), OS/2
Bitmap, PCD (Kodak PhotoCD Files), PCX, Photoshop 3.0 (PSD), PNG
(Portable Network Graphics), PostScript Raster (Encapsulated PostScript),
SUN Raster (RAS), TIFF, TIFF CCITT (also Group 3 and 4), TIFF
(LZW), Truevision TGA (TARGA), Windows Bitmap (BMP), Windows
Metafile (WMF), WinFax Group 3, WinFax Group 4, WordPerfect (WPG
WordPerfect raster files) and some others. Just check formats of your own.

Manual

14

14.3

Chapter 14 Pictures
Import Bitmap

14

Manual

Chapter 14 Pictures
Delete Bitmap

14.3.1 1

14.3.1 Delete Bitmap


Like any other object, you can delete a bitmap using the DEL key. This will
only remove the bitmap from the display of your project on the screen, and
the reference to the file from the objects table, but it will not delete the file
from your disk. The Edit|Undo command allows you to restore the display.

14

Manual

14.3.1

Chapter 14 Pictures
Delete Bitmap

14

Manual

Chapter 14 Pictures
Web-Bitmaps

14.4

14.4 1

Web-Bitmaps

With the export format Web-Bitmaps in File|Export you can export your
CadnaA project file as internet-suitable Bitmap(s). This means that these
files can be saved with different scales and with a definable resolution for
quick loading via the internet.
This pre-work makes it possible to place, e.g., your projects on your
Homepage to provide your customers or market with information about
your work. The interested person can then have a look at representations of
your project with different resolution by zooming in or out.

14

Bitmaps saved with different scales.

Before you execute the export command draw a Section (see Chapter
13.10) over the area in your project file which you want to save as WebBitmap and enter a name for this section.

Manual

14.4
File Name

Chapter 14 Pictures
Web-Bitmaps

14.4.0

After executing the export command, enter a file name as base name to be
saved under and the corresponding options by clicking the button Option.
CadnaA then saves the necessary number of bitmaps, dependent on the
chosen options, automatically with the equivalent extensions in alphabetical order. For the following example three files with different scales have
been saved.
Webtest_demo1_a.bmp is the file with the largest scale (whereas
Webtest_demo1 was the original file name and a is the extension),
Webtest_demo1_b.bmp is the file name for the scale with the magnification step 2 and Webtest_demo1_c.bmp is the file name for the magnification step 3 etc.

14

Export Options for Web-Bitmaps

Section

14.4.0

Select the desired section by clicking on the section name in the list.

Largest
Scale

14.4.0

Enter the largest scale you want to display (if you are not sure, check in
CadnaA which scale could be useful).

Manual

14.4 3

Chapter 14 Pictures
Web-Bitmaps

Enter the number of desired magnification steps. If you enter the value 3
then two further diagrams are created magnified by the factor 2 with the
start value entered in the field Largest Scale (in the above example diagrams with 1:5000, 1:2500 and 1:1250).

Magnification
Steps

14.4.0

Enter the desired resolution in dpi. But remember - the higher the resolution the longer the loading time of the bitmaps. 100 dpi are normaly sufficient. The bitmaps are created with the resolution of the computer screen if
you dont enter a resolution on your own. This resolution is normaly sufficient, also.

Resolution

14.4.0

You can divide your project file if it is too big. In that case activate the option Generate Tiles. CadnaA then divides the file automatically in the defined size (Width and Hight of Tiles) and generates for each section or
tiles the corresponding number of bitmaps with the settings entered under
Option. Sections without any objects are not created if the check box Suppress empty Tiles is activated.

Generate
Tiles

14.4.0

CadnaA cannot supply the program for the handling of the bitmaps in the

internet but each Web-Programer can process the bitmaps. If you are interested in this you can also get in touch with us of course. You will find an
example with http://www.noiseRus.com.
14

Manual

14.4

Chapter 14 Pictures
Web-Bitmaps

14

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 15 Tables
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 15 Tables

15

Manual

Chapter 15 The Tables


Contents

15.1 1

Chapter 15 The Tables

15.1 Contents
15.2

The Tables

15.2.1
15.2.2
15.2.3
15.2.4
15.2.5
15.2.6
15.2.7

The Tables Button Bar


Inserting a Row
Editing Table Cells
Sorting Columns
Change Column Content
Adjusting the Column Width
Copying and Pasting Data Records

15.3

The Result Table

15.3.1
15.3.2
15.3.3
15.3.4

Edit Result Table


Column Headings
Column Contents
Display Column Content
15

Manual

15.1

Chapter 15 The Tables


Contents

15

Manual

Chapter 15 The Tables


The Tables

15.2

15.2 1

The Tables

All objects inserted via the graphics will automatically be adopted as data
records in the pertinent table of objects and vice versa. An object entered
by giving its data in the table of objects will appear as a graphic object in
the CadnaA main window. The tables of objects are all compiled under the
pertinent category term on the Tables menu.
A check mark in front of an item on the Tables menu indicates that data
records of that type are available.

As you know, the tool icons (see Chapter 4.8) from the toolbox can be activated via shortcuts. The edit mode, e.g., with CTRL+E, the street icon
with CTRL+S (see also online help keyword Shortcut).
You can also open the corresponding table of objects with the same character keys, but without the CTRL key and you can close it again with the
ESC key. You press, e.g., the key s that opens the road table, key b for the
railway table and so on. By doing so the first data record is activated automatically.

Manual

Open Tables with


Shortcuts

15

15.2
Synchronisation

Chapter 15 The Tables


The Tables

15.2

Data records may be inserted, edited, copied in and deleted from the tables. When a data record is deleted from a table, the corresponding graphical object on the main window is deleted as well.

Editing
Data records

Delete
Data record

The tables and the graphics are synchronised. When a record in a table is
selected, the corresponding graphic object on the main window is as well.
Even an individual polygon point, edited on a Geometry dialog, will be
flashing so you always know what you are working on.

15.2.0

For deleting a data record from the table you can use either the DEL-key or
the command Delete from the context menu.
You can bring back a deleted data record with the command Edit|Undo.

15

Manual

15.2.1 1

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


The Tables Button Bar

15.2.1 The Tables Button Bar


The button bar shown in the figure below appears on all object tables accessed via the Table menu.

Click this button to close the dialog and to adopt any selected value or data
record or to apply changes.

Close

15.2.1

A selected data record, at the same time, selects the corresponding graphic
object. If the graphic object is outside the area visible on the screen, clicking this button will make it visible.

Synchronize
Graphics

15.2.1

Pressing the button Copy copies the entire table to the clipboard (alternatively, press CTRL+C). The table can then be pasted in other Windows applications or you can paste one individual data record in a table of the
same object type in CadnaA (see Chapter 15.2.7).

Copy

15.2.1

As usual the tables can be printed directly by clicking the button Print.
The keywords for user-defined printout or export of the object tables can
be found in the online help with the keyword or in chapter 15.2 The Tables of this manual.

Print

15.2.1

This button allows you to select the font and the character size for screen
presentation and printout as usual.

Font

Manual

15

15.2.1

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


The Tables Button Bar

15

Manual

Chapter 15 The Tables


Inserting a Row

15.2.2 1

15.2.2 Inserting a Row


If no object has been inserted then you can only see the table head without
any rows. To create a new data record you have to insert a new line either

via the context menu or (see Chapter 5.7)


by pressing the INS key

To insert a row via the table context menu, just press the RIGHT mouse key
on the row where you want to insert a line before or after the current one.
If the table is empty, just click on the RIGHT mouse key below the table
head and the context menu opens.

15

Then select the appropriate command Insert before/after by clicking it


with the LEFT mouse button. A new, blank row is now available for the input of data.
Another alternative is to just press the INS key and the new row will then
be inserted before the current one.

Manual

15.2.2

Chapter 15 The Tables


Inserting a Row

15

Manual

15.2.3 1

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Editing Table Cells

15.2.3 Editing Table Cells


The table cell can be edited. If its value depends on that of another cell, it
will immediately be updated when a parameter in the other cell is edited.
You can also modify the MDTD in the roads table. This results in an immediate updating of the Lme for day-time, and, if necessary, for night-time.

Example

If you enter the Lme directly, the data used before to calculate it will not be
shown in the table any more.

Hints regarding Editing:

Clicking a table row will not result in the entire row, but only an individual cell being selected (highlighted). This becomes the active cell
which you can edit. The corresponding graphical object will also be
selected.

The up and down arrow keys ( ) serve to navigate from one row to
the next, and the left and right arrow keys ( ) do the same for the
cells of a row.

You can edit the selected cell by entering the desired value or text. A
vertical-bar cursor (|) will appear in that cell. Any existing value will
be overwritten (overwriting mode). Please also note how to enter decimals (see Chapter 5.5.4).

There are two editing modes: Overwrite (default) and Insert. Under
the overwriting mode, any existing text is overwritten (deleted completely). Under the insertion mode you can modify the text, add to it, or
delete it using the BACKSPACE and DEL keys.

If you wish to add to the existing text, or correct it, press the F2 key
(insertion mode). Any text in the cell will be retained. You can move
the vertical-bar cursor backwards and forwards across the text using
the left and right arrow keys ( ).

Manual

15

15.2.3

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Editing Table Cells

To terminate editing, in the overwriting mode, either


-

press the left or right arrow key ( ): The cursor moves on to


the next cell belonging to the same data record , or
press the up or down arrow key ( ), or RETURN: The cursor
moves on to the next row but stays in the same column.

Under the insertion mode, just press RETURN to stop editing. This will
also result in the cursor moving on to the next row following the one
just edited it will remain in the same table column.

ESC exits the edit mode and restores the previous value.

Pressing RETURN when not in the edit mode results in the Tables dialog
being closed (just like clicking OK).

Double-clicking a table cell opens the pertinent edit dialog of the


object, as customary.

15

Manual

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Sorting Columns

15.2.4 1

15.2.4 Sorting Columns


By default, CadnaA lists all inserted objects in the sequence in which they
were entered. When the Sort command on the context menu is clicked, the
selected table column is sorted in numerical or alphabetical order, either
ascending or descending, depending on which option buttons were activated in the dialog:
Click the column to be sorted with the RIGHT mouse button, select the
Sort command from the context menu, and activate the appropriate options in the dialog.

The tables will then be sorted as specified and will also be printed in that
order. Also the graphic objects will be drawn according to their order in
the table.
You also can shift individual rows within the table. For that, hold down the
mouse pointer on that row you want to shift and move the mouse pointer to
the desired position and release the mouse key.

Manual

Shift Rows

15.2.4

15

15.2.4

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Sorting Columns

15

Manual

15.2.5 1

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Change Column Content

15.2.5 Change Column Content


CadnaA offers a comfortable tool for the editing of specified ranges of tables on the basis of the current value.

This can be either a conversion of numerical values (arithmetics) or a


modification (substitution) of character strings.
For the examples below, you should open a table for example the table of
point sources of a CadnaA project, or just enter a few points and open
the pertinent table of object.
Click the column to be edited using the RIGHT mouse button. On the context menu, select Change Column.
In the dialog which then opens, you may restrict the modification to a
Range of rows up to or starting from a row which you specify by clicking
it. In the default setting, all elements of the selected column will be modified.

Range of
Rows

15.2.5

Arithmetic

15.2.5

If the column contains numerical values, both arithmetic and string conversion are possible. In all other cases, only string conversion is possible.
The current numerical value may be replaced by a different constant value,
or by one that is computed from the current value.
+, -, /, * are operators used as customary. x stands for the current value.
++ and -- stand for level addition and subtraction.

15

see Chapter 2.6 Examples of Formulas and Operators


This operation may be required if a data record, e. g., the CadnaA project
for an enterprise, is to be embedded in larger limits, requiring modification
of the ID code.

Replace
String

Specify a search string in the box Search For: only strings matching this
string will be converted.

Search for

Manual

15.2.5

15.2.5

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Change Column Content

The characters * (asterix: arbitrary number of arbitrary characters) and ?


(questionsmark: one arbitrary character) act as wildcards used as customary. If sections of a string are to be re-used in the conversion, these are enclosed in brackets.
Replace with

In the box Replace with: you may combine arbitrary character strings
with the string sections marked by brackets in the search string. \1 . . . \n is
used as a symbol for these marked string sections (see Chapter 2.8).
This flexible logic allows you to perform practically any operation required to convert strings.

Automatic Numbering
in Tables
15.2.5

With the rhombus # you can number automatically the column in your tables. One rhombus # results in a one digit value from 1 to 9, two rhombuses ## result in a two digit value from 01 to 99, three rhombuses result in a
three digit value from 001 to 999 and so on. After the value 9 CadnaA
starts with 0 again.
Enter the rhombus in the field replace with.

Example

How can you find out how many buildings, barriers, point sources, etc. are
in the project without having to count them individually?
Here is the answer:

 Demo1.cna

Open a file, and take a look at the pertinent table of object (e.g., have
a look at the building table in the file DEMO1.CNA).

15

Manual

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Change Column Content

15.2.5 3

Existing tabel with building - initial situation

Position the mouse pointer on the column Name.

Click it using the RIGHT mouse button and select Change Column
on the context menu.

Specify the settings as shown in the figure below.


15

Manual

15.2.5

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Change Column Content

Automatic numbering with the function Change Column

The figure shows automatic numbering using two digits and the character
string \1 means that the current value is to be retained.

15

Result of the automatic numbering

Manual

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Change Column Content

15.2.5 5

This command thus allows us to quickly determine the number of objects.


(How many buildings are there in Demo1.cna? - Find out.)
If you wish to remove the numbering, use Change Column again, and enter what is shown below.

How to remove the automatic numbering from the above example

With this command only the numbering at the beginning of the line is deleted (see also chapter 2.8 Strings and Operators).

15

Manual

15.2.5

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Change Column Content

15

Manual

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Adjusting the Column Width

15.2.6 1

15.2.6 Adjusting the Column Width


The column widths of all tables can be adjusted
1.

To this end, position the mouse pointer on the table header of the line
separating the columns which you want to adjust. The mouse pointer
turns into a two-headed arrow. Hold the LEFT mouse button down
and move the mouse in the desired direction. Then release the mouse
button.

individually

2.

Just double-click on the separating line of the table header. The


columns will be adjusted so, that all characters of each column are
visible.

automatically to the
longest columns
15.2.6

3.

For that, hold the SHIFT key down while double-clicking on the dividing line of the table header. CadnaA tries to fit all columns into the
tables window. You can undo this with another double-click without
pressing the Shift key.

automatically to fit table


into window
15.2.6

15.2.6

When closing the table, the table columns will have their default width
again.

15

Manual

15.2.6

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Adjusting the Column Width

15

Manual

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Copying and Pasting Data Records

15.2.7 1

15.2.7 Copying and Pasting Data Records


A data record may be copied to the clipboard so as to be pasted in an objects table of the same type.
To do so

first, click any cell of the record to be copied,

then click the Copy button on the Tables dialog (or press CTRL+C),

insert a new row in the table (context menu Insert before/after), and

finally, press CTRL+V to paste the data record that was saved to the
clipboard.

The copied data record can only be pasted in a table of the same object
type. Therefore, the data record of, e. g., an area source, cannot be pasted
in a point sources table.

15

Manual

15.2.7

Chapter 15.2 The Tables


Copying and Pasting Data Records

15

Manual

Chapter 15 The Tables


The Result Table

15.3

15.3 1

The Result Table

CadnaA contains an efficient generator of tables which can represent all


results for defined receiver points in any desired way. If you want to represent the evaluation of projects in the customary form of a table, you have
to generate a template for this table. Afterwards this template will only
have to be referred to in order to represent calculation results in a standardized way.

Therefore, save the default table with a different name and adjust it as desired. In each project in which you open this template table the results will
be displayed in the created shape. The template table has the extension
CNT.
The Result tables can be printed out directly with the button Print or the
layout can be seen in the print preview.
Editing Result table see Chapter 15.3.1
The tables button bar see Chapter 15.2.1

15

Manual

15.3

Chapter 15 The Tables


The Result Table

15

Manual

15.3.1 1

Chapter 15.3 The Result Table


Edit Result Table

15.3.1 Edit Result Table


(Menu Tables|Result Table|Button Edit)
You may individually create column headers, numbers of columns and
contents. Instead of defining several result tables, define only one with all
columns you may require and switch them off with one mouse click if you
don't need them.
Also, in invisible columns you may save interim results for further calculations and finally display the results in another visible column.

Edit Dialog Result Table

15

The options in the dialog of the result table are some sort of filters where
you can determine which receiver points or parameters are to be displayed.
Enter a string corresponding to the ID (see Chapter 5.5.3) of a line-shaped
source (e.g., road or railway track) if you want to issue, e.g., station, distance or height of a receiver point in relation to this source in the result table. This presupposes that you have defined corresponding columns for

Manual

Axis for
Station

15.3.1

15.3.1

Chapter 15.3 The Result Table


Edit Result Table

these values in the result table and that you have entered the corresponding
predefined name (e.g. axis: station) as Column Content.
Receiver from
Building Noise
Maps

15.3.1

Select, by clicking in the corresponding list box, the class of receiver


points of the calculated noise map of a building which you want to have
represented in the table (e.g., All, maximum Level, 1.Floor etc.).
Noise map of buildings see Chapter 9.3.6.

Only exceeding BNMImmpoints


15.3.1

With this option activated, only those receiver points exceeding maximum
values are represented.

Inserting a
Column

Create a new column by choosing either the Insert before/after command


from the context menu or by pressing the INS key.

15.3.1

For editing, double-click the corresponding row or choose the edit command from the context menu. With that, the Table Column dialog opens
to define headings and contents of the columns.

15

Manual

15.3.2 1

Chapter 15.3 The Result Table


Column Headings

15.3.2 Column Headings


You may define three headings at most for each column in the result table.
If you want a header to jump-over other columns you have to connect
them with the expression PREV.

Tables|Result Table|Edit

Let us say you have created two columns in the result table to identify a receiver point. The first column should display the name of the receiver
point with the heading "Name". The second column should display the ID
with the heading "ID". But over both columns together should be displayed the heading "Receiver Point".

Example

In the Table Column dialog for the first column insert in Line 1 of the
box: "Receiver Point", in Line 2: "Name". Turn to the next column by
clicking the right arrow button and enter in Line1 of the second column: :
PREV and in Line 2: "ID"..

15

In the above example is the heading Receiver point written over both columns with the expression PREV

Manual

15.3.2

Chapter 15.3 The Result Table


Column Headings

Description

15.3.2

Description is for internal information and only shown on the screen in


the dailog Result Table in the status bar on the lower left-hand side if the
cursor is positioned in the corresponding column.

Field Column

15.3.2

see Chapter 15.3.3 "Column Contents"

Precision

15.3.2

Enter the number of digits after the decimal sign. By value 1 levels are
shown, e.g., 49,5 dB and by 2, e.g., 49,51 dB.
Enter the value by which the last digit shall be rounded up.

Rounding up
by the
last digit

15.3.2

If you enter, e.g., 0.1, the value 49.1 will be rounded up to 50.0, the value
49.11 will be rounded up to 49.20 a.s.o.

Alignment

15.3.2

The alignment of the text within the frame or the table column can be selected by clicking the respective option. The preview thumbnail will show
the selected alignment.

Display
(the content of the
columns)
15.3.2

see Chapter 15.3.4 "Display Column Content"

15

Manual

Chapter 15.3 The Result Table


Column Contents

15.3.3 1

15.3.3 Column Contents


You define the column content in the list box Column. You may do so by
choosing the desired value from the list box with pre-defined variables or
by editing an expression. In the last case you have to choose (user defined) from the list box. With that, the box expression will be activated and
you may enter your own expression consisting of strings and operators.
Selecting (user defined) the following strings can be used::
Expression
LP1 to LP4

(user defined)

15.3.3

Information
at the receiver point calculated evaluation parameter 1 to 4
LP1 to LP4 refer to the current variant

LP1V<n> to
LP4V<n>

at the receiver point calculated evaluation parameter 1 to 4 for variant no


<n> refers to the variant corresponding to the
number (LP1V03 means the level of the variant
03 for the evaluation parameter 1)

LP1_<n> bis
LP4_<n>

Manual

Just as above with regard to a corresponding band


of a spectrum with the number after the underscore
example:

15

15.3.3

Chapter 15.3 The Result Table


Column Contents

LP1V03_02

The calculated frequency level at 125 Hz of the


evaluation parameter 1 for the variant 03 at the
receiver point.
The numbering of the frequency starts at 00 for
31.5 Hz and is continously counted for each duplication of Hz-frequency: 00 = 31.3 / 01 = 63 / 02
= 125 / 03 = 250 / 04 = 500 etc. (see result table
template Imm_Spek.cnt on your CD-Rom as example)

15

Examples for
Expressions and
Formulas

GW1 bis GW4

Maximum Value: defined for evaluation parameter 1 to 4


(could be the maximum value of land use or the
standard level at the receiver point depending on
which parameter is used)

SP<n>

Column of the result table


<n> consecutive number of the column, e.g.,
SP4 (is the 4. column). To count the column number use either the dialog Edit Result Column or
the dialog Table column and not the Result table itself because the invisible columns are counted as well.

SIGMAD,
SIGMAE,
SIGMAN

The resulting uncertainty sigma dB (see Chapter


12.4.3) of calculated sound pressure levels can be
displayed for the receiver points for Day/Evening/Night.

LP1V01-GW1
This expression subtracts from the calculated evaluation parameter 1 of
the variant01 the maximum value. The result is displayed in the column.
You can also enter complex Boolean Formulas, like, e.g.,

Manual

15.3.3 3

Chapter 15.3 The Result Table


Column Contents

(SP15>GW1)*(SP19>0.05)*((SP19>2.05)+(SP15>69.05))
With this formula you can define conditions, which - if they are fulfilled indicate, e.g., a right to noise protection measures in the result table. If the
result is 0, the condition is not fulfilled, if the result is >0, the condition is
fulfilled (Yes=1; No=0)
For the condition to be true in the given example, the first two brackets
must fulfill the condition, but only one of the last two brackets must fulfill
the condition.
You may display information from the info-box in the edit dialog of the receiver point. Enter the same string in the expression-box as you did in the
info-box. But first you must choose String variable from the column listbox.

String
Variable

15.3.3

Example:

15.3.3

In the Memo-box of the receiver point you may write an arbitrary string
followed by an equals sign. All information written after the equals sign is
reported in the result table.
The Info-box of the receiver point contains the string: FLRNR=1234/8

15

In the dialog of the Result Table choose (String variable) from the listbox and enter FLRNR in the expression/variable box.
1234/8 will be displayed as the result.

Manual

15.3.3
DefaultString variable

Chapter 15.3 The Result Table


Column Contents

Default String variable only for the Result Table - capital letters are
mandatory:
STW

Displays the floors of the Building Noise Map

FASSNR

Facade numbering - in the Building Noise Map the


level icons are internally numbered continously, starting with the first polygon point of the buildings side
according to the direction in which the building was
inserted. These so-called facade numbers can also be
displayed in the Result Table.
Example: Because of the facade partitioning (Options|Building noise map) 12 level icons for all building
facades come out side by side. Therefore, the icons
are numbered internally with the facade numbers 1, 2,
3 etc. up to 12. If each level icon has 5 floors, then it
will be these floors which are assigned to the corresponding facade number.

DIR

Degree No. 0-360 with 0 symbolized North direction

HIRI

Direction with one letter (N-North, O-East, S-South,


W-West)

HIRI2

Direction with two letters if necessary (e.g. NWNorth-West, SO-South-East)

15

Manual

15.3.4 1

Chapter 15.3 The Result Table


Display Column Content

15.3.4 Display Column Content


After you have defined the column content you may also affect the display
of the results by using one of the options Display.

Options

always without precondition - the column content is displayed as defined


in any case.

always

never - column is invisible - neither the column nor the column content is
visible but the value is available. You may calculate with it further on by
refering to the column number in order to display the final result in another
column.

never (Column is
invisible)

15.3.4

You can refer to a column with SP<n>. If you want to refer, e.g., to the
fourth column of the table then you have to write SP4 (Kapitel 15.3.3
Column Contents).
only if: The display is tied on a precondition (only if - then - else)

only if

only if:

x>0

Example:

then:

15.3.4

The result is only visible if the value is bigger than zero, if not, a dash is
shown. Instead you may also enter:
only if:

x>0

then (activate):

yes

else:

no

In this case if the value is bigger then zero the column content would be
"yes" otherwise "no".

Manual

15

15.3.4

Chapter 15.3 The Result Table


Display Column Content

15

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 16 Libraries
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 16 Libraries

16

Manual

Chapter 16 Libraries
Contents

16.1 1

Chapter 16 Libraries

16.1 Contents
16.2

The local and global Libraries

16.3

Spectra

16.3.1
16.3.2
16.3.3
16.3.4
16.3.5
16.3.6

Entering and Editing Frequency Spectra


Generation of frequency spectra for sound power and indoor levels
Sound Level Spectra
Spectra of Sound Reduction Index
Absorption Coefficient Spectra
Output of Spectra

16.4

Libraries Manager

16.5

Symbol Library

16.6

Text Blocks

16

Manual

16.1

Chapter 16 Libraries
Contents

16

Manual

Chapter 16 Libraries
The local and global Libraries

16.2

16.2 1

The local and global Libraries

Global libraries are available for all project files, whereas local libraries
apply only to the project in process. They are accessable via the Tables
menu.
You can insert user-defined spectra in all libraries via the keyboard or by
importation. The importation can happen via the library manager (see
Chapter 16.4) provided that these are CadnaA files. Spectra from thirdparty files can be imported in the local library via the ODBC database interface (see Chapter 6.5).
In the globale library you will find data records for

Spectra (see Chapter 16.3)


sound levels (see Chapter 16.3.3)
sound reduction indices (see Chapter 16.3.4)
absorption coefficients (see Chapter 16.3.5)
SET-S (see Chapter 8.16)
Parking lot events (see Chapter 8.13)
Railway Groups (see Chapter 8.12.2)
Text blocks (see Chapter 16.6)

and in the local library

Spectra
sound levels
sound reduction indices
absorption coefficients
SET-S
SET-T
Directivity (see Chapter 8.7.3)
Number of Trains (see Chapter 8.12.2)
Symbol Library (see Chapter 16.5)
Text blocks

Manual

16

16.2

Chapter 16 Libraries
The local and global Libraries

User-defined
Entry for global Library
in CADNA.DAT
16.2

The user-defined spectra in the global libraries are contained in the file
CADNA.DAT in your CadnaA program directory. This file will not be
overwritten by an update. You should save this file regularily to prevent
data loss.

Global Library
on a Server

If you want to define a different folder as the program folder for the CADNA.DAT , then you have to make an entry in the CADNAA.INI in the paragraph [MAIN] as follows:

16.2

LibFile=DRV:\Path\Cadna.dat
For DRV enter your drive and path of the folder where the CADNA.DAT
is saved.
With that you have the posibility to lay your data in the global library onto
a server where all your colleagues have access to it.

But pay attention: CadnaA reads only the INI-file if at least one global Text Block exists (Tables|Library (global), see Chapter 16.6). If
you actual dont use Text Blocks create a Dummy text block on
your computer and afterwards copy this Cadna.dat file to your server.

16

Manual

Chapter 16 Libraries
Spectra

16.3

16.3 1

Spectra

The Sound Level Spectra table already lists a number of spectra. These
are the typical indoor level spectra for commercial enterprises as listed in
the Guideline VDI 2571 /15/.
This chapter deals with the spectra. We assume that you are already familiar with the edit dialog of the objects for general sources

point, (see Chapter 8.3)


line (see Chapter 8.4) and
area sources (see Chapter 8.5): horizontal and vertical,

The Sound Level Spectra library stores sound pressure levels and sound
power levels independent of their weighting. You can supplement this library according to your needs.

Spectra are made with reference to their ID.

If you require a spectrum from the global library for a project file, it will
be copied to the local library by either:

copying all required spectra in advance by pressing the Local


Library button,

or

copying the required spectra while working on the project. By


making reference to a spectrum via the edit dialog of an object, it will
be automatically copied to the local library.

Remember: From the edit dialog, you access the global library by
clicking the card index icon of the PWL box with the SHIFT key held
down.

Manual

16

16.3

Chapter 16 Libraries
Spectra

16

Manual

16.3.1 1

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Entering and Editing Frequency Spectra

16.3.1 Entering and Editing Frequency Spectra


The procedure laid out below applies to both global and local libraries. We
assume that you are familiar with the editing of tables and the inserting of
new rows (see chapter 15.2.3 Editing Table Cells). Spectra, too, may be
entered either directly in the table, or via the spectrum edit dialog (opened
by double-clicking the table row).

Under Name, enter some explanatory information on the spectrum. The


entry may be as long as you wish, but it is convenient to limit it to the column width.

Name

16.3.1

16

Manual

16.3.1
Spectrum ID

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Entering and Editing Frequency Spectra

16.3.1

The ID serves to make reference to a spectrum in the edit dialog of an object..

It may be up to 15 characters long,


must start with a letter,
must not contain blanks,
must not contain operators (+;-;/;* etc.) - (see if necessary chapter 2.6
Operators and Functions), and
no special characters (see if necessary chapter 2.8 Strings and Operators).

We suggest the following:


Use the first letter to denote the type of sound level, for example
- L = sound pressure
- P = sound power
- R = sound reduction
- A = absorption
Append a serial number, for example L001, L002, P001, P002. In this context please read chapter 15.2.5 Change Column Content.
Source

16.3.1

Enter information on the origin of the spectrum here.

Spectrum and
Weighting

16.3.1

A spectrum may A-, B-, C-, D-, or Lin-weighted. The spectrum list box
serves to assign a weighting to a spectrum by entering the appropriate letter, or by selection from the list.

*
16

Select the weighting before you enter the spectrum.

The Weighting column of the table lists the corresponding letter codes. A
blank entry means the spectrum is Lin-weighted.
Follow the explanations and examples below to get a better understanding.

Manual

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Generation of frequency spectra for sound power and indoor levels

16.3.2 1

16.3.2 Generation of frequency spectra for sound


power and indoor levels
In order to understand the following, we presuppose that your are familiar
with dealing with frequency spectra, their generation, storage and transfer,
as well as the use of the global and local libraries.
It is also possible to calculate the frequency spectra of the sound power
level, e.g., from measured sound level spectra.
These features are reached when generating a new spectrum in the local or
in the global library.
Example: Insert a new line in the local library and open the dialog by double-clicking this line.

16
With the expressions available in the list box Type you have five possible
choices to determine a frequency of a spectrum.

Manual

Spectrum
Type

16.3.2

16.3.2

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Generation of frequency spectra for sound power and indoor levels

Li

Li indicates that the entered, or in some other way generated, spectrum is


an indoor sound pressure level - e.g. for the calculation of the radiation
from a building . This can be useful for documentation.

Li from interior
sources

With this option the level of an indoor sound spectrum can be calculated
from the level of a spectrum of sound power from sound sources like machines etc.
In principle this calculation requires a statistical theory. For each frequency band the following formula applies:

Li = LW 10 lg( A) + 6

(1)

For
Li

Indoor level in a room with the frequency band in dB

LW

Sound power level of all sources with the frequency band i in dB

equivalent absorption area with the frequency band in m

The equivalent absorption area is calculated with the following formula:

A= S

(2)

with

16

Practical
procedure

16.3.2

the average absorption coefficient of the rooms surface areas

the area in m of the rooms surface

The spectra of the sound power level of the single sources in a room have
to be saved so that they can be referenced with their identifier (ID).
After selection of the option Li from interiour sources from the list Type
new lines can be inserted in the list of Interiour Sources in the usual way.

Manual

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Generation of frequency spectra for sound power and indoor levels

16.3.2 3

After double-clicking on the inserted new line, single spectra can be referenced by typing their ID or you can choose the desired spectrum directly
from the library by clicking the index card symbol.
In the box Absorption displayed in the dialog Spectrum you can either
enter a single value of the average characteristic coefficient of absorption
or the ID-Code of a coefficient-spectrum of absorption from the local library. By clicking the index card symbol the spectrum can be chosen directly from the local or - with SHIFT key - global library.
When the surface of the room in m is specified, the resulting indoor level
of a spectrum is displayed as well in the monitor as in the corresponding
line in the table after closing the dialog with OK (plastic-box-production
in the following figure).

Manual

16

16.3.2

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Generation of frequency spectra for sound power and indoor levels

The spectrum of an interior level Li04 for the Plastic-box-production is


therefore the result if 3 moulding machines, 5 presses and 6 circular saw
bands are running in a room with a surface area of 1020 m and an average
spectrum of absorption, spectrum Am from the local library.
The additional parameter (c) with the type-name Li(c) shows that this
spectrum has been calculated from other spectra. Its values cannot be
changed by editing.
16.3.2

Lw indicates that the entered, or in some other way generated, spectrum is


a sound-power-level - e.g., to define the radiation of an outdoor source.
This can be useful for documentation.

Lw calculated from Lp
+ area + near-fieldcorrection
16.3.2

With this option the determination of the sound power level from the radiation from openings is supported. The averaged sound pressure level spectrum is determined by measurement in the opening cross-section.

Lw

An example is the spectrum LOE1 in the following figure:


16

Manual

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Generation of frequency spectra for sound power and indoor levels

16.3.2 5

This spectrum shall be determined in a 2 m large cross-section of an outlet


of an exhauster. After double-clicking this line the corresponding edit dialog opens. In the field TYP the option Lw calculated from Lp + area +
nearfield-correction is selected.

In addition to the size of the exit area a short distance-correction can be entered which will then be added arithmetically to the frequency-band level.
With this correction it can be taken into account that the rays don't cross
the exit area vertically - only in this case, apply the following conversion
formula

LW = Lp + 10 lg( S )

(3)

with
exit area in m2

(Hint: If sound penetrates the area S from all directions, a correction


of -3 dB may be useful. This is the case, e.g., if sound radiated from
machines in a room penetrates the environment through an open
door. In the exit-cross-section of an absorbent duct there are no crossmodes and the near-field correction is 0. In a duct without any
absorption a value between 0 and -3 may be correct depending on the

Manual

16

16.3.2

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Generation of frequency spectra for sound power and indoor levels

propagation conditions between source and exit along with the diameter of the opening).
After closing the dialog the calculated spectrum is inserted in the library
and its Type expression is supplemented with a (c) indicating that this
spectrum has been calculated. Its values cannot be edited.
Lw calculated from Lp
+ distance + sphere
partition
16.3.2

The sound power level of a source can be measured with the enveloping
surface method in accordance with one of the standards ISO 3744 /3/ or
3746 /41/. In many cases it is appropriate to measure the sound emission
of a source at a distance that is large in comparison to source dimensions
and to use only one or a few measuring points if the source radiation is
unidirectional. If the radiation has a direction, the measurements are undertaken at more points oriented in different directions and a mean spectrum is calculated in the first step by energetic averaging. If the source
doesn't radiate in all directions, but only into a portion n% of the sphere,
then the sound power level Lw is calculated from the measured level Lp
with

n%
LW = Lp + 10 lg( 4r 2 ) + 10 lg

100%

(4)

It is presupposed that the data record Mot03 in the local database corresponds with, e.g., the spectrum of sound levels of an operating electro-motor standing on a reflecting floor at a distance of 5 m.

16

Manual

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Generation of frequency spectra for sound power and indoor levels

16.3.2 7

After double-clicking this line you will see the settings made in the edit dialog. You have to enter the Distance as 5 m and because of the hemispherical sound propagation a Sphere Part with 50 %.

After closing this dialog with OK the calculated spectrum is inserted in the
library and its expression in the box Type is supplemented with (c) indicating that this spectrum is being calculated. Its values cannot be edited.

16

Manual

16.3.2

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Generation of frequency spectra for sound power and indoor levels

16

Manual

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Sound Level Spectra

16.3.3 1

16.3.3 Sound Level Spectra


A level-over-frequency spectrum is a sequence of values, with each value
signifying a level in a specific octave band. Entering zero as a value, not
entering anything, or a blank, are interpreted in different ways. 0 means
that the level is 0 dB. A blank, or no entry, mean that this frequency band
has no valid entry.

Level Frequency
Spectra

16.3.3

Weighting

16.3.3

If spectra are available, the calculation, evaluation, and representation of


the rating level at the immission point will be based on the spectral information. If, however, there is no value in a frequency band of the spectrum
for a source being taken into account in the calculation, no rating level will
be displayed for this band.
A level-over-frequency spectrum is only unambiguous if the underlying
frequency weighting Lin, A, B, C, or D is known. To ensure unambiguity, the relevant standards always require Lin-weighted spectra. In practical noise control, however, using the A-weighted levels has proven
convenient, too, because it allows you to determine the relative contribution of each frequency band level at the A-weighted sound level the value of ultimate interest by just looking at the values. This facilitates a
quick selection of those frequency ranges which need to be considered
first in the constructing of noise-control measures. There is a risk, however, that spectra with different weightings are mixed in an inadmissible way.
CadnaA makes use of a concept which avoids this risk while still allowing

a quick visual evaluation by means of weighted frequency spectra.

Spectra may be entered with any of the Lin-, A-, B-, C-, or D-weightings, the user being responsible for supplying correct information on
the weighting. (Only this information allows for the correct calculation
of the unweighted spectrum.)

If you mistakenly entered the wrong weighting, you may modify this at
any time by assigning a different weighting.

Any of the weightings mentioned above can be selected for output on

Manual

16

16.3.3

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Sound Level Spectra

the screen, or on the printer, either globally for all spectra of one table,
or individually for each one of them.
An example of how to enter a spectrum is given below.

Open the appropriate, currently blank, table of the local library via
Tables|Libraries [local]|Sound Level.

Insert a row, and open the edit dialog (by double-clicking the inserted
row).

This standard spectrum with a level of 0 dB in each frequency band is valid for the entire frequency range from 31.5 Hz to 8,000 Hz. Nine valid frequency bands with a level of 0 dB each result in a total Lin-weighted level,
indicated as Total Lin: of
(0 + 10 x lg(9)) dB = 9.5 dB
16

The A-weighted level is 7.0 dB(A).

Change the weighting from Linear to, e. g., A by either


-

entering A in the Spectrum box, or


by selecting a weighting from the list which drops down when
you click the arrow to the right of the Spectrum box.

You will then see the weighted spectral levels.

Manual

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Sound Level Spectra

Repeat this with different weightings, and watch the total weighted
level displayed on the dialog in each case.

Switching to another weighting in the edit dialog Spectrum does not


change the underlying frequency spectrum.
Therefore, at first, switch to the appropriate weighting before you
enter a frequency spectrum.

16.3.3 3

But even if you selected the wrong weighting and confirmed the values
you entered, you do not need to delete them in order to just enter them
again. The second important dialog, Modify Spectrum, is one tool to help
you here.

First, switch back to Linear on the edit dialog Spectrum which


results in 0 being again displayed for each frequency band.

Click the calculator icon to the right of the Spectrum box.

In the default setting, Apply Weighting is activated, with the A-weighting


being selected.
If you click OK now, the A-weighting will be applied to the values, but the
Linear weighting will still be assigned to the spectrum in the edit dialog.

Selecting a specific weighting in the Modify Spectrum dialog means


converting and thus manipulating the values. This implies an actual
modification of the spectrum saved in the library.

Manual

16

16.3.3

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Sound Level Spectra

The edit dialog should now look similar to the following illustration:

Now the A-weighting corrections are displayed as levels. Your procedure


tells the program to interpret and process this spectrum as Lin-weighted.
Again, switching to other weightings on the edit dialog will not affect the
spectrum saved in the library.
This is very convenient if you have entered the correct values but the
wrong weighting. Suppose you enter the above sequence of values directly
as a Lin-weighted spectrum. Afterwards, you find out that during the
measurement of these values, the instrument had been set to measure Aweighted levels.
16

Since you have selected Lin-weighting, you wish to generate linear levels
from the measured A-weighted levels, thus applying a kind of an inverse
A-weighting. Therefore,

click the calculator icon, then the arrow, and select -A from the list
which opens.

Manual

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Sound Level Spectra

16.3.3 5

By clicking OK, the original spectrum is restored to the edit dialog.

Instead of selecting a different weighting via the dialog Modify


Spectrum and in order to leave the values unchanged, you may also
switch to a different weighting directly on the Spectrum dialog.
When doing so, hold the SHIFT key down.

16

Manual

16.3.3
Modify
Spectrum

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Sound Level Spectra

16.3.3

The three other options on the Modify Spectrum dialog similarly lead to a
manipulation of the values.

Fill Spectrum with Constant K


-

Add Constant K to Bands


-

enters an arbitrary value K for each band.

arithmetically adds the value of K to the current value.

Normalise Spectrum to Total Level K


-

adds the same correction to each frequency band value so that


the resulting total level, weighted as specified on the edit dialog,
equals the value of K.

This gives you extreme flexibility in handling spectra while maintaining


consistency in the data. We recommend you try out the combinations described above as well as the many other possible ones.

16

Manual

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Spectra of Sound Reduction Index

16.3.4 1

16.3.4 Spectra of Sound Reduction Index


The input dialog for sound reduction indices in octave bands is accessed
via Libraries [local]|Sound Reduction Indices.

Insert a new row and open the edit dialog.

Unlike the edit dialog for the level spectrum, this one does not assign any
weighting to the values. This would not make any sense with sound reduction indices.

Instead it will be indicated the weighted sound reduction index Rw - determined from these values in accordance with DIN EN ISO 717-1 /26/ - and
the spectrum adaptation terms C and Ctr which also depend on the spectrum. All tools for the manipulation of spectra, as described above, are accessible via the calculator icon and effective here.
Applying a weighting here, however, is to be understood as a purely arithmetic operation without any relation to noise effects which are implied in
sound level spectra. By activating, e. g., Fill Spectrum with Constant K,
where K=50, and with the subsequent selection of A on the Apply
Weighting box, you generate an approximately realistic sound reduction
index spectrum with a weighted sound reduction index of 49 dB. If you
then select Normalise Spectrum to Total Level K, you generate a sound

Manual

16

16.3.4

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Spectra of Sound Reduction Index

reduction index for the spectrum with an arbitrary weighted sound reduction index K (for example 53 dB as in the figure above).
(Such manipulations are only useful for practice and for studying the effects of modifications on parameters. For other projects, you should enter
values in the edit dialog which have been measured.)

16

Manual

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Absorption Coefficient Spectra

16.3.5 1

16.3.5 Absorption Coefficient Spectra


The input dialog for absorption coefficients in octave bands is accessed via
Libraries [local]|Absorption Coefficients.

Insert a new row and open the edit dialog.

Unlike the edit dialog for the spectrum of sound level, this one does not assign any weighting to the values. This would not make any sense with absorption coefficients.

Instead, the reflection loss DLA,a,Str - determined from these values by the
method given in ZTV-Lsw 88 /56/, and the weighted absorption aw which
also depends on the spectrum - are given. All tools for the manipulation of
spectra, as described above and accessible via the calculator icon, are effective here, too.
However, it does not make sense to apply a weighting here, because reasonable sound absorption coefficients lie between 0 and 1.
(Such manipulations are only useful for practise, and to study the effects of
modifications to parameters. For other projects, you should enter values in
the edit dialog which have been measured ).

Manual

16

16.3.5

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Absorption Coefficient Spectra

16

Manual

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Output of Spectra

16.3.6 1

16.3.6 Output of Spectra


Just like any other table, spectra tables can be copied to the clipboard using the Copy button, or CTRL+C, and they may be printed out (see Chapter 17.4) or exported (see Chapter 17.3.2) by using their keywords. Only
local libraries can be printed and exported.
Keywords for Spectra Tables
#(Table,LibL)

Table of sound levels

#(Table,LibR)

Table of sound reduction indices

#(Table,LibA)

Table of absorption coefficients

16

Manual

16.3.6

Chapter 16.3 Spectra


Output of Spectra

16

Manual

Chapter 16 Libraries
Libraries Manager

16.4

16.4 1

Libraries Manager

With the Library-Manager in menu Tables|Library-Manager all spectra


in CadnaA-files can be copied or deleted comfortably.
You can

copy data inside of CadnaA from the local to the global library and
vice-versa
save spectra in separate library files (*.dat) and
delete all, or selected, spectra

With these features your are able to maintain your libraries.


In the listbox Library choose the desired library and mark the corresponding option for the type of library.

16

The Dialog Library Manager

Manual

16.4

Chapter 16 Libraries
Libraries Manager

With the option Type you can determine which spectra or libraries you
want to use. Default refers to the library which is installed with the program and with File you have access to a CadnaA library file (*.dat) in
which the desired spectra are contained.

Library-Type

16.4

Select
Spectra

16.4

Action

16.4

With the option Action you determine what you want to do with the selcted spectra - to Copy/Save or Delete them.

Destination

16.4

With the action Copy to you can define which library - either global or local - you want to copy the selcted spectra to. For that, mark the corresponding option. Having marked the option File, you can choose the path
and the name of the file. The extension DAT is attached automatically.

With the option Selection you can either select ALL spectra from the corresponding library or you can select spectra which only match the expression you have entered with the expression in the ID box (see Chapter
5.5.3) of the spectra. For that, mark the corresponding option.

The Destination is deactivated if you choose Delete. In this case all selected spectra are deleted.
Name
Collisions

16

16.4

Importing Spectra from


external Databases16.4.0

You must also define how you want to handle the original spectrum if a
collision of identical names occurs. Do this by clicking the desired options.
You can import spectra from external databases into the local library via
the ODBC interface (File|Database see Chapter 6.5). This is convenient,
e.g., if you have measured spectra on an Excel sheet.

Manual

16.5 1

Chapter 16 Libraries
Symbol Library

16.5

Symbol Library

With Table|Libraries (local)|Symbol Library you may import your own


created symbols and use them with the tool from the toolbox. This is an
advantageous procedure to get the full resolution of an image with each
scale. You may also determine the color, the angle of alignment and adjustment by changing the scale factor.
Open a new CadnaA file and create the desired picture by using the auxiliary polygon from the toolbox. Another option is to import a drawing in
DXF format by using the layer of object type Aux. Polygon in the option
dialog. For that CadnaA file, adjust the limits so that the picture occupies
it completely (Options|Limits|Calc). Save this file with a pertinent name
und close it.

Object Symbol

16.5

Creating user-defined
Symbols

Aux.Polygon

16.5

16

DXF CAD graphics imported as Aux.Polygon in CadnaA. The smallest Limits has been calculated with
Options|Limits|Calc. This file has been saved then as
CadnaA file (e.g. Flieger.cna).

Manual

16.5

Chapter 16 Libraries
Symbol Library

Open a new file and insert (INS key) a new line in Tables|Libraries (local)|Symbol Library. A double-click on the new line opens the dialog Library Symbol. Enter a name for the new Symbol in the corresponding
field. This name can be again found in the listbox in the dialog of the Symbol.

Importation

By clicking the button Import you can select the CadnaA file in which
your image is saved. Close the dialog by confirming OK. Now you can
place your Flieger-Symbol in your file and if necessary you can enlarge,
reduce or turn it.
With the tool Symbol from the toolbox draw a pertinent frame in your
project file where you want to place this new Symbol.

16

In the dialog of this Symbol frame you can now choose your symbol by
clicking the corresponding name - in our example Flieger. The image is
displayed in the preview monitor.

Manual

Chapter 16 Libraries
Symbol Library

16.5 3

After the input of all desired settings close the dialog by clicking OK.
With that, the Symbol is placed in your project file.

16

The inserted Symbol rotated 90.

Manual

16.5
Colour and line width of
the symbols

Chapter 16 Libraries
Symbol Library

You have three possibilities to assign the colour and line width to these
user created symbols.
The first possibility is to define the appearance in the original CadnaA file
which contains the image. Either in File|Appearance|Aux. Polygon as a
global setting or directly in the dialog of the Aux. Polygon. If the option
Use Global Properties is deactivated in the dialog of the Aux. Polygon
with which the image is drawn then you can only change its appearance in
this object dialog.
These settings are then allocated to this image and cannot be changed anymore in another project file in which this image is inserted as Symbol object.
If, in the original file, the option Use Global Properties is activated then
the image is adopted to the colour and line width of the project file in
which it is inserted, provided that this option has been activated in the dialog Library Symbol, too. Otherwise you can still adjust the settings individually in this dialog.
The Symbol library is a local library and is therefore only available in the
project file you are working on. If you want to have the library always
available then install a Prototype file with the corresponding settings (see
Chapter 18.8).
See also chapter 5.4.6 Inserting from the Clipboard.

16

Manual

Chapter 16 Libraries
Text Blocks

16.6

16.6 1

Text Blocks

Use text blocks (Table|Libraries local and global) to save global or individual (local) text blocks which can be printed along with a report or exported from CadnaA by simply naming them in the template file. The key
word for the template file for this purpose is #(Text,Identifier) where the
identifier is the name of the text block.

Edit Dialog Textblock

This allows you to include, e. g., your company address, the identification
of the project or your customer's address in the report without having to
edit the template file over and over again.
There are local and global text blocks and also automatically generated
textblocks which are created if the Project-Info (see Chapter 18.10) has
been filled out. The global text blocks are available for every CadnaA file,
whereas the local ones are saved together with the specific project, thus
being available for this project only. Local and global text blocks may
share the same identifier. CadnaA will search through all text blocks. If
two text blocks having the same identifier are found, the local one will be
used.
Frequently used phrases like "If you have any questions concerning the
calculation please contact #(Text, Person)" may be quoted once in a template file. The local text block with the identifier "Person" then supple-

Manual

16

16.6

Chapter 16 Libraries
Text Blocks

ments the above phrase by appending the text saved in the corresponding
local text block.
The template file will remain valid even with a different person in charge
when the specific person's name is saved in a local text block

How to enter a Text


block
16.6.0

Select the command Tables|Libraries local or global|Textblocks. This


opens the table of Text Blocks. The table will be empty when you first
open this menu.

16

Table of existing text blocks. With a double-click on a


data record the text block dialog opens.

Manual

16.6 3

Chapter 16 Libraries
Text Blocks

To insert a row in the table just press the INS key or hold down the right
mouse button and click either Insert Before or Insert After. This results
in a blank row being inserted. Double-clicking this row with the left mouse
button will open its edit dialog. Enter a characteristic name for the intended text block in the text box Name. Then proceed to the next box using the
TAB key, and enter the desired text. Clicking the New button lets you enter
another text block. The arrow keys serve to switch from one text block to
the next, and OK closes the edit dialog. Click OK again to close the text
blocks table.
If you click the button New, a new line is inserted for another text block.
With the ARROW keys you can scroll through the existing text blocks,
while clicking OK closes this dialog.
You can also use a prefix with text blocks. The prefix is only written if a
text is contained in the text block otherwise not. The expression
#(Text, PI_AUTHOR,,"Processor: ")
results in e.g.
Processor: Bernd Huber
The prefix Processor: is only written if the text block contains text, e.g.
the name of the processor. If the text block is empty the prefix is not written.
If you want a carrige return between the prefix and the text you have to enter \n in quotation mark (\n) as last parameter with the key word.
#(Text, PI_AUTHOR,, BearbeiterIn: \n)
results in a line break
Processor:
Bernd Huber
With that you can also force a text cell in the Plot-Designer (see Chapter
17.2.4) not to be displayed if the texblock is empty and if the size of the
text cell is set on automatically.

Manual

Linebreak \n

16

16.6

Chapter 16 Libraries
Text Blocks

16

Manual

Manual CadnaA
Chapter 17 Output
Chapter 1

Contents

Chapter 2

Register

Chapter 3

Introduction

Chapter 4

The First Steps

Chapter 5

Basics

Chapter 6

Import

Chapter 7

Digitalize

Chapter 8

Sources

Chapter 9

Obstacles

Chapter 10

Topography

10

Chapter 11

Immissions

11

Chapter 12

Configuration of Calculation

12

Chapter 13

Graphics

13

Chapter 14

Pictures

14

Chapter 15

Tables

15

Chapter 16

Libraries

16

Chapter 17

Output

17

Chapter 18

Project Organisation

18

Chapter 19

Air Pollution

19

Examples

Manual

Tutorial

Chapter 17 Output

17

Manual

Chapter 17 Output
Contents

17.1 1

Chapter 17 Output

17.1 Contents
17.2

Creating Reports and Graphics

17.2.1
17.2.2
17.2.3
17.2.4
17.2.5
17.2.6
17.2.7
17.2.8
17.2.9

Template Files
Printing Reports
Print Graphics
The Plot-Designer
The Edit Legend Dialog Box
The Cell Types
The Cells Properties
Example: Template File for Graphics of a User-defined Printout
Print Preview

17.3

Export

17.3.1
17.3.2
17.3.3
17.3.4

Export Formats
Text Files TXT / RTF
AutoCad DXF
ArcView

17.4

Keywords

17.4.1
17.4.2
17.4.3
17.4.4
17.4.5
17.4.6
17.4.7

Bitmap
Datum
Einzug
File
FileDatum
FileExpIn
FileExpOut

Manual

17

17

17.1
17.4.8
17.4.9
17.4.10
17.4.11
17.4.12
17.4.13
17.4.14
17.4.15
17.4.16
17.4.17
17.4.18
17.4.19
17.4.20
17.4.21
17.4.22
17.4.23
17.4.24
17.4.25
17.4.26
17.4.27
17.4.28
17.4.29
17.4.30
17.4.31
17.4.32
17.4.33
17.4.34
17.4.35
17.4.36
17.4.37
17.4.38
17.4.39

Chapter 17 Output
Contents

FilePrint
FileZeit
Font
If, Tag
Legende
LegendeNutz
LegendeObj
LineAbs
LineRel
Metafile
MoveAbs
MoveRel
NeueSeite
Plan
PlanAttr
PosPop
PosPush
Range
RasterBewertung
RectAbs
RectRel
Scale
Seite
Tab
Table
Tabs
Text
Variants
VarianteM
Version
Zabst
Zeit

Manual

Chapter 17 Output
Contents

17.5

17.1 3

The Connection CadnaA with


BASTIAN

17

Manual

17.1

Chapter 17 Output
Contents

17

Manual

Chapter 17 Output
Creating Reports and Graphics

17.2

17.2 1

Creating Reports and Graphics

CadnaA allows you to export all calculation results and intermediate re-

sults, as well as object descriptions in ASCII or RTF format, and to export


graphics in the DXF format , or to have everything printed out using standardised printing commands. Examples are:

Calculation results and object descriptions in formatted tables via


File|Print Report, either standard or user-defined (see Chapter 17.2.2)

intermediate results of receiver point calculations via Calculation|Log|Print (see Chapter 12.6)

graphic representations via File|Print Graphics, either standard or


user-defined (see Chapter 17.2.3) and

the export of tables and diagrams via the Windows clipboard (see
Chapter 5.4.5)

User-defined output can be realised in CadnaA by using template files


(see Chapter 17.2.1) for exporting and printing.
With the corresponding print drivers - like, e.g., PDF-Writer by ADOBE you can also save your files for archive purposes or transfer these PDF
files to your customers via email.

17

Manual

17.2

Chapter 17 Output
Creating Reports and Graphics

17

Manual

Chapter 17.2 Creating Reports and Graphics


Template Files

17.2.1 1

17.2.1 Template Files


Template files contain commands controlling the printing or exporting of
calculation results or diagrams.
Key words (see Chapter 17.4) are essential components of the commands.
Write these commands and any individual text into a file using either a text
editor or a word processor, and save this file in TXT (ASCII) format or
RTF (Rich Text Format). Then select these as template files for user-defined output.
If you want, e.g., to print out the current receiver point table in a user-defined report then you would enter the command #(Table,Imm). The result is the current table of receiver points in your CadnaA file.
Name

M.

ID

Pegel Lr
Day

Night

Limit. Value
Day

Land Use

Height

Night Type Auto Noise Type

(dBA) (dBA) (dBA) (dBA)

Coordinates
X

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

Astr.1 EG

i1_astr1_eg

67.0

56.5

55.0

40.0

1.80 r

66.21

21.28

1.80

Astr.3 EG

i2_astr3_eg

67.0

56.6

55.0

40.0

1.80 r

59.80

36.98

1.80

Astr.5 EG

i3_astr5_eg

66.9

56.4

55.0

40.0

1.80 r

53.06

53.70

1.80

Astr.13 EG

i4_astr13_eg

68.5

58.3

55.0

40.0

1.80 r

33.61

112.13

1.80

Key words must appear in brackets, preceded by a # before the left bracket. The parameters of a key word come next to the key word itself, enclosed in the same brackets and separated by commas.
Another example of a command in a printing template file:
#(Font, Times Roman, 14, f)Cadna/A
has the effect that the word Cadna/A will be printed using the Times
Roman font, 14 pt size, and bold faced.

Manual

17

17.2.1

Chapter 17.2 Creating Reports and Graphics


Template Files

Example of a printing template file for printing a report directly from CadnaA

17

If no parameters are entered, the default value is used. If, in the above example, Times Roman had not been entered, thus
#(Font,,14,f)Cadna/A
the (default) Arial font would have been used for printing the text.

Manual

Chapter 17.2 Creating Reports and Graphics


Template Files

17.2.1 3

You may also enter an ordinary text without using a key word. This text
will be printed or exported, too. This allows you to prepare standard reports or logs containing the current calculation results.
The following types of template files are presently distributed and can be
either used as they are or modified (edited):

Print.TXT = Template file for direct printout from CadnaA

Export.TXT= Template file for exporting. The output file to which the
results are exported is also an ASCII file which can be imported by any
program capable of processing ASCII files (including, e. g., Excel).

Export.RTF = Template file for exporting. The output file to which


the results are exported is also a Rich Text Format file which can be
recognised and imported by almost any word processor. Tables, e. g.,
will remain tables with frames when imported to the word processor (e.
g., Word). Characters, paragraphs, and tab stops can be formatted
directly in the word processor.

Print_Gr. TXT = Template file for printing out diagrams. This template file contains commands regarding, among other items, size and
caption of the diagram, whether a frame shall be drawn, or whether coordinates or scale shall be printed etc.

The template files, such as Print.TXT, which controls the standard printout
of reports from CadnaA can be structured by labelling ##printing ranges.
These will appear for selection in the Print dialog. Printing ranges may be
selected individually, which allows you to print out just one printing range.

Labelling of Printing
Ranges
17.2.1

Where a printing range starts in the template file, enter a text - preferably
one word, no blanks - identifying this range. Before this text, without
blanks in between, insert two ##.
General syntax
Example:

##PrintingRangeLabel
##LineSources

"LineSources" now appears as a selectable printing range in the print dialog. Anything appearing in the template file after "LineSources", but before the next printing range label, is printed. The label itself is not printed.

Manual

17

17.2.1

Chapter 17.2 Creating Reports and Graphics


Template Files

The label for the printing range from the template file
appears in the print dialog. This gives you the chance to
restrict the print out only to a certain range by marking the
label. Multiple choice is possible.

17

Manual

Chapter 17.2 Creating Reports and Graphics


Printing Reports

17.2.2 1

17.2.2 Printing Reports


The command Print Report from the menu File opens the Print dialog
offering options for printing out calculation results and object descriptions
as formatted tables.
The name of the template file, which CadnaA will use for printing the report, appears in the dialog Template (see Chapter 17.2.1 "Template
Files"). A Print.TXT file is supplied with CadnaA. You may edit this template file and save it with a different name.

Selecting a
Template File

17.2.2

Editing a
Template File

17.2.2

This version of PRINT.TXT will be overwritten when CadnaA is reinstalled or updated. It is therefore strongly recommended that you
save the template file PRINT.TXT with a different name if any
changes are made!

The Choose button allows you to select a template file for printing. Template file names have the extension TXT. Since, among others, the names
of the template files for exporting have the same extension, it may be advisable to save template files for exporting and for printing in different directories on your disk because some key words (see Chapter 17.4) are
permissible for exporting only, but not for printing.
When you click the Edit button, the editor is started up and opens the selected template file.

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17.2.2

Chapter 17.2 Creating Reports and Graphics


Printing Reports

Printing Range

17.2.2

All

17.2.2

Selected
Paragraphs

17.2.2

If All is activated (black dot) as the printing range, all paragraphs which
are determined by the selected printing template file are printed, regardless of any selection made under Selected Paragraphs.
If Selected Paragraphs is activated (black dot) you must mark one or
more items in the paragraphs list. Only those paragraphs which are
marked are printed. (See also Multiple Selections.)
The total length of all labels (see above: labeling of printing range) on this
list (sum of the lengths of the individual labels) must not exceed
255 characters. Otherwise, you will have to break up the printing template
file in two or more files.

Print to
File

17.2.2

If Print to File is activated, the printout is redirected to a file. You will be


prompted to enter the name of the output file.

Copies

17.2.2

Enter the number of copies you desire.

Page Margins

17.2.2

Distance in millimetres from the edges of the sheet of paper.

Header/
Footer

17.2.2

These lines let you enter additional text for headers and footers. The first
line specifies the header, the second the footer.
You can also insert bitmap files (such as company logos) using the key
word #(Bitmap), see Chapter 17.4.1.

Example of header and footer

17

In this example, the text entered on the menu Table|Library|Text Blocks


(see Chapter 16.6) under the text block name "Project" would be printed at
the top of each page. At the bottom, at the TAB position 15 cm from the
left page margin, the word "page" would appear, followed by the respective page number.

Manual

17.2.3 1

Chapter 17.2 Creating Reports and Graphics


Print Graphics

17.2.3 Print Graphics


When all desired objects have been entered, you may print the graphic
with or without the background image (see Chapter 14.2).
If your diagram contains a bitmap that is not to be printed out, use the bitmap icon on the icon bar to deactivate the bitmap prior to printing.
For the printout, either click the printer icon on the icon bar or select the
menu command File|Print Graphics. The dialog Print Graphics opens.
.

Dialog Print Graphic

On the left hand side of the dialog at first you select all settings for the
printer, like printer type, print-out paper size and format and the print-out
paper margins. The print-out paper margin is the distance from the paper
edges. The minimal page margin depends on the selected printer.

Printer and
Print Magrins

On the right hand size of the dialog you can choose the print quality and
number of copies. Furthermore you can decide if the plot shall be printed
directly to the printer or written into a file.

Other

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17.2.3

Chapter 17.2 Creating Reports and Graphics


Print Graphics

Default Print Range

Select the standard printing range by clicking one of the three options:

Limits prints the limits of the project file, as defined under


Options|Limits (see Chapter 13.2 "The Limits").

Window prints the area visible on the screen. You may modify this
area by changing the window size.

Section prints an identifiable section that has been defined using the
Section tool (see Chapter 13.10). Select its name from the list box.

With one of the options in the mittle of the print dialog you can design the
layout of your plots with a legend either with the Plot-Designer or with a
Template File.

Print

A CadnaA legend is an area that surrounds a plot when it is printed. The


legend displays information about the plot, such as descriptive text, a graphical scale, and a north arrow. The legend may also include a border
around the plot.
Standard
(Designer)

CadnaA ledgends are based upon a concept of cells. Cells are rectangular
17.2.3

areas of the paper that can contain text, graphical features such as scales
and north arrows, and other cells. In addition, there is a cell that contains
the plot itself. Each cell has a variety of properties, such as a background
color, a margin, and a border. With the option Standard (Designer) activated a predefinied ledgend is used for the printout.
How to design a user-defined ledgend with the Pot-Designer is described
in the following chapter 17.2.4.

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Chapter 17.2 Creating Reports and Graphics


Print Graphics

You need a template file (see Chapter 17.2.1) when this option is activated.
To select and edit one, click the pertinent buttons.

17.2.3 3
User-defined
Template File

17.2.3

Saving
Print Options

17.2.3

Specify the printing range in the template file by using the key word
#(Plan), see Chapter 17.4.21, or use the standard printing range in the dialog Print Graphic. When the template file contains a definition of a printing range, CadnaA will use it.
An example for a graphics print with a template file is described in chapter
17.2.8.
The settings in the print dialog including the page margins and the selected
printer are saved with the CadnaA file. They are available again with the
next opening of the file. If the chosen printer is not available then the default printer is selected automatically.

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17.2.3

Chapter 17.2 Creating Reports and Graphics


Print Graphics

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Chapter 17 Output
The Plot-Designer

17.2.4 1

17.2.4 The Plot-Designer


When printing a CadnaA plot - the graphics - you can add a legend that
displays information about the plot.
You have full control over the appearance and content of the legend. The
legend can have multiple fonts, colors, and borders. Text can be segregated
into outlined rectangular areas, much like an architectural blueprint legend. A graphical scale and north arrow or other symbols are supported.
CadnaA users, who purchased the Option BMP (see Chapter 14 Pictures)

are also enabled to insert images with the corresponding bitmap formats.
CadnaA ledgends are based upon a concept of cells. Cells are rectangular

areas of the paper that can contain text, graphical features such as scales
and north arrows, and other cells. In addition, there is a cell that contains
the plot itself. Each cell has a variety of properties, such as a background
color, a margin, and a border.
The printable area of the paper (i.e., the paper minus any margins) is the
outermost cell. You build a legend by adding cells to this outermost cell,
and setting their properties. Recall that cells can contains other cells. The
legend consists of a hierarchy of cells, with the outermost cell as the root
cell which cannot be deleted.

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17.2.5

Chapter 17 Output
The Edit Legend Dialog Box

17.2.5 The Edit Legend Dialog Box


Use the Edit Legend dialog box to inspect and edit an CadnaA legend.
The printers dialog opens first if you either click the printer icon in the
icon bar or the menu command File|Print Graphic (see chapter 17.2.3).
You open the Plot-Designer by clicking the pertinent button in the print
dialog.

17
The Legend Dialog

The left side of the Edit Legend dialog box displays a preview of what the
current legend will look like when printed. This is known as the legend
preview.

Manual

Chapter 17 Output
The Edit Legend Dialog Box

17.2.5 3

The right side of the Edit Legend dialog box displays a hierarchical list of
the cells in the legend. This is known as the cell list.
At any given time, one cell is selcted. This selected cell is the one that you
are currently working with. The selected cell is highlighted in both the legend preview and the cell list.
On top of the Edit Legend dialog box is the Plot-Designers icon bar with
the following icons which are explained in the following.

Edit Cells Properties

Delete button

Move buttons

x-Container

y-Container

z-Container

Plan and 3DCell

Text Cell

Symbol Cell

Bitmap Cell

Legend Cell

Macro Cell

Placeholder Cell

Add Legend

Open Legend

Save Legend

Click once with the RIGHT mouse button on the desired point to magnify
the legend preview for close study. Click once again to reduce the magnification level.
Click on a cell in the legend preview to select it and then click on the Edit
Cells Properties button - or alternatively double-click on a cell - to display the cells Edit Legend Cell dialog box, which allows you to inspect
and change the cells properties.

Manual

Working with the


Legend Preview 17.2.5

17
Properties

17.2.5

Chapter 17 Output
The Edit Legend Dialog Box

Working with the Cell


List
17.2.5

The cell list displays a hierarchical list of the cells (Father, Child) in the legend being edited. The selected cell is always highlighted. To change the
selected cell, either use the arrow keys on your keyboard, or click on the
cell to be selected.

The Cell List - the Container Table04 is highlighted

In front of the container icon is either placed a plus (+) or a minus (-) character. The (+) indicates that the container contains further elements eiter
further container and / or other cells. Click on the (+) to open the container,
the (+) exchanges to a (-). Analogously click on the (-) to close the container. A container without any sign in front of is empty.
A container placed left above other cells is the father of the subordinated
elements placed right underneath known as child. Only a container can
be a father. Children can adopt the cell properties of their father.
Cell Properties

17
Adding
Cells

17.2.5

To inspect and edit the properties of a highlighted cell click either on the
icon Properties or double-click the cell name in the cell list. In both cases
the Edit Cell dialog is displayed (see chapter 17.2.7).
For adding a cell highlight the cell after which you like to add a new cell
and click on the desired cell type in the icon bar.
Is the highlighted cell not a container so is the cell added underneath the
highlighted cell on the same level. Is a container highlighted so is the cell

Manual

Chapter 17 Output
The Edit Legend Dialog Box

17.2.5 5

added into the container as Child one level lower independet if the element is a normal cell or a container.
You can shift the active cell to an other hierarchy level with the Move buttons in the icon bar.

Move buttons

Move selected cell up in the cell list.


Move selected cell down in the cell list.
Move selected cell in one level towards the root of the cell list.
Move selected cell out one level away from the root of the cell list.
Delete the selcted cell by either pressing the Delete button, or by pressing
the DEL key.

Deleting cells
17.2.5

But pay attention: If you delete a container in which other elements


are included, thus children existing, they will be deleted as well.

Creating a legend from scratch involves a significant amount of work.


Therefore, CadnaA Plot-Designer gives you the ability to save and load
legends to and from files. The intent is that you will create a small number
of legends, and then reuse them as needed.

Editing
Importing
and Saving
Legends

17.2.5

Press the Save button to write the current legend to a file. Press the Load
button to read a previously saved legend. Press the Import button to add a
legend to the current legend. In all three cases, you will be asked for the
files name.
CadnaA Plot-Designer is distributed with several ready-to-use legends.

These legends are stored in files that have the extension .CNP, and are located on your program CD-Rom in Samples|Tutorial|Output|Plot-Designer. If you do not wish to go to the trouble of learning how to edit legends,
you can simply use one of these ready-to-use legends.

Manual

 Legends
17

17.2.5

Chapter 17 Output
The Edit Legend Dialog Box

If you intend to create your own legend, you may wish to start with
one of the ready-to-use legends included with CadnaA Plot-Designer, and then edit it incrementally. You will likely find this easier than
creating a new legend from scratch.

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17.2.6 7

Chapter 17 Output
The Cell Types

17.2.6 The Cell Types


At the time being eight different cell types exist additionally to the three
container types which organize the alignment of celles.
The alignment of cells - side by side (in x-direction: these cells contain a
horizontal row of other cells), among each other (in y-direction: these cells
contain a vertical column of other cells) or overlaped (in z-direction) - are
specified by the container cells, which accommodate the other cell types
like the Plan or 3D cell. Thus you have to insert a container cell first before you can include other cell types. The standard is that at least one container cell must exist, known as root container. If this container is the only
one in your legend you cannot delete this container only its properties can
be changed. .

x-Container

y-Container

Container
Cells

17.2.6

z-Container

To insert a cell highlight either a container cell or an other cell type included in a container cell.
The Plan cell accommodates your CadnaA graphics - your plot itself - like
your noise map which is displayed immediately after inserting this cell type. The part of the plan which is displayed depends on the settings in the
Edit Cell dialog (see the next chapter).

Plan Cell

The 3D Cell displays a 3D-Special-View which has been created by an


Aux. Polygon either as shaded or as wireframe presentation. The Aux. Polygons must be named to identify them in the Edit Cell dialog where they
can be selected.

3D Cell

The Text Cell contains text or possibly pertinent Key Words (see chapter
17.4) to automate standard print outs, like #(Scale) which displayes the

Text Cell

17.2.6

17.2.6

17.2.6

Manual

17

17.2.6

Chapter 17 Output
The Cell Types

graphical scale or #(Text, Name) which displayes the contents of Textblocks (see chapter 16.6).
The text in a Text Cell can be arbitrarily long but there is no automatic
word wrapping. For that use the RETURN key.
The Symbol Cell can contain internal CadnaA Symbols like a north arrow
or the symbols contained in the symbols library (see chapter 16.5).

Symbol Cell
17.2.6
Bitmap Cell
17.2.6

The Bitmap Cell displays images (pictures, logos, digital photographies)


in bitmap format (TIF, BMP, JPEG, PCX, PNG etc.). For that the CadnaA
option BMP is required (see Chapter 14 Pictures).

CadnaA-user who have not purchased the option BMP can insert bitmaps only either with the corresponding key word #(Bitmap), which
has to be entered in a Macro Cell (see further below) or by a Symbol
Cell as symbol.

The Legend Cell displays the grid- (color-noise level-scale), object- or


land use legend.

Legend Cell
17.2.6

The Macro Cell is actually not necessary but it gives you the possibility to
use your already predefined old template files for plot print out.

Macro Cell
17.2.6

Placement Cell

17

17.2.6

In that case copy the contents of your template file into the Macro Cell
and delete all other Plot-Designer cells not needed - except the root container with your Macro Cell.
A Placement Cell is a cell which cannot have any entries. It just filles out
the spaces not needed and forces all other cells on its position. If you insert
a cell, it does not matter which cell type, and if this cell is the onl