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Light Emitting Diode Source

Modeling for Optical Design

Co-Instructor:
Art Davis
Reflexite Display Optics
Phone: 585-647-1609x137
Email: Art.Davis@Reflexite.com
www.display-optics.com

Introduction
in optics it is easy to do something roughly but very difficult to do it well.
--Rudolf Kingslake

Photometry Background
Understanding Optical Specifications for LEDs
Methods for Computations
Fresnel Lenses

Attendee Introductions and Interests?


Several Sample Problems Included
Interrupt with Questions Freely

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Table of Contents
1. Photometry
1.1 Photometry Spherical Coordinate System
1.2 Spherical Differential
1.3 Solid Angle Subtended by a Right Circular Cone
1.4 Point Source Illumination
1.5 Conservation of Luminance
1.6 Lambertian Emitter
1.7 Illuminance of Disk Lambertian Source
1.8 tendue
2. Optical Specifications of LEDs
2.1 Luminous Flux
2.2 Luminous Intensity
2.2.1 Understanding Intensity Plots
2.2.2 Polar Intensity Contour Plot
2.2.3 Polar Intensity Plot
2.2.4 Rectangular Intensity Plot
2.2.5 Rectangular/Polar Intensity Plot
2.2.6 Sllner Plot
2.2.7 Rectangular Intensity Contour Plot
2.2.8 3D Intensity Plot
2.3 Viewing Angle
2.4 Radiation Pattern
2.5 Color
2.6 Spectral Half-Width
2.7 Scaling Using K-factors

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

3. Source Modeling of LEDs


3.1 Importing Radiant Imaging Source
4. Optics for use with LEDs
4.1 Suitability of Optics
4.2 Design Methods
4.3 Flux Approximating Calculation
4.4 F/#, NA and Ray Angle
4.5 Calculation of Transmission Efficiency
4.6 Reflectors
4.7.1 Thin Lens Newtonian Real Image
4.7.2 Thin Lens Newtonian Virtual Image
4.7.3 Embedded Source Virtual Image
4.7.4 Embedded Source Virtual Image Example
5. Fresnel Lens
5.1 Types of Fresnels
5.1.1 Refractive Fresnel Lens
5.1.2 TIR Fresnel Lens
5.1.3 TIR Fresnel Lens
5.1.4 Fresnel Lens Hybrid1
5.1.5 Fresnel Lens Hybrid2
5.1.6 Domed Fresnel Lens

1. Photometry

Flux ()
Photometric Power
Lumen (lm)

Illuminance (E=d /dA)


Flux Density (or exitance)
Flux per Unit Area
lm/m2 (lux)

Luminous Intensity (I=d /d)


Flux per Unit Solid Angle
lm/sr (candela or cd)

Luminance (L=d2 /[dAd])


Flux Radiance
Flux per Unit Area per Unit Solid Angle
lm/sr/m2 or cd/m2 (nit)

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

1.1 Photometry Right Handed Spherical


Coordinate System
Zenith is
Azimuth is
For the full sphere

For the hemisphere

In radians
For the full sphere

For the hemisphere


October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

1.2 Spherical Differential

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Differential Area and Solid Angle

For the full sphere

For the hemisphere

1.3 Solid Angle Subtended by a Right


Circular Cone
From previous slide:

Then:

Calculate Solid Angle by


precisely encompassing
the right cone by a
section of a sphere.

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Use trig identity:

1.4 Point Source Illumination

The projected area is


perpendicular to the
angle of observation

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.

1.5 Conservation of Luminance

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.

1.6 Lambertian Emitter

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.

1.7 Illuminance of Disk Lambertian Source

Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation,


R. W. Boyd, Wiley, 1983.
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

1.8 tendue

Characterize the optical system independently of the flux content.

Start with:
Small Source
with wide angle
radiation pattern

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Maps to:
Large Image
with narrow angle
radiation pattern

Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.

2. Optical Specifications of LEDs


Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous
Flux

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous
Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela
(mcd)

Viewing
Angle

21/2

Radiation
Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral
Half-Width

x, y

90

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

x=0.27
y=0.68

1/2

x=0.29
y=0.70
30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31
y=0.72

CIE Color
Coordinates
nanometers
(nm)

Conditions
IF is Forward Current
Verify drive current
Take note of Pulse Width Modulation
Ta is ambient temperature
Consider realistic operating temperatures

Current and temperature effects the optical specifications. Refer to the data charts for
the specified LED to see how.

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

2.1 Luminous Flux


B

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous
Flux

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous
Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela
(mcd)

Viewing
Angle

21/2

Radiation
Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral
Half-Width

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

x, y
1/2

90

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

x=0.27
y=0.68

x=0.29
y=0.70
30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31
y=0.72

CIE Color
Coordinates
nanometers
(nm)

2.1 Luminous Flux

Flux measurement
integrates the
entirety of the flux
(lumens) from the
LED.
Result is a single
value = v

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

References:
Recent Activity in LED Measurement Standards with CIE and CORM,
K. Murray, INPHORA, Intertech LED 2003
CIE publication 127-197
Council for Optical Radiation Measurement: www.corm.org
Standardization of LED Measurements, C.C. Miller and Y. Ohno, NIST,
Sept. 2004, Photonics Spectra

2.2 Luminous Intensity

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous
Flux

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous
Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela
(mcd)

Viewing
Angle

21/2

Radiation
Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral
Half-Width

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

x, y
1/2

90

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

x=0.27
y=0.68

x=0.29
y=0.70
30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31
y=0.72

CIE Color
Coordinates
nanometers
(nm)

2.2 Luminous Intensity

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

CIE Standard condition for


the measurement of the
Averaged LED Intensity
Condition A: d=0.316 m
Condition B: d=0.100 m
Result is a single value = Iv

References:
Recent Activity in LED Measurement Standards with CIE and CORM,
K. Murray, INPHORA, Intertech LED 2003
CIE publication 127-197
Council for Optical Radiation Measurement: www.corm.org
Standardization of LED Measurements, C.C. Miller and Y. Ohno, NIST,
Sept. 2004, Photonics Spectra

2.2.1 Understanding Intensity Plots


3D Mesh of Intensity
Distribution
Magnitude of luminous
intensity is plotted in
three dimensional
coordinates
Distribution shown
here (batwing) is used
for the next several
figures

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Reference: Lumileds Lighting, Dataset for LXHL-MW1A, www.lumileds.com

2.2.2 Polar Intensity Contour Plot

Contour colormap values assigned according to


magnitude of luminous intensity
Polar axis (spokes) of the plot are the azimuth angles
Radial axis (rings) of the plot are the zenith angles
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

2.2.3 Polar Intensity Plot


Slices through contour for
constant azimuth angle
Example:
0,22.5,45,67.5,90

22.5
45
67.5

90

Polar Intensity Plot polar


axis (spokes) equals
zenith angles
Polar Intensity Plot radial
axis (rings) equals
intensity magnitude

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

2.2.4 Rectangular Intensity Plot

The polar slices can


also be plotted on
rectangular axes
x-axis is zenith angles
y-axis is intensity
magnitude

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

2.2.5 Rectangular/Polar Intensity Plot

When symmetry is assumed, sometimes the rectangular


and polar plots are split in half and combined into a
single graph.
Also known as a Directivity Plot
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

2.2.6 Sllner Plot


Typically used for
Lighting Specifications
Usually plotted in
Luminance but intensity
is also possible
x-axis is photometric
magnitude
y-axis is zenith angles
Useful for quickly
determining adherence
to specification

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

2.2.7 Rectangular Intensity Contour Plot

Unroll a polar contour plot


x-axis is azimuth angles
y-axis is zenith angles
Colormap values assigned according to magnitude of luminous
intensity

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

2.2.8 3D Intensity Plot

Plot of the 3D surface for the Rectangular Intensity


Contour Plot

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

2.3 Viewing Angle

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous
Flux

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous
Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela
(mcd)

Viewing
Angle

21/2

Radiation
Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral
Half-Width

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

x, y
1/2

90

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

x=0.27
y=0.68

x=0.29
y=0.70
30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31
y=0.72

CIE Color
Coordinates
nanometers
(nm)

2.3 Viewing Angle

2 refers to cone of
luminous intensity
defined by
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

2.4 Radiation Pattern

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous
Flux

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous
Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela
(mcd)

Viewing
Angle

21/2

Radiation
Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral
Half-Width

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

90

degrees (deg)

A
x, y
1/2

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

x=0.27
y=0.68

x=0.29
y=0.70
30

x=0.31
y=0.72

CIE Color
Coordinates
nanometers
(nm)

2.4 Radiation Patterns


Lambertian
______________
1.

Batwing
______________
2.

Side Emitter
______________
3.

Narrow Angle
______________
4.
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

2.5 Color

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous
Flux

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous
Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela
(mcd)

Viewing
Angle

21/2

Radiation
Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral
Half-Width

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

x, y
1/2

90

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

x=0.27
y=0.68

x=0.29
y=0.70
30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31
y=0.72

CIE Color
Coordinates
nanometers
(nm)

2.5 Color
520nm
510nm

400nm

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

1,500K

2,000K

490nm

10,000K
6,500K
4,500K
3,500K
2,800K

570nm

500nm

October 20, 2004

Color coordinates of
LED define a range
within which lies the
dominant wavelength

540nm

600nm

700nm

Similar can be done


for white LEDs
defining a range in
which the CCT can lie

References:
Principles of Color Technology, 2nd ed., F.W. Billmeyer, M. Saltzman, 1981, Wiley.
efgs Computer Lab, www.efg2.com
Blackbody coordinates downloaded from: www.imagingscience.com

2.6 Spectral Half-Width

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous
Flux

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous
Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela
(mcd)

Viewing
Angle

21/2

Radiation
Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral
Half-Width

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

x, y
1/2

90

IF=50mA
Ta=25C

x=0.27
y=0.68

x=0.29
y=0.70
30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31
y=0.72

CIE Color
Coordinates
nanometers
(nm)

2.6 Spectral Half-Width

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

0.5 Full Width at Half


Maximum (FWHM)

0.1 Full Width at 10%


height

0.5m Center Wavelength


of Half Intensity Bandwidth

c Centroid Wavelength

Reference: CIE publication 127-197

2.7 Scaling Using K-factors


Optical data is reported at
fixed average forward
current
Scale Luminous Flux by
the k-factor of the actual
drive current to be used
The k-factor at specified
driving current is equal to
1.0
Example 1:
Say drive current is 30mA (instead of 50mA).
Find the typical luminous intensity.

Example 2:
Say drive current is 30mA and source distribution was recorded
at 80 mA. Find the appropriate scaling factor to apply.

Answer:
The K-factor reads at 0.64.
Typical luminous intensity will be = 0.64 x 6400 mcd = 4096 mcd

Answer:
The K-factor reads at 1.5 for 80mA. Normalize the source distribution
by dividing by this factor. Then multiply by 0.64 to scale it to 30mA
Scale Factor = 0.64/1.5 = 0.43

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

3. Source Modeling of LEDs

Eight types described in D. Kreysars presentation


Geometric Model
Accurate CAD model of source
Optical properties need to be precisely characterized and included (refractive index,
scattering, absorption, etc.)
Perturbable for tolerance analysis
Difficult to get real world convergence

Angularly/Spatially Measured Model

Radiant Imaging
Very close to real world performance
Does not account for variation between sources
Easy to use for inclusion in raytrace software

Combined Geometric/Measured Model


Most accurate
Most difficult
Especially useful for return light incident on the geometry (detailed in D. Kreysars
presentation)

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

References:
Light Source Modeling, W. Cassarly, ORA, Aug. 2004, SPIE SC345
Optical Modeling of UHP Lamps, H. Moench, Jul. 2002, SPIE Vol. 4775, pp. 36-45.
Advanced Topics in Source Modeling, M.S. Kaminski et al,Jul. 2002, SPIE Vol. 4775, pp. 46-57.
Accurate Illumination System Predictions Using Measured Spatial Luminance Distributions, W.J.
Cassarly, D.R. Jenkins, H. Mnch, Jul. 2002, SPIE Vol. 4775, pp. 78-85.
Radiant Imaging: www.radimg.com

3.1 Importing Radiant Imaging Source

Generate Rays
Scale the Flux
Align Origins
Import Rays
Remove LED
Encompass with absorbing shell
Trace Rays
Reverse vectors
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Import absorbing LED geometry


Trace Rays again
Reverse Vectors
Remove spurious rays of choice
Incremental Propagation
Export to Rayfile
Optionally import accurate LED model
Raytrace system

Reference: Microstructured Optics for LED Applications, A. Davis, Reflexite Display


Optics, Intertech LED 2002, http://www.display-optics.com/pdf/tech_papers_oct2002.pdf

4. Optics for use with LEDs


Refractive
Continuous Surface
Conventional lens

Microstructured
Linear Prism
Fresnel Lens

Reflective
Continuous
Parabolic Reflector

Facetted
Headlamp reflector

Diffractive
Surface Relief Diffuser
Diffraction Grating
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.1 Suitability of Optics


Conventional Lens
Ubiquitously available
Outperformed by tailored nonimaging optics

Fresnel Lens
Small volume of space with short conjugates
Drafts can incur transmission loss

Reflectors
Full spherical area flux collection possible
Consumes large area of space

Diffractive
Small volume of space
Color separation
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.2 Design Methods

Manual Calculation

Computer Program

Handy built in optimizer


Fast raytraces
Does not account for non-sequential ray paths
Built in imaging tolerance analysis

Nonsequential Raytracer

Extension of manual calculation


Well suited to iterative solution searching
Preliminary design solution
Full design optimization

Sequential Raytracer

Photometry Integrals
Efficiency Approximations
Newtonian Lens Equations

Most accurate optical simulation


Compatibility with CAD models
Tolerancing/Optimization possible, requires manual detuning and merit definitions and is
much slower

Prototyping

Test the design output from any of the previously listed methods by making a custom optic
Get any and every optic you can and just try it to see if it works for you: Plug and Pray

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Reference: Using Computers to Design Nonimaging Illumination Systems, D. Jenkins,


M. Kaminski, Jul. 1997, SPIE Vol. 3130 pp. 196-203

4.3.1 Flux Approximating Calculation (Lorentzian)

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.3.2 Flux Approximating Calculation (Lorentzian)

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.3.3 Flux Approximating Calculation (Cosine)

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.3.4 Flux Approximating Calculation (Cosine)

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.3.5 Flux Approximating Calculation (Cosine)

For flux integration of Lambertian emitter and


application of Simpsons rule to arbitrary intensity
profile, refer to: Secondary Optics Design
Considerations For SuperFlux LEDs, Lumileds
Application Brief: AB20-5.
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.4 F-number, Numerical Aperture and


Ray Angle

Lens f/# defined by the


extent of the lens and
its focal length
Ray f/# is on a per-ray
basis and defined by
that rays angle
Speed of a lens refers
to its f/#
Fast = Low f/#
Slow = High f/#
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.5.1 Calculation of Transmission Efficiency

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.5.2 Calculation of Transmission Efficiency

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Reference: Optics, 2nd ed., E. Hecht, 1990, Addison Wesley

4.5.3 Calculation of Transmission Efficiency

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.5.4 Refractive Transmission Efficiency

Correct orientation
directs the plano side of
the lens face towards the
short conjugate
Example chart is for
Acrylic: n=1.494

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.5.5 Total Transmission Efficiency


Average value of total
efficiency of correct
orientation on previous
slide
Data is idealized, real
world factors will
decrease the efficiency
Precision
Fidelity
Scatter/Absorption

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.6 Reflectors
Parabolic
Source at focus point, far field collimated

Elliptic
Source at first focal point, image at second focal point

Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)


All light from designated source plane is redirected into defined
output half angle
Dielectric design possible

Facetted
One to one mapping
Superposition

Die cup
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

References:
Design of Efficient Illumination Systems, W. Cassarly, ORA, Aug. 2004 SPIE SC011
Selected Papers on Nonimaging Optics, R. Winston ed., SPIE Vol. MS 106

4.7.1 Thin Lens Newtonian Real


Image

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.7.2 Thin Lens Newtonian Virtual


Image

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.7.3 Embedded Source Virtual Image

Typical application is in air so n=1

s in radians

The focal point f is defined as the


value of s1 when s2 goes to infinity

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Reference: Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed., W.J. Smith, 1990, McGraw Hill.

4.7.4 Embedded Source Virtual Image


Example
An LED die is encapsulated by a 5mm diameter dome of
epoxy with an index of refraction of 1.5 and a radius of
curvature of 4mm. The die to dome distance is 8mm. Find the
virtual image location, the magnification and the effective
focal length of the dome lens.
R=4.0mm, n=1.5 and s1=8.0mm.

s2=16.0mm, m=3.0 and f =12.0mm

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

4.7.4 Embedded Source Virtual Image


Example (continued)

Knowing the die to dome distance (s1) and the LED diameter (d), calculate
the output cone half-angle (2).
From the geometry:

d=5.0mm, s1=8.0mm 1=17.35


Recalling that:

n=1.5, m=3.0 2=8.88


Output beam half-angle is 9

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Using Radians:

5. Fresnel Lens

Collapse out the


unused volume
Optionally, flatten out
the curved facets

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Reference: Use of Fresnel Lenses in Optical Systems: Some Advantages and


Limitations, J.R. Egger, Aug. 1979, SPIE Vol. 193, pp. 63-68.

5.1 Types of Fresnels

Refractive
Total Internal Reflective
Hybrid
Domed

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

5.1.1 Refractive Fresnel Lens

References:
Thin Sheet Plastic Fresnel Lenses of High Aperture, O.E. Miller, J.H.
McLeod, W.T. Sherwood, Nov. 1951, JOSA v.41 n.11, pp.807-815.
Manufacturing Methods for Large Microstructured Optical
Components for Non-imaging Applications, J.R. Egger, Oct. 1995,
SPIE Vol. 2600, pp. 28-33.
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Refraction at plano interface


followed by refraction at Slope
facet.
Short LED to lens conjugate
distance.
Orientation: Facets face long
conjugate (improved
transmission and minimized
draft loss)

5.1.2 TIR Fresnel Lens


Rays misbehaving

Rays behaving
Refracted ray
misses
TIR surface

Ray incident
on Slope
(wrong) facet

Refraction at Draft facet,


followed by TIR at Slope
facet, followed by
refraction at plano
interface.
Orientation: Facets face
source (design
requirement)
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Reference: The Converging TIR Lens for Non-Imaging Concentration of Light from Compact
Incoherent Sources, W.A. Parkyn, P. Gleckman, D.G. Pelka, Jul. 1993, SPIE Vol. 2016, pp. 78-86.

5.1.3 TIR Fresnel Lens

Extremely short LED to lens


conjugate distance.

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

5.1.4 Fresnel Lens Hybrid1

Central region refractive


facets, outer region TIR
design
Improved efficiency for
low angle and high angle
light zones
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Reference: Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays, V. Medvedev, D. Pelka, B.


Parkyn, Jul. 1998, SPIE Vol. 3428, pp. 142-153.

5.1.5 Fresnel Lens Hybrid2

Further improved
transmission efficiency at
refractive surface

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

5.1.6 Domed Fresnel Lens

Any of the previous outlined Fresnel types can be bent


into a dome shape.
Improved hemispherical light collection.
October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

References:
Nonimaging Fresnel Lenses, R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, 2001, Springer.
TIR lenses for fluorescent lamps, W.A. Parkyn, D.G. Pelka, Jul. 1995,
SPIE Vol. 2538, pp. 93-103.

Closing Remarks

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

If its too hard to design and


or make a Fresnel lens for
yourself, hire an expert.*

* For example, Reflexite Display Optics. (585) 647-1609, www.display-optics.com

Glossary
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xite Displayxite Displayxite Displayxte Diisplaxte DDiisplaxte DDiisplaxte DDiis
OpticsReflexOpticsReflexOpticsRefexOpticcsRefexOticcsReffexOticcsReffexOticcsRef
y OpticsRefly OpticsRefly OpicsRefly OppicsRefly OpicsRefly OpicsRefly OpicsRe
te Display Ote Display Oe Display Oe DDisplay Oe DDsplay Oe DDspllay Oe DDspllay
csReflexite csReflexte csReflexte cssReflexte cssReflxte cssReflxte ccssReflxte
eflexite Disefleite Disefleite Diseefleite DiseefleiteDiseefleiteDiseefleeiteDis
ticsReflexitticsReflexitticsReflexitticsReflexitticsReflexitticsReflexitticsRefl
isplay Opticisply Opticisply Opticiisply Opticiisply Oticiisply Oticiisplly Otic
Display Opt DisplayOpt DisplayOpt DDisplayOpt DDisplyOpt DDisplyOpt DDisplyOpt
lexite Displlexite Displexite Displexiite Displexiie Displexiie DDisplexiie DDis
Display OptiDisplay OptiDispay OptiDisppay OptiDispay OptiDisspay OptiDisspay Op
ite Display ite Display ite Dispay ite DDispay it DDispayy it DDispayy it DDispa
pticsReflexipticsReflexipticsReflexiticsReeflexticsReeeflexticsReeeflexticsReeef
ay OpticsRefay OpticsRefay OpticsRefay OticcsRfayy OticcsRfayy OticcsRfayy Oticc
sReflexite DsReflexite DsReflexite DsReflexite DsReflexite DsReflexite DsReflexi

Azimuth: Angle around polar axis ( ). Also called the polar angle
or Longitude.
BotE: Back of the Envelope. A quick (or not-so-quick) manual
calculation.
BSOD: The windows Blue Screen of Death indicating your
computer has crashed hard. This is a highly dreadful event if it
occurs during a presentation.
CA: Clear Aperture or diameter of a lens.
Conjugate: A source or an image location relative to an optical
surface. An infinite conjugate implies the source or image is rather
far away.
Drafts: The typically unused components of Fresnel Lens facets
which returns the optical surface (slopes) back to a plane.
f: Focal length of a lens. Essentially the distance from the lens to the
point at which collimated rays intercept the optical axis.
f/#: F-number f /CA
Far Field: The condition where the distance from the source is
relatively large with respect to the source size so the source may be
treated as a point emitter.
GI GO: Garbage In equals Garbage Out.
Lambertian Emitter: A source whose luminance is independent of
the view angle.

October 20, 2004

Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

LED SMOD: The title of this talk, Light Emitting Diode Source
Modeling for Optical Design.
Near Field: The condition under which the distance from the source
is relatively short compared to the extent of the source so the source
must be treated as an extended area and not a point.
NA: Numerical Aperture 1/2f/#
Paraxial approximation: Small angle approximation in which
Sin Tan ( in radians).
PlugnPray: Drop any old optic in to your system, cross your
fingers and test it. (chance of success) (1/importance)
Radians: A measure of angle. To convert radians to degrees
multiply by (180/ )
Slopes: The optical power components of Fresnel Lens facets which
approximate the aspheric surface of a conventional lens.
TIR: Total Internal Reflection. The reflection of light within a
media which occurs because the angle of incidence exceeds the
critical angle.
Virtual Prototyping: Making an accurate optical simulation in
order that the Pray component of PlugnPray is mitigated.
Zenith: Angle from polar axis (). Also called Latitude.