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THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN CHEMICAL INSTITUTE
2010
,
AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL
CHEMISTRY QUIZ
Junior Division
Year (9,10)
THURSDAY 22 JULY, 2010
Sponsored by
CHARLES STURT UNIVERSITY
**************************************
RULES
1. Do not open the book until told to do so by your teacher. The quiz consists o
f 30
multiple choice questions to be answered in 1 hour.
2. Calculators and rough-working paper are permitted.
3. Record all your answers on the computer sheet provided, in the way indicated
on back of book using a soft lead pencil,
No part of this paper may be reproduced without permission from C.L. FOGLIANI.

National Chemistrv Quiz 20 10


Question 1
In Chemistry, changes may be physical or chemical.
A chemical change occurs when
A.
water boils to form steam.
B.
water vapour freezes to form hailstones.
C.
carb()n bums inoXygen to form carbon dioxide gas.
D.
dry ice (solid C02) sublimes to form carbon dioxide gas.
Question 2
Beach sand is quartz. (silicon dioxide, Si02). mi.~ed with fragments of s~a shel
l.
Sea shells are made. of calci~11) carbon~te,CaCO,.>Calcium carbonate. react~
with dilute hydrochloric acid, HCI,. foiming. carbon dioxide .gas . and ,calcium
chloride. Quartz and HCldo. not re~ct. To remove the sea shells from the quartz
in a sample of sand, Ashwyn soaked lhe'sa1ld in warm, dilute HCI. .
How could Ashwyn be sure that all the calcium carbonate has reacted?
A.
Evaporate some solution to check whether calcium chloride has formed.
B.
Pass the gas through limewaterto see. ifthe limewater turns milky.
C.
Observe whether any fragments of shelliarestill.visible.
D.
Add extra warm HCI until no more bubbles appear.
Question 3
The equation for the reaction between aluminiulT1(,.~rtiideand water is
AI,C, + 12 H20 -7 4 AI(OH), + 3 CH,
The number of hydrogen atoms represented by 4 AI(OH), is
A.
3 B. 4 C. 12 D.24
Question 4
The gas methane, CH" is a useful fuel.}t ..i.~(g':9duse8i~ wet, anoxic
environments by bacteria called methanogens: Methanefuelc~nb,~,f",covered
from rubbish, by tapping the gas fromold nubbishdurrips,a~d.fro~animalwastes
held in tanks. Methanogens get energy from chemical reactions that take oXygen
from carbon dioxide and produce methane as a waste. ,.
The term anoxic is most likely to mean
A.
containing many bacteria.
B.
free of compounds of oXygen.
C.
free of elemental oXygen, 02.
D. containing compounds of carbon.
Questions for Years 9 & 10

QUestion 5
The element nitrogen forms seven different compounds with oXygen.
Ten gram samples of each of the following four oxides were analysed.
Which compound would contain the greatest mass of nitrogen?
A.
NO B. N20 C. N20, D. N20.
Question 6
Some oxides of nitrogen are significant air pollutants. Scientists who study air
pollution often refer to nitrogen oxides collectively as NO
What is the meaning of the 'x' in the formula NO.?

A.
'x' means that scientists don't know how much oXygen is in these compounds.
B.
'x' refers to different amounts of oXygen that can combine with nitrogen when
nitrogen oxides are formed.
C.
'x' refers to the different amounts of these gases in the air, which vary with t
he
amount of air pollution.
D.
'NO; is a way of stating that these gases are noxious forms of air pollution.
Question 7
Dozen, score, gross and mole are all terms used to describe a certain number of
items. Dozen =12; score =20; gross =144; and mole =6 x 10'"
In one mole of carbon dioxide C02 molecules there are
A.
1/3 mole of carbon atoms and 2/3 mole of oXygen atoms.
B.
1 mole of carbon atoms and 2 mole of oxygen atoms.
C.
6 carbon atoms and 12 oXygen atoms
D.
2 carbon atoms and 4 oXygen atoms.
Question 8
A recent newspaper article described an 'acid spill'. The article detailed how a
sodium hydroxide solution had been spilled at a factory and the factory had to b
e
evacuated.
The article was factually
A.
correct because sodium hydroxide is a dangerous acid.
B.
correct because all chemical spills require an area to be evacuated.
C. incorrect because sodium hydroxide is a base.
D.
incorrect because sodium hydroxide does not form a solution.

National Chemistry Quiz 2010


Questions 9 and 10 refer to the following information.
As part of an assignment, a student drew the diagram shown to illustrate the
construction of a dry cell. The teacher told the student that a cell made like t
he
one in the diagram would not work.
~:;~on electrode (+)
Zinc electrode
casing (-)
Electrolyte paste
r-"ii~;rt====--=:~eblcap.:r
1111(
..
Question 10
Question 9
What is wrong with the cell in the diagram?
A.
The carbon rod is touching the zinc.
B.
The casing should be plastic to
insulate the battery, not zinc.
C. The
electrolyte paste should be
replaced with battery acid.
D. There should be
no seal as it would
prevent electricity from flowing out of
the cell.
The electrolyte paste in the dry cell is mainly a mixture of manganese dioxide a
nd
ammonium chloride. Manganese dioxide is a black solid that is insoluble in water
and has a density of 5.0 g/cm3 Ammonium chloride is a white solid that is very
soluble in water and has a density of 1.5 g/cm3
Which method would allow you to obtain a pure sample of solid ammonium
chloride from the mixture?
Stir the mixture with water,
A.
filter and evaporate the filtrate to dryness.
B.
filter and heat the solid residue to dryness.
C.
and collect the less dense ammonium chloride from the surface of the water.
D.
allow the more dense manganese dioxide to settle out, then pour off the liquid.
Question 11
Dylan did some research and found that the solubility of oxygen gas in water:

increases
decreases
decreases
increases
To maximise

with increasing pressure,


with increasing temperature,
with decreasing pressure, and
with decreasing temperature.
the amount of oxygen dissolved in a litre of water, Dylan should

A.
decrease the pressure
B.
decrease the pressure
C.
increase the pressure
D.
increase the pressure
Questions for Years 9

and decrease the temperature.


and increase the temperature.
and decrease the temperature.
and increase the temperature.
& 10

Questions 12 and 13 refer to the following information.


Silver nitrate, AgN03, is very soluble in water. The table shows the volumes of
solution obtained by dissolving various masses of silver nitrate in various volu
mes
of water at room temperature.
Mass ~~~gN03 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
Volume of water
(mL)
9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0
Volume of
solution (mL)
9.2 8.4 7.6 6.8 6.0 5.2
--4.4
-Ii
ii
II
~ ~ ~
Question 12
!) 25 g of AgN03 is dissolved in 50 mL of water. What would be the final volume?

A.
51.0 mL B. 55.0 mL C. 60.0 mL D. 75.0 mL
Question 13
The solubility of AgN03 can be expressed as grams of AgNO,J1 00 mL of H20.
From these data it is reasonable to predict that the solubility of silver nitrat
e in
water at room temperature is
A.
greater than 230 g/100 mL of water.
B.
greater than 700 g/100 mL of water.
C. greater than 11 but less than 230 g/100 mL of water.

D.
greater than 230 but less than 700 g/100 mL of water.
Question 14
When an iron nail is placed in a solution of copper chloride, CuCI2, the iron
dissolves into the solution and copper metal replaces it on the surface of the n
ail.
The atoms of the three elements can be represented as:
.. Iron A Copper

Chlorine

Which equation is the best representation of the reaction?


'r A. +
B.
+
:'
il C. e-......
"
II D. CB-.t.
I'j
II
\'
ct-Al-ct
CB CB + A
+ A
ct-A
+-A + ct+CB A + CB

National ChemistrY Quiz 2010


Questions 15 and 16 refer to the following Information.
Boyle's Law and Charles's Law are statements about the behaviour of gases.
Boyle's Law states that the volume of a gas decreases as pressure is increased i
f
the temperature is constant.
Charles's Law states that the volume of a gas increases as temperature
increases if the pressure is constant.
If the temperature increases while the volume doesn't change, the pressure will
increase.
The graphs show the relationship between temperature, pressure and volume for
a 32 g sample of oxygen.
200 --T "'i'"
-m 'I":
'l2 150 -~-i
-; i I
~ I
ill 100 ..,. (-..
~ 1
"
50 ~
o -L-~---+--------l a
a 100 200 300 400
o 50 100 150 200
Temperature (C)
Volume (L)
Pressure = 100 kPa
Temperature = 25 "C
A 25 L sample of oxygen gas at 25 C was heated at a constant pressure of
100 kPa until its volume was 50 L.
Question 15 Question 16
To what temperature was the The volume of the gas was then kept at 50 L
gas heated? while the temperature was allowed to cool back
to 25 C. What will be the pressure, in kPa, of
A. 50C C. 150 C the gas at 25 C?
B. 100C D. 325C

A. 25 B.50 C.100 D.200


Question 17
When a sUbstance such as copper(lI) nitrate, Cu(N03)2, dissolves in water it
forms copper (Cu2+) and nitrate (NOn ions in solution.
The solution of copper(lI) nitrate contains
A. an equal number of copper and nitrate ions.
B. an equal number of copper ions and nitrogen atoms.
C. twice as many nitrate ions as copper ions.
D. six times as many nitrate ions as copper ions.
60
. 50
"-1 . 1
. d 40
--, ------'1'---'---'-'j
"
! ----L---I----l
~ 30
,.-. i . I
15
: j ------..j---i
> 20
--i . ! I
.~
10
!-i--i
1
Questions for Years 9 & 10
Question 18
Four separate solutions of potassium permanganate, KMnO., were prepared. The
intensity of the purple colour formed is an indication of the concentration of
KMnO. in the solution, the most concentrated being the most purple.
The four solutions were made up as follows:
What is the order of colour intensity of
the solutions, from least to most
purple?
Solution Mass of
KMnO. (g)

Volume of
water (mL)
1 0.50 25
2 1.50 50
3 2.40 200
4 3.80 250
A. 1,2,3,4 C. 3,1,4,2
B. 2,4,1,3 D. 3,4,1,2
Question 19
Benzene, C6H6, is used for making explosives, plastics, dyes and fuels.
Figure 1 shows two ways the structure of benzene can be represented.
Note that each carbon atom has four bonds and each hydrogen atom one bond.
H
H.(6",,1'" 0""
H'C'c~C'H ~
cP
H Figure 1 FiQure 2
Figure 2 shows the structure of naphthalene, a chemical found in coal tar. It wa
s
often used in mothballs, but is now mainly used for making phthalic anhydride.
What is the chemical formula for naphthalene?
A. C'2H'2 B. C'2H1O C. C,0H1O D. C10HB
Question 20
A chemical equation shows the exact ratios of materials that react.
Usually in a chemical reaction, however, one reactant is used up before the othe
r
one. The one that is used up first is called the limiting reagent because it
determines how much product can be made.
The diagram shows a reaction between two substances X2 and XY2 producing
"
X3Y and Y2.
~E15
~.. ~
00 f/J'I-+
., 00
;f~
OO~OO
What is the limiting
reagent in this reaction?
A. X2

B. XY2
C. X3Y
D. Y2

National Chemistry Quiz 2010


Question 21
A catalyst is a substance that can be used to speed up a reaction. A catalyst is
not consumed in the reaction.
An example of a catalysed reaction is the formation of water from hydrogen, H2,
and oxygen, 02, gases using powdered platinum catalyst.
Which sequence of
diagrams best
represents the catalysed
~~~~
reaction between
hydrogen and oxygen?
~~~~
+ + + +
~~~~
A. B. C. D.
Question 22
Some enzymes are catalysts that assist in the digestion of food. Which
experimental setup would be best to investigate the effect of temperature on
enzyme action? Key
Enzyme
~W tp~ tpbj ~bj~ Food
Heat
A. B. C. D.
Question 23
Four bottles of chemicals have lost their labels. The four chemicals are sodium
carbonate, potassium chloride, magnesium oxide and magnesium chloride.
Chemical testing of the contents of the bottles indicates that:
neither bottle 1 nor bottle 4 is sodium carbonate
bottles 2 and 3 do not contain magnesium oxide
bottle 3 does not contain potassium chloride nor sodium carbonate
bottle 4 is neither potassium chloride nor magnesium chloride.
What chemical is in bottle 1?
A. sodium carbonate C. magnesium oxide
B. potassium chloride D. magnesium chloride
Questions for Years 9 & 10
Questions 24 and 25 refer to the following information.
When a pure substance changes state its temperature stays constant while the
change of state is occurrlng.

The graph shows the temperature of four solid substances (w, X. Y, and Z) as
they were heated at the same rate for 8 minutes.
Temperature-time graph
700
Substance W
GOD
e:
e:
SOD .~ /'/Substance X
Substance Y
~ 400

! 300
E
~
200 / / ~ c= Substance Z
loo
0
3 .
0 1 2 4 5 G 7 8 9 10
Time (minutes)
Question 24
Which conclusion can validly be drawn from this graph?
A. Substance W
B. Substance Z
C. Substance Y
D. Substance X
Question 25
When substance
210 C when it

has
has
has
has

the highest melting point.


completely melted after 3 minutes.
a higher melting point than substance X.
a higher melting point than substance W.

Z was heated for a further 5 minutes its temperature rose to


changed colour and gave off a gas.

Substance Z is
A. an element. C. a mixture of elements.
B. a compound. D. a mixture of compounds.

National Chemistry Quiz 2010


Questions 26 and 27 refer to the following Information.
Antimony trioxide is the most important commercial compound of antimony, with
an annual consumption of about 120 000 tonnes. It is mainly used as flame
retardant in electrical appliances and' textiles. It is found in nature as'the m
ineral
valentinite. It can also be produced in the laboratory by the direct combinatio~
of
antimony (chemical symbol, Sb) and oxygen (0).
The graphs show the composition of antimony trioxide.
4
3
2
1
o
of atoms
100,----80
60
40
20
o
Percentage
proportion by mass
Question 26
What is the fonnula for
antimony trioxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
II

SbO
Sb03
Sb302
Sb203

Question 27
What is the approximate mass of an atom of antimony compared with that of an
oxygen atom?
A. 7.6 B.5.3 C. 1.5 D. 0.67
Question 28
The solubility of sodium fluoride, NaF, in water at 25'C is 4.100 g per 100.0 g
of
water. Assume 100.0 g of water occupies a volume of 100.0 ml.. A saturated
solution is prepared by adding 6.000 g of NaF to 100.0 mL of water at 25 'C in a
beaker and stirring thoroughly.
The following sequence of steps is carried out.
Step 1. 50.0 mL of solution is removed from the beaker and discarded.
Step 2. 50.0 mL of water is added to the beaker and stirred.
Step 3. 50.0 mL of solution is removed from the beaker and discarded.
The maximum mass of NaF now remaining and recoverable from the beaker is

A. 1.025g. B. 1.900 g. C. 1.975 g. D. 4.100 g.


9
Questions for Years 9 & 10
Question29
Acids are a group of compounds that vary in strength. The strength of an acid is
measured by its dissociation constant, K,; stro~g acidshave high K, values, weak
acids have ,low K, values. The"table gives the K,values for, some weak acids.
Note,that some of these are very small numbers.
Acid ,,' Fonnula K,
chlorous HCICl2 ' , 1.1 x1'oc2
" hypobromous 1"HoBr ".,
," 2;3x10-9"
hvpochlorous ,'HOCI 3.b x10....
"
hydrofluoric , HF 6.8x 10';"
hypoiodous I ' HOI I 2.3x,10~11
Acetic acid, CH3COOH, "(hich is a major component ofvinegar is a stronger acid
than'hypochlorous acid,'butis weaker than hydrofluoric acid. What is a possible
Ka value for acetic acid? '
A. 6.9x 10-3 B. 8.0 x 10 .... C.1.7x10'" D.1.2x10....
Question 30
Atoms in molecules are held together by chemical bonds. To break a chemical
bond requires the inputofacertainamount,ofenergy. When the same chemical
bondfonns, an equal amount ofenergy is released into the surroundings.
This amount of energy is c~lIed the bond energy of the chemical bond.
The table shows the bond energies of some chemical bonds.
,
Bond , H H 11-1 H-I
Energy Goules) 7.24 x 10 19 I 2.51 X 10-'9 4.95 X 10-19
The reaction between hydrogen gas, (H2) and, iodine gas (12) to form hydrogen
iodide (HI) gas can be shown by the equation
H2 + I, 72 HI
For this ,reaction, the difference, .in JOUles, between -the total energy needed
to
break all the bonds and the energy released when new bonds fonn is
A. 0.15 X 10-'9 B. 4.80 X 10-'9 C. 5.26 X 10-'9 D. 14.7 X 10-19
Questions compiled and typeset by Martin Sormus, Wollongong, NSW, with thanks fo
r advice received
from; Andrew Eaton, NSW, David Miller. Old, and Lyndon Smith, WA.
Printed at Brian Burke Printing, Bathurst, NSW, Australia