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You are on page 1of 66

Co-Instructor:

Art Davis

Reflexite Display Optics

Phone: 585-647-1609x137

Email: Art.Davis@Reflexite.com

www.display-optics.com

Introduction

in optics it is easy to do something roughly but very difficult to do it well.

--Rudolf Kingslake

Photometry Background

Understanding Optical Specifications for LEDs

Methods for Computations

Fresnel Lenses

Several Sample Problems Included

Interrupt with Questions Freely

Table of Contents

1. Photometry

1.1 Photometry Spherical Coordinate System

1.2 Spherical Differential

1.3 Solid Angle Subtended by a Right Circular Cone

1.4 Point Source Illumination

1.5 Conservation of Luminance

1.6 Lambertian Emitter

1.7 Illuminance of Disk Lambertian Source

1.8 tendue

2. Optical Specifications of LEDs

2.1 Luminous Flux

2.2 Luminous Intensity

2.2.1 Understanding Intensity Plots

2.2.2 Polar Intensity Contour Plot

2.2.3 Polar Intensity Plot

2.2.4 Rectangular Intensity Plot

2.2.5 Rectangular/Polar Intensity Plot

2.2.6 Sllner Plot

2.2.7 Rectangular Intensity Contour Plot

2.2.8 3D Intensity Plot

2.3 Viewing Angle

2.4 Radiation Pattern

2.5 Color

2.6 Spectral Half-Width

2.7 Scaling Using K-factors

3.1 Importing Radiant Imaging Source

4. Optics for use with LEDs

4.1 Suitability of Optics

4.2 Design Methods

4.3 Flux Approximating Calculation

4.4 F/#, NA and Ray Angle

4.5 Calculation of Transmission Efficiency

4.6 Reflectors

4.7.1 Thin Lens Newtonian Real Image

4.7.2 Thin Lens Newtonian Virtual Image

4.7.3 Embedded Source Virtual Image

4.7.4 Embedded Source Virtual Image Example

5. Fresnel Lens

5.1 Types of Fresnels

5.1.1 Refractive Fresnel Lens

5.1.2 TIR Fresnel Lens

5.1.3 TIR Fresnel Lens

5.1.4 Fresnel Lens Hybrid1

5.1.5 Fresnel Lens Hybrid2

5.1.6 Domed Fresnel Lens

1. Photometry

Flux ()

Photometric Power

Lumen (lm)

Flux Density (or exitance)

Flux per Unit Area

lm/m2 (lux)

Flux per Unit Solid Angle

lm/sr (candela or cd)

Flux Radiance

Flux per Unit Area per Unit Solid Angle

lm/sr/m2 or cd/m2 (nit)

Coordinate System

Zenith is

Azimuth is

For the full sphere

In radians

For the full sphere

October 20, 2004

Circular Cone

From previous slide:

Then:

precisely encompassing

the right cone by a

section of a sphere.

perpendicular to the

angle of observation

Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.

Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.

Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.

R. W. Boyd, Wiley, 1983.

October 20, 2004

1.8 tendue

Start with:

Small Source

with wide angle

radiation pattern

Maps to:

Large Image

with narrow angle

radiation pattern

Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous

Flux

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous

Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela

(mcd)

Viewing

Angle

21/2

Radiation

Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral

Half-Width

x, y

90

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

x=0.27

y=0.68

1/2

x=0.29

y=0.70

30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31

y=0.72

CIE Color

Coordinates

nanometers

(nm)

Conditions

IF is Forward Current

Verify drive current

Take note of Pulse Width Modulation

Ta is ambient temperature

Consider realistic operating temperatures

Current and temperature effects the optical specifications. Refer to the data charts for

the specified LED to see how.

B

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous

Flux

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous

Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela

(mcd)

Viewing

Angle

21/2

Radiation

Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral

Half-Width

x, y

1/2

90

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

x=0.27

y=0.68

x=0.29

y=0.70

30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31

y=0.72

CIE Color

Coordinates

nanometers

(nm)

Flux measurement

integrates the

entirety of the flux

(lumens) from the

LED.

Result is a single

value = v

References:

Recent Activity in LED Measurement Standards with CIE and CORM,

K. Murray, INPHORA, Intertech LED 2003

CIE publication 127-197

Council for Optical Radiation Measurement: www.corm.org

Standardization of LED Measurements, C.C. Miller and Y. Ohno, NIST,

Sept. 2004, Photonics Spectra

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous

Flux

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous

Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela

(mcd)

Viewing

Angle

21/2

Radiation

Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral

Half-Width

x, y

1/2

90

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

x=0.27

y=0.68

x=0.29

y=0.70

30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31

y=0.72

CIE Color

Coordinates

nanometers

(nm)

the measurement of the

Averaged LED Intensity

Condition A: d=0.316 m

Condition B: d=0.100 m

Result is a single value = Iv

References:

Recent Activity in LED Measurement Standards with CIE and CORM,

K. Murray, INPHORA, Intertech LED 2003

CIE publication 127-197

Council for Optical Radiation Measurement: www.corm.org

Standardization of LED Measurements, C.C. Miller and Y. Ohno, NIST,

Sept. 2004, Photonics Spectra

3D Mesh of Intensity

Distribution

Magnitude of luminous

intensity is plotted in

three dimensional

coordinates

Distribution shown

here (batwing) is used

for the next several

figures

magnitude of luminous intensity

Polar axis (spokes) of the plot are the azimuth angles

Radial axis (rings) of the plot are the zenith angles

October 20, 2004

Slices through contour for

constant azimuth angle

Example:

0,22.5,45,67.5,90

22.5

45

67.5

90

axis (spokes) equals

zenith angles

Polar Intensity Plot radial

axis (rings) equals

intensity magnitude

also be plotted on

rectangular axes

x-axis is zenith angles

y-axis is intensity

magnitude

and polar plots are split in half and combined into a

single graph.

Also known as a Directivity Plot

October 20, 2004

Typically used for

Lighting Specifications

Usually plotted in

Luminance but intensity

is also possible

x-axis is photometric

magnitude

y-axis is zenith angles

Useful for quickly

determining adherence

to specification

x-axis is azimuth angles

y-axis is zenith angles

Colormap values assigned according to magnitude of luminous

intensity

Contour Plot

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous

Flux

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous

Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela

(mcd)

Viewing

Angle

21/2

Radiation

Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral

Half-Width

x, y

1/2

90

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

x=0.27

y=0.68

x=0.29

y=0.70

30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31

y=0.72

CIE Color

Coordinates

nanometers

(nm)

2 refers to cone of

luminous intensity

defined by

October 20, 2004

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous

Flux

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous

Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela

(mcd)

Viewing

Angle

21/2

Radiation

Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral

Half-Width

90

degrees (deg)

A

x, y

1/2

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

x=0.27

y=0.68

x=0.29

y=0.70

30

x=0.31

y=0.72

CIE Color

Coordinates

nanometers

(nm)

Lambertian

______________

1.

Batwing

______________

2.

Side Emitter

______________

3.

Narrow Angle

______________

4.

October 20, 2004

2.5 Color

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous

Flux

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous

Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela

(mcd)

Viewing

Angle

21/2

Radiation

Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral

Half-Width

x, y

1/2

90

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

x=0.27

y=0.68

x=0.29

y=0.70

30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31

y=0.72

CIE Color

Coordinates

nanometers

(nm)

2.5 Color

520nm

510nm

400nm

1,500K

2,000K

490nm

10,000K

6,500K

4,500K

3,500K

2,800K

570nm

500nm

Color coordinates of

LED define a range

within which lies the

dominant wavelength

540nm

600nm

700nm

for white LEDs

defining a range in

which the CCT can lie

References:

Principles of Color Technology, 2nd ed., F.W. Billmeyer, M. Saltzman, 1981, Wiley.

efgs Computer Lab, www.efg2.com

Blackbody coordinates downloaded from: www.imagingscience.com

Symbol

Condition

Min.

Typ.

Max.

Unit

Luminous

Flux

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

0.28

0.35

0.42

Lumens (lm)

Luminous

Intensity

Iv

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

5120

6400

7680

millicandela

(mcd)

Viewing

Angle

21/2

Radiation

Pattern

Lambertian

Color

Green

Spectral

Half-Width

x, y

1/2

90

IF=50mA

Ta=25C

x=0.27

y=0.68

x=0.29

y=0.70

30

degrees (deg)

x=0.31

y=0.72

CIE Color

Coordinates

nanometers

(nm)

Maximum (FWHM)

height

of Half Intensity Bandwidth

c Centroid Wavelength

Optical data is reported at

fixed average forward

current

Scale Luminous Flux by

the k-factor of the actual

drive current to be used

The k-factor at specified

driving current is equal to

1.0

Example 1:

Say drive current is 30mA (instead of 50mA).

Find the typical luminous intensity.

Example 2:

Say drive current is 30mA and source distribution was recorded

at 80 mA. Find the appropriate scaling factor to apply.

Answer:

The K-factor reads at 0.64.

Typical luminous intensity will be = 0.64 x 6400 mcd = 4096 mcd

Answer:

The K-factor reads at 1.5 for 80mA. Normalize the source distribution

by dividing by this factor. Then multiply by 0.64 to scale it to 30mA

Scale Factor = 0.64/1.5 = 0.43

Geometric Model

Accurate CAD model of source

Optical properties need to be precisely characterized and included (refractive index,

scattering, absorption, etc.)

Perturbable for tolerance analysis

Difficult to get real world convergence

Radiant Imaging

Very close to real world performance

Does not account for variation between sources

Easy to use for inclusion in raytrace software

Most accurate

Most difficult

Especially useful for return light incident on the geometry (detailed in D. Kreysars

presentation)

References:

Light Source Modeling, W. Cassarly, ORA, Aug. 2004, SPIE SC345

Optical Modeling of UHP Lamps, H. Moench, Jul. 2002, SPIE Vol. 4775, pp. 36-45.

Advanced Topics in Source Modeling, M.S. Kaminski et al,Jul. 2002, SPIE Vol. 4775, pp. 46-57.

Accurate Illumination System Predictions Using Measured Spatial Luminance Distributions, W.J.

Cassarly, D.R. Jenkins, H. Mnch, Jul. 2002, SPIE Vol. 4775, pp. 78-85.

Radiant Imaging: www.radimg.com

Generate Rays

Scale the Flux

Align Origins

Import Rays

Remove LED

Encompass with absorbing shell

Trace Rays

Reverse vectors

October 20, 2004

Trace Rays again

Reverse Vectors

Remove spurious rays of choice

Incremental Propagation

Export to Rayfile

Optionally import accurate LED model

Raytrace system

Optics, Intertech LED 2002, http://www.display-optics.com/pdf/tech_papers_oct2002.pdf

Refractive

Continuous Surface

Conventional lens

Microstructured

Linear Prism

Fresnel Lens

Reflective

Continuous

Parabolic Reflector

Facetted

Headlamp reflector

Diffractive

Surface Relief Diffuser

Diffraction Grating

October 20, 2004

Conventional Lens

Ubiquitously available

Outperformed by tailored nonimaging optics

Fresnel Lens

Small volume of space with short conjugates

Drafts can incur transmission loss

Reflectors

Full spherical area flux collection possible

Consumes large area of space

Diffractive

Small volume of space

Color separation

October 20, 2004

Manual Calculation

Computer Program

Fast raytraces

Does not account for non-sequential ray paths

Built in imaging tolerance analysis

Nonsequential Raytracer

Well suited to iterative solution searching

Preliminary design solution

Full design optimization

Sequential Raytracer

Photometry Integrals

Efficiency Approximations

Newtonian Lens Equations

Compatibility with CAD models

Tolerancing/Optimization possible, requires manual detuning and merit definitions and is

much slower

Prototyping

Test the design output from any of the previously listed methods by making a custom optic

Get any and every optic you can and just try it to see if it works for you: Plug and Pray

M. Kaminski, Jul. 1997, SPIE Vol. 3130 pp. 196-203

application of Simpsons rule to arbitrary intensity

profile, refer to: Secondary Optics Design

Considerations For SuperFlux LEDs, Lumileds

Application Brief: AB20-5.

October 20, 2004

Ray Angle

extent of the lens and

its focal length

Ray f/# is on a per-ray

basis and defined by

that rays angle

Speed of a lens refers

to its f/#

Fast = Low f/#

Slow = High f/#

October 20, 2004

Correct orientation

directs the plano side of

the lens face towards the

short conjugate

Example chart is for

Acrylic: n=1.494

Average value of total

efficiency of correct

orientation on previous

slide

Data is idealized, real

world factors will

decrease the efficiency

Precision

Fidelity

Scatter/Absorption

4.6 Reflectors

Parabolic

Source at focus point, far field collimated

Elliptic

Source at first focal point, image at second focal point

All light from designated source plane is redirected into defined

output half angle

Dielectric design possible

Facetted

One to one mapping

Superposition

Die cup

October 20, 2004

References:

Design of Efficient Illumination Systems, W. Cassarly, ORA, Aug. 2004 SPIE SC011

Selected Papers on Nonimaging Optics, R. Winston ed., SPIE Vol. MS 106

Image

Image

s in radians

value of s1 when s2 goes to infinity

Reference: Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed., W.J. Smith, 1990, McGraw Hill.

Example

An LED die is encapsulated by a 5mm diameter dome of

epoxy with an index of refraction of 1.5 and a radius of

curvature of 4mm. The die to dome distance is 8mm. Find the

virtual image location, the magnification and the effective

focal length of the dome lens.

R=4.0mm, n=1.5 and s1=8.0mm.

Example (continued)

Knowing the die to dome distance (s1) and the LED diameter (d), calculate

the output cone half-angle (2).

From the geometry:

Recalling that:

Output beam half-angle is 9

Using Radians:

5. Fresnel Lens

unused volume

Optionally, flatten out

the curved facets

Limitations, J.R. Egger, Aug. 1979, SPIE Vol. 193, pp. 63-68.

Refractive

Total Internal Reflective

Hybrid

Domed

References:

Thin Sheet Plastic Fresnel Lenses of High Aperture, O.E. Miller, J.H.

McLeod, W.T. Sherwood, Nov. 1951, JOSA v.41 n.11, pp.807-815.

Manufacturing Methods for Large Microstructured Optical

Components for Non-imaging Applications, J.R. Egger, Oct. 1995,

SPIE Vol. 2600, pp. 28-33.

October 20, 2004

followed by refraction at Slope

facet.

Short LED to lens conjugate

distance.

Orientation: Facets face long

conjugate (improved

transmission and minimized

draft loss)

Rays misbehaving

Rays behaving

Refracted ray

misses

TIR surface

Ray incident

on Slope

(wrong) facet

followed by TIR at Slope

facet, followed by

refraction at plano

interface.

Orientation: Facets face

source (design

requirement)

October 20, 2004

Reference: The Converging TIR Lens for Non-Imaging Concentration of Light from Compact

Incoherent Sources, W.A. Parkyn, P. Gleckman, D.G. Pelka, Jul. 1993, SPIE Vol. 2016, pp. 78-86.

conjugate distance.

facets, outer region TIR

design

Improved efficiency for

low angle and high angle

light zones

October 20, 2004

Parkyn, Jul. 1998, SPIE Vol. 3428, pp. 142-153.

Further improved

transmission efficiency at

refractive surface

into a dome shape.

Improved hemispherical light collection.

October 20, 2004

References:

Nonimaging Fresnel Lenses, R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, 2001, Springer.

TIR lenses for fluorescent lamps, W.A. Parkyn, D.G. Pelka, Jul. 1995,

SPIE Vol. 2538, pp. 93-103.

Closing Remarks

or make a Fresnel lens for

yourself, hire an expert.*

Glossary

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Azimuth: Angle around polar axis ( ). Also called the polar angle

or Longitude.

BotE: Back of the Envelope. A quick (or not-so-quick) manual

calculation.

BSOD: The windows Blue Screen of Death indicating your

computer has crashed hard. This is a highly dreadful event if it

occurs during a presentation.

CA: Clear Aperture or diameter of a lens.

Conjugate: A source or an image location relative to an optical

surface. An infinite conjugate implies the source or image is rather

far away.

Drafts: The typically unused components of Fresnel Lens facets

which returns the optical surface (slopes) back to a plane.

f: Focal length of a lens. Essentially the distance from the lens to the

point at which collimated rays intercept the optical axis.

f/#: F-number f /CA

Far Field: The condition where the distance from the source is

relatively large with respect to the source size so the source may be

treated as a point emitter.

GI GO: Garbage In equals Garbage Out.

Lambertian Emitter: A source whose luminance is independent of

the view angle.

LED SMOD: The title of this talk, Light Emitting Diode Source

Modeling for Optical Design.

Near Field: The condition under which the distance from the source

is relatively short compared to the extent of the source so the source

must be treated as an extended area and not a point.

NA: Numerical Aperture 1/2f/#

Paraxial approximation: Small angle approximation in which

Sin Tan ( in radians).

PlugnPray: Drop any old optic in to your system, cross your

fingers and test it. (chance of success) (1/importance)

Radians: A measure of angle. To convert radians to degrees

multiply by (180/ )

Slopes: The optical power components of Fresnel Lens facets which

approximate the aspheric surface of a conventional lens.

TIR: Total Internal Reflection. The reflection of light within a

media which occurs because the angle of incidence exceeds the

critical angle.

Virtual Prototyping: Making an accurate optical simulation in

order that the Pray component of PlugnPray is mitigated.

Zenith: Angle from polar axis (). Also called Latitude.

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