You are on page 1of 145

PART(A)

TEXT, PROBLEMS, ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS


Chapter
1.

ARTICLES
Articles - 'A, An, The', Idiomatic Uses of 'A I An', Difference between 'A' and
'An', Uses of 'The', Omission ofArticles, Problems, Answers, E~planatic;>Ds

2.

4,
5.

6.

Nouns and Numbel'S'-Singulaf.' Nouns, Singular and Plural Nouns (No change in
form), Plural Nouns, Singubu:.1.Pl\:mrtFormation, Uses of Singular Nouns, Uses of
Plural Nouns, Problems.Answers, Explanations

16-23

SUBJECT - VERB. AGREEMENT


Subject - verb Agreement,. Problems, Answers, Explanations

24-32

TTh1E & TENSES


Present Tense-Present Indefinite, Present Imperfect/Continuous, Present Perfect,
Present Perfect Continuous, PastTense-Past Indefinite, Past Imperfect/Continuous,
Past Perfect, Past Perfect Contmueus; Future 'Iense=-Puture Indefinite, Future
Imperfect/Continuous, PururePesfect, Probfems,-.Answers, Explanations

33-41

PRONOUNS

~
8.

42-49

ADJECTIVES
Adjectiv.es-Definition, Classification, Proper Adjective, Distributive, Use of each,
every, either, neither, eaeh and every. Demonstrative, Numeral, Order of Numerals,
Quantitative. Order of Indefinite Numerals and Definite Numerals, Qualitative,
Interrogative, Degree of Csmpariserr, Same Important Facts : Comparatively I
Relatively, Enough, Interchanges, of Degrees; Problems, Answers, Explanations

9-15

NOUNS & NUMBERS

Pronouns-Definition, Classification, Uses of Personal Pronouns, Uses of Objective


Case Pronouns:, 'Than:' and, the Case, Distributive, Reciprocal, Demonstrative,
Reflexive, Emphatic, Relative, Uses ef who I which I that etc., Who-/ Whom,
-Iruerrogative, Exclamatory, Ph:JbfelliS')Answer-s; Explanations
7.

1-8

NOUNS & CASES


Case-Definition, Types, Possessive Case, Uses. of Apostrophe 's' ('s), Problems,
Answers, Explanations

3.

Page No.

50-58

VERBS:
Verbs.--Au,xiliary Verbs, Primary Auxiliaries, Modal Auxiliaries, Main Verbs I
Principal Verbs; Infinitives-Uses of Infinitives; Usesof Inflnitives (without 'to') or
(Bare Infinitives), Participles, P-toblems~'.Answ.ers, Explanations

59--71

(xii)

Chapter

9.

.,..

< ',""i
..
ADVERBS
Adverbs-Classification, Simple Adverbs, Interrogative Adverbs, Relative Adverbs,
Some Important Adverbs and their uses, Position' of Adverbs, Inversion, Problems,
Answers, Explanations

Page No.

72-85

10. CONJUNCTIONS
Conjunctions-Some

important Conjunctions

and their uses, Problems, Answers,

Explanations

86 :._ 93

11. VOICES

Voice-Definition, Kinds of Voices, General Rules regarding Active to Passive,


Tense & Voice, Present Indefinite, Present Imperfect, Present Perfect, Past
Indefinite, Past Imperfect, Past Perfect, Future Indefinite, Future Perfect, Passive of
Interrogative Sentences, Passive of 'Yes/No Questions', Passive of Questions beginning
with 'Do/Does/Did', Passive of Questions beginning with 'Have/Has/Had', Passive of
Questions beginning with 'Modal Auxiliary Verbs', Passive of 'Wh-Questions'. Passive
of Imperative Sentence, Passive of Sentences expressing 'order/request' etc., Passive
of sentences expressing 'Suggestion/Advice', Passive of sentences expressing
'request', Passive of To be+ Infinitive

(To+ V1), Passive of Have/Has/Had+

Infinitive (To + V\ Passive of Stative Verbs, Passive of Verbs+ Preposition-e


Object, Problems, Answers, Explanations

94-105

12. NARRATIONS
Narration-Definition. Kinds of Narrations, Some important information about
Narration, Changing Direct Narration into Indirect Narration, General Rules, Indirect
Narration of Assertive Sentences, Indirect Narration of Interrogative Sentences,
Indirect Narration of Imperative Sentences, Rules regarding 'order I request', Indirect
Narration of sentences beginning with 'Let', Indirect Narration of Optative
Sentences, Indirect Narration of Exclamatory Sentences, 'Must' and Indirect
Narration, Problems, Answers, Explanations

106-

13. PREPOSITIONS
Prepositlon=-Definition, Classification, Prepositions of Direction, Prepositions of
Place, Preposition of Time, Some other Prepositions, Some important facts about
Prepositions, Some Nouns and appropriate Prepositions, Some Verbs and appropriate
Prepositions, Some Adjectives and Participles followed by Prepositions, Problems,
Answers, Explanations.

117-1

1-t SUPERFLUOUS EXPRESSIONS & SLANG


Superfluous Expressions and Slang-Definition, Some important Suprefluous.
Expressions and Slang, Problems, Answers, Explanations

135-1411

116

***

Chapter- 1

ARTICLES

t ~ ~ wwr

A,An ~ The <N Articles q;m ~


~Noun~ indefinite 7.IT.Definite ~
~ ~

~-

!;

(i) A beggar; has stol_en your shirt.

(ii) This is the house in which I live.


<Jm ~ (i) ~ beggar~ ~A q;r ~
Indefinite Articles q;m ~- t ~
~
Indefinite~
ti ar: A beggar q;r a.1Yf t
1'"raro'1 ~
~ ~
~ ~ "q' ~ ~

mt~~t,
t,

~ ~

~ ffiIT

A 7.IT An~
Noun ~

{1

m- ~

1. Uses of Al An : Al An q;r
Noun~~mmt; ~(i) Mohan is a
sinfer.

Singular Countable

J".
a

(ii) This is an

Noun
(Singular Countable)

~ ~ fl ~(i) Ravi prefers I self employment I to job I in any office. I

~ R'1l1r ~ anmfto Problems~


(B)

(D)

(C)

No Error.
. (E)

[B.S.R.B. (Bhopal) P.O. EXAM., 1989]


~ ~
q;r Part (C) l'fffii t ~
'job' ~
Singular
Countable Noun t ~
~ 'a' q;r ffl' WTTI ar: ~
~ajob~I

(q

were

I carrying umbrellas. I No Error.


(D).

~~ JiFi <iii

(E)

[B.S.R.B. (Patna) Clerical Exam., 1993]


Pan (A) "1fffif l ~
'day'~
Singular

Countable Noun t ~
~ 'a' q;r Jl<IT7T ff ~,
day ~ ~
~ Adjective rainy t ~
~ a q;r
rainy~ ~
~I ani: ~
~
a rainy day ~I
(iii) Summons I was served I on Ram. I No Error.
(A)

(B)

(C)

t~

~
q;r Part (A) 1ffi<f
Countable Noun t ~
~
ffl' A Summons mrITI ~~

(B)

somewhat similar to radio waves. I No Error.


(D)

(C)

[R.R.B., (Tiruvananthpuram)A.S.M. Exam., 2001]


t ~
way~
Singular
Countable Noun t ~
~ a q;r ~
am: ~
ffl' in a way Ml
.
~

1fr-!' q;r Part (B) ~

mm1

2. Some Idiomatic uses of Al An :


(a) ~
(number) cfi!fT .ll'ffl Htl.'lql<ft ~
~
expressions jt: ~A lot (of)
A great many (of)
A great deal (of)
A good many (of)
A good deal (of)
A number (of)
A large quantity (of) A large number (of)
A large amount (of)
A great number (of)
~ (b) ~ 3F<f expressions it : eat a humble pie, in a hurry,
in a dilemma, in a rage, in a mood,
at a
loss, have a drink, have a rest, have a walk, go for a
walk, have a headache, have a sleep, have a dream,
have a chat, have a quarrel, have a fight, make a
noise, take a risk, take a hint, take a rest, take a meal,
have a good/bad education, get/give/award a
scholarship etc.
~ idiomatic wwil' ~ ~ a ~ ~Problem R;lfT ~

t1~(i)

Nathan's habit of I delaying his work I put his


.

~
WWT

(D)

[C.D.S. Exam., 1999)


summons 'Q,q'i Singular
A. q;r ~

m11TI am: ~

(A)

(B)

- collegues I to lot of trouble. I No Error.


(C)

(ii) It being rainy day I most of the people I out on the


(A)
(B)
strcc(

(A)

~w1..n:w.er,

an Noun
(Singular Countable)

(A)

in

~
~ f1rartt, ~
~ t fq; ~

the q;r ~
!1 The q;r
~ ~ Noun ~ Definite
~ q;r ~ mm ti ~

qiq<j
(ii) ~ house ~ ~
Definite Article q;m "ffilT t ~
q:m:rr
am: The house t ~

!1

Summons=-nfnoun), pl
(=
plural) summonses
[c (= countable)] an official order to appear in a court of
law: serve a summons on sb (= somebody)
-LONGMAN DICTIONARY OF
CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH (p. 1446)
(iv) Laser beams can carry / long distance signals way I

(D)

(E)

[B.S.R.B. (Delhi) P.O. Exam. - 1990]


~ 1Jr-f q;r Part (D) Tfffif t <FITfcf; lot~
a q;r WWT
mrITI ani: a lot of trouble~ ~ mrITI
NOTE-: lot ~ plural iiR"R ~
Part ~
~
lots of q;f ffl' ,it mm
(ii) Even though our team took the field with great
confidence, the opposition made them eat the humble
~(A) a humble pie
(B) humble pie
(D) No improvement
(C) humble pies
[C.l).S. Exam., 1999]
~ 1Jr-f ~ underlined Part 'the humble pie'~ ~
(A)
~ ~ ~ ~
'a bumble pie' ~ improve ~
~
~
eat a humble pie~ idiom ti

t,

m~

m~

A Mirror of Common Errors


3. Difference between A and An : A cfiT ml' consonant
'sound(~~) t
~~A pen/A box/A table/A car. [<!"ITT pen cfiT ~
sound zv/, box cfiT Wffi sound RI, ~
cfiT ~
sound .
lei ~ car l5T ~
sound ~/ consonant sounds !I]
An cfiT "ffl vowel sound t ~
~
~ $
maT ti ~-An orange I An elephant I An OX I An ass.
[~ orange q;r ~
sound /3TI/, elephant q;r ~
sound
/fl./, ox qii' ~
sound /a-rr/, ass q;r ~
sound /rf/
vowel sounds t'1]
NOTE : ~
~ q;r ~
sound consonant t <IT vowel
~
~
,3.l'T4' '3'l=I' ~
q;r'~
~~~~I
it. fcnm ~ cfiT ~
letter~
q;r vowel~
an cfiT
'll'R consonant
~
~ a q;r
~I ~
M.A. cfiT ~
letter 'M'
consonant t ~
~ ~
~~ ti ~ q;r
~
sound rtl/ ~ vowel ti anr: An M.A. q;r ~
~, fc!9; Member q;r ~
letter 'M' t ~
~
sound m; ~ consonant ti anr: A Member cfiT ~
~I f~i.if~f'<Sld ~ ~ ~ A~ An~ ~
q;\" ~ :
an X-ray plant {~-t ~] [~
sound~
t1J
a one-way .ticket ['a.-;:r-~ ~] [~
sound /cf/ t"1]
a unique man [~
lRJ [~ sound ~/ ti)
an umbrella [~J [~
sound /al/ t"1J
~~~~Problems~~~

~~~~~mart,

2. Some Important-Uses of-'The' : (i) ~

mr

~m
~

mm

m ~ am

I am not I wealthy so I I cannot afford to buy I a


(A)
(B)
.
(C)
expensive car./ No Error.
{D)
(E)

{B.S.R.B. (Jaipur) Clerical Exam., 1991)


Part (D) ~
ti ~ Part if a~ ~
q;r if<lllT
expensive ~<Rlqf.:ecj) qi!' ~
sound ~I fiRT' <f;T vowel !1]
(ii) He had no I illusion of being I either a distinguished
(A)
(B)
(C)
writer I or a editor I No Error.
(D)
(E)
[~

mrrr ~

[B.S.R.B. (Lucknow) Clerical Exam., 1993]


Part (D) ~ a ~ ~
an q;r 'lfclTlT mnT'

[~ m ~
~

ti]

editor q;r ~

sound

i. Uses .of 'The' :-The cfiT

/Tl/ ~

'lflrrTr

ciii ~

llq,t<!cfidl:j'81<

vowel

f<f;m

Singular Countable Noun, Plural Countable Noun <IT


Uncountable Noun ~ definite oRFt ~ ~ fcf;<!r ~
t;

~(i) You.are the

man

T.

git

the notm (Ph.mu


Countable)
t_ iii)

1he

-r

The

-water
r of this well. is polluted.
Noun (Uncountable)

li ~-

Sunil is I a. best student I in our class I at present.' I


. (A) .
(B) .
(C) .
.(D).
No Error.
[B.S.R.B. (Patna), Clerical Exam.'1988]
(E)

mr ~

$ Part (B) if a~ ffi the cfiT ~


~
~
superlative degree ~ adjective ~ ~
the %r ~
ti m: the best student~ ~ ~I]
than qj' to cfiT ~
the cfiT ~
~

(!'comparative Degree $ ~ ~
'3'l=I' Comparative Degree js ~

mar

mm

maT t';

~(i) He is better than you. [;i- ~ the better than]


(ii) She is senior to you. [:r ~ the senior to]
~~~.~Problem~(i) The interviewer asked me I if I knew that I Kalidas was
(A)
(B)
the greater I than any other poet. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
.
[B.S.R,.B. (P.O.) Exam., 1996)
'll'r-1' ~ Part (C) it the cfiT WUTT "lfffif t ~
~
'q'l';p:f if comparative + than cfiT ml' ti am: Kalidas was
greater.. ...~ ffl ~I]
. ,
~ f.:ti..if~f{sld 4RR21Rl<.il it Comparative Degree~
The q;r
t~(A)
Comparative Degree.~ ~
of the two cfiT ~

mr

-m ~

*ti";~-

who helped me.

the Noun (Singular


Countable)
(ii) These are the
whom I have invited.

m; ~-

~~~~problems~~~

an

'q;I'

~ :rrm

3. Superlative Degree~ Adjectives~


(i) She is the tallest girl in the class.
(ii) He is the best boy in the class.

tr~-

(i)

~ ~

*m ~~ ~

$ ~

~-The
Ganges (or The Ganga), The Brahmputra, The
Cauvery, The. Krishna), ~
$ ;ni:rl' $ ~
~-The
Arabian sea, The Red Sea, The Dead Sea}, l4{ii.~lHl<I' ~
:;rirr:$
~-The
Indian Ocean, Th, Pacific Ocean
The Atlantic Oceari), ffl . ~
$. :rim ~ ,m;t.
~-The Himalayas, The Alps),~
~
$ ~
~-The
east, The West)~
~
~ i:lidiq{Oj
atdl.?tcll~ ~
$ ~
~-The
top, The bottom, The
centre, The weather, The world, The meuntains etc.), 'tr=r.
$ ~
~-The
Andamans, The
Nicobars, The Phillipines, 'Jbe East Indies, Tne West
Indies)

He is the better of the two boys.

--r -r-

the comp.
(B)

~vt.
"/

~~~'ff

w.

of the two

it

~~-:?:IT~~

"'.erb,

the + Comp. + Subject +


the + Comp.. +
Subject+ Verb cfiT ~
t; ~-
(i) The more he gets, the morehe wants.

~ Rcflt ~ ~

~-

mm-

Problems ~

ti

A Mirror of Common Errors


(i)

....

In a mountaineering expedition I higher you go from


(A)
~).
the base camp I the colder you feel. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
.
[S.C.R.A. Exam., 1998]
[Wm~
Part (B) "G' higher~
the <fiT

WTrl

the higher~!]

31(!'.: ~~

the higher~ improve

5. l-11'11=-ld<ll Ordinal Adjective ~ ~

~Noun +of+

m~

(i) The students

of this

J,

,i,

the

Noun

of

W ~
(i)

"R ~

t;

Noun

~I]

class are naughty.

.J,
Noun

a.i"Ntftf Problems~

S. school, college, church, hospital, prison, jail, court, bed,

!1 ~--:--

[B.S.R.:S. Jaipur, Clerical Exam., 1992]


~ Part (B) ~ an~ ~
the <fiT >l<fl'lT ~]
OMISSION OF ARTICLES

l. fcl:;zjt ~
(Subject),. '111iT (language), ~
sports)~~~~
Articleq;f ~iti(~

(games &

mm t; tt-

Q_)fq,(:!J Possessive Adjective (My, Your, Our, etc.), ~


Demonstrative Adjective (This, That, These, Those, No,
Any, Other, Any other, etc.) fef;zjt Distributive Adjective
(each, either, neither, every)~ dfR ~
Noun~
Article ci>r 3i<TI7T ~
t; ~(i) This is my house. [:r f<F; a/the house]

mm

(ii)

ffl

"ffl" ~

Th~ injured

man was sent to hospital. [~

~ ~

~iftcr Problems~(i) The moment Vignesh was I admitted to the hospital I


{A)
.
(B)

~~'qt

the warden decided I to inform his parents. I No Error.


(C) .
(D)
(E)
[B.S.R.B. (Bangalore), P.O. Exam., 1991]
[~ w:; ~ Part (B) if hospital ~ ~
the cfiT ~

(ii) The robbers were I caught just as they I were about to I

(ii) She can speak Hindi, Sanskrit and English.

(ii) This house is mine. [:r 1% a/the house]


(iii) Each boy was ready. [:r 1% a/the boy]
3. Kind of, type of, sort of, variety of, rank of, post-of, title
of, position of, A number of, A large number of, A lot of,
.Lots of, Plenty of, A great deal of~ dfR ~
Noun ~
~
Article q:;r ~
~
!; ~(i) I do not like this kind of man. [:r 1% a man]

mm

(ii) He has been promoted to the rank of S.P. p:!' fcl; an

m the S.P.]

~~}ill~-~~
Wt ~ it
(i) I go to school daily. [~
~ ft:n!J
q;r ~

W1TTI]

( i) He is a student of history.

S.P.

market q;r

~l Article

The teacher drew I an attention of the l boys to the


(A)
.
(B)
(G}
importance I of regular practice. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
[~ ~

~-

The man is mortal I and ultimately he has to leave


(A)
(B)
everything here, I yet how irrationally he remains attached
(C)
-~.
to his worldly possessions. I No Error.
.CD)
(E),
[B.S.R.B. (Bombay) P.O. Exam., 1994]
~~%Part
(A)~ man~-~
the cfiT ~
~

the~~mmt; tt-

$ ~

Noun <nT ~

<ITT!: cITif<l' "Interrogative Sentence it ~; ~-

(i) Man is mortal.


(ii) Woman is man's mate.
~~"'.~Problem

(i) Who was the first President of India ?


6. l-lll-11-<ldl!I

~mrrt;~-

"q;vJT ~I

the cfil'

cf;!" 'll~

4. Man, Woman, Life, Death, Science, Art, Nature .q;r ffi


~ ~
~ it
ftf;m Article q;r ~

(B) the high

<fiT ~

NOT~ : Kind of, type of, sort of ~ dfR ~an


What type of a singer is he ?
'ii i What type of singer is he ?

(C) the higher


(D) No improvement
[S.S.C. (Section officer Comni'ercial Exam., 2001)]
~ 1!v-r cf>!" underlined part higher ciit (C) ~ ~
,ro:
~

(iii) A lot of money has beenspent. (:r fct; the money]

m m ~ w.

(ii) The greater the demand, higher the price.


(A) high

(A)
escape from the jail. I No Error.
. (D)
(E)
[~

(B)

(C)

[B.S.R.B. (Lucknow) Clerical Exam., 1992]


~ Part (I)) .if jail ~
the q;r
WIT
escape from jail WITI] ..

.am ~ ~

m~

mtt

6. f.,yf(i,fd phrases if Articles q'iT 1flTI'lT ~


t(a) by post I by chance I by messenger I by, cheque I by
air I by land I by sea I by road I by car I by bus I by jeep I
by train I by plane I by steamer I by scooter I by bicycle I
by mistake.
~~b) ~n fact_! in detail Ii~ short I in tr_oubJe Ii~ confusio~ i
f\n time I m demand I in danger I m life I m haste I in
cricis I in difficulty I in doubt I in debt.
(c) on strike I on duty I on foot I on payment I on leave I
on demand I on time I on earth.
(d) write in ink I write in pencil_(~
write with a !)ea I
write with a pencil).

.
A Mirror of Common Errors

PROBLEMS BASED ON ARTICLES

~.....

Directions : Find out the error in each of the following


sentences if any. ff there is no error, your answer is 'E'.
1. In science the credit goes to
.
(A)

man I who convinces the


(B)

world, I not to the man to whom I the idea first occurs. I


(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)
2. It is only after I the war is over I that people realise I how
(A)
.
(B)
(C)
bad it was/ No Error.
(D)
(E)

~~.iOf

the two I answers, this I


(A)
(B)
No Error.
(E)

is

definitely I better.
(C)
(D)

4. He is unfortunate enough I to lose I few friends he made I


(A)
(B)
during his stay at Patna./ No Error.

. . (D)

(C)

~ I have been I informed that I Dr. Sinha visits Patna I the


(A)
(B)
(C)
following month./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

'k 7. He is I the best artist I of the time but unfortunately/ least


(A)
(B)
recognised./ No Error.
.
(E)

(C)

(E)

9, I don't. like I that type of a man /who does nothing but I


(A)
(B)
(C)
find out faults in others. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

He

12. When the house was I set on the fire, all the people I
(A)
(B)
started crying at the top I of their voices. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
13. A first step I in 'a rational solution/ to any problem is the I
(A)
(B)
. (C)
recognition of the fact that a problem exists. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
14. Little knowledge I of music that he possessed I proved to
(A)
(B)
be a boon for him I when he was utterly helpless. I No
(C)
(D)
Error.
(E)

15. Don't talk to f him, he always I remains in temper I these


(A) .
days. I No Error .
(D)
(E)

(C) .

@;He boasts of i having good knowledge I of mathem~tics


(A)
(B)
/
but everybody
I knows how far he is good at
(C)
(D)
mathematics./ No Error.
(E)

;_p

17. It was I by a mistake I that he caught I her hand. I No


(A)
(B)
(q
(D)
Error.
(E)
18. These orders of I the Manager I may put the lives of/ two
. (A)
(B)
(C)
thousand workers in a danger. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
r=.
.
-~
19. I inspired him I to take the heart I in
adverse situations/
(A)
(B)
(C)
and deserve to be called a real hero. i No, Error,
(D)
(E)

an

8. He said that lw kit nervous I because a friend of his I had


iN
(B)
given him I a very bad news.' I No Error.:
CC)

11 .. The remedy lies I in promoting values of humanism i and


(A)
(B)
democracy so as to combat I the oncoming brand of
(<;)
(D)
fascism. I No Error.
(E)

- (E)

5. There were a number I of pretty girls in the party I but it


(A)
(B)
was Ragini I who remained a centre of attraction: I No
(C)
(D)
Error.
(E)

claims to be a linguist I but, in reality, he I does not


(A)

(B)
know even I the AB C of linguistics. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

20. In my opinion it is not the failures I that have made I him


(A)
(B)
lose the heart but the lack of I emotional support. I
(C).
(D}
No Error.
(E)
21. The most happy I marriage would be I a union of a deaf
(A)
(B)
(C)
man to a blind woman. I No E1TOr.
(D)
(E)

A Mirror of Common Errors

33. One should I be true to one's promises I in order to earn I

22. John suggested to I his brothers that they should I go to


(A)
(B)
the school regularly I and do their home work sincerely. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.
. (E)

(A)
(B)
name and fame in the life. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

34. The seed I of all the modem amenities I lies in


(A)
(B)
(C)
science. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

23. After returning I from the jail, he has abandoned I all the
(A)
(B)
criminal activities and is determined I to lead a simple
(C)
(D)
life. I No Error.
(E)

spend I a good part of the day / in out of door


(A)
(B)
activities and games I because staying indoors all the time
(C)
(D)
is bad for health. I No Error.
(E)

rum

37. He should mix I his authority with little I of courtesy a'nd I


(A)
(B)
(C)

@-he fact that the compact car I is better than I conven~


(A)
(B)
tional cars has I been proved by its sales. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

common sense. I No Error.


(D)
(E)
38. It is a pity I that the son of millionaire I should indulge I
(A)
(B)
(C)
in stealing. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

27. There was little I milk in the bottle and she gave it I to the
{A)
(B)
baby when it I starred weeping. I No Error.
(C)
(D} ..
(E)

28. He leads

29. Thanks to an insight/ and persistence of the local doctor./


(A). - .
(B)
hundreds of victims have been I able to resume a normal
(C)
(D)
life. I No Error.
(E)
~In a hour's time I when I had finished the work, I I got up
..
(A)
(B)
and I slipped out unnoticed. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
31. He uses I the mock-heroic I style to depict I a violence. I
(A)
(!}
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)
@eople in Darwin I had become so accustomed lo cyclone
(~
(B)
warnings I that few of them paid any attention to the radio
(C)
warnings I which began this morning. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

I but singing is an art" I said the I


(A)
(B)
(C)
music teacher. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

@ We should

25. His father ( forbade


to go I to cinema I late at night. I
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)

r1

r the

35. "Music is science

24. He was an atheist I but now-a-days he goes to the church/


(A)
(B)
and offers prayers I for hours./ No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

I a very busy life I so he goes everywhere I by a


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
car. I No Error.
(E)

(C)

~
~

It is I the most important I question which you have I to


(A)
(B)
(C)
prepare very carefully./ No Error.

(D)
(E)

40. Brahmaputra is I one of the longest rivers I that originate i


(A)

(B)

(C)

in the Himalayas. I No Error.


(D)
(E)
41. The Ganges I is for North India I what Krishna I is for
~
(A)
(B)
(C)
South India. I No Error.
(D)
. (E)

{4'}: The first European I sailor to come to India I in modem


(A)
(B)
times I was Vasco-da -Gama, I No Error.
(C)
(D) .
(E)
~The trees in a forest I must be properly counted and
(A)
(B)
numbered I and proper entries be made I in the register. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)

A Mirror of Common Errors

, ,:,i~The principal I asked the girls to return I to the hostel


../
(A)
.
CB)
. (C)
before I the sunset. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

~
'the' cf>T ~
W11T ~
~
Comparative Degree js Adjective jt choice vr option
q;r ~
ffi The ~
!1 ~
~
Comparative Degree $ .-fR 'of the two'

3. (D) better ~

\;_/

r-

mm~

45. He found I himself in a trouble I when he saw no I


(A)
(B)
(C)
rickshaw outside the station. I No Error.
(D)
. (E)

(i) He is the

(C}

the

(A)

(B)

8 intelligent

officer, I No Error.

(D)

(C)

boys.

J,

comp.

of the two.

4. (C) few ~ ~
the <fiT ~
mtrr ~
the few friends
he made sst ~
t ~ ~ ~
~
'Few friends' <fiT 3lYf t 'No friends'.
5. (D) a ~ ~
the mrrT ~
Noun + of + Noun
construction ~ of ~ ~
~
Noun ~
~:
The WWI l; ~...:_

(E)

49. The man I is the only creature I that is endowed with/ the
(A)
(B)
(C)
power of speech. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
it is very difficult I to point out the number of I the
(A)
(B)
creatures living I on earth. I No Error ..
(D)
(C)
(E)

m ~"

of

- _ @: All the staffs I of this office hold the view I that Mr. Sinha
is a very wise I and

of the two

-r

mm

47. In the conclusion I it may be safely asserted that I the poet


(A)
(B)
preaches some I moral implicitly. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
.

taller

mcIT t;

'the' <fir ~

Comparative Degree ~ ~
~-

46. He s~id I that he did not feel I any need to discuss I the
(A)
(B)
episode in the detail. I No Error.
(D)
(E).

mm~

The

noun

this college

J,

J,

of

noun

6. (E) qfcflf ~
!1
7. (D) least ~ ~
the W11T ~
Superlative DegreeAdjective js ~
the cf.T ~
t1
'
)
8. (D) a cf.T ~
~
WIT ~
News ~
Uncountable
Noun !1 ~ JlcITT, information, luggage, baggage.
scenery, dntpeJY_~
-~ 4158---;,an- q;f __B <fl}! .3f

mar

att

------~

9. (B) .a q;r

--.-

1'<flTT ~ ~

oTIG ~
>1<TI'TT ~

~
fq;lj'r

type of. kind

of~
Article

m ~:

Noun$

;;rm t;

of. sort

~-

(i) I don't appreciate this kind of book.

R fcfi

ANSWERS

~~ti

I. (A)

2. (B)

3. (D}

4. (C)

5. (D)

6. (E)

7. (D)

8. (D)

9. (B)

10. (E)

11. (B) values js

11. (B)
16. (B)

12. (B)

13. (A)
18, (D)

14. (A)
19. (B)

15.(C)
20. (C)

12. (B) on the fire ~ ~

17. (B)

21. (C)
26. (E).

22. (C)

23. (B)

24. (B)

25. (C)

27. (A)

28. (D)

29. (A)

30. (A)

31. (D)
36. (E)

32. (E)
37. (B)

33. (D)

34. (D)

38. (B)

39. (B)

@CD)
40. (A)

41. (C)

42.(E)

43. (E)

44. (D)

45. (B)

46. (D)

47. (A)

48. (D)

49. (A)

so. (E)

1. (A) a man$

~. the man

2. (B) the$
cf.T ~

WIT ~

mm t. ~

5~

~o

olffisllT ~I

on fire
-it idiomatic !1 ~
fci;. 'on fire' ;?ff set (something) on fire # fire ~
'the'/ 'a'/ 'an'cf.T ~
lR'ra
i,

mm

mm1 ~

13. (A) A~ ~
The
~the<fif~~t1

14. (A) Little $ ~


~

fcfim Ordinal Adjective


'

the m11TI The little

Little q;r ~

<fiT ~

';;rr

almost none c=r@' ~ ~)I

mm ~

mmt,

W11T ~

man~ ~ ~
~
cf.T ~
~
tt-Thcboy who; the dog
which etc. ~
who/which/that ~ ~
~
Nouns~: 'the'~
ti

t,

m the m11TI am

IS. (C) in temper $ ~


in a temper
idiomatic ..
~ ~
in a mood/in a rage/in a dilemma <fiT

EXPLANATIONS

10. (E)

this kind of a book.]

the wart ~

a war~ any war cf.Tl

16. (B) good ~ ~


a 'ITT1fT ~
knowledge' idiomatic ti
cf.T ~

m) m
~

~-

* ~ ~ -q-m

have 'a good/so


W fci; 'knowl~

c~ ~

knowledge ~
Uncountable Noun
~
~
fci;m Article qif >Im ~
(i) Knowledge is power.

(ii) He is a man of knowledge.

$ ~

t -

mar

A Mirror of Common Errors


knowledge is

~. ~

(i) She has


grammar.

m~

m NAn cfiT" ~

_Adjective~

a
adj.

~. ~, Knowledge ~

33.

knowledge

m~

it'

t; tt-

-;;rr ~

"q;J"

iodiomatic

(ii) The life of this patient is in danger.

'by mistake'

qif

35. (D) science

tr

take heart, take action,

t'r
lose heart ,fl"

tr

36. (E)

the union
+ Noun' construction

t,

m1JTJ Tf:

'The+ Noun+ of

(~

:rm

the

m-rrr1

~ it ~)

37. (B) little~

the ~

27. (A) little~

-rm a ~

return from jail qif aref t


return from the jail ~ 3l2f

~I ~

"Ji<lTlT

~o

22 ~

~I

A liule q;r 3l2f

t,
<rr

idiomatic
*~~car
fu,:ifcr if car
train ~
~-by the 7.30train etc.

m~
ek

<rr
ffl. article

war t;

~ ~

the

m1TT ~

+ Noun'"tR ~
30. (A) a ~ ~
an
vowel

!1

mm1

construction 'The+ Noun+ of

ti
hour

qif

sound '31'1'' "Q;cfi

q1cf<f

if 'you' q;t ~

~ ~ t_ ~~~it'

ocf ~

m ~ qifct ti
mm t ~
Tf most

q;r ~

party
'you'~~

aR

fcf;m- ~

~ !1 ~

a most== a very.
~.-(i) She is the most beautiful girl in the

~
class.

~. (ii) She is a most beautiful girl.

40. (A) Brahmaputra ~


Brahmaputra~
41. (C) Krishna~ ~

in a car. in a taxi, in a jeep, on a plane, on a


ship, on a steamer. on a bicycle, on a scooter, on a
motor cycle 31lfu ~
tr

29. (A) an~

cR" ~

(i) You are the most powerful man in this party.

t ~
train

m m1IT ~

(ii) You are a most powerful man .

3lvf t ~ $ ofUdR: <rr ~


~1
a q;r "Ji<lTlT ~ ~I
by car, by bus, by

train~

a qif

Superlative Degree~ Adjective qif


'The most' Superlative Degree if~
'a most' positive degree ift ~ ~
~t" very;~-

jq,- little CiiT

- . (D) car if; ~

"tjo 27

~I ~

<rr ~ ~
~~<rr~:m~RTwmm~

39. (B) the~ ~

25. (C) go to the cinema/circus/lheacre/opt:ralstation 3TIR


. i9~ti_c t'1 .mr: go to cinema ~ ~
go to the
cinemamlTTt

~~t1

~ti

~I

26. (E)

a~

38. (B) millionaire js ~


a q;r Jl<ITlT m1TT ~
millionaire
~
countable noun t I ~ Two/three millionaires

(~ffl~~~~I

24. (B) church ~ ~

~~!1
~I

22. (C) school ~ ~


the ~ mlTTI go to school/church/jail
3lTR ~ school, church, jail~~~
qif ~
ffiT ti go to school ~ ~ futO go to the school
~3Rffl~_~I
23. (B) jail ~ ~

m~ ~

mar

mlTTI take heart ~ ~

,21. (C) a union~~

mlTTI ~

mm~ ~ ~

t,

20. (C) the q;r ~


idiomatic

science~~~

it wrr ~ ti
$ ~
a. ff ~

science c!>T "lf<TI"Tr ~


~
31'4- ~) ~ ~ # ~ solT l ~
(a
branch of knowledge based on scientific principlesj js
~ ~ ?T ti "3m ~. ~ . An qif Jl<ITlT q,ffi
(creation of beauty)~ 3l2f if
Article ~ WrnT ti ~-'Art lies in concealing
art',~
Art qif ~~-skill lrr
Article q;r "li<lTlT
t; ~-He has developed an
excellent art of teaching.

qif ffl" -=im' m1TT ~


in danger, in trouble, in
confusion, in debt, in demand, in detail, in fact 3TIR:
idiomatic

19. (B) the q;r >l<n7[ ~ WIT~


take care~
idiomatic

J1mTT

m:QT 33

18. (D). 'a'

t't;

mm

34. (D) the c!>T

knowledge
~
mlTT,

(i) He leads a happy life.

J. .

The

3:ref if-~

WTTI ~

"tR life, science, m~. woman~ ~


thec!>T
~ .ti <fR life. science ~ q;r "Sf<ITlT ~ 3,ilT
il" ,m-;t mer article~
t; ~-

knowledge of this man is limited.

J..
17. (B) 'a'

m~tr
(D) the clii m life~ ffl ~
~

D~finite oRTl!f ~

wiM it'~

''.31. (D) a q;r JfmTT ;;tr m-irr1 'depict violence' idiomatic ti


32. (E)

of English

J..

(i) The

m~

t; ~-

knowledge

m 'the'~

Adjective~-

f<fim ~

*1T

am: <FWTT ~

~
The q;r wrrrT
~ q;r -;i-rir ti
the q;r
m1JT ~

~ ~

i.

mTJT ~
RJ" <Jtf

am 3lfQ" ~

~ ~
~ -crnB 'the' q;r "Sl<TI1T ml t;
~-The Koshi is known as a ct..rsc to North Billa.
fcf; ~
42. (E)

~~t1

43. (E)

~~!1

44. (D) sunset ~ ~


the ~ m11T ~
before, aftec
~ <f!G
dawn, daybreak, sunrise, sunset.,

.c,-

co

A Mirror of Common Errors

night ~
cfiT ~
al ~ ~ Article~ ~
~-(i) She rerumed home after sunset. .
.
[-;r fcfi after the sunset]

!1

~
(ii) She rerumed home after the sun had set.
45. (B) trouble ~ ~
a cfiT
-:m' m-1ITI '&lr@IT ~ fm!:
~~o
18~1
46. (D) detail ~
the cnr ~
WIT, in detail, in
difficulty, in problem, in fear, in hope, in sense, in
conclusion a:rJR idiomatic
47. (A) conclusion ~ ~
the cfiT WlTlT ~ WIT! "q;R1JT ~

46 -q

ti

~. ~

(ii) A red and a blue coat~


ol!IT ~

-;fR;n-

t) I

coats

.
~.

(i) The

ol!IT

a
'man'

m <IT~ m

R fcfi A man I The

Countable Noun ~ ~

if

t; ~-'--

man of horiour.

man

cnr ~
'ic''TI" ~

~ fu-q:

t; ~-

man who was killed was a leader.

T-r-

mil' ~

TT

m1

-;;n- ~

cnr

a/an~

(i) Jyoti Babu is a

m-

(i) A red and blue coat (Q:cf> ~ coat


~t)1

'man'

m <IT ~ m

48. (D) intelligent ~


an cfiT ~
'5fol" ~
Adjectives cfiT ~
~
~ ci!l'fcRr <l"T ~
~ ~
'fil
al M ~ Adjective ~ ~ Article cfiT
fcf;m-

~ t;~-

~-

(ii) Man is. a social animal. [':f fcf; A man I The man)

"lfcIT

m '?mr t;

(iii) Man is the crown of creation.


man]

\1

~o

m ~ ~ man cnr
mm~ ~

~ ~

(i) Man is mortal. [':f fcf; A man I The man is mortal)

m-

the cnr '5l<WI'


1tRcl '5l'Tftr
ARTICLE cfiT ~

49. (A) mail ~


'5l'GITlT '5fol" ~

the

SO. (E)

qJcR

man

!1

***

r-,

Chapter-2

NOUNS & CASES


CASES-The relation in which a noun stands to some
other word, or the change of the form by which this relation is

4..

indicated. is called the case.

Case~ >fq;f{ =if; ~ tr


(A) Nominative Case or Subjective Case (cfmT ~
(B) Objective Case (q;if ~)
(C) Possessive I Genitive Case ~
cf;Rcfi)
(D) Vocative Case~
~)
~ ~ ~
~ ~ Possessive Case cm- ~ <R ~
~
Noun ~ mer Nominative <TT Objective Case -q ~
Problem ~
t ~ 'lft Noun Nominative <TT Objective
Case if~ ti-~ if ~t; ttRam
Sita
(i)
loves.

S.

6.

(II)

iI
I

"ITT,

loves

am:

~I

POSSESSIVE CASE-Possessive Case, possession


(~) <TT ownership(~~
t)r ~ possession <TT
ownership
q;r cf>Ti:r 's [Apostrophe 's'] <TT 'of' ~ ~
~
';i!ToT t; tt(i) Shakespeare's plays <TT The plays of Shekespeare,
~. awr ~ ~
~ 's q;r ~
:ml' ~ ~ t

am:

~ ~ ~ ~ n ~cm~~

<R

lfOO if

t'; ~-

(E)

A table's legs q;r '5f'lrrTr "lffio lt ~ The legs


~
~
table I bench 3TifG ~
ffl t

cfl'cf<r if

of a table ~
mer 's q;r 'lJ'lTI"1'T

(A)

ffl ~

l.

1l'R<f ~

"lffio ~

's -~ ~
I ~

t-11
_..,_...
Wlf <Ql-<Ql ~ ~
f-

mer-

~-Man's life I Ram's wife.


Dogs' kennels I Cows' tails.
2. " fcf;m f.J$f ffl q,1 m;rcr ~

if ~

'weight'

il'IG

~
~
~
~
(Some diSnified natural
objects)~ ~; ttc
>
The earth's surface I gravity I creatures I area etc.
The sun's rays; Heaven's wil1; the heart's content,

mer m ~

Theship's ~
The train's
arrival I departure
The plane's
A boat's crew.
(B) ['s] [Apostrophe's] ~ ~
~ ~
~

-.m-

I, ~~Nouns~

~t;~-

's [Apostrophe's] q;r ~

Ram's wife's career esr ~


~ The career of Ram's wife q;r
2. ~

.:rRT ~

'!l<Wr ~

!1 ~

"Ulm

fci;<TT

~I

Compound Noun ~ a:iRPr ~

~ 's q;r ~

(i) His son-in-law's appointment P fcf; son's-in- law's


appointment]
(ii) The Government of India's orders.
3. <iR. fcf;m Noun ~ ffl Noun in Apposition q;r ~
W
Noun in Apposition ~ ~
's q;r ~
fcf;<TT ';i!ToT !;
tt(i) Rajeev my friend's father.
3m -ircm:, (ii) My friend Rajeev's father.
4. ~ ~ Nouns closely related ~
Noun ~ ~
['s] q;r 'Sl<ITtT
t; ~(i) Ram and Sita's sons [:J fcf; Ram's and Sita's sons]
~. Ram's and Shyam's sons.
5. Anybody I Somebody I Nobody I Everybody I Anyone I
Someone I No one I Everyone js mer ,:ft 's q;r '!l<Wr
!; tt-(i) Everybody's business is nobody's business.
@'ll'R Anybody I Somebody 3TIR =if; ofR 'else' <f;T w:ITlT ~
['s] q;r ~
else 'tR fci;<TT ~ t; ~(i) I like your decision and not anybody else's.
~

m~

mm

(i) Death's icy hand.


(ii) Fortune's favourite.

~ mer; ~-

(i) A moment's delay, A week's leave, A month's

absence.

m;

mm

~;ttJ-3. ~ aia1~q1ei ~

~t;tt-

table's legs I were broken I by my I angry brother. I


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
No Error.

(.i) A

[~

@. ~ ~

mm

the soul's delight/ journey.zhe mind's eye, etc.


qft~filq'f ~ expressions .efit
~~;tt-

Objective
Ram

Nominative
Objective
Pronoun ~ Nominative
Objective ~ ~ if
! ~ fcl'm: j\- ~ ~ PRONOUNS~ atffl

Problems~~

7.

Nominative
Sita

Money~ ~
~ mer ~
G!R value I worth
'!l<Wr ttCi) Arnpee's value; a pound's worth.
Space aia1.\q1JI ~
~ ~ ~
Nouns ~ ~;
-tit- (i) A razor's edge, A needle's point, A boat's
length.
cfiT

t.

mm

cl'3R oldl.\qJ{-1

~q;r~~;~(i) A ton's weight; A gram's weight.

,a;

.......-

10

A Mirror of Common Errors

~
"q-{ amnfur Problems~
~ t; ~I follow I . your. suggestions l and I nobody's else. I
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
NoError.
(E) .
(~ nobody's else~~
nobody else's qiT 1l"llT1T

8. America's problems I are, however, I not so serious I and


(A)
(B)
(C)
awful as India. I No Error.

(E)

9, Your tone of speaking I as well as your friends I is really

nl]

7. 'each other' ~ 'one another" ~ ~

(A)
(B)
extremely sarcastic I yet we never take it seriously. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)

mcTI .

,fl-. ['s] ~ -~

ti

~-.
'
(i) They like each other's ideas.
8. A+ Noun + of+ Noun construction
~ltll-4d<I:
['s] ci>T "lf<ITlT ~ t "<l'R

10. The Finance Minister /boasts of improving l the economic


(A)
(B) .
condition of I the country's./ No Error.
. (C)
(D)
(E)

if ~

Noun~ ~
Noun~
~

o!ffcRl ~; ~(i) A friend of my borther's,


(ii) A ho'use o{Ram's.

11. The life of the rich I is not inmany I ways as peaceful I as


(A)
(B)
(C)
that of the poor's. I No Error.
(D)
(E}

~
(i) A picture of Ram (Utr" cf>t ~ ~
(ii) A picture of Ram's (Utr" ~ -qm- ~~if~)
PROBLEMS BASED ON .NOUNS & CASES

12. For your sake I as well as for your wife, I we all wish that
(A)
(B)
you may I get that job./. No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

Directions : Find out the error in each of the foil owing


sentences, if any. If there is no error; your answer is 'E'.
1. You know it well/ that you success in life I depends not

13. The expert mason reported to I the owner of the hotel


(A)
(B)

(A)
(B)
on my advice I but on somebody else. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E) ,

that I there was no question I of the wall's falling down. I


(C)
(D)
No Error .

. 2. He informed me I that he had gone to I one of the

(E)

(A)
(B)
Minister's residences I and stayed there all night. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)

14. The officer said I that he. appreciated I his staffs coming
(A)
(B)
on time I and co-operating him. I No Error.
(C)
.
(D) .
(E)

3. The building's roof I needs repairing otherwi~: I it may


. (A)
.
(B)
fall down and I result into many persons' death. I
(C)
.
{D)
No Error.
(E)

15. As we are told, I this idea of Mrs. Gandhi's I was totally


(A)
. (B)
valid in the I present condition of India. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
16. It is true I that I met I the Chief Minister I at one of my
(A)
(B) .
(C)
friend's houses. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

4. I visited I John's and Mary's house I twice but found I the


(A)
(B)
(C)
couple absent. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
S. A ton's weight I is too heavy for I anyone to I carry on his
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
head./ No Error.

(E)
(} I stopped I his going out late at night I because the
(A)
(B)
(C)
situation I in the town was very tense./ No Error.
(D)
(E)
7. He did not approve I of his son raising I stupid questions
CN
(B)
(C)
and thereby I vexing the teacher. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

17. 'The teacher said I to us that one ought I to work hard in


(A}
(B)
(C)
order I to attain one goal. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

l8. Being sure of his I success, he told his friends that I he would
(A)
(B)
never forget I even his enemies names. I No Error .
(C)
(D)
(E)
19. The survey gives I us much knowledge of the I public's
(A)
(B)
opinion I on the matter of terrorism./ No Error.
(C)
(D)
11
(E)

11

A Mirror of Common Errors


20. Very few soldiers I dared to turn I a deaf ear to their
(A)
(B).
(C)
Commander's-in-Chief orders./ No Error:
(E)

21. Your son's-in-law's friend is seriously ill/ and he wants


. (A)
(B)
you I to see him as soon as possible. I No Error.
(D)
.
(E)

@ I appreciate

(C).

you I h.~12in-g the poor I who are really


(A)
. _
(B~
.
most ignored and completely deprived I section of
.
.

the
(C)
our
(D)

society. I No Error.
(E)

24. I do not want I to bring her to my home I because her

00

rashness I is quite intolerable./ No Error.


(D)
(E)

, ,.~@A friend of my I wife came to me I yesterday and asked


(A)
(B)
me for I some money: I No Error.
(D)
(E)

fulfil the ~ociety's


(B) .
attachment to it. I
. . (D)

business', I said the


(B)
',_

(A)
(B)
to deal with I one of my major problems./ No Error,
{C)
(D)
(E)

@) He told her I that he had ever seen I her with his/


.
(A)
ca)
(C)
eye. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

mind's

37. 'When I arrived I at the gate of his I house, I found his I

~He is chiefly concerned I with his own problems I but you


(A)
(B)
say I that his is not. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

@Everybody should be careful / to


\,~
(A)
.

demands I and thereby show his I


(C)
No Error.
(E)
34. 'Everybody's business I is nobody's
{A)
teacher I to the students./ No Error:
{C)
(D)
(E)

35. I postponed him I going to Delhi tonight as I I wanted him

23. I have read I many plays of Shaw's I who is called the I


(A)
(B)
(C)
Shakespeare of our age./ No Error.
(D) .
(E)

32. It was India's I past glory I that attracted I a number of


(A)
(B)
(C)
invaders in the remote past. I No Error.
.
(D)
{E)

(C)

27. Unfortunately for me I the root cause of my frustration


(A})
(B)
lies I in the Governments I dubious policy. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
{E)
28. He suggested to me I that I should go to the nursery I to
.-- (A)
(B)
bring some beautiful I summer's flowers." No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
@He came to his wits I end when he found I that his
(A)
'
(B)
younger I brother had slapped his wife./ No Error:
(C)
(D)
(E)
30. When Jaya and Shyama I came across Jyoti, they I caught
(A)
(B)
one another hands I and talked for a while. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

31. The former P. M. of India's I Mr. P. V. Narsimha Rao's I


(A)
(B)
visit to Japan strengthened the relationship I between India
(C)
and Japan./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

locking

(A)
. (B)
up the door. I No Error.

(D)

(C)

(E}'

@India and China's present I condition clearly indicate I that

(A)
.
. (B)

.
both the countries ./ will face a lot of problems .in the
(C)
(D}
coming time./ No Error.
(E)
39. Keeping in view I the public's demands, I the company
. (A)
..----(B)
.
.
hi/ declared to improve the quality and lower I the prices
(C)
of its products . / No Error.
(D)
(E)
40. His maid servant I behaviour is undoubtedly I indecent
(A)
{B)
but I don't I understand how he tolerates it./ No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

41. These buildings' decoration l is not as much I impressive


(A)
.
as it I ought to be./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

(B)

(C)_

@>elhi's water supply I system is certainly I as good as is


(A)
(B)
.
expected I in a capital town. I No Error.
(C)
. (D)
(E)

@ Yeats's

poetry is characterised I by his-unique style I


(A)
(B)
which he developed I during the long span of his life. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)

.r

12

A Mirror of Common Errors

{jj.Brutus'
.

role in Julius Ceasure I is very attractive as I well


(A)
(B)
as important as far as I the action of the play is concerned.
(C)
(D)
I No Error.
(E)

@The blind's life I is really very miserable I because they

~)

can't see I what happens around them./ No Error.


. (D)'
(E)

47. "This blade's edge I is sharper than any I other bade's"

~)

said I the sales representative of the company./ No Error.


(D)
(E)
48. Many of the questions' I given in this question paper I are
(A)
(B)
so difficult that I many of the students may fail. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)
@he President of India I constitutional power is limitless/
(A)
(B)
but it is the P. M. who is, I indeed. powerful. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E}
50. Many a man's life is in danger I if the Government does
(A)
(B)
not take I any serious action to I safeguard us. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
51. Nobody's claim I to be a permanent member I of the club
(A)
(B)
(C)
is valid I in the eyes of the committee. I No Error
(D)
(E)

I. (D)
6. (E)

2. (C)

ANSWERS
3. (A)

8. (D)

4. (B)

5. (E)
10. (D)

11. (D)

12. (B)

13. (D)

9.~)
14. (C)

16. (D)

17. (D)

18. (D)

19. (C)

15. (B)
20. (D)

21. (A)

22. (A)

23. (B)

24. (E)

25. (D)

26. (B)

27. {C)

28. (D)

29. (A)

30. (C)

31. {A)

32. (E)

33. (E)

34. (E)

35. (A}

36. (E)

37. (C)

38. (A)

39. (B)

40. (A)

41. (A)
46. (D)

42. (E)

43. (E)

44. {E)

45. (A)

47. (E)

48. (A)

49. (A)

so. (E)

51. {E)

7. (B)

's [apostrophe"s'J ~

1. (D) else ~ ~
else ~ ~

~. ~
else's q;r Jl<rr?i lrrlTII <JR -ra' fcn
3ilcP~lJcti
somebody else I nobody else I
anybody else anfu: ~ ~ else~ ~ 's [apostrophe

m~
t-1

's 'I cfiT 'Sl<ITTf ~


~

1iQ; q(cf<I'

it f.:p:.:if(1f& ct

ct!' <iFli<lc ~

,n,r

~-

' not on my advice butohsornebody else's advice.'

46, He did not know even I the name of the scientist I who
(A)
(B)
discovered I the laws of the earth gravitational force. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)

EXPLANATIONS

else's js ~
'advice~

3-l<f ~

31cf: ~

'advice' cfiT repetetion

cffi' ~ ~

m UiT %-

aw

w. ~ t

understood ~ "1mf ti 3rcf:.


Expression q;l' ~ f.!l::;;fuf&o ~ it ~-

ft2lfcf it ~

fu4i

"not on my advice but on somebody else's".

~~~~F9~~~~(i) This is Ram's book and not Shyam's. [book]


(ii) Your problem
[problem)

is J?Ore difficult

NOTE : ~

it ~ ~ ~

a:fTRJ futj;

understood

*~

2. (C) one of ~ GfR

than Sita's.

[book, problem

~I

Ji<TI'lT 'fil -at ~

Nouns cfiT

Possession m Ownership olf 's ~ ~


~
'of'~ ~
t; ~-

ornm

one of the minister's residences ~ ~


of one of the ministers~
~I
~

ft

<fiRllT ~

'%1 am:, ~

~ ~

Plural 'ITTI

t,~-

i
~

the residence

fcf; one of~ ~ Noun Plural


<ifu; ~ Nouns cfiT ~
t

~ mm t

'Q.m ~

fczi <)-,1 it ~ ~-m Noun

Expression~

(i) One of the minister's residence.


[~
if ~ ~ cfiT residence)
(ii) One of the minister's residences
residences it ~ ~]

am. ~ ~
~
~

3-lif ct!' ~

if 'of' cfiT 'Sl<ITTf ~


if ~ lTQ'. ~
~

~~
~

[ltrr

..

~ ~

~~'
'1ffT ~

'the residence of

one of the ministers' cfiT ~


~I
3. (A) 'TI1e building's roof' ~ ~
'the roof of the
building' cfiT 'Sl<ITTf q;vrr ~
~
~= f.:r-:ffq
~
~ m?.I' ~
's [apostrophe 's'] cF,i ~
-:i-m

~ i, 31':,
(i) The room's decoration
(ii) The wall's painting
~

Expressions

mt,

3-llfc:: ~

'ITffif

t,

<il' ~ f.:tqfc-11&<1 ~ ~ ~

(i) The room decoration ~ The decoration of the


room.
(ii) The wall painting~ The painting of the wall.

A Mirror of Common Errors


4. (B) John's and Mary's~

John and Mary's q;r ~

~$,

10 -, (D) country's ~ ~
~
3"iM$(<1cf>

lIT

W, fcl; ~

mm
m

's fuq; ~

q;r 'Q.qi ~

ti

tjj- ~
W f<i> John's and Mary's house '-11' ~
Expression
~~~WIT
'John's house and
Mary's house' ~
~
~ ~
i 3ITT. zyif cnT ti'(
3R111'-~
%1
%

5. (E)

<iR;

m' fci;

'q;lf:f' [weight] iil~l.iqlcl ~

m~

Gerund

singing

,!.

.L.

.'India's. [problems]

ii' ~

~ t1J

9. (B) friends ~ [Apostrophe] qiJ' '5f<TI1T ~


friends ~ ~
friends' cfiT 'Sf<WT ~I

~~~~-

l_i) Your tone of speaking as well as your friends'


[tone of speaking).
ITT~
tjt err-r
fcfim Plural Noun cf;T ~ [s]
~ 'ITT
Plural Noun <RM ' fApostrophe] cnr
'Q<TI11" ~
'5ITTIT.
'-l' 1% 's [Apostrophe 's'] qif;

ra ~
t

(i) Boys' hostel [".f


(ii) Girls' hostel

.
'

.:'

fch

Boys 's hostel]

R 1% Girls's hoste!J

Piural Nouns~

's [apostrophe's]

'q;J'

m1

ti

mm

your singing. [ffl'U TiRT]

(sl

"it '-l'"ITT

mm t; ~-

Women's college, Children's books 3,TRf

m~

cR-rrJ

'o<lralIT ~ ~

3m "{:j-o 7 ~]

js ~

Apostrophe J q;r

understood

WIT! ~
Rit TfC!: -~

This

>flTI1T ::rm ~

house of

~ t ~-

Ram

-r

--y-

This

Noun

of

Noun

(ii) This hostel of Patna College


16. (D) one of my friend's houses~ ~

my friends~

~-

Gandhi q;r WIT7T WIT, ~


This I
That I These I Those I The + Noun + of+ Noun if of
~ <iire; qffi NOUN ~. m'll' 's [Apostrophe 's' 'll'T

15. (B) Gandhi's

(i)

TfC!: ~

NOTE : (~

m~

'5f<lh ~ ~

am

['Ulr <f.i

(b) Ram's books and Shyam's. [books]

's cfiT

NOTE:~~~~
3m-msqT(3)
staffs 'tR ' [apostrophe] cfiT '5f<IT7T "cf>BT W!Tl ~
m'
f<i> coming ~
Gerund t
ffl'
3-llq!4c:hctlj@.
Possessive Case "c:f;f >f<n'TT
t' -;r 1%
Objective 'll'T Nominative Case cflf;

M He appreciated

8. (D) India~
~
's <iii" >Tcfl'lT <i>vlT ~I
~
India~
~
India's cnr WI' W1!T ~
'America ~
Problems q;t- RT India ~ Problems 'ii' t, '-l' 1%
India "it1 ~-

l~

ffl

'the falling down of


~- 'wall'~
~

(ii) She stopped Ram's behaving like this.

Gerund

(i) America's problems .....

t". 3m: ~

tt-

Your
Possessive

e:,_

...,.._ Q} (C)

j,

13. (D) 'the wall's falling down'~


the. wall' q;r 'Sf<ITTr cR-rr ~

ffl

dancing

~
Possessive

3TIRI

tJ $"

mm

Her

(i) For Ram's sake and Shyam's [sake]


(ii) For his success as well as his wife's [success]

6. (E) qT<Fr ~
ti
7. (B) son~
's [apostrophe 's'] cnT Jf<WT <R'-IT ~
Gerund [m Verbal Noun tjj- ~
-;;nm
~ive Case cfiT ~
t: ~-

~.

11. (D) poor's ~ ~


poor q;r ~
WtT ~
that of the
poor q;r ~ t the life of the poor.
12. (B) wife ~ m'll' 's q;r >!<WT m,ITI ~
wife ~ ~
wife's cfiT ~
~
~
~
TfC!: expression cfiT
~
t-For your sake
for your wife 's, [sake 1

t: ~-

A ton's weight, A gram's weight, A kilo's weight

NOTE :

<f"~ ['s] cfiT

(ii) The progress of the country. [::r fci; country's] ~

cm~)

~ m'll' ~

3,IRI

(ii)

m1

3-m~

's [apostrophe 's] cfiT

(i)

W1T

~~~)

~I

'qfcFf ~

country cfir

t,

f.:p:.:ifc::1forn Expressions~~(i) The population of the country. [-:i- f<i> country's J

~ Nouns ~~
i closely related
Noun ~ ~
WI ~ qJcPr ~
Part -(D) ~ 'couple' wa; <f.T
% ~
% -q-ar
~ t fcf; John and Mary i:mr-~ l1 31~:, '3:r

. 13

ff 1%

r:r ~ College's J
the house of one of

~I

NOTE : ~
cilfrallT ~ ft;ro: am: "{:j-o (2) ~l
17. (D) one$ m'll' 's q;r ~-rr lWTTI ~ct_ one ~ ~
cnT

Ram's]

one's

Wllf m,rr1 ~-

(i) One should

keep one's promises.

fcf; one

promises]
(ii) One should be true to one's word. [1fci; one word]
18. (D) cnernies js ffl ' [Apostrophe] cnT 1l<lPT W!Tt 3-.~
enemies~ ~
enemies' q;r 'SimlT miTTl
(i) He honours his seniors' desires. R fcfi seniors)
19. (C) public's opinion ~ ~
public opinion 'ITTTTT ~
public I hostel I city I village I 3,TR Noun$ ~ ~

-r:

A Mirror of Common Errors

14

~- ffl t ('!?.lT Adjective ~ ~- if 'TI'I are:, ~


mer 's cfiT ffl' ~ TTmr t, ~. (i)

The prblic

consists of you and me.

27. (C) Govertunent


Government
-~-(i)

Noun
(ii) The pu1blic opinion I demands I life I carrier.

. ..

'. Adj'.

Noun

(iii) This school has a beautiful

hostel .
Noun

(i)

<

I
;1

He remembers his

hostel

.-r

'q;J' ~

life.

T .

1Jl:l: Phrases if Government of India ~

Phrase

daughter-in-law,
Chief Minister
Compound Nmms:t-, 31Cf,; 's .. cfil' ~
~
js ~

a:fTR
~

fci.:rr "l'l<IT t,

son-in-law's q;r ~

m1Tl'I

am-~

NOTE:~~~~
(20) ~t
22. (A) you ~ ~
your q;r ~
m1Tl' ~
helping ~
Gerund t
Gerund ~ ~
Possessive Case cnT
ti You q;r Possessive Case your ('!?.lT yours
t ~ your ~ Adjective t ~
yours ~
Pronoun,
Noun [helping ~ Gerund <IT Verbal
Noun t] *1' ~
-arnf.r _q;r ,~ Adjective ffl', -::i1% Pronoun. am:, ~ 111!: ~
it your cnT ~
.
~
~,
;r for; yours q;r <IT you q;r1
23. (8) Shaw's ~ ~
Shaw q;r ~
lIT1TT ~
Many +
Noun + of + Noun ~
Construction if ~
Noun
.lR 's
t-1

~ mm
mm

am:

am:

q;r'wwr 'm mm

24. (E)
25. (D)
@'(B)
"' ~ .
\)"' _,......

~~ti
'his'~ ~- he~ ~
WTTI
wife~ mer 's q;r Wf!'7T mlfT ~A+
Noun+ of+
Noun Construction if of~ ~ ffl Noun~ mif 's
[apostrophe 's'] cnT ~
fcf;'l!T ':5llcl'T t' ~ ~ Noun

Spring is the king of all seasons.

(i) summer, spring, autumn, winter ~


~
Personified ~
~
'itt ~ ~ s"'<f.T' ~
~
~ ti tt-Spring's arrival, Winter's-departure.
(ii) A summer's day <IT A summer day, A winter's day
<!'T A winter day cnT \TI 1l<il'1T fun' ti
29. (A) <IT
wit's WIT <iT wits'.
NOTE : at one's wits' end (Nesfield); at one's wit's
end (A. S. Homby)~
idiom t
t

~am~

(f4ic:W&1fcl3!.<$ ~ ~

A .

book

r -r

of

's'] other~

anotherilfi

t; ~-

m-er ~

(i) They pointed out each other's merits and


demerits.
(ii) They respect one another's parents.
31. (A) India ~ ~
's [apostrophe 's'] <iiT wi'PT
m1Tl'I
~India's$
~
India q;r ffl' m1lfl 'lW!:' -ra' ~
1%m Noun~ m-er ~ Noun in Apposition [~ Noun
~ Phrase~
~
~ ffi
~
~
Noun/
Pronoun ~ ~
ii' ~
~ ~ Noun i Pronoun
~ Explain~
cfiT ffl' "ITT 'fil 's [Apostrophe 's']
cir ffl' Noun in Apposition lR
t; tt-

m.

tJ

(i)

Ram the doctor's

mm

advice.

.J,
Ram's

r- -r-

is missing.

Noun in Apposition

A
Noun
of
Noun's
R f<fi Ram]
(ii) A pen of Shyam's is red (-;r 1% Shyam]

~.

f.:F=!f~f<Sld Phrases~ ~
(i) A picture of Sita [mcIT q:;\' ~
(ii) A picture of Sita's

[m ~

'ii ~]I

if)I

30. (C) 'one another' ~ ~


one another's q;r 1f<TI1T ~I
.
crre: ~ 1% <tfG each other ('!?.lT one another ~ m-er 's
[apostrophe 's'] 'q;T ~
~
~
's [apostrophe

~~o!WRl'"fill
(i)

am:

~.

t ~

21.. (A) son's-in-law

~I

Noun
(ii) There are a number of sTng flowers in his
garden
.
.
~
Adj. Noun

~~-

India, law, Minister 1R

ffl'

J,

(iii) The Chief Minister's personal life.

Government's cfiT

The Government's dubious policy.

(i)

(ii) His daughter-in-law's sister,

m7!TI ~

~if.~1~-

(i) The Government of India's orders.

"SJ<rrlf

~rrr

t; ~-

.<f.T

(ii) The Government's planning.


28. (D) summer's flowers ~ ~
summer flowers <iiT
' m1Tl' ~
season ~ '=!itf [~
summer, autumn,
winter, spring ~] ilfi. m-er 's [apostrophe 's'] cfiT
-ra' fq; summer, autumn
~
Nouns~ ~ if ~
~ t
Adjectives js

Adj,
Noun
20. (D) Commander's-in-Chief
~
~
Commander-inChief's q;r ~
m,m me; -ra' f<f; fcl;zj'I' 'Tl: Compound
Noun ~-Phrase~~~
'lR 's [apostrophe's']

:j

's

-~ ~ ~ ~ t, ~

,j':,

~ . ~
ilfi ~

~ ~~]
I
'tfm ';sit ~

[';f fcfi Ram's the doctor's advice]

32. (E)

~~t1
~

! m

-ra' fcf; ~
's'] q;r WTI1T ~

~ ~ '=!1'tf ~ mer 's [apostrophe


-if1' ~
t; ~-

(i) India's heroes "tIT The heroes of_India.

A Mirror of Common Errors


33. {E) ciT<Ff ~
t'1 'ElJR
[apostrophe 's' J q;r ~

fci; society ~
~

~ !1 ~.

'TI' 's

Ram's and Shyam's


Ram's wife and Shyam's wife.

l; ~-

~ ~

(i) The society's demands <IT The demands of the


society.

39. (B) public's demands ~ ~

n,

ii) China's population <IT The population of China.

$# ti" ,rq;n: % ~

it t,

~~t,

34. (E)
35: (A) 'him' % ~
Gerund t,

. ~ mar

'his' cfiT 1f<UlT WIT ~


going ~
~ Gerund ~ ~
Possessive Case cfiT
t, '-=r fci; Objective Gase q;r1

NOTE:~~%~~~

(7)~-(14)

t1

42. (E)

.:rrc:- W the mind's eye, the heart's content, the


soul's delight 3fTR idiomatic ti
37. (C) 'his' % ~
'him' cfiT 'Sl<lT'lT WIT! ~ 'locking'
Participle t', -=r fci; Gerund I ~
W fci; Participle ~
Adjective js ~ it cfill1 ~
t ~ ~ Objective
Case cfil' WUTT ~ l. ~
Gerund ~ Noun ~ ~
it <f.Tlf ~ t ~
~ Possessive Case cfil' wrrrT

-grar ti~...;.!:..

(i) . Walking' is a good exercise.

:r:

43. (E)

am qif

Yeats's, Keats's, Dickens's

!I

W fcn .Brutus, Burns, Sophocles, Appolonius

Nouns t ~
[apostrophej js ~
c!il'
45. (A) 'The blind's life' ~- ~
WWT A ~
The

~ ~

m ~ ~ ti
+.

~-

m '

'The life of the blind'. cnr


adjective cfiT WUTT Plural

aref if~-~%~
traT t ~ ~
's ~ 'Si'<WT :mt ~ t1 ~
m ~~ ~
Preposition 'of' qif 'll<Wf ml' i; ~-

(i) The economic condition of the poor.

~~~~~"Gml)

NOTE : Walking I Running


Gerund ~ ~
it

m m ~

s-m~' % ~

'-=rr, % ~

.:rrc:- W fer;

';;fd(" -et- ~
Nouns 'and' ~ ~ ~ ~
cfil' 3ffilT-aR=f71' ~
fcf;m oZffifi <IT ~
~
's q;i- 11<IT1T ~ Nouns~~~

t; ~-

(i) The C. M. of Bihar 's and the P. M. of India's


meeting.
(ii) Ram's and Shyarn's wife [-=r fcf; Ram and Shyam's
wife]

t fc!>
t, ~ ~

Ram and Shyam's wife cnr ~

~ ~

Ram

am Shyam

---

if ~

ffl

'Sl<ITTT -g\"lrrf ~

qif

~I

f.f; ""' dignified natural

.fut)

t~

's qif.l[?Wf

objects ~

mart; ~-

'

The earth's surface, The sun's rays, Heaven's will


etc.

"(11;',

~ ~I (i) ~
(ii)
~
it
'walking'% Gerund~
Participle js ~ it ~
~~<ffi'~I
38. (A) India % ~
's [apostrophe 's'] qif ~
m7!TI ~
'India's and China's present condition' cfiT 1l<ITlT
~
~ ~
India's present condition and China's
present condition.
~

(ii) The hobbies of the rich.


46. (D) 'earth'~ m!f 's [apostrophe 's'j
'the earth's gravitational force'~

'wfitAft

t; ~ ~
it AA 'll"Q;

w:rrrr

qif

~t;~~.~am,~~
WWT ~ Paniciple js ~ ~ m m ~ ~

'qTcfll' ~

Participle

-ey:n" ~ 'TI-IT ~

ffl 1%

3fTR ~

in the.field.

I'

m:!IT (3) ~I

~~t1

'ElJR

c~~~~to

mm

o1JRgqT ~ ~

~t,
44. (E)

~~ti

Noun~

(ii) I found him walking

a::r ~

'tj-o (19)~1

ffl"lJTI

'E2iA'

Gerund

qif ~

40. (A) servant~ ~


's <f>T ~
~
~
maid servant js
~ behaviour~
NOUN !1 3Ta': His maid servant's
behaviourcfil' ~ t ~
~
q;i- ~1
41. (A) 'building' ~ ~
's . [apostrophe 's'] cfil' ~
~
wrITI ~ 'The decoration of these bui'ldings'-q;r il<nlT.
NOTE : ~

36. (E) cTicFr ~

t.

wife cnr ~

public demands

NOTE:~~~~~

~I

15

47. (E)

~~t1

m~

'space' dldi'.icllcl ~- ~ ~
~
Nouns~ ~
's q;r 1l<ITlT
t; mtA boat's length, A hair's breadth, A blade's edge, A
needle's point.
~
Phrases if length, edge, point anR Space
Gidl4c:li<il ~
ti a!': ~
~
~
~
Nouns, boat, hair, blade, needle.
~ ~
's
(apostrophe
cfil'
fq;.rr lJ<IT ti
48. (A) questions'~ ~
questions qif
~I
49. (A) India~
's (apostrophe 's') qif ~
~
~
The President of India ~ PHRASE t ~
~
~
~ 's [Apostrophe 's') cfiT ~
t.1
'E2JA'

's') m

mer

50. (E)

qfq<f ~

51. (E)

qf<Pf

ti

mm

..
j

mm

t,

'

***
---

~::::::~~~~====:=~:::::::::::-:=~53::====--- ---- ------

Chapter-3
'--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~__J
NOUNS & NUMBERS

it ~ ~

Nouns & Numbers js ~

~ ~

(i) Two dozens I eggs have I been/ bought. I No Error


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

~ ~

q;f.r~~~~~i~~~~ir
~ ~ ~ i, B ~ cm~~ <!R

w__:_

(1)

~Nouns~~

[~

t-

Singular~

(a} luggage, baggage, breakage, fur:niture, , drapery, .


imagery, scenery, poetry, pottery, machinery, work (<W:r),
paper ~), wood ~),
iron ~), stone ~)., glass
(~). dust, rubbish, dirt, electricity, traffic, information,
advice ~), chalk, food, bread, grass,
.
~ Nouns Uncountable

WlTTf mm t ~ -:r
~

-;;rrar

t; ~-

t,

arcf: ~

-'s

I es' ~

m~ ~

-:r

m 'a I an' ~
~

Plural

[":f f<i; The

(iii) The wall is.madeof stone. [':l" ~ a stone]

NOTE :- ~ nouns ~ ffl 3-llq~"-li:hdljf!R a piece of I


pieces of I a bit of I bits of I a loaf of I loves of I a heap of /

f
I

3-ITR ~ ~lclQ4i:hdlj*!I;::
it mm~ t ~-

<R Singular 'llT Plural

II

if

Nouns~

3Rf ~

! [~

'-S' R1IT ~

t-

Plural !J Singular~

news, mathematics, ethics, linguistics, phonetics, politics,


economics, statistics, measles, 'mumps, rickets, billiards, darts,
draughts, innings etc.
.

NOTE : ~ ~ fcJ; Nesfield ~ Wren & Martin ~ ~


measles, mumps 3TIR <A" Plural lfRT t ~
~
Jr<ITlT if
~ Singular Uncountable Nouns t
mil' wtm
Singular Verb cfiT '3PTI1T
t-1 'billiards' Wren & Martin ~

'lft Plural

lfRT

.am: ~

mar

t ~'

cm

'Billiards is played by women as well as by men.'


-A.S.Homby
l

l
~.

'

Nouns ~

Singular ~

Plural ~

(a) series, species (>IT'JIT) deer, sheep, fish(~.


~

mackerel, plaice ~

if ~

t-

~ f<nl!T ~
(b) ~

fishes

'lft]

-;:wr----salmon,- turbot, pike.

1.

NOTE : dozen,

f.r::r "WITT

hundred,

~ ~

!-

thousand

-----

~.

(i) Dozens of eggs

Cm' ~)
~)

;rem:,

(iii) in dozens/in scores/in hundreds/in thous;~ds cfiT

mil ti
@~

J!mlT

Collective. Nouns ~
~
~
unit ~)
q;r
Singular,-~
q;r GIN ~
Plural l'.!R" "Glrlr t'; ~-team, crowd, congregation, audience,
class, government, jury, family, public.

* -~~~

~ ~m

rm the team = the players of the tea~]

~.
cfiT .ml"

~-

~ Collective. Nouns ~ ~
units ~)
q;r Plural Formation

m~ ~~

.~

m~

Jl'cnR congregations,

a team ~
two teams, -~
governments, families ~I
(4) ~

Nou_ns ~ ~

Plural

t;

classes,

m t-:-

(a) cattle, people (m"tT), police, gentry, peasantry,


electorate, nobility, poultry, riches (t:R, ~).
odds.
: arms (W-~).

bellows,

(c) Articles of Dress : trousers, pants. patloons, trappings


~I

(5)

w-

Rt:.ilc:?lf~a Singular Nouns ~


(sip.)

(a) mouse

(sifg.)

1geese

Plural ~

m~

(stg.)

'crirerion criteria .

mice

goose

lice

cupful

foot

feet

handful

tooth

teeth

mouthful mouthfuls basis

louse

(c) headquarters, means (mir-1', lTIUl11), dozen, hundred,


thousand, score, agenda, data. -3l@:r
Problems

'of'~ffl~7=imt]

(b) Tools or Instruments


fetters, pincers, tongs, sheers.

OXFORD ADVANCED LEARNER'S DICTIO~ARY


(2) ~

m-

t~

(ii) The team are fighting among themselves.

(H) Two loves of bread


(b) ~

m~ w

(i) The team is strong.

(i) A loaf of bread [-;i- f<f; a bread .:ir two breads}

'
j

m~
m

[ofcfil'
m1JT ~~dozen, hundred, thousand
a, one, two a:rrfi; ~
fcf; -::r
dozen ~
dozens, -:r
hundred.er hundreds~
~
-::t' ~ ~

~m

(ii) Hundreds of books ~

f<ii a poetry]

(ii) The scenery of Kashmir is beautiful.


sceneries]

heaps of
Verb~

~]

(ii) Two dozen I of eggs /have been/ bought I No Error.


, (A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

(i) What is poetry?[-;,

Two dozen eggs~

cupfuls phenomenon phenomena


handfuls

dormouse dormice spoonful spoonfuls

axis
oasi.s

axes
bases
oases

...

17

A Mirror. of Common Errors


(b) Compound Nouns ~ root word

mmt,

(c)
Parts

if

if Plural Formation '

(Siig.)

i!p .

son-in-law

sons-in-law

step-son

step-sons

Chief-Minister

Chief-Ministers

maid servant

maid servants

girl friend

girl friends

boy friend

boy friends aTIRI

man 1'l"2fT woman ~


Plural Formation mT

r-1'

Compound Nouns ~ ~

it 'tt- .

proof

proofs

turf

turfs

roof

roofs

gulf

gulfs

grief

griefs

safe

safes

serf
strife

serfs
strifes
Noun + Preposition + Noun (~
Noun)
Preposition ~- ~

(e~ .~

Preposition + ~

man servant

men servants

Singular~

man teacher

men teachers

woman doctor

women doctors

woman advocate

women advocates

man hater

man haters

man lover

man lovers

woman hater
woman lover

woman haters
woman lovers

.,.e
11 I'

(Pl.)

..;~

-1,

calf

wives
calves

half

halves

wife

7 elf

thieves

sheaf

sheaves

loaf
wolf

loaves

@Five rupees, ten miles cfil" ~


~ ollG ~ ~ Noun <fil" ~
rupees~~
five rupee, ten miles~~
~
mf t; 'tt-

chiefs

cliff

cliffs

mm

~:

W~

five
ten mile aTIR cnr
1:Z!R

rupees have been spent.


(ii) I have five-rupee Illm R ~ five rupees note].
-!,

"31<fiR, (i) a ten-mile walk


Adjective q'iJ'
hypheneated

expressions ~ ~
~ ~
7ffiIT t"
hypheneated expressions q'iJ' Plural Formation
a:rcl':, ~ ,fl" a;ytT ~ ~
~.
~
~I

-:ttt'

am: ~ ~ t ~

(7) ~

~if

chief

'Cftlrrt]

~ ~ mi if ten-mile/ten-rupee l'.!Bf ~
~ ffl st1; mITTr ~ ti ~ W ~ ~

wolves

l1 . 'Women after women' ~

(ii) two ten-rupee notes.

thief

(Srg.)

1'fffif

'Woman after woman' q;r ~

Noun

leaves

s~

leaf

ii'

[M 't ~ Part (A)

~.

selves

'tt-

(i) Five

self

Plural Formation~

Problem~~!;.

elves

~.~Nouns~

cfil' Plural~

(E)

1'!"2fT
fcr;"l!r ~

lives
knives

knife

t; ~-

No Error.

mm t

~
J,

Noun +
Nouns

Women after women. I climbed the rostrum to I speak


(A)
(B)
against the cruel I practices of dowry and bride burning. I
(C)
(D)

!1 ~~

mm

row uponrow R_ f<n rows upon rows]


day by day R f<n days by days]
day after day [-::r ~ days after days]
NOTE : ~
~ ~ ~ Noun + Preposition + Noun if

man hater= one who hates manetc.

-)

cafes
beliefs

(d) ~
~ Nouns t ~- 3Rf if fife ~
Plural Formation '-fife'~~
-ves' ~

... .

cafe
belief

(STg.)

Nouns

i!p

(Stg.)

f/fe~mmt
~

ti

t, am:~

1% ~

mm

ra ~ One of+ the + Noun (Plural) m


mm am~ m cf>T ~
q'iJ'

,fl" one~fq;f

"liflG Noun Plural

<IT

-::rI' ~

'tR ~

ti

H
~

~~-q-~~t;~(i) One of the most intelligent boy ~

~]

boy ~ ~

boys

--------'---~-------18

i
f
I

(ii) One of the book

rrnf book~

~ f.ilfl1 ~ ~

Problem

tWT1]

\)'~@In the last elections I the electorates' I disinterestedness


/"""
(A)
(B)
(C)
puzzled I the politicians very much./ No Error.
(i) One of the problem I with you I is that you do not I
(D)
(E)
(A)
(B)
(C)
.,
7. The present datas I show that the illiteracy rate I in India
come in time. I No Error.
(A)
(B)
(D)
(E)
has
fallen
down
but
not
I
to
the level of expectation. I
[l" ~
~ Part 'A' ii' problem js ~
problems cfiT
(C)
(D)
~~.~one of~ .JR Noun~
Plural~
ti]
No Error.
(8)~
wm ~ & fcf;
~

books

~r

(E)

~-;Ci) Either of the boys


(9)W

8. He said that I he always kept in his pocket I a bundle of

(A)
(B)
one hundred I rupees notes. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

fcf; boy]

9. Running a five stars I hotel needs much more I money


(A)
(B)
than what we have in I our account. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

-srcm,

I None of+ the + Noun (Plural)


I

(10) Any of + the


COUNTABLE
(11)

mt

+ Noun (Plural~ ~

Most of+ the

Noun uncountable (Sing.)


[ Noun countable (PL)

All of+ the

Noun uncountable (Sing.)


[ Noun countable (PL)

Noun

~-None of the boys(=, fcfi boy) ~I


PROBLEMS BASED ON NOUNS AND NUMBERS

Directions : Find out the error in each of the following


sentences. if any. If there is no error; your answer is 'E".
1. One of her firmest belief I was that her friend shouted at
(A)
(B)
her I with a view to making her I aware of her repeated
(C)
(D)
lapses. I No Error
{E)

@In

one of our first conversation I she informed me I that


(A)
(B)
.she had lost her husband I in a bus accident./ No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

/.

-------------

A Mirror of Common Errors

Each of+ the + Noun (Plural)


Either of + the + Noun (Plural)
Neither of+ the+ Noun (Plural)

----

3. All the girls students I of the college are advised I to sit in


(A)
(B)
(C)
the I Girls'.Common Room./ No Error.
(D)
(E)
4. The majority of the woman I teachers are persuading I
(A)
(B)
the principal to consider I their demands./ No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
5. It is harmful I to take cupsful I of tea I fiye times a day. I

(A)
Ne- Error.
(E)

(B)

cq

co)

10. He gave me I two important informations I I had been


(A)
.
(B)
waiting for I for the previous two months. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

11. Your advices are I the proof of your I discriminating mind


(A)
.
(B)
and I pragmatic approach./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

(C)

12. An earthquake I is a natural phenomenon I and nobody


(A)
(B)
can I check it, be sure. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

(C) .

I gave him a home


(A)
(B)
instructed him to do it I at night. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

13. The class teacher

work I and

14. I saw only I five police who I were running after I the
(~
(B)
bank-robbers. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

(C)

sheafs I of the wheet-plants were too heavy I {or me


(A)
(B)
(C)
to I carry on the head: I No Error.
(D)
(E)

@The

16. All the Chiefs Ministers I are responsible for the I pitiable
(A)
(B)
.
condition of their I states. I No Error.
{C)
(D)
{E)
17. After he had delivered I the speech, he .said that he
(A)
(B)
hoped I to be conspicuously understood I and for_givcn for
(C)
(D)
any lapses. I No Error.

(E)

19

A Mirror of Common Errors


18. He says that I a two-miles walk I always keeps him I
(A)
(B)
(C)
healthy and fresh./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

29. The sceneries I of Kashmir is more beautiful I than that


(A)
(B)
of I Darjeeling. / No Error.
(D)
(E)

(C)

@The

His means I are very limited I yet he does not curtail I his.
haves should t- not look scornfully I at the, naves not, ~
~
(A)
(B)
(C)
(A)
(B).
expenditure and spends lavishly. I No Error.
rather they should I try to encourage them to work hard
(D)
(E)
(C)
(D)
and earn their livelihood./ No Error.
31. He uses a fine I quality of shampoo I so his hairs are I
(E)
(A)
(B)
(C)
black and attractive./ No Error.
20. "Language consists of several stratums", I said a linguist I
(D)
(E)
(A)
(B)
in his lecture on Language I and Linguistics./ No Error.
32. Wordsworth's poetries I is characterised by his subtle
(C)
(D)
(E)
(A)
(B)

~l"~
/

21. All his sister-in-laws I are extremely beautiful I to look


{A)
(B)
at so the question I of selection is very puzzling. I No
(C)
(D)
Error.
(E)

22. The bretherns I of this locality are always I at daggers(A)


(B)
drawn without any i apparent reason. I No Error.

(C)

(D)

(E)

23. The wall of this magnificent I building is I fifty foot high


(A)
{B)
and its paintings I are very striking. I No Error.
(C)
. (D)
(E)
'@"The headquarter I of the Anny is in Delhi", it's really
(A)
.
(B)
very I surprising that you do not know J even this fact. I
(C)
(P)
No Error.
(E)
;

25. If a student needs I advice about careers, I he should


(A)
(B)
(C)
consult I the careers officer, I No Error.
(D)
(E)

26. Two summons I have been issued by the court I but you
(A)
(B)
have not I turned up yet. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
27. He has bought I a dozen of copies I of British English
(A)
(B)
(C)
Grammar, I which is a very popular book among the
(D)
students. I No Error.
(E)
28. The beautiful surrounding I of the palace I attracted a large
(A)
(B)
number of tourists I coming from abroad. /No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

description I of the beauty and liveliness I of Nature. I No


(C)
(D)
Error.
(E)

@. The doctor

declared that I the patient's !,p~s.tine ~a& I not -'


'(A)
(B)
working properely and so he needed I medical treatment
(C)
(D)
for a long time. I No Error.
(E)

34. He has ordered I bricks/for the proposed I hotel and bar./


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)

35. When you see his I offsprings, you can't I believe that he
(A)
(B)
is I above seventy. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

(C)

36. "Please convey my- best I regard and wishes to the


(A)
(B)
Boss", I the secretary said to the peon I of the Manager./
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)
.
.
37. The pretty woman I sitting in the car is I the daughter of I
(A)
(B)
(C)
the one of the headman of the village. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
38. When he returned I from America, he informed me I that
(A)
(B)
he had come here I to do an urgent work. I No Error.
. (C)
(D)
(E)

from

39. Many of the MPs. absented t 'themselves


i Parliament ..
(A)
(B)
when some issues of.the highest national importance I
(C)
were to be discussed. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

20

------

---

A Mirror of Common Errors

40. The issues are I very complex and the problem I is that
(A)
(B)
they are bound to be obscured I by these hypocritical
.
(C)
(D)
politicians. I No Error.
(E)

50. You will not I be allowed I to go anywhere else I to play


(A)
(B)
outdoor games. I No Error.
(E)
(D)

(C}

ANSWERS
1. (A)
6. (B)

2. (A)

3. (A)

4. (A)

7. (A)

9. (A)

11, (A)

14. (B)

15. (A)

16. (A)

12. (E)
17. (E)

8. (D)
13. (B)
18. (B)

19. (C}

20. (A)

21. (A)

22. (A)

23. (C)

24. (A)

25.(E)

28. (A)

29. (A)

30. (E)

5. (B)
10. (B)

l
I

_ . \~ese type of books I are certainly helpful to the students


~
,_
(A)
(B)
I preparing for the Banking Service I Examinations. I No
(C)
(D)
Error.
(E)

26. (A)

27. (B)

42. "There are only I certain boy that are sincere I and

31. (C}

32. (A)

33.(B)

34. (B)

35.(B)

(A)
(B)
deli gent and that can do well in the examinations." I said
(C)
the class teacher./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

36. (B)

37. (D)

38. (D)

39. (E)

40. (E)

41. (A)

42.(B)

43. (B)

44. (E)

45. (B)

46. (E)

47. (B)

48. (B)

49. (C)

50. (E)

I.
~

"J' /@have.never
/

'

seen I such a lovely spectacles I in my life",


(A)
(B)
(C)
said I the passer-by./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

44. I do my best I but I don't understand why I I do not get


(A)
(B)
expected I marks in the examination. /No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

EXPLANATIONS

45. You are among those I luckiest man who I attained name
(A)
(B)
and fame not by / labour but. by chance. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
~@)Notto
speak of failure I even a tragedy/does not affect/
:
(A)
(B) .
(C)
his high spirits. I No En-or.
(0)
(E)
_. 47. Owing to his heavy engagement, I he could not write even
(A)
(B)
the two-third I of the book of which I the publication was
(C}
expected before January. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
48. "I know nothing I about his whereabout. I Do you ?," I he
(A)
(B)
(C)
said to me. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

~ 49. Now I have come I to know why he always I remains at

I,

(A)
loggers-head
(C}
No Error.

(E)

with

his

wife

(B)
.
I and mother-in-law. I
(D) .

1. (A) 'belief' ~ ~
'beliefs' q;r ~
m1IT ~
~ ifTG Plural Noun tst ~
mT t; ~(i)

One of

-r

the

one of
(ii)

--

one + of

books,.

-"T

Noun (Plural)

one of

--r-

the

women

etc.

J,

one of
Noun (Plural)
2. (A) conversation cfil" plural form 'conversations' q;r

1l<WT

tt

~I
tfiRlJT ~ tj"o l if~
1l<IT
3. (A) 'girls students' ~ ~
'girl students'
Compound Nouns if M ~
~
formation m-T "1'rnT t; ~-

SINGULAR

PLURAL

(i) maid servant

maid servants

mirr ~
cfil" Plural

(ii) boy friend

boy friends

(iii) girl student

girl students

(iv) female dector

female doctors

4. (A) 'woman' ~ ~
'women' m7TT ~
'man' 3l?tqf
'woman'~ oR Compound Nouns ii' :et>ll-<ld<ll ~
"IPTI' if Plural formation f%<IT -;;rrm t; ~-

SINGULAR

J,
(i)

man conductor

(ii) man servant

PLURAL

men conductors
men servants

(iii) woman engineer

women engineers

(iv) woman supervisor

women supervisors

2t

A Mirror of Common Errors


5. (B) 'cupsful' ~ ~
'cupfuls' ~
~
~
'ful' ~
ful il' 's' ~
q;fct t; ~-

m-

Sinfular
(i) cupful
(ii) handful

(iii) mouthful
(iv) spoonful
(v) glassful
6. (B) 'electorate' plural number if
voters. am:, electorates'~~
~~I

Nouns

Plural Formation

12. (E) ~~t1


13. (B) home work ~ ~

(i) The police

aw ~

electorate's cfiT

Noun
Verb
(Plural)
{Plural)
more inactive.
(i) I have seen ~ policeman coming here.
J,
l

am:

a one hundred - rupee note ~ Two one


hundred - rupee notes ffl t ~
aror Noun 'note'
t -am: one hundred - rupee fu"q; ~ Adjective js ~
if ffl q;m ti 3m" ~. A two-mile walk~
Two miles' walk.
9. (A) A five-stars hotel~~
A five-star hotel ffl ~
o!ITT1l1" 3m: ~ o 8 il' ~ 1ft t I
10. (B) information ~
Uncountable Noun t, .anr:, ~
m NAn q;r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 's' ~
~
Plural formation ~r ~
~
Nouns
!-news I information I advice/ jvork I scenery I
pottery I imagery I poetry I stationery etc.
~
Singular ~
~
a piece of I a bit of aY.IT
Plural pieces of I bits of~
~
aA'1"llT ~
tr
am: two important pieces of inofrmation cfiT ~

m ~

\J"

ffl
N. B. Work cfiT

aN ~

mm-

~.

~"

'}--,

(ii) Two

mm~

(i) Macbeth is ~ popular work of Shakespeare.


l
J,
a
work
~, (ii) All the works of Shakespeare are
worthreading.
work cfiT Plural
11. (A) advices js ~
advice cfiT ~
~r cfiRUT ~ ~o
IOir ~ lfm t1 ~ ~ ~-ra' fcl; ~ ~ ~
if 'Advice' Uncountable Noun t ~ Advices cf;!'

--r-

~ ~ mmlr

Noun
Countable
Singular
policemen were running after a thief.

J,

Two

Noun (Countable Plural)

m mm-

15. (A) sheaf cf;!' Plural formation sh~afs


t ~
sheaves
ti ~ ~ ~ knife, life, wife, calf,
half, self, elf, wolf, loaf, thief, leaf, sheaf, shelf <fiT
Plural 'f lfe'<m~
'ves~~~il
16. (A) Chiefs ~ ~
Chief \WTTI Chief Minister ~
Compound Noun t, ~
~ ~ Minister ti
am:,~
Plural Chief Ministers mrITI ~ 3!<m:,
Sin~uJar
rn.w

mm-

J,

J,
State Ministers
Bank Officers
District Magistrates

(i) State Minister


(ii) Bank Officer

t ~

~:

m, "ffl" "lili

Uncountable Noun
tr I have an urgent work. if
urgent~ ffi" 'an' cfiT ~
~
tr 'an'~ ~ ~
'some' cfiT >fll1"1T cfi\ ~
a piece of urgent
work~~tr
~
work t ~- ~ ~ cfiT ~
Countable Noun
tr

mm

<'ITT"T ~
fct:; home work I

are becoming more and

ffl t ~

~-,

-ra'

mm

7. (A) data singular


plural $rr ~ forms if "SJclT1T ~ i1
am:, data q;r plural formations datas ~ t"1
8. (D) rupees js ~
rupee ~r ~ one hundred rupees

mtrr1

cf;!' ~

t, ~ ~

urgent work I class work I important work a,rre: if


work Uncountable Noun. ti14. (B) 'police' ~ ~
policemen mtrr ~
'The Police'
~ plural number if ti ~ Police .srrftr q;r ~
ti Countable Noun ~ ~ it Policeman~ ~
Plural Policemen~ t; ~-

Plural
~
cupfuls
handfuls
mouthfuls
spoonfuls
glassfuls

ti ~

it~~

10

~o

(iii) District Magistrate

.17. (E)

t,

qJcPr ~

18. (B) a two-miles walk~ ffl a two-mile walk mrITI q;roir


3'tR: ~o 8 it~
lfm tr
19. (C) haves not ~ ffl have nots mrIT f~
aw
t
The poor, ~ haves, ~
~
i the rich, q;r

mm

fc1q~ht1% ~

20: (A) stratum ~


;r ~

tr

Latin ~
stratums. ~

! ~
1(cfiR

~(i) dictum-dicta
(ii) memorandum-memoranda
(iii) corrigendum-:corrigenda
(iv) bacterium-bacteria, etc.

mm

Plural strata ~ t
~
q;r Plural

\'
22

A Mirror of Common Errors


NOTE : ~
"ffi1T dictum <fif Plural dlctums,
memorandum
cfiT
Plural memorandums ~
corrigendum <fif Plural corrigendums cffl' ,ft ~

,rr;rn- t ~

'lf '5l<U1T ~

_..21. (A) sister-in-laws ~ ~

t,

oZJra!ft' ~

t,

t ~-~') wf.t-an,:r if Plural

3N

31': ~

's' ~

plural formation ~

t,

'l'R-ra"

23. (C) fifty foot ~ ~


fifty feet ~
~
foot cfiT plural
feet
Irregular ~
~ plural form ~
ffl

mm t,

~~t-

,.
I';

lice

(ii) mouse

mice

teeth

~.

(vi) man

men

(iii) Two

'headquarters' ~

Plural-zyf\'-@'

cfiT

ffl'

quarters ~
Plural ~

poems

m,-1

t)

cfiT

'o!ITT9llT ~ ~

-m-

t,

~.

(ii) Dozens of mangoes ~

''ER' ~

3N if

tt

Singular
Oxfor<l
. 31':,
Two

surroundings ~

t "~~~mu

m A
~

mm t

Noun

cti"t ~;

~I

mm ~

3Pl' Nouns

cf.t

~I

spectacles ~) I glasses ~),


manners
~).riches~'
ffl) scissors, trousers etc.
34. (B) bricks ~ ~
pieces of brick ml' ~
brick,
stone,iron,ice~
Uncountable Nouns jt: ~-_-;,:_, ..
(i) This' bunglow is made of bri~k/sto~~ etc. ~
stone ~
Countable Noun
t ~ ~
a:
~-trc'cR cfiT ~I
~-He threw a stone in the
water. ~
~
iron cfiT plural irons
t' ~

mar

~ am m ~

t ~

am

counpside

Plural Noun

10

3m: ~

.:rr.

~3. (B) intestine ~ ~


intestines q:;r ffl'
intestines cf,f ffl' Plural ~ it mcJT t I ~
the
smallintestine, the large intestine cfif 'ifcWT ~ q;fc, %1

~mart1~:_

~~cfiT); ~-

Adjective

pieces of poetry

mm

'llT ~1

35. (B) offsprings ~ ~


offspring ~I 'Offspring' ~
''l=rnR'' t Singular
Plural $rr tr ~

3Wl')

3Wf)

surrounding

Plural form if ~

28. (A) surrounding ~ . ~


surroundings cfiT
<P-l1fcfi surrounding tss Adjective t. ~
(i) Patna and its

or' Ram's head are white.

32. (A) poetriesjs ~

tt' ~ i't mm t,

(i) A dozen mangoes ~

t;

Two NOUN (PLURAL)

Singular

ri if mcTT t; ~-

~-

t,

is.black.

hairs

J,

women

-m- ~
mm

!,

m~

NOlJN (collective)

summonses~
ffl' mllTI
27. (B) a dozen copies 'llT dozens of copies cfiT

cflITf.t; A dozen I Two dozen ~


'llT A hundred I Two
hundred ~
~ ~
'of" cfiT ffl' ~
t ~
Dozens 'llT Hundreds ~ oi1G of cfiT ffl' mT t;

hair

ti ~

~-

(v) tooth

:sfq;R

is
Uncountable
hair Countable

ftR"cn' ~ ~ m
ir a hair, two hairs~

geese

t, ~

I
I

n1

are~ ~

t ~ ~

am: ~ ~

(iv) goose

2.6. (A) 'Summons' ~ Countable Noun t


~
Plural summonses ~
Advanc.ed
Learner's
Dictionary)

I
!

dormice

25; (E) cfrcP.T -~

Collective Noun

(iii) dormouse

Singular~

n ~

(ii) The headquarters of the Anny & the Navy.

30. (E) cfrcP.T ~ ti


31. (C) hairs$ ~
hair

(ii) All his hair

(i) The headquarters of the Army.


~

'3m:

NOUN (collective)

(i) louse

~f@lll~ll ~ ~

~ ~

,!.

(vii) woman

. 24. (A)

scenery ~I ~

~10~1

(i) His hair is black. ~

~J,

I'

Noun

. 29. (A) sceneries~~

sist~rs~in-Iaw ~I

~~~o3~1

_22. (A) brethren ~

surroundings of this museum


J,

(i) The

t~
~__:_

3N

mm

am:

(i) Her first offspring (= first child


could not survive.

if

= ~ ~)

(ii) Her two offspring (= two children = ~ ~) are


alive.
36. (B) regard ~ ~
regards cf,f ~
WIT ~ i::r:r ~
if kind~y thoughts and wishes~ ~ regards q=;r ~
fcl;lrr -:snm
i::r:r 3lTR if convey my respects,

t ~

regards, wishes

3lTR cfif ~

fcfi'llT -:.mrT !1

A Mirror of Common Errors


37. (D) (i) the one ofq;r
~

mmt,

m -:;tr~

JlcU1T the headman js

m headman ~)

1'Jlq <fir ~

.(ii) tt one of ~ ~ the headmen t,;IT headman q;r


plural t') cfiT Jl'1TI'lT ~
sil'T ~
't ~ ali ~
~

~ a;tR

(ii) What beautiful spectacles !


(= What beautiful glasses !)

<=~~mt>
44. (E)

\'t ~

(i) The headman of this panchayat is kind.

[~~'lf;J"~~t1]

~.

mm

mm- t,

~.

(ii) One of the headmen of these ten panchayats is

kind.

NOTE : fflf, 3lTR ~ ~


~ ~ marks ~camark 'q;T ali ~ 'R@'
t ..
~ ~ if '1t- mark q;r Plural marks 'fflaT l; ~(i) Who made these dirty marks on my new book ?

ti~-

~~tr~~

t,.

cffcR ~

(ii) He got good marks in English.


men ir11T cflfl'f.f; ~

45. (B) man ~ ~

[~~

~ ~

38. (D) urgent work ~ ~


~

~ ~

3m:

~ ~ ~
an <R ~

mgqr 13

mlT

~
one of<R
fcf; one of, either of,
neither of, each of, every one of; many of, both of, A
number of~
~ ifTG Noun ~
Plural Number if

'!JllTlT ti ~ ~

t11
WTTI ~

101:fil'

oZfR!IT

~I

,:ft ~

39. (E) cffcR ~

mrrt ~-

40. (E) ~
41. (A) type
types cfiT ~
~
cflfl'f.f; These I
Those I certain I other~
Demonstrative Adjectives
~ o1R Noun~
Plural Nu~ber it
it
tt Th~e~ ~
This '1t- ~ ';5fT ~
t~
Experssion "This type"
Part (B) ;f
Verb Plural Number it t am: These types

(i) One of the bags


(ii) Many of the hats
(iii) Both of the rats
(iv) Either of the candidates.

ti
w;: ti
~ W

mm

m ~. ~

46. (E)

Failure (lack of success) ai~tf>t1dl' ~ ~


if
. Uncountable Noun t am: ~ ffl -:r
A 'q,f ~
ti' ~
Plural failures 'qifl ~
~.
spirit Singular Noun t
aref ~
(soul).
-~ (ghost)
ti ~ spirits q;r a: alcohol
ti
~ ~ ~
a: 'mood' ,:ft
am: .' in good
spirits I in bad spirits 3TIR cfiT ~ ~
~
t -:i- fcf;
in good spirit~ in bad spirit cf;TI ~
A good spirit

m~

m-m1

A certain + Noun (Singular); tt-

spectacle <fir ~
lITlTT
spectacles ~ ~ ali ~ !-glasses ~)
scenes~;~-

ltT Abadspirit tsr

~
mir

(i) He usually wears spectacles. ~

(ii) There are some beautiful spectacles~) in this


hilly region.
~, Spectacle, -it ~ Singular Countable Noun t,
q;f

3ref if ~

3l'f it -::rtr

mm t

~ ~

(i) What beautiful spectacles !


(= What beautiful sights I scenes!)
(~~~~~!)

~~ti

wrrrr ~

t~

~itmt;~(i) His whereabouts is I are not known.

(i) What a beautiful spectacle !

m.

mm

mm t,

47. (B) two-third ~ ~


two-thirds q;r
cPm%
one-third (Singular) t ~ two-thirds I three-fourths
~
Pluratt1
@<B) whereabout ~ ~
~hereabo~ q;r ~
~I
whereabout q;r "ll<lTlT ~~
whereabouts q;r
Jl'1TI'lT moT t1 Noun ~ ~ if ~
a: mcIT t
(atm--iIT) m!T ~
~
Singular ~ Plural Verb q;r

ti am:

(= What a beautiful sight!)(=~~

a.m: ~

mw

(i) A certain book. (ii) A certain pen.


43. (B) spectacles ~ ~

~ am: -:;

~
boys WTTI ~
certain + Noun
(Plural);~(i) certain books
(ii) certain pens

42. (B) boy ~

~~ti

Interrogative Adverb~ ~

if ~

~~w~~~-R~-

~!I)

aref mm t

(i) Whereabouts did you find it ?


49. (C) at loggers-head ~ ~
at logger-heads <fiT
~ ~ ~ "t ( in disagreement).
50.(E) ~~i1

***

m wrr

Chapter-4

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
,fl- Finite Verb Cf\T Number

am:

~ Number
Person js ~
(i) They go.

.am: Person cffllf (Subject)

<lR

(1)

t; ~-

~ngular

go ~

~
~

ii' t", ~

(i)

SUBJECT-VERB

f.rlP1

AGREEMENT

re;ds

Sub.

Verb

(Sing.)

(Sing.)

tr

Verb (Singular)

S~e

(ii) Ram

~
i'

Plural Subject 'They' ~

~ Singular Nouns 'and'~

a book.

m. ~ ~ ~
mm Verb Sin~Iar:wm t; tt1}Y and ~
8}! is invited,

every <fi1" wrrtr


(i)

Verb

(Sing.)

(Sing.)

and

each

(Sing.)

(ii)

am, was~ ~

ri

'(ii) You~ ~

Plural.

(4) ~

ffl <IT

Plural.

(B) ~ubject (Plural)

Sub.

Noun

Noun

(Sing.)

(Sing.)

Singular
'TI<f q;r

Nouns

a1N ~

(Pl.)

We

are

Sub.

Verb

T-T

playing in the field.

'fll'R'

rn* is, are, am, was, were, do, does, have, has
~
fsf;<rran' if ~ t m fl:R Present Indefinite Tense ~
~ ~
il'1 ~ii'~
is~~
arem am,do~ ~
does, have~ ~
has a1'lfu Cf\T ml' ~ ~
~ ~ ~

t;~-

[f<!:Q:
~

lfQ: cfrCR ~

~.

Part (B) it 'were'~


c(1q<f

Cf\T Subject

it !I]
a:r.r~~~~-

,, Person, Singular Number

E
~
'My

'was' q;r
friend'

(i) Crown and glory exist together.

*-~

'5l"mrT
Third

mm

mar

(i) You as well as your sister were in the wrong.

(ii) He together with his friends is coming today.


NOTE : ~
fcF; ~ ~
it Sister~ ~
was

am: friends~

My friend I were I not present I there. I No Error.


C

q;r ~

(5)
Nouns m Pronouns as well as, in addition to,
besides, like, unlike, with, along with, together with,
accompained by, led by, headed by, guided by, controlled by,
governed by, rather than, and not a1'ifu ~ ~
Verb ~
Noun m Pronoun js ~
t; #~

Nouns~~~~~

~ m Verb Plural mm t; ~-

walking in the field.

W fcfi Subject Verb Agreement ~

RL.if~f-&?It-

~ Nouns <fir ~

NOTE:~~~

Problems

(i)

::
t;

'and' ~ ~
~
Verb Singular~

Bread and butter, Rice and curry, Horse and carriage,


Hammer and sickle, Crown and glory etc.

(Pl.) (Pl.)
NOTE :

is invited.

8f

(i) Bread and butter is my favourite food.

Verb

(Pl.)
(ii)

Verb (Plural)

(i) 1}ey

Noun

<IT

a mango.

Sub.

each

(Sing.)

eats

J.

Noun

m ffl' Verb Plural

(ii) A book and a pen have been bought.


(3) ~&Sj~ouns 'and'~~

each

J.

(i) I~ ~

ffl Verb

l; ~-

each

~=

,.

(2) ~

Singular Subject 'He' ~ mef

(A) Subject (Singular)


~

Singular Noun ~

(i) Ram and Shyam have come.

ti ~

t ~

!1

W fcfi ~

"q{ ~

Subject ~

(ii) A book has been bought.

Finite verb

~
Plural ~ ~
Singular~ ~ if

Cf;f

(i) Mohan is always late.

(ii) He goes.
~

cfrCR

mar t; ~-

were <fir

JJmlT cfR:

~ (6) ~~Subjects Notonly


......
nor, Either
or i
qffi Subj~t~~~t,; #-

Problems~

~ ti!'

ti

but also, Neither ..


Verb~
~

. (i) Neither you nor I am willing to do it.


(ii) Neither you nor be is making a noise.

.---------~-- ----,-- -- -- -- ----~-v-~._I_


25

A Mirror of Common Errors


Problems~

~~'IR ~

t'1 ~'-

of doing this I work within two days. I No Error.


(C)
(D)
(E)
.
[GRAMIN BANK 1991]
[ ~
q'TcFI' ~ PART (B) ~ 'were'~
~
'was' cfil' 'SJ1rrlT
m1lT ifllTFcf; Verb ~ ~
cfil' Subject 'nor his brother
Prashant' l ~ Third Person, Singular Number jt !J

(7) <1R Subject not


Verb ~

but

Subject 'Not' ~

~-

mer ~ t',

'not' ~ ~

'llT

m ~

Singular'ffl'ol

Subject Each, Either, Neither

'ffl' 'fil

Verb

(i) Iinvited two boys but neither has come.

(i) A great many boys are sitting there.

mm

err

_.;.-

cffl Plural

~ ~

*ft ~t; ~-

q;r Subject Many, Both, Few, A few ~

ffl'

(ii) Many were invited but a few have come.

(13_) Both of, A few of; Few of, Many of~ an'G Noun c:rr
Verb ,fl' Plural

mm t; tt-

are green.

Verb

mm t

3'ITT: Verb '4t Plural;~-

i
Noun (Pl.)

ofTG Noun Uncountable


Singuiar

mm l ~-

'ffl' m

~ Singular
-

Gt Plural

err

mm t; ~-

(i) Half of the hotels are closed today.


~.

mm t ~

il'R: Noun~

Verb

Uncounrable.st

'TI Singular

mm t1 tt-

m~

Singular

(i) Two thirds of the land has been ploughed."


~

(18) More than one ~ ofR Singular Noun

1erb 'ffl'clT t; tt-

am:

Singular

(i) More than one room is vacant.


More+ Plural Noun+ than one~~

Verb Plural

mmt;~-

(i) Both are happy.

(i) Many of the

-rR: Noun_ Plural.~

(17) Half of, One third of, Two thirds of, Three fourths of
Noun ~ Countable 'ffl'
cffl Plural moT t ~ Verb

~.

(ii) Everybody among your friends likes playing.

oerr

t; ~-

(ii) Lots of milk is available.

mm

Pronoun Plural

Verb
(Sing.)

(16) Some, Some of, All, All of, Enough, Most, Most of,
Losts of, A lot of, Plenty of$ i1'R: Noun ~ Countable 'ffl'

Problem~-

(i) Everybody knows that the earth is round.

,;,.

Noun

(Sing.)

(i) Some money is needed.

mw t ~-

red.

J,

men t am: Verb 'TI

(10) ~
~
cfiT Subject e~erybody, someb?<f y,
i:wbody anybody
someone, ~ne, icyecyone, anyone,
everything, something, nothing, anything 'ffl'
Verb Singular

J,

~
~. The number of~
~;gular
ti tt-,

(12)
Verb Plural

pen

(ii) Lots ofp'/ayers were there.

~ PART (C) ~ 'were'~ ~


~as' <ti!' 'SJ1rrlT
miTT ~
every one of~ il'R: Noun 'llT Pronoun Plural ~
Verb Singular
\1 ]

::k

Many

~. ~ m

(i) The teacher asked the student I if every one of them I


(A)
(B)
were ready to attend the classes every day I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

rf<

a
J,

Verb ~

(15) A numberof, A large number of, Large numbers of$

Pronoun (PL)

[~

J,

Noun

(i) All men are mortal.

-r-

moT t; ~-

{i) Many

~ f.lcflf 'IR

am

Many a/an ~ a1R Noun Singular

Singular

is ripe.

Noun (Pl.)
them
has played well.

(ii) One of

mm t; ~-

(i) The number of the buses is increasing.

(9) Each of I Either of I Neither of I Every one of I One of


~
$ alR Noun c:rr Pronoun Plural ~
t', ~ Verb
Singular;~mangoes

Plural

-rR: Noun Plural om Verb~ Plural m<!T


(i) A number of girls have passed.

t; tt-

(i) Each of the

Verb~

m' err
t;

(ii) She and not her friends is guilty.


q'TcFI' 1f;f

Plural~

mm

(i) Not she but her friends are guilty.


(8) ~

om::

(14) Many, A great many, A good many ~

(i) Neither Prakash nor his I brother Prashant are I capable


(A)
(B)
.

(i) More teachers than one are late.

m ~

(19) There clYlT It <ti!'


Introductory Subjects $
~ ~ 'ID <IT There t mer Verb cf;T 'SJ1rrlT. There ~ <il'rc:: ~
Noun c:rr Pronoun ~ Number 3'ITT: .Person -"R R"R cfiUfT t;

~-

(i) There was a king.'

(ii) There were two kings.


~,

It~~

Verb~

Singular

mt ~-

(i) It is these boys that came latetoday,

26

fct;m Numeral Adjective + Plural Noun ~ ~


cr;;r:r, ~
~
cf>f ~
'ffl' <IT Verb

(20)

Singular mnT 't; ~(i) Two thousand


J,

.!.

~. * m or

*m or ~

..

Noun
(Pl.)

I:

"

. !
l
!

I
t

are
J,

and

Pro.

Verb

and

he

J,

J.

and

1R

have
J,

Pro.

Verb
(Pl.)

.anmror Problems ,fl' ~

(A)

t: tt-

(B)

(C)

(D)

[t.D.S.B. 1990]
are <fir ~
lrr1TT

(~-~w

3ml1ftf Problems ils'IT ~ ~

disturbed me.

tomorrowI No Error.

[~

-q am ~ ~

~ Part (B)

~
Part (A) if 'You' ~
Subject Plural ti]

'I' 'and' ~ ~

t 3lR ~

1rciiR

PROBLEMS BASED ON SUBJECT-VERB


AGREEMENT

..

t; tt-

Directions : Find out the error in each of the following


sentences, if any. If there is no error, your answer is 'E'.
1. Two miles beyond I that pasture was seen hundreds I of

(E)

(A)

(B).

cattle including I some lambs. I No Error


(D)

(C)

(E)

2. It is noticed that I the elite class have no soft I comer for


(A)

(B)

the downtrodden who are the I real 'i!Ctims of the present

if, as if, as though. I wish, We wish etc ~


To Be q;r 'll<l1'1T 'fil err ~
Arif; 'were' ~ ~
if
Subject fct;m ,fl' Number Per~
<Pit' :r 'fil;

social set-up. I No Error


(E)

~
*
amrr t ~

(D)

(C)

q;f.t ~ ~

3. Ritu as well as I some of her friends I have fallen in love


(A)

(i) I wish I were a bird.


~
1R ~
Problems ils'IT ~ ~ t; ~(i) If I was you I I would have told I the Chairman to keep

(A)

(B)

(B)
(D)

(C)

(E)

(A)
,

interview for one I of the popular magazines I being

m1JT ~

(~ m

$ ~

.a:rrm t,
(23) ~

~ Part (A) if 'was' ~ ~


'were' ~ ~
fflR' ~ Unfulfilled wish I conclition I desire
~)~~if
I as if I as though I f>wish etc.
To Be q;r ~
'were' ~ 'lJ'lnlT ir

mm~

~ 'Pronouns 'andr.~ ~

m Verb Plural mm t;

(C)

(B)

[B.S.R.B. (BANGALORE) P. O. EXAM. 1990]


~

(E) .

4. More than one successful candidate I have taken the

I his mouth shut. I No Error.


(D)

. (C)

with Sonu, who/is the eldest son of an S. D. 0./No Error

~-

guilty

'cfdm:r ~ Unfuifilled wish, condition, 'desire <tit

(22)

~-

~~-~-

(i) You and I I am going to take part I in the meeting

[B.S.R.B. PATNA 1992]


~
qJq<f $ Part (B) if 'was'~
~
'were' q;r ~
m1TT ~
'which' Relative Pronoun t ~
Antecedent
'the issues Plural l ~ ~ ~
Verb ,fl' Plural ~I

~ ,~),, .

he
.!,

J.

Verb

~ ~

(D)

(C)

and
J,

Pro.

meeting I was raised by me. I No Error.

;'

~~-------

(Pl.)

mar

(i) One of the issues I which was discussed I in the


(A)
{B)

. ,I

i
t

f.rli111R

J,
Pro.
(ii) You

(21)
who, which~ that q;r ~
Relative Pronouns
~ ~ if
Verb ~
Antecedents ~
Number~ Person 1R R"h cf;fT' t; tt(i) I, who am a teacher, teach here.
(ii) The students who are here did not do well.
~

1.

(i)

J.

Numeral
Noun Verb
(Pl.)' (Sing.)
(Adj.)
(ii) Ten tons of coal is enough for me.
Numeral Adjective + Plural Noun ~ ~
cf>f ilT'q
Verb Plural
t; tt(i) Two thousand
rupees
have been spent.
J,
t
J.
(Adj.)

----

is a-handsome amount.

Numeral
\~.A-~

A Mirror of Common Errors

vp~ -um,
* ~.

publishied from Delhi. I No Error


(D)

(E)

@s the~e any difficulties I in disposing .of this gorgeo~

~a
~/

building I built on such a spacious I and beautiful


(C)

campus. I No Error
(D)

(E)

A Mirror of Common Errors


6. The leader as well as I his followers are fatally injured

CN

~)

27

16. A body of volunteers I have been organized I to help the


(A)

in I the train accident which occured last night I near this


(C)

(C)

(E)

(E)

7. The request of the workers' I union that their wages


(A)

17. Each of the students, I whom I have chosen to take part I


(A)

(B)

(B)

in the cultural programmes to be performed I in the City

should be I increased were supported by I a vast majority./

(C)

(D)

(C)

Hall, are up to the mark. I No Error

No Error

(D)

(E)

@Along the northern fomtier I of India is seen I the Himalayas


(A)
(B)
(C)
mighty I in their splendour. I No Error.
(D)
"--(A)

(A)

(B)

drinking I when the Manager of the hotel I was shot dead./


(D)

(C)

(E)

No Error

(B)

(C)

(E)

(D)

(A)

(B)

Sen I have been communicated by some of the ruffians I

(E)

(C)

10. His politics is not I good. so we have suggested to him I

whom I know well./ No Error

(B)

that he should read Gandhi, Nehru I and Karl Marx. /


(D)

(C)

WMost of the news I pertaining to the sudden demise of Dr.

attend I to before this book gets printed. I No Error

(A)

(E)

18. Everybody among the businessmen I were enjoying

9;The publisher says I that there is I many important details to

(D)

No Error.

railway crossing. I No Error


(D)

(B)

faculty members I in their attempt to raise the fonds. I

(D)

(E)

@Although these building are I in need of repair, I there


(A)

No Error

(B)

have been much improvement I in their appearance. I

(E)

(D)

(C)

11. Just outside I the hotel is I two baro/extremely beautiful/


(A)

(B)

(E)

(C)

as well as crowdy. / No Brror


(D)

No Error
~elften says that I it are these obscene films I that lead the

v"' " .

(E)

(C)

j,,

(E)

22. Not only the doctor I but also the nurses of this nursing I
(A)

(E)

(N

(A)

No Error

14. One of I the biggest industrial houses I in Mumbai is on

00

the verge of I declaring a lock out. I No Error

QJ Our Head of the Department assured I us that a series of


(B)

lectures on Milton I were to be arranged I the following


(C)

week and so we should not create any nuissance./No Error


(E)

(E)

24. The teachers face the I same problems in their day to day
~

(E)

(A)

(D)

(C)

(E)

(D)

(B)

really do not know where they have/ come from and why./

opinion about her family. I No Error

(E)

~3. There appears I a number of new faces in the hall I and I

(C)
(D)

(D)

(C)

(B)

incur insult I on her neighbours who hold a wrong I

(B)

home is very kind and helpful I to the attendants./No Error

@Her pugnacious daughter I always do something that may

(D)

(D)

(D)

duty also. I No Error

(B)

many evils growing in our society. I No Error

but I at the same time each of us I have to remember the


(C)

(A)

youth to their moral degradation I and are responsible for

12. We should not forget that I we have a right to criticise


(A)
~)

(A)

(B)

lives I as do an ordinary mari I of our society. I No Error


(D)

(C)

(E)

25. The man who cannot I believe his senses and the man who
(A)

(B)

cannot I b~lieve-anyfhiiig'else'are I insane. 1 No Error


(C)

(D)

(E)

28

A Mirror of Common Errors

26. The available statistics I indicate that the population of the


(A)
world will double in about 30 years I and human life will
(B)
(C)
become I more and more miserable. I No Error
(D)
(E)

36. One of the developing or underdeveloped I countries are


(A)
not in favour of launching I chemical warfare because it
(B)
(C)
trembles I to imagine its repercussions. I No Error
(D)
(E)

27. Shingles are a disease I in which the patient develops I lots


(A)
(B)
of inflamed spots round the I waist./ No Error
(C)
, (D)
{E)

37. Not -John and his friends I but Mary has surreptitiously
(A)
(B)
taken I your photographs and sent them I to her friends. I
(C)
(D)
No Error
(E)

28. What were once glorious forts I are now nothing I but
(A)
(B)
piles of I rubble. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)
@whether you should get married I now or whether you
(A)
should remain I single all your life I are your personal
(B)
(C)
(D)
problem. I No Error
(E)
30. Each faculty member as I well as most of the students I
(A)
(B)
were of the view that there should I be many more new
(C)
courses in this college. I No Error
(D)
(E)
31. Does his daily struggle I for existence leave time I to
(A)
(B)
ponder over I international affairs ? I No Error

(C)

(D)

(E)

38. The idea of I introducing genes I to correct heritable and


(A)
(B)
other I disorders are revolutionary. I No Error
(D)
(E)

(C)

39. An ability to shrink I and reduce oneself to a tiny form


(A)
and reverse the process whenever desired I belongs to the
(B)
realm of fantasy and is heard of only I in fairy tales or
(C)
tales of magic. I No Error
(D)
(E)
40. Neither Rajni I nor Ragini were to take to her heels I
(A)
(B)
when they saw a cobra laying I at the gate. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)
41. Have either of I the two candidates been I selected for the
(A)
(B)
post of Branch Manager I in the Punjab National Bank ? I
(C)
(D)
No Error

32. Either the manager I or his assistants always try to


(A)
(B)
~
(E)
misguide the public I regarding the vacancy I in the
ffi\None I of the five players I who have been given a
(C)
\.:7 (A) .
(B)
(C)
factory./ No Error
chance I to join this team play confidently. I No Error
(D)
(E)
(D)
(E)
33. Every man and woman I of the village have come out I to
43. What she says I and what she does I are incomprehensible/
(A)
(B)
(A)
(B)
.
.CC)
see this strange child I who claims to know everything
to an ordinary mind like yours. I No Error
. ~
~. (D)
. (E)
about his pre-natal existence. I No Error
44. Where she went I and where she left her purse I are not
(E)
(A)
(B)
34. In our college. it I was obligatory for each of I the students
known to us; so it I is of no use being worried about her. I
(A)
(B)
(C)
(C)
(D) ..
to buy I his own instruments. I No Error
No Error
(D)
(E)
(E)
..::.
45. Nobody else I but these-comely young women have I
35. Those athletes who I did not adhere to the rules of
(A)
(B)
(A)
(B)
played a prank on you; but it is pitiable that you don't I
athletics I was deprived of taking part I in the champion(C).
(C)
(D)
ship. I No Error
(E)

understand it I No Error
(D)
(E)

29

A Mirror of Common Errors ..

ffl

46. Some highly significant I observations has been made by


(A)
$)
the former UN I Secretary General, Mr. Perez De Cueler, I
(C)
in his annual report submitted to the current session of

m~

am ~ '3m' Subject~

t,

Personjrtr ~j~IIRld ~

t; ~-

(i) Seldom

does

he

J,

J,

J,
Adverb

(D)
General Assembly. I No Error
(E)

Verb

Sub,
(Sing.)

Adverb

(iv) Outside the hotel

J,

before the Accra Session

$)
I that concrete measures

to

I restructure the

(C)
movement would be considered. I No Error
(E)
(D)

1. (B)

2. (B)

3. (C)

4. (B)

6. (B)
11. (B)

7. (.C)
12. (D)

8. (B)
13.(B)

9. (B)

5. (A)
10. (A)

14. (E)

15. (C)

16. (B)

17. (DJ

18. (B)

19. (C)

20, (C)

21. (B)

22. (C)

23. (A)

24. (C)

25. (E)

26. (E)

27. (A)

28. (E)

29. (D)

32. (E)

33. (B)

31. (E)
36. (B)

37. (E)

38. (D)

41. (A)

42. (E)

46. (B)

47.$)

43. (E)
48. (B)"

34. (E)
39. (E)
44. (E)

30._(C)
35. (C)
40. (B)
45. (E)
50. (E)

N.B. ~

-ra' 1%

miTT ~
t', 1

Verb

Sub.

(SING.)

(SING.)

were

parked

two red cars.

Adverb

Verb

Sub.

Of Place

(Pl.)

(Pl.)

if 'Seldom' Adverb of Frequency!


~ ~
Grammarians Adverb of Number 'lft. ~
t) I
ffl WIT ~ qJ'<PIT if Subject ~:
he ~ they $

saTI'

~
does WIT do cfiT ~
t1 '3m' ~. IITTR
WIT~~
if,'Outside' i ~
~
Adverb of Place !1 r- ~
~ Subject ~:
a red
car ~
two red cars t, afR ~
~
was ~
were cfiT '3l<ITtT :gm ti
2. (B) have ~. ~
has WrrT ~
The elite class, the
middle class ~
Collective Nouns t, ~ Singular

t, ~ ~

has

cfiT ~

WIT ~

q1<flf efif ~

Subject 'Ritu' !1 <ITT:: ~ fci; ~ ~ Subjects as well


as, in addition to, like, unlike, accompanied by, with,
together with, along with 3llR i ~
q;r
~
Subject ~
~
~
~
qym Noun ~
Noun equivalent itm' t ,a.m Verb

mm~

m~ ~~

~t;~-

(i) I along with many of my friends am going to


Mumbai tonight.
4. (B) have ~ ~
has m7TI' ~
Many a ~ 'afR Noun
wtm Singular
t ~ Verb 'lft Singular
t1
More than one ~ ~ Noun 3ITT Verb ~
,Jl' Singular ffl'
f-More than one man ;'as
killed.

(A) is ~ ~
are cfiT ffl' WrrT ~
~ efif ~
Subject 'difficulties' %1
,
.

m~

mm

mm

~-

EXPLAN ..\TIONS
1. (B) was ~ ~
were cfiT ~
Subject 'hundreds of cattle'

J,

J,

3. (C) have ~ ~

49. (A)

red car.

~t'l

ANSWERS

parked a

cfT<fll' (i) WIT (ii)

49. Was she a bird I she would definitely fly to you I and say
. (A)
(B)
that she could not/ live without you. i No Error
(C)
(P)
(E)

(N

(Pl.)
was

J,

48. If Mahatma Gandhi I was alive I he would start weeping/


(C)

come to me.

J,

Adverb

angry comment. I No Error


(E)

commenced

Sub.

J,

(D)

few days

-1

Verb

(iii) Outside the hotel

A. and that I the world's sole might has a subservient


. (C)
international body, it was provided I by President Bush's

SO. There were I reports a

J,
(PL)

$)

(A)
(B)
to see the present condition of India. I No Error
(D)
(E)

they

do

J,

have lately become a policy tool in the hands of the U. S.

come to me.

(Sing.)
(ii) Seldom

47. If any proof was needed to show that the United Nations I
(A)
.

Number cl'2l't

cfiT

fcf; pasture.

~ll-11-<ld<ll Seldom, Hardly, Searcely,


Rarely, Never before tt Adverbs ~ 'Q;cFi Adverb of
Place ~ ~
-~
q'l'q<IT if Verb ~ Subject ~

N. B. mTT 'tl'TG: ~

fcf; ~ There afR It efif ~


Introductory Subjects~~
if
t (ft .There~
3ltf.t iflG ~- Noun ~ Number
Person
~

Verb mrT

t; tt'-

mm

am:

..
30
....

A Mirror of Common Errors


(i) There

, ..

~.

was

a king.

J.

Verb

Noun

(Sing.)

(Sing.)

(ii) There

were

(i) His mathematics are week.

(ii) Your statistics are incorrect.


11. (B) is ~. ~
are q;r V<rr'1T mTJT ~. "J1,1st outside the
hotel" Adverb of Place t
q;r ~
Subject
"two bars" t, ~ Plural Number it ti
12. (D) have ~ ~
has q;r ~
~
~
Subject 'each'

am~

J.

five kings.
j,

Verb

Noun

(Plural)

(Plural)

~
It ~
Verb 'ffilT

!1

Nu~ber
Person ~ ~
ti '{fcf;, It Third Person elm Singular
Number cfiT Personal Pronoun !, am: Primary
Auxiliaries it rn4i is I was I has I does q;r ;p:rrlf ~

~~t~(ii) It is they.

(iii) It was Ram and Laxman.


6. (B) are ~ ~
is q;r ;p:rrlf ~I
3m: 'tj'o 3~1
{D(C) were ~ ~
was mtJT ~
'the request' t"1

~ ~

q:;r ~

qfcp:f

Subject

N. B. ~ 'cl' f.t; .q'J'<f<f it <fR Noun + Preposition +


Noun +. Preposition + . . . . . . . .
<IT ~
Preposition if;
Noun <IT Noun

m~ ~

-1,

Subject ffl ti
mariy
schools

Prep.

Patna

ate

J,

it ti

ffl

are

m,JT ~

q"fq<f

Singular Number if ti
14. (E) qrepr. ~
12 it W
15. (C) were~ ~
was <fil' ~
~
~
Subject 'A series; i ~ Singular ti

of
j,

Person,

~ t,
~

qi!' ~

N. B. ~ 'TI ~ W f.t; A body of, A crowd of, A


bunch of, A team of, A heap of, A herd of, A fleet of,
A piece of, A pair of, A chain of'~~~
Noun
Plural Number it mt t, ~
Verb ~
Singul!!t;

~t;~'3m:

t, am
sm- Plural

m ~

ei;r ~

q:;r
Number

c'flq<I'

15~

i1

am

<Im

~o

c'flq<I' cfiT

am ~

Prep.

~~~~~Singular
(i) Nobodx
of that name

Subject

(i) Mathematics is not as easy a subject as you feet.

him well.

J.

J,

Sub. (Sing.)
Verb (Sing.)
19. (C) have if; ~
has <fiT' 'SPWT ~
~
News ~
Uncountable Noun !1 <ITG ~ f<fi "<!R Most of I
Most I All of I All I A lot of I Lots of I Some of I Two
thirds of I Part of~
if; G!iG Countable Noun
~ ~
Plural Number~ ~ l elm ~
~
Verb

mm

w.T !; ~-

,fl- Plural

~.~~~~~
Possessive Adjective~
My I Your I His 'tlT Article 'The') <fiT ;p:rrlf
~
if; aN ~.~ t ~ ~ Plural jt ~ t ~

(i) Some of

..

t': ~ here.

Verb (Sing.)
knows

(ii) Everxone

(ii) Economics is considered to be a difficult subject-

m- m ~

Verb~
lives

J,

J. '
/

Sub. (Sing.)

m~ ~

t; #.-

~ ~\'.)

Third

Subject "Each of"


i1 ~
a:iT<s'~r'~ ~
om: ~o 12 ~I
18. (B) were if; ~
was q;r WJl1'r tWT1" ~
'Everybody'
~
q:;r Subject t
Third Person elm
Singular Number <fil' Pronoun t"i W ~
~ ~
Pronouns ~-Somebody,
Anybody,
Nobody,
Everyone, Someone, Anyone, No one, Everything,
Something, Anything, Nothing ~
Third Person
~
Singular Number it t,
Subject if; ~ it

"many important details" t, W Plural Number it t"1


10. (A) is~ ~
are <fir wrriT ~ ~
His politics q;r ~
t His political views I Poltical ideas. ~ W f.t;
Politics, Mathematics, Economics, Statistics cfiT ~
~ ~
if; -::rri:r ~ ~ -q' ~
Singular
Verb <fir Jl'cTI'Tr f.t;'lif ;;irm l ~..;_

Plural Verb~

cfiT Subject

Subject "Abody"t'I ~
17. (D) ate~~
is tWTl" ~

good

m,rr ~

* ~~

~-

Noun

Verb
(Plural)
8. (B) is ~ ~
are cfiT ~
~
~
Adverb Phrase ~ ~
~
Subject "the Himalayas" t"

o~f

(i) A crowd of people is waiting for the minister.


16. (B) have if; ~
has qiJ' ~
m-rrT ~
qf<f<r <fil'

Noun

9. (B) is ~

ne~of,
e~~.
Verb~
Singularmol i1
13. (B) do~ ~
does q;r ~
~
~
"Her pugnacious daughter" i

e~

J.

-!,

Noun
(Plural)

f.t; each, either, neither <IT e~of,

t, ~

(i) It is I.

equivalent qTcp.r ciiT ~


(i) The boys
of

N. B. ~

am

.r

J,
. some of

the

boys

are

J.

J.

Noun

Verb

(Plural)

(Plural)

good.

A Mirror of Common Errors


(ii) Some of
J,.

the

girls

-!Verb

(Plural)

(Plural)

Uncountable

ofR ~

t1

Singularmm

some of

m- m

Noun

Verb

' yet to be

is

J,

J..

Noun

Verb

(Un.)

(Sing.)

'or' t
ti ~
Noun~ oroiR mt,
~ ~ Singular Nouns~
'or' t ~ ~
Verb Singular mm= t1
30. (C). were ~
was ~ 'lfln'lT fl ~
~ cfiT ~
Subject "Each faculty member"
<i1T Third Person
~ Singular Number 1f tr
31. (E) q1q<J ~

ffi

the money

m~ m ~

(i) Each

.i

-!-

Each

Noun

each

Noun

3m: ~ o

5 cfil '6!l'ra!rr if

WITT!' 'ffl'lTT ~

mr

~I

'One'
37. (E)

jl

t ~

cfiT

Plural

ti

24. (C) do ~ ffi


does cfiT 1l<rrlT fl
<Piffcl; Subject "an
ordinary man"! -;;rr Thrid Person, Singular Number

'ir ti
25. (E)

ti

'Stastistics' cfiT ~

~~mm ~ Singular

Verb~

t; ~-

(i) Statistics is not an easy subject.


~

statistics cfiT ~

oT Verb~
N. B. : ~

Plural mr
"&ITT9!IT ~ ~

statistical facts ll'T data ~

~~ti)

t, ~

~
il'

is q;r

qJ".p:r q;r

Singular Verb cfiT ~

ll<rr7r 'ffl"tlT ~

Subject

t'1

~~t1

Subject

ti

cflcPl" q;r Subject

'Theidea't, ~ Singulart"t
39. (E) ~
~
t, . ~
An ability ~ ~
Verb
'belongs' cfiT Jl<rrlT
ti
40. (B) 'were' ~ ~
'was' mTfT ~
~ ~ Nouns ll'T
Pronouns 'either
or' 'neither
nor'
t ~ 1rr Verb~~~
Subject~~

s3lT

N. B. : ~
olfmZIT ~ ~
'!l'B ~o 22 q;r ~ ~I
41. (A) have ~ ~
has cfiT ~
'ffl"tlT ~
qJcfll'
Interrogative t ~
Subject 'either' t "311' ~
Singular Verb mIT t1
42. (E) ~

t1
~

~o

10 cfiT ~

~I

27. (A) are ~ ~


is cfiT WTI'lT WIT ~
Shingles ~
disease cfiT -=tTlf ti cffi form 1f Plural t ~
Verb
~
~ ~
Singularmr ti~~~~
-;rri:r ~
Mumps, Measles ~
,ft Singular Verb tr
~"it~ Plural jt rar~t, -;;rr

~ t, ~~

ti

mmt.1

~~t1

26. (E) ~

Noun
(Sing.)

38. (D) are~ ~

(ii) Is either Sbyam or his friends here?

Number

Noun
(Sing.)

is late.

were q;r ~
fl ~
'Those athletes' t '5IT Plural Number
36. (B) are ~ ~
is cfiT ll<rr7r WIT ~

ti ~-

appears js ~
appear q;r "5l<TI'lT fl
~
~
Subject "a number of new faces"

.i

Each

34. (E) qfq<f ~


35. (C) was ~ ~

.girt
J,

and

.i

that-clause q;r

(i) Neither Shyam nor his friends have come.


1

(ii) Each

ti

Noun equivalents js ~

(Sing.)

(Sing.)

are cfiT Jl<rrlT mTJT cflilfcl:; Not only


.
but also, Neither
nor, Either
or,
~
Conjunctions
t ~ Nouns ll'T Nounequivalents ~~Verb~~~
Nouns ll'T

e (A)

is ready.

Verb

22. (C) is~ ~

a':)

&!:!

(Sing.)

R.:rtIT ~

Subject 'it'

each

(Un.)

cfiT

and

Noun

elm ~

is

mm

J,

has ft
~
There ~ 411"1; ~
Noun ~
"improvement" .t ~ Singular
Jn ~
Verb WTTI There oilT It ~ Verb

21. (B) arc ~ ~

22~1

~ ~ Singular Nouns
ll'T ft:rif; ~
Noun~
Verb Singular~

ti~-

been spent.

-!-

20. (C) have ~ ~


. ~

3m: ~o

'and'~ ~
Each 'll'T Every q;r ~

has

J,

some of

32. (E) ~~ti~~~


33. (Bj have~ ~
has~
~

ffl'

-!-

tt

ploughed.
(ii) Some of

'Sf'lrrlT ft ~
~ ~ Clauses
W fcfi ~ Clause ~ Singular

'is' q;r

rt

tt-

(i) Some of the land

J,

29. (D) 'are' ~ ~

good.

Noun

some of

~' m

are

J,

31

cfiT Subject

!1

Nesfield ~ ~

lrr m Verb Singular~

(i) None

has

None~

qJcfll'

ti ~-

come.

J..

J,
Sub.

Verb
(Singular)

~.~none
Pronouns cfiT

ti~-

of~ aflG Plural Number~ Nouns <IT

'll'<lTlT ~ oT Verb Singular 'llT Plural ~

A Mirror of Common Errors

32

None can be followed by a singular or plural verb if


it refers to a countable noun.
None of the drivers has I have tuned up.
. -Michael Swan: PRACTICAL ENGLISH
USAGE (p.172)
~.
'None' (= no one) should be followed by a
singular verb, when it is the subject of the sentence.
None but the brave deserves the fair.
But when several persons or things are spokenof,
the verb can be made plural by anractionNone of my lost books were found.
None but fools have ever believed in ghosts.
-J.C. Nesfield : ENGLISH GRAMMA
COMPOSITION AND USAGE. (p. 42)
43. (E) ~
~
ti ~ ~ Clause~ q;r Subject
Verb Singular mcIT t ~
-~ Clauses ~ and ~
~ m'
qfq<f ~ Subject jf,
Verb Plural mcIT t;

46. (B) has~ ~


have .q;r ~
m-rtr ~
highly significant observations" t

~-

47. (B)

44. (E) <iTcRf ~


~ ~

~ti

wwr ~ ~

have~~
has q;r
"The Unit
Nations"~ organisation q;r -:{J1f t ,3fi' Singular ti
NOTE : 'llTG W f<f; ~
~.
~.
-~.
~
~
q;r ~
~
ir Plural '11'
Ve
Singular'tt
t; ~(i) TheEast Indies is a ~mall country.
(ii) 'Romeo and Juliet' is a popular work
Shakespeare.

ir ~ ~ Clauses and ~ ~

~ Subject t'1

am:

t'

Verb Plural Number ir

mm~

m; ~-

(i) I wish I were a bird !


[''511 ~
~
!]
49. (A) was ~ ~
were q;r 'Sl<TI'lT A ~
~ ~ it
ffi ~
ti mq; q'Jq<f ~ ~
it -3RR
NOTE : 'llTG W f<f; If~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
were cf;T Jfm'1T' Subject ~ Gf1G mcIT t ~ If <R ~
t ~ ~ ~ 'were' subject~ ~ ~ "1TiTI'
~-If
I were you, I would do it.
~" Were I you, I would do it.
~ [If I were you = Were I you]

t, ~ ~ ~

t,

***

I.

Al .

NOTE : 'llTG W fci:; Present ~ unfulfilled wish


desire "lJT unreal situation ~ express ~
~ ~
As if, As though, I wish ~ Gf1G ~
Verb To be
'Sl<TI'lT cfivlT .
fu,$; 'were' ~ 'Sl<TI'lT ~
~ t qJt Subject f<f;tjt 'TI' Number "lJT Person

SO. (E) ~

were cf;T 'Sf<lTlT'

48. (B) was ~ ~

<P-n' -;,

ti ~ ~

m~ ~

mm

(i) When she sings is known to us.


~ 'When she sings' ~ Clause t"t 3lo:, Singular
Verb'q;J' ffT ~ 'l1<lf l1 ~.
(ii) When she sings and when she dances are known
to us.

Subject "Som
Plural Numb

ir ti

mm

am:

w;: ti

'--~~~~~~~~~~T_I_M_E_&~T_E_N_S_E_S~~~~~~~-'--_,,.......~_J
(ii) We are seeing the C. M. tomorrow,

PRESENT TENSE

(D)~

1. PRESENT INI>EFlNITE I SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

v1N5 + , .....

RULE: (i) !subject+

~~

RULE : Subject+ have I has+

(ii) I live in India. :


(iii) The earth is round.

cil' ~

~ ~;

~~-

(ii)

(i) She goes to Mumbai next month.

mm

~-

TJit !1

(i) As soon as I will I reach Patna, I will I send you the


(A)
(B)
books I you have asked for. I No Error.
(C)
. (D)
(E)

~ ~ t

'lft ~

RULE.: Subject+ have I has + been +V4 (V + ing) +


. (for I since + Time)

Uses:
(A) ~

Part (A) if 'wi11' cf>T >l'<fl7T ~


WIT,
Clause -ct Future Indefinite Tense <fir
~ Present Indefinite Tense <fir wmT

mm

ri

~ Past if ~

$ ~

~ 3lR -mr 'lft ~

t;~(i) I have been Jiving here for a month

[S. B. I. (Kashmir Valley) P.O. Exam. 1992]


~

if~~.~~

4. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

~
~
Conditional

~~~Past

(i) I have lived here for a month.

it; ~-

[-::r fcii unless ~ou will work hard]


NOTE : ~ ~
~ ~"lrol' Problems ~

ffl

t';~-

(i) You will not succeed unless you work hard.

$ zj

I have visited Kashmir.

(C)~

(D) ~ '1fcr&f cf>1' ~ ~


<fir ~
when, if,
unless, until, as soon as, as long as, in case, before, after ~
Clause

~.,-

(i) I have seen the Taj Mahal.

~(C)~~~~<mRT~~;

;; .

sti: t; ~-

(i) He gets up before sunrise.

v3 + ....

Uses:
(A)~ri
$ ~ ~ 3Nt-ri ~ sQ: t;
(i) He has finished the work.
(ii) You have just come.
~(B)~ ffl ~ ~ ~ Pastif ~ ~
~

ffl ~ ~; ~-

(i) He works in this office.

(B) .~

ffl.~ ~; ~-

3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

Uses:
(A) fflr-1

~ ~

(i) She is teaching mathematics these .days:.

(ii) !Subject+ is I are I am+ complement:

"""...

Chapter-S

(:::: I have lived here for a month I


(B) ~ ~
$ rei:i: ~ ~ ~
qq; '3ITir
t ~ ~ 3N.fcf 33~ '1T t; ~-,-

W t 3fn: ~.ft

(i) They havebeen working in thefield all day.


PAST TENSE

!1

1. PAST INDEFINITE I SIMPLE PAST TENSE


RULE : (i) Subject

2. PRESENT IMPERFECT I CONTINUOUS TENSE

RULE : Subject-tis I are/~+

V4 (V + ing) + , .. ,,.~;: .

Uses:

(i)

(i) They are watching television.

~ t

~ ~

f<ii ~ ~

cmi:rR if ~

m ~ m; ~-

t ~

Ci) He is writing a book.


(C)

f.rq;z ~

~ ~

Programme js ~; ~-

(i) I am going to Delhi tonight

ri ~~ ~

Past if sQ:; ~~

He came yesterday.

(ii) He left for London last night.

(ii) She is cooking.


(B) ~

Uses:
(A)~

~~~~m; ~-

ffl ~~

(A)fq-.~1 ~

+ v2 + .... : ...

(ii) Subject+ was I were_+ complement.

NOTE : Yesterday, last night I week I month I year, dz


other day, the other morning 3Tif<; $ ~
~= hsl
Indefinite Tense <fir >l'<fl7T
l1

mm

(B) Past cil' ~

~ ~;

~-

(i) He always came to see me.


(ii) Meena never made a mistake.

A Mirror of Common Error@


NOTE : Past q;j' ~
iildl4ctl~ ~
ir ,fr <Eli+U.cio<II
always, daily, every day, every month,every year, once a week I
month I year~
q:;r ll'1f!1T ~
~ !1
Ni(, Past~ ~
'used to' q:;r ,fr 'ffl" mT

m ~~

t;~-

(i) Gandhiji used to walk in the morning.


(C) ~
~ unfulfilled wish, condition, desire ~ arcRf
cfif.t ~ . ~ I wish, if, as if, as though, it is time, it is high
'time ~
~ ~ ,ft- Past Indefinite Tense q:;r ~
~
~

t;~-

I wish I were the P.M. of India.


(ii) It is time (that) you went to the station.
: (D) ~ Direct Narration it Reporting Verb Past Tense -if
lrr ~ Reported Speech Present Indefinite Tense ir Indirect
Narration ~ Reported Speech ~ Past Indefinite ir ~
~
-itT<IT ti [N.B. ~
Universal Truth~ Vreb ~ ':l1ff ~
~

(B) I wish, it, as if, as though ~ ~ 'TI Past Perfect q;i~ t ~ Past ~ unfulfilled wish, condition,
desire~~~
'ITT; ~(i) I wish I had passed in the First Division.
(ii) If he had come on time, he would have caught the
train.
(C) ~ Direct Narration if Reporting Verb Past Tense if
lrr n'IT Reported Speech PresentPerfect 'tiT Past Indefinite if
Indirect Narration it Reported Speech if Past Perfect
Tense q;r 'ffl" ~ ~ \; ~

Jl<rrTT ~

~m

Direct : (i) Deepa said, "I have done it." ~


(ii) Deepa said, "I did it"
Indirect : (i) Deepa said that she had done it

(i)

ti]:~-

Direct ..He said, "I write a letter."


Indirect: He said that he wrote a letter.

4. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


RULE : SUBJECT+ had + been + v' (V + ing) ..... (for I
since+ Time.)
Uses:
(A) ~ ri
~ ~ ~ Past ff ~ ~ ~ R;ff cJq;
~~~;~-

2. PAST IMPERFECTI CONTINUOUSTENSE


RULE : jsubject + was I were+ V4 (V + ing) + .
Uses:
(A)~

~ ~

~ Past ir ;;rrft

(i) Meena bad been lying there for an hour.

FUTURE TENSE
1. FUTURE INDEFINITE I SIMPLEL FUTURE TENSE

.et; ~-

. (i) He was writing a letter yesterday evening.

Past~i't~~
~~~; ~(i) While she was dancing, he was singing.
(C) ~ Past ir fcfim ~ q:;r ~
~
~ ~
(B)~

zyrr:rr

m;tt.

(i) He was becoming more and more ambitious.


(D)M'
~~PAST~~~~~

~.

r~$~'.$1~2 ~

m; ~-

<f;1" cm:ui- ~

~-fffi!:

(i) She was always writing rude letters to me.

mar t. ~

v3 ..

(a)I sub.iect +is, arelam +'to+ v1 1


tt-(i) He is to start some business.

(b) Subject + is I are I am + about + to + V1


~-(i) Mohan is about to leave the hosue.

Uses:
\\-~~

m~ ~

(A) -;;i.r Past ir i't ~


tl'it ~
~
~
Past Perfect oYtT ~ ~
<fR ir
Past Indefinite cfiT 'ffl" ~ ~ !; ~-

trat

ffi trat

m~

m1

(ii) He reached the station after the train had started.

NOTE : ~: Past ~ ~ -era::rr ~ ~ Past Perfect


~ ~
-;:r ~ Past Indefinite 'ifir ~
fcti7rr -mT t; tt-

~~ti

come yesterday~ ~

(c) Subject+ bas I have + to+

ffiQ; .

(i) The patient had died before the doctor came.

(i) He had

mi ~

t:

3. PAST PERFECT TENSE


RULE: I subject+ bad+

RULE : Subject+ shall I will + V1 + . . . .


Uses:
(A)~~~
ffiQ; ~ ~
1f wt;~(i) He will do it tomorrow.
(ii) Dinesh will build a house.
NOTE : ~
~ ~ Future ~
q;l" ffl ~~
Present Indefinite Tense -~ Present Imperfect Tense q:;r
,ft- ~
Programme ~
constructions~
lflUfli ~ Future~ ffl ~ ~
-;;ir ~

He came yesterday

1r~

v1

(Compulsion)

~~~
tt-(i) She has to leave the school.
2. FUTURE IMPERFECT I CONTINUOUSTENSE

RUI..E : Subject + shall/ will + be +

v4 (V + ing) + . . .

Use:
(A)~~~~

-;;u ~if~~;~--

(i) He will be writing some letters tomorrow morning.

..

--

-~

35

A Mirror of Common Errors


3. FUTURE P.ERFECT TENSE

RULE

:ISabject
+shall/ will + haye +. v + . . .
~
-~ ~ ...:...~.::.
~~~
<t> ~

~ '11"1""1 'i ~

~ ~"f) "'-t!'I;

~
'>I~-

(i) They will have arrived here by this tim~ tomorrow.


(B) ~ ~
~ ft;rl!, f<i; ~
awRr ~ ~ ~ ~
~; ~-

(D)

m :; ~ ~
.,

PROBLEMS BASED ON Tll\1:tf & TENSES


Directions : Find out the. error in each of the following
sentences, if any. If there is no error; your answer is 'E'..
1. When you will find out I any solution to this problem I
(A)
. (B)
you will become able I to finalise. the project. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)
2. Whenever I you are -coming here, I you bring a lot of I
(A)
(B)
(C)
sweets for me. I No Error
. (D)
(E}

Q;:lt is appearing

to me I that you are plotting I against your I


(A)
(B)
(C)
friends and their parents: I No Error
(D)
(E)

4. The old man who is sitting in that room / lived here for
(A)
'
(B)
more than I a month but he has never created I any
(C)
problem. I No Error
(D)
(E)
5. A mysogynist is a person I who is hating woman I but a
(A)
(B)
philogynist is a person I who loves woman. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)
6. The secret of his good I health lies in the .fact tha.t I he is
(A)
--~getting up before sunrise I and has a two- mile walk every
(C)
(D)
morning. I No Error
(E)
7. Now-a-days he teaches physics I becuase the teacher of
{A)
(B)
physics I has been absenting .himself I for a month. t
.
(C)
(D)
No Error
(E)
8. He seems to be happy I because his parents I had come
(A)
(B)
from London I to live with him. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

l this work," I my
(C)

(E)

10. I have come I to know that your I father has died I

(A)
'!\'eek./ NQ Error

(i) You will have heard the name of Gandhi.


NOTE : Future Perfect Continuous cfiT
!1 ara: ~ ~ ~ -:r' ctt'':51T W ti

time (you -~e starting .

(A)
(B)
friend said to me.v No Error .

(A)~~ ~

ii high

@'It

(D)

(B)

(C)

last
.

(E)

@Many of my friends I wished to come here I today but i


(A)
..
(B)
(C)
.
none of them arrived yet. I No Error

'(<.

(D)
(E)
12. She says I that she will take I her umbrella I in case it will
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D).
rain. I No Error
(E)
13. I will let you know I as soon as I willget I any informarion !
(A)
(B).'
(C)
. about your promotion. I No:Error
(D)
(E)

14. When I will be thirty I most of my friends I will be above


_.,- (A)
-(B)
(C)
thirty I five, be sure, I No Etror
(D)

(E)

15. This is , indeed, I the first time in my life that I I hear I


(A)
CB).,
(C)
such an interesting story. I No Error
(D)
. . (E)

-*

16. Before the alarm I had stopped ringing I Veera.had pulled


(A)
(B)
(C)
up I the shade. I No Error

.(D)

<._~) .

[S.S.C. CLERK GRADE EXAM., 1992}


~

I have been knowing


(A)
where he lives. I No
(D)

I him for ten years/ but I don't know/


.
(B)
(C)
Error
(E)

18. He uses to study I at least till ten o'clock I at night aJiJd


. (A)
..
(B)
(C)
'
. " ~ . .
...
then I he goes to bed. I No Error
~
.
(D)
-, ,
. (E)
~/
.

-*

@)If he

had i a few hours to spare, I hewould spend I


(A)
(B)
(C)
in a public library. I No Error

(D) .

'

20. All the flowers I in

dre.;;:J

(E)

his. garden

. ~

rains I will fall./ No Error


(D)
(E)

will surely die I before~.

A Mirror of Common Errors

36

32. We got I everything ready for all I of them long I before

(3::., 21. If I would have done this,/ I would have done wrong I and
~
(A)
(B)
would have disappointed I many of my friends. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

(A)
(D)

@If she had told me that I her husband never lived I within
~

(B)
.
(A)

00

(D)

(A)
(B)

(C)

(D)

(B)

(D)

, No Error

(C)

is gifted. I No Error

23. I wish I he saw you I when you were/ living in EnglancY

(E)

./35. Had he come I even a moment earlier, I he would have I

(E)

(A)

24. The judge had not given I any dicision I until he had I
(A)

(B)

(D)

(B)

(C)

found me there. I No Error


(D)

(C)

studied the case. I No Error

(E)

36. Many observations indicate I that the number of the drug I

(E)

(A)

25. I lived I here since 1980, I therefore I know everything I


(A)

(C)

34. I have been adoring I her for I the voice with I which she.

(E)
(A)

(B)

getting late. I No Error


(D)
(E)

No Error

(E)

. 33. She was with I me uptil now, I so don't rebuke her I for

his means, I would not I have lent him the money. I


(C)

(C)

they arrived. I No Error

(B)

(B)

addicts is grew I day by day. I No Error

(C)

-~

about this city. I No Error


(D)
(E)

(D)

(C)

(E)

'r)7, Newspapers told I us about the events I


(A)

26. I have been I working for this I organisation for I the last
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
.ten years./ No Error

that happen I all

(B)

(C)

over the world. I No Error


(D)
(E)
38. "Here is coming /- my friend l", said Manju when I she

(E)

(A)

{?'

(B)

(C)

[S.BJ. (Kashmir Valley) P.O. EXAM., 1992]


was anxious./ No Error
~If we had Mohan I in our team, we I would have won the
(D)
(E)
(A)
(B)
(C)
'@!)He advised me I to do as he did I but I did not pay any
match I against your team. I No Error .
.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
fE)
attention I to his advice./ No Error
28. Radha came I to the meeting
1 much later I than I .
(D)
(E)
(A)
(B)
(C)
40. By this time next year he I bas had I settled himself I in
expect. I No Error
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
London. /No Error
[B.S.R.B. (Patna), 1991]
(D)
(E)

41

29.

If I was you I I would have told I the Chairman to keep I


(A)

(B)

his mouth shut./ No Error


(D)
(E)

J want you to I pick up the box I of eggs gently ~d I kept..


(A).
(B)
(C)
it in the corner carefully. I No Error
(D)
-(E)

(C)

words I were not audible. I No Error


(D)

(E)

[B.S.R.B. (Baroda)P.O. EXAM. 1991)

(D)

(C)

(A)

(B)

(C)

unfortunately-I fell ill./ No Error


(D)

(E)

43. The thief was caught I after he has disposed of I the stolen
(A)

(B)

(C)

goods. I No Error
(D)

31. The victim tried to tell us I what has happened I but his
(B)

(B)

~I had hoped I that I would see I you the other day, but I

[B.S.R.B (Baroda) P.O. Exam., 1991]


(A)

(A)

/No Error
(E)

[B.S.R.B. (Banglore) P.O. Exam., 1990]


~

41. It is about time I you have taken I you children I to shcool.

(C)

44. Sushma arrived here, I did all the preparations I and then
(A)
(B)
has called I on one of her intimate friends. I No Error

'*'

(C)

(D)

(E)

31

A Mirror of Common Errors

4i. I could

00( recall I what she has told I me about her I


(A)
(B)
(C)
coocern with Moti. / No Error
(D)
(E)

t) ~ Present Indefinite
Principal clause ~ Future Tense ~

~-

(A)
doubted. I No Error
(P)
(E)

(B)

(C)

47. Nobody knows I when death I will knock at I his door. I


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
No Error
(D)
.

@l Dipu hopes to beco~e

I an officer after I he will complete/

{A)
.
(B)
his higher education. I No Error
(D)
(E)

50. My friend I said to me, I "When have I you come here?" I


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
No Error
(E)
51. He would not have I done all this I if he had not been I
(A)
(B)
(C),
instigated by his wife. I No Error
(D)
(E)

52. The teacher said I to us that we I should stay at home I if


. (A)
(C)
(D)
(B)
it rains. I No Error
{E)

4. (B)

5. {B)

7. (A)

3. (A)
8. (C)

9. (B)

10. (C)

11. (D)

12. (D)

13. (B)

15 . .(C)

16. (B)

17. (A)

18. (A)

14. (A)
19. (E)

20. (D)

21. (A)
26. (E)

22. (E)
27. (A)

24. (A)
29.(A)

25. (A)
30. (D)

31. (B)

32. (A)

23. (B)
28. (D)
33. (A)

34. (A)

35. (E)

36. (C)

37. (A)

38. (A)

39.(E)

40. (B)

41. (B)

42. (E)

43. (B)

44. (C)

45. (B)

46. (B)

47. (E)

48. (C)

49. (E)

so. (C)

51. (E)

52. (D)

1. (A)
6. (C)

2. (B)

~ ft:lv:

~-

EXPLANATIONS

'you come' cfiT ~

cfit 3TI'G<f (Present habit) iloR

Present Indefinite Tense <iiT

ffl' maT t;

J,

J,

Present

Present
Indefinite
(ii) As long as God is with you,

Indefinite

J,
Present Indefinite
you need not fear.

J,
Present Indefinite.
3. (A) 'It is appearing' ~ ~
'It appears'
<Pfffcl; appear q:;r 3Tl!f ~ seem ~
appear <iiT ml' Indefinite Tense if

if;!'

"!fmTr

m-:IT)
moI' t,

t ~

mm

mm
-::r

1%.

Imperfect Tense if; ~(i)


It appears that he will fail in this plan.

,!.
Present Indefinite
She appears to be dull.

(ii)

J.
Present Indefinite

NOTE : Appear q;r ~

~-

(a) appear q;r

3Tl!f ~

m m~ ~
(i)

"Sl<tilf~td

'3l<ITlTI' ~

if ~

m;rr'

Imperfect Tense

it

(to be published)
,ft

moI' t; ~

My next book is appearing this month.

(b) appear

3Tl!f it ~

if;!'

m- ;;J'GI'

m~

ml'

'come before the public'~


Imperfect Tense if ,ft ~ l;

tt(i) Now an eminent artiste i's appearing on the ~


4. (B) 'lived'~ ~
'has lived' -~ has been living cf;1' ~
Part (A)-q ~
'is sitting'~
Pan (C)~
'has never created' t 'Q'ffi'
f<5 ~
Present.Tense <iiT ti
@(B) 'who is hating'~
~
'who hates' cf;!' ~
. cfZilfcf; universal truth~
Present Indefinie ~

n ~

~-t

rev:

1. (A) 'you will find' ~ ~


'you find' q;r ~
~
~
~ Future ~ ~ ~
if;!'
Conditional
Clause t,;TI' when. if, before, after, until ~

m ~m

Future Tense

(i) Whenever she weeps, nobody asks her the reason.

ANSWERS
I
...,_

(C)

49. Meenu along with her parents I is going to Mumbai


(A)
.
(B)
tonight I because her eldest brother I is ill there./ No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

.(

..L

,!.
Present
Indefinite
2. (B) 'you are coming'

mcrr t';

will wait.for him.

(i) Until he comes,

~ That two and two I always made I four cannot I be

o"JI

Tense

JfcIT1T'

qif~"ffi!Tt;~(i) A vegetarian is a person who never eats~


(ii) A theist is a person who believes in-God.

A Mi~or of Common Errors .

38

..

NOTE : . tt ,ft hate, adore, admire, depend, hope,


believe, doubt, want, wish, care, desire, understand, cost, dare,
need, contain, consist, comprise ~
cfiT wi'rtT Continuous
Tense ii' ~ ~ l1
.
6. (C) 'he is getting up'~ ~
'he gets up' cfiT '5lcrrTr
<flnfcf; ~
c!>1" ~
(present habit) ofd'R' ~ ~
Present Indefinite Tense cfiT ~
R t; tt(i)
He returns
before
sunset.
'
..
J,

mrrr

Present Indefinite
(ii) They often come to see me. .
7. (A) 'he teaches' ~ ~
'he is teaching' cfiT ffl"h ~
~
~ ~ ~
(temporary) 1:fiTlT
~ ft.rt; Present Imperfect Tense <fiT ffl' mIT t;

~(i) These days Mohan is living in Delhi.

.!.
Present
Imperfect"
8. (C) 'had'~ ~
'have'. cfiT
mrTT ~ 1iU ~ if
,:rrq PRESENT<fil'i(~-,
(i) He seems to be happy becuase his father has sent
him a suit
(ii) You are happy because you have got a job.
9. (B) 'you are starting' ~ ~
'you .started' cfiT Jl<IT1T mrTT
~
~
~ unfulfilled wish, condition, desire
3TIR ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ It is time, It is high time,
I' wish, If, As jf ~
~ m'if Past Indefinite Tense cfiT

ffiT t;' tt-

(i) Have the children gone to school yet ?

-A. S. Hornby : GUIDE TO PATTERNS AND


USAGE IN ENGLISH (p. 91)
m, ~ 'None of'~~ Verbs Singular7:fT Plural
t; 31": None of them has arrived et None of
them have arrived
ti ~After none of the verb may be singular or plural.
None of my friends was I wt re there.
Hornby: GUIDE TO:p~.'fTERNS AND
USAGE IN ENGLISH (p. 135)

m~
,

m~

-A.s:

12. (D) 'it will rain' ~ ~


~ Future c!>1" ~

qi!' WUlT mllT ~


ffl" l ~
1lm -~
t
cfiT cfiTlf Past -q :prr'_I

"died'

cfiT

NOTE: 7:fTG .ffl fcr; ~


~ ~- Past ~
~
q1m
Time Expression ~
Yesterday, the day
before yesterday, last week, last month, last year
3TIR) cfiT
qicpf <fit Past Indefinite if

m mm~

-iITTIT

t; ~...:..... ;

(i) He came here last month, (=I' fcr; has come)

{ii) They went there the day before yesterday.


'11. (D) 'arrived' ~ ~
has arrived 7:fT 'have arrived' cfiT
fl ~
'yet' cfiT ~
~ up to now (~

1:fiT

clf.l:;

m, m

(i) What will you do in case you .fail ?

J,

Present Indefinite
13. (B) 'will get'~ ~
NOTE : ~

'get' q;r
o!l'T'&lT ~

m1ITI

ft:n:{ ~

,zj- o 12 q,l"

oim!IT

~I

14. (A) 'I will be thirty'-~ ~


'I am thirty' 1:fiT m
m1TT
~
when ~) ~ ~
~
Clause if Present
Indefinite 'Tense qi!' ~
irar t ~r ~ Clasue -q., .
Future Indefinite 1:fir; tt-

Present Indefinite
you will be twenty five,

l
Future Indefinite
15. (C) 'I hear' ~ ~
'I have heard' ~
min- ~
'
this is the first time, it is the second time 3TIR ~ ~
~lltl-4d: Present Perfect Tense q;r ~
~
t;

m-

Past .
Indefinite
10. (C) 'has died' ~ ~
~
Part (D)-q 'last week'

-~

min-

'it rains' <fiT ~

Conditional Cl~u~e (-;srr in case, if, when,' before,


after, as long as ~
~ ~
~
t) ii'
Present Indefinite Tense cfiT ~
ffiT t; ~-

' -

J,

firr ~

...

Present Perfect Tense

(i) When I am twenty,

Past Indefinite
(ii) I wish I were the President of India.

fcr; ~

m'if

(ii) Has Thom left yet ?

(i) It is time you reached . the station.

J,

if ~ m ~
cfiT ffl" ~
~ t; -~('!cf;) ~ ~

~-

(i) It is the second time that you ~ave come here.

it RJ.-.Jfe1f-&a ~ cit ~-

L We use a present'.,perfect tense afer the following


expressions.
T~is/that/it is the first/second/third/tourth/etc.
This/that I it is the only
.
This I that I it 'Is the best I worst I finest I most
interesting etc.
'
Examples
This is the first time that I've heard her sing.

-Michael Swan : BASIC ENGLISH USAGE (p. 191)

A Mirror of Common Errors

full; 'stopped' q;r 'Sfm1'T ~


Past <R" ~ ~
q;J" ~
<IT ~lil-4d:
~
Clause if Past Perfect Tense q;r ~
t
~
before, when ~
~
Clause if Past
Indefinite cf;T; ~(i) Before the doctor came,

16. {B) "had stopped' ~ ~

(i) If she had informed me, I would have helped her.


~- (ii) Had she informed me, I would have helped
bee.

mm

22. (E) 1.l'Tcpf ~


23. (B) 'saw'$

.i

J,
Past Perfect
(ii) The headmaster had come

.i
Past Perfect
before the bell rang.

...

Past Indefinite
'have known' cJ;T ~
know, mean,.suppose, understand
~
~
Indefinite ~ Perfect

17. (A) 'have been knowing' ~ ~

~
~
3lTR Verbs q;r
~nse~ Fat;~
(i) I have known you for years.
(ii) I have not understood this man since I met him.
18. (A) 'He uses to study'~ ~
'He studies' q;r ~
~
~
~ ~
(present habit) ~
~ rel(
Present Indefinite Tense q;r ~
ti '9iR ~ fcf;
'used to' q;r
Past~ 31Ra ~
$ ~ fcfillT
~ t. ~ ~ 3tT'ITT: ~ ~uses to' q:;r
present habit~ cfofllT ~ l1 ~used always takes the to-infinitive and occurs only in
the past tense.
~
=
-Quirk & Greenbaum : A UNIVERSITY
GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH (p. 37)
19. (E) ~~ti
20. (D) 'will fall' ~ ~
fu4; 'fall' cfiT ~
l;P'1T <Pir1%
before, if, when ~
~ ~
~
Clause if
Future Tense cfiT
f<f;l!T ~
t ~ Future
~ ~ ft:rct ~ Present Indefinite Tense q;r

mm

m ~

m m

m ~

~i;~-

n~

mar

26. (E)

~ttitmt,
~~it

27. (A) 'we had Mohan' ~ ~


'we had had Mohan' cfiT
ffl'
Past ~ unfulfilled wish, condition.
desire cfil' o!f<fa' ~
~ ffi1t Conditional Clause it
Past Perfect Tense cfil' 'ffl ~ ti

n ~

28. (D) 'I expect' ~ ~


'I had expected' <fiT 'Sl'm1T
~
past of the past ~ ~
Past Perfect q;J" '5l<IT?T
mffl t1 '9iR ~ fcfi Radha ~ 3lR <fiT q;rir Past it~
at{ ~
3lR ~ ~ it expectation ~
~ ~
'lfre ~ ,yf ~I ~
~
q;r alRT Past it ?f 'fil'
expectation<fiT cfillf Past ~ Past if g3TI'I ~(i) She did not do as well as

.i
we had expected

J,
Present
Indefinite
@(A) 'would have done' ~ ~
'had done' cfiT ffl
<P-l'lfcf; Past$ unfulfilled wish, condition, desire 3flfc!
$ ft;{v: Conditional Clause if If + Subject +

~-

Past

(i) Nobody will go out before the police come.

had + V3 ~ Had + Subject +

(i) i wish I bad died before be was born.


(ii) I wish I had been born during the reign of
Asboka, the Great.
24. (A) 'had not given' ~ ~
'did not. give' cfiT 'Sl'm1T m1TT
~
~ Past q;t ~ ~
<1ir ~
'ffl' cit ;;it 'Qc-lT
~
~ ~
~ Past Perfect Tense <t>r ~ ~ ~
ilTG it ~ ffl ~
Past Indefinite Tense cfil' 'Sl1n'lT
~ ~ t1 JTr-1" if ~ ~ ~ it ~ ~
Past
~decision~~~
case~~~
qi!' ~
plll ar:, decision ~
Clause Past
Indefiniteif ~
~. ~
case~ ~
qJBT
Clause Past Perfect if t
25. (A) 'lived'~ ~. 'have lived' q;r
since
lfiT ~
Preposition of Time~ ~ it ~ ,1t PAST
INDEFINITE 'lfT Past Imperfect Tense if :rtl'
!1
'since' qi!' ~
Present Perfect Tense/present
Perfect Continuous Tense I Past Perfect Tense a1TR ~

~ t.

J,

m~

t;~-

Past Indefinite
. the patient bad died.

tI

~
'had seen' <t>r ~
ft ~
Past~
unfulfilled wish, condition, desire
IB1t I wish
I as if I if 3lTR ~ ~ Past Perfect Tense cfiT ~
~

v3 q;r m ~ t;

J,
Past of the past
29. (A) 'was'~~
'were' qi!' ~T ~
~
~
~ "Iflwereyou"cfil'~~tr ~We often use
if I were you to give advia!.
-Michael Swan & Catherine Water:

ENGLISHWORKS u--~..,

40.;. ..-

A Mirror of Common Errors

30. (D) 'kept' ~ ~

~-

WITI. ~ ~

keep q;r ~

i1 ~

'and'~~

'cllcf<r

The Simple Present Tense is also used in exclamatory


sentences beginnings with here and there.

Infinitives

if Construction~~~

Here he comes !

(i) I want you to

Here comes the bus !

( pick ... and keep ... ]


j,
J,

. v'

There she goes !

yl

There goes the bell !


-A. S. Homby : GUIDE TO PATTERNS AND
USAGE.IN ENGLISH {p. 83)

~Construction~~~~~(ii) I want him to

sjy here and~


v'

me in my work.

vi

31. (B) 'has'~ ~


'bad' q;r 'lf<IT1T ~ ~
'The victim
tried to tell us' Past Tense if i 3ITT ~ victim ~ ~
.
Past of the past
if 3an1 Past of the past ~ ~
~- ~
~ ~
Past Perfect Tense c;;i- ~
ff t; ~-

39. (E) ~~ti


40. (B) 'has had' ~ ~

@(B) 'you have taken' ~ ~


'you 'took' cliT ~
WIT
~
~
It is time, It is high time, It is about time ~
~

(i)

42. (E)

The Past Perfect Tense is used with such Verbs as


hope, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose and
want to indicate that a past hope, expectation,
intention, desire, etc, was not realised.

>!<WT ~

TensecfiT

~
~

'comes' cliT -sr<WT ~


~
~
if Present Indefinite

m ~ t1 ~-

~-

cfiT ~

if R t

~~Past
ci>'t
after qfffi Clause Past
'd'2lT Main Clause, Past Indefinite ii';

'had'

Perfect

m n,

n1

prevented from doing so.


-A.S. Hornby : GUIDE TO PATTERNS AND
USA_GE IN ENGLISH (p. 95)

43. (B) 'has'~~

are
V(ing)
37. (A) 'told'
~
~
'tell' cliT 'lf<IT1T m,rr ~
universal truth ~ ~
Present Indefinite Tense cfiT
ffl
ti ~. ~ Subject 'newspapers' Plural
t .mf: Verb ~ Plural
.mr: 'tell' cliT
38. (A) 'is coming' $
here, there ~ ~

m ~ ~

1. We had hoped that you would be able to visit us.

J,

mm

W fcf; unfulfilled hope; expectation


hope, expect ~
$ ~ Past Perfect
t1 .ara: Part (A) if I had
~- ~
~
ti ~ ~ -q

2. I had meant I intended to call on you, but was

growing_ old day by day.

$ ~

_f.l.:.if("(f@a clY2f ~ ~-

mm

~-t~are

ti

Tense cfiT
hoped q;r

(ii) I have admired her since I met her.

(i) We

cflq<j

(i) I admire her. ("=:r f<i; am admiring]

it

It is time you took breakfast.

NOTE : ~

~-

grwoing q;r ~
~
is/are/am + V (ing) cnr

mm t;

Past Tense

(ii) I have stayed here uptil now.


34. (A) 'have been adoring' ~ ~
'have adored' c;;i- 'lf<IT1T
~
~
adore, admire, believe, rely, trust, hoee
3TIR Verbs <i'l" ffl Continuous lfT Perfect
Continuous Tense if ~
!t ~ Verbs cnr wrtTT
~: Indefinite Tense ~-Perfect Tense it
t;

35. (E) ~
~ .t1
36. (C) grew ~ ~
Imperfect Tense

desire ~

cnr ~

(i) He has been ill uptil now.

mm

~ unfulfilled wish, condition,

$ ft:rQ: Past Indefinite Tense

~-

mm~~~

~-

am:.~ ~
mm

mm

WIT <i<lfl%

(i) By this time tomorrow he will have reached


Lucknow.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .s31T ~

(i} He informed me about the accident .which had


occured two days before.
32. (A) 'We got'~ ~
'We had got' cliT Jf<rrTT ~
~
~ Pastci>'t ~ ~
q;r fsmn
zjt ~
~
Past Perfect
ofR if zjt
~
~
ft;ro: Past Indefinite q;r JicITlT
ti
;
\::;j' (A) 'was'. ~ ~
'has been' cliT -sr<Wr mTTT cflTI't%
'uptil now' ~ ~
Present Perfect q;r ~
t;

'will have' cfiT ~

fff;zjt~ffl~~~~it~~~wrr
Future Perfect Tense q;r ~
ft t; ~-

c;;i- ~

-m m

(i) He got disappointed after he had made two futile


attempts.

(ii) I returned home after I had spent five


J,
J,
Past
Indefinite
hours there.

Past
Perfect

41

A Mirror of Common Errors


44. (C) 'has called'~ ~

'called' cR"

'5fmlT zyrr ~
'tl'aT ~
t fcfi

Part
~

(A) if arrived cf;T Jl<rr1T ! ~


Past ~ ti ~ if ~ ~ c'flcF<I" if Past ~ m-::r
~
'*t' and t ~ ~ ti ~(i) She [arrived ... + did ... +called ... ]
45. (B) has~ ~
had cf;T ~
m-rIT ~
Part (A) if Past
~ tie:rr t ~
Part (B) if Past of the past ~ ~
~ Past Perfect Tense cf;!' ~
!; ~(i) I did not know when he had come

48. (C) will complete ~ ~


has completed q;r ~
'ffl'TIT
~
Future 3N ~ ~ Present Indefinite Tense 'he
hopes to become' cf;!' ~
t ~ ~ officer
~
'higher education'~~~
W, a:rn: ~
ffl ~ ~ Present Perfect Tense cf;T mT Wll'I

m~

~.:__
The Present and Present Perfect Tenses may indicate
future time in temporal or conditional clauses.
I can't decide until I've discussed the matter with
my wife.
-A. S. Hornby: GUIDE TO PATTERNSAND
USAGE IN ENGLISH (p. 98)

Past
Past
Tense
Pefrect
46. (B) 'made' ~ ~
makes cf>f ~
universal truth ~ ~
Present Indefinite Tense <iiT

m-rrr, ~

~ mcrrt1

if Singular Verb~ ~
qiRUT t fcfi Tw.o and two ~
~
~o (46) ~ Part (B) if 'makes'~ '5fmlT cf;T
~
'lf<rr t 1 ~ ~
if f.li:tR?tforn ~ q;l"

NOTE : Arithmetic js
q;l" ~
~

*
47. (E)

'tJl':ff '31TclT

did cf;T ~
m,rr ~ Past time I
event ~
~ ~
Interrogatjve Sentence :!_Past
Indefinite Tense cf;T ~
ml' ~; 1m(i) When did he go there?(-;; fcfi has he gone]

t. ~

~When the subject is a proposition in arithmetic, the


singular is rather more common, though the pluralis
sometimes used.
-Paul Roberts : UNDERSTANDING GRAMMAR
cl"fq<f ~

~~t1

49. (E)
50. (C) 'have' ~ ~

51. (E) cl"fq<f ~


ti
52. (D) 'rains' ~ ~
rained cf;!' >f<TI'lT
Reporting Verb Past Tense ~
Reported Speech
if ~ Past Tense cf;T ~
lrr mtIT 't ~(i) He said that he would write to me.
(ii) She thought she could do all this.

t,

***

mm

mm ~

Chapter-6

PRONOUNS
PRONOUNS:
noun equivalent.

A word which is used instead of a noun or

(3) RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS: each other,. one another.


(A) Each other q;r '31cWT ~ ~ ~ ~; ~(i) The two brothers hate ea.ch other.
(B) One another~ Jl'tIT7T .~ ~ ~
~ ~;
(i) The.five brothers love one another.

Classification :
(1) PERSONAL PRONOUNS : I, you, he, me, them
~I

Order: 231 [Second Person, Third Person, First Person]


~-You, he and I are going.
~.
fcf;m -crri:r.
Order: 123,
(i) I, you and he have committed a sin.
puses of OBJECT!~

-q" ~

(A) Let~ qR; ~-

(B) Prepositlonja il'l"G; ~(i) He depends on me R fc1; on I]


(ii) There is 'a conflict between you and me. [~ fc1;
you and T]
~~Problems~~
;;mt t'; ~(i) Between you and I I he probably I won't come at all/
(A)
(B)
(C) (D)
No Error.
(E)

Nesfield~ ~

~ Part (A) 1)' T ~ ~

mm

'me'~

mT 'ffl'11f,

il'1"G ObjectiJ~ Case

THAN & THE CASE


(A) than~ ~ Nominative Case Pronoun~
l
"l!'R comparison et Nominatives js ~ ~; ~(i) You are better than I.
~
than~ ~ Objective Case Pronoun cfiT JlcITlT mT t
~ comparision ~ Objects~ ~
(i) He respects you morethan me.
(2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS : each, either, neither.

m ~

m; ~-

(A)EachcfiTffl
~<IT~~~~~;~(i) Each of the two boys
,.

<IT

<

{ii) Each of the three boys.


(B) Either, Neither~

m ~ ~ ~; ~-

(i) Either of these two boys


(ii) Neither of these two girls.

l{RT

-srraT.

one another ~

t, ~ ~ ~ ~

t ~ ~~

~ ~

.(4) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS : this, that. these,


those, such, somebody, anybody, nobody, everybody, someone,
no one, anyone, everyone, something, nothing, anything,
everything, some, all, many, few, none, one ~I
(5) REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS : First Person
Second Person ~ Possessive ~ Third Person ~ Objective
Case Pronouns ~ ~- self <IT selves ~
Reflexive ~
Emphatic Pronouns~
~ l; ~myself I yourself I himself I themselves.
~-(i) He hurt himself. ~

ffl q;t ~

~I

<k'

NOTE : rn,f; ~ 'E2l'R' ~ fc1; Transitive VERBS ~ ~


Objects~ Jl<rrlT ~ ti ~ Objects~ ~ '1fm t
Reflexive Pronouns ~ Jl7.lTlT ~ ~
~ ~
(i) He enjoyed the ~

m~

t ~-

.i

[L. D. S. B. 1990]
[~

3RR ~

am

[=r fc1; you and I]

~
'between'~
Preposition t
~ Pronoun q;r ,rqtTf
!1}

~~~q;flJRI

C~E PRON~UNS

(i) Let you and me go.

JJmlT ~ each other ~

NOTE : ~

JJmlT
~

m, ~ ~ ~ ~ m-

~-

.l.

Verb
~. He enjoyed

Object
himself

at the-party .

.l.

.l.

,J..

Verb

Reflexive

Adverb of place

~~~wfcl;hurt, cheat, prostrate, introduce, present, absent,


satisfy, lay
Object <IT ~ Reflexive
Pronoun cfiT
t; -titto the D.M.
(i) She introduced
me
J,
.l.
~
Verb
Object
.

*m ~
~~~
mm

~/.

~.

(ii) She introduced to the D.M. [~


l'Rif<f t']
~ ~
# 'introduced' Verb~ ~
t, ~
Transitive Verb t, 31': ~
il'1"G ~ Object ~ ~

~ ~. ~ ~ w fcf;;:n' 'Tf<IT t
Object cm ~
~ -:m'
'introduced' ~ oTTG v_q; Reflexive ~

t1 ~

t ar: ~
~ <IT

t,~~cf;T~~n(iii) She introduced herself to the D.M.

~
l?RT

'q1cp:I' ~

a:JtR ~

q'[cpf ~

~
~

43

A Mirror of Common Errors

(6) EMPHATIC PRONOUNS

: ~
fcti Reflexive
Emphatic Pronouns \U

~
~
t,
self <IT selves ~
ornir 'GTra
1,,
3W if 3Tirt lIToT !1 <lR Reflexive Pronoun <l>f ~ ! ~ ~,.
<IT ~
cir'
Emphatic Pronoun q;r 3l"l1f t 'ffl' <IT ~,
Pronouns ~ ~
Pronouns ~ ~

t, ~

~~-

[n ~ ~ <R ~ ~]
(ii) Soma herself went there, [R ~ cm ~]
(i) Soma befooled herself.

(ii) The doctor

l
Sub.
Ram's brother.

'...'

'Sl<TI'lT llRcf (human beings)~~;

(iii) What is the matter ? ~


NOTE :

ft:!ts; ~-

(C) That

<l>f

WTI"lT J.ll-!q,,lffa <if~

if~

'5IT ~

m~

3!<WT

qif

PRONOUNS

<fiT-f amrr t

: Who (whom,
f,-".

?)

q;t ~

c[Ja

if ~

?)

if

~
.

-.

"ll<IT1T <R ~

ct,T~~t

(9) EXCLAMATORY PRONOUN : What.

(ii) This is the book which she presented me.


which~~

'whom'

~~t

(i) The pen which is on the table is mine.

lt

was.

Verb

(i) Who comes here ? (~

(ii) This is the man who slapped Ramesh.


~

Sub.

lf 'who' !f; ~
~

here

(ii) Which of these gentlemen is John ? ~


?)

~-

(i) The boy who stole my purse was a student.


(B) ,Which q;r ~

came

(8) INTERROGATIVE
whose), which o'i!lT what.

(7) RELATIVE : who, which, that,'what, but o'i!lT as.


(A) Who q;r

Problem~

who

-r

who <IT

~ ~. ~

PROBL~MS BASED ON PRONOUNS

!; ~-

.
.
Directions : Find out the error in each of the following
(1) The boy that stole my purse was a student.
' sentences, if any. If there is no error, your answer is 'E'
(ii) The pen that is on the table is mine.
X'fl\\


.
.
hi

h
=,......:..._
D
fi
.
'7ff" N
-d
fi
.
~
~
(})
The
Board
of
Directors
I
want
all
possible
facilities
I
and
. (D)
. Wh o I w re ...,, "'~'''
e mmg ...,, .. on e ming,;;;,-,,
(A)
(B)
a:im if mcIT t ~ That q;r
Defining if; ~allowances for I itself./ No Error
(i) The dog which I have bought is black. [Defining use]
(C)
(D)
(E)
(ii) I have bought a dog, which is black, [Non-Defining
2. You and I I have done I my best in I the examination. I
use]
(A)
(B)
(C)
fD)

'f'~

NoError
'c
fcti<IT ~
(E)
.
.
cfrcf<f if which q;r "A.=.
~
lITT" ~ ~
[I have bought a dog. It is black] cir ~
~~s
efforts I will bring him I more success I than your. I
qif cf;llf ~
t, ~ ,~, !f; ~ if~ fcfffl ~
~
' (A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
v.m:, ~ ~ if ~
'which I have bought' !f; ~
No Error
CT;:)
~
q;r ~
~
;;m
t Relative Pronoun 'which' q;r
Defining use t, ~
~ qJcflf if 'which is black'~ ffl \U
4. Every teacher and I every student of this college I is
qjq<f
<l>r ~
t ~
!1 ~~~if
Relative
(A)
(B)
determined to do their best for I the glorious prospects of Pronoun 'which' q;r Non-defining use
(C} .
(0)
~

if w~~ch ~ ~

/ ~ t. ~ ~ ~
t, ~

lf

;;m, ~

mm
m~

-~hat q;r ~

t,

(E) Superlative . degree, only, none, all ~


lrt) ~ ~ ~ that qif 'Sl"llPT
t

mm

everything

who/which

3W

q;f; ~-

(i) All that glitters is not gold. [:r fcF; which glitters]

(ii) This is the best thing that I can do.-[~ fcl; the best
thing which J ~ 1

*'~
;

(F) Who/whom ~ ~
if -srTlr: problem R<lT <iffi'IT !1
fcF; 'who' Nominative Case if t ~
'whom'
Objective Case ift 3\: who !f; ~ :g;q; Verb amrr t ~
whom !f; <JR ~; ~-

1.

(i) The doctor

wrr

the college. I No Error


(E)

fq;

whom

.!,

met

Sub.
Obj. Sub.
Verb
brother.
[~ q1cflIT if whom ~ ~
who qif
<iffiir

tJ

5. The Vice-President of India and I the Vice-Chancellor of


(A)
(B)
this university I have given I his consent to join the
(C)
(D)
meeting. I No Error
(E)

today was Ram's

m m

'
problem

hittes

everybody I and everything


(A)
(B)
her mistakes. I No Error
(D)
(E)

~ She

who I reminds her I of


(C)

7. None I of these two Principals I has been looking I aftt.t


(A)
(B)
(C)
his college well. I No Error
(D)
(E)

'

44

A Mirror of Common Errors

8. Each of I the four great tragedies I of Shakespeare I is


@The players I whom we have selected Hor our team I are
(A)
(B)
(C)
.
(A)
(B)
(C)
worthreading. / No Error
young and ambitious. / No Error
(D)
(E)
'\l'~
(D)
(E)
.

@ie prostrated before I his master I who had returned from/ ~The g~~;ts I whom we ;;e
(A)

(B)

(C)

London after a year. I No Error


*10. The dog I I have bought / looks more ferocious I than you
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
have. I No Error
(E)

~~1Je
~

was mu~h I more surprised than me I to see the


(A)
(B)
.
dancing girl I coming towards us. I No Error .
(D)

(C)

(E)

----{D)

(C)

(E)

(~-

presence I in the register. / No Error

(B)

---- --CDf.

below their dignity I to talk to each other./ No Error


(C)
(D)
(E)

.-

... (E)

25. The only book I which

13. One should I be true to his I word in &11 / circumstances, I . .


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
.
No Error
(E)

14. If someone has I finished the work, /he may I go home. I


(A)
.
(B)
(C)
(D)
No Error
(E)

-you carry I in yourbag

(A)

(B)

(A)

~-

(CJ ,

(B)

Inspector I who was taking him to jail. I No Error


(D)

(E)

16. Everybody I who was working in that office gave I a day's


(A)

(B)

pay as their contributions I to the dependants of Dr. Sonu


(C)

demand now-a-days. I No Error


(D)
(E)
26. She is such a I brilliant student I that I 7 expected. I
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D )
No Error
(E)

27. Such a self-sacrificing I man as has come I wins our '.;

(D)

(E)

17. The officer I as we 11 as the assistants I absented


(A)

(B)

themselves I from the office. I No Error


(C)
(D)
(E)
18. As a student I of science I you are far better I than him. I
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
No Error
(E)

(B)

sympathy I and admiration. I No Error


. (C)
. (D)
(E)
28. Any of the two I pictures which depict I the real pictures
(A)

(B)

(C)

of the present I politicians is worthseeing. I No Error


(D)
(E)
29~ Every of the five children I standing in the comer I of the

who had died on duty. I No Error

is iii I

(C)

(A)

15. the criminal I which was chained I grumbled at the Police

(A)

(B)

room is dexterous I in, paintings. I No Error


(C)
(D)
(E)
30. He asked for I permission to go out I but his father did I

(B)

not give. I No Error


(D) -

(E)

31. You and myself I will enjoy the party I to be arranged in


(A)
(B) .
(Cf
honour of I the new Chief Justice. I No Error
.

.(D) ..... ... .. ......

(E)

32. "They who are in this room I should not move from the

19. He introduced I to the Chairman as/ the General Secretary/


(B)
~
of that party. I No Error

(D)

(E)

22. There is none I who ~an help you/ in this crucial moment/
(~
~)
~
of your career. I No Error
(D)
(E)
23. Thi~ is the same -/-d~~"i;hi~h-b;;k~d I at.him but
(A)
(B)
,
fortunately did not I bite him. I No Error
24_. Whomever I comes late will not be allowed I to mark his

12. The fivebrothers I are at daggers-drawn, I so they feel it


(A)

my I brothers-in-law. I No Error
(D)

(p).

(D)

talking about I have c~~e ~re

(E)

(A)

(B)

place I where they are standing", said the I leader of the


(C)
(D)
criminals.r No Error
(E)

45

A Mirror of Common Errors


33. They also help the poor I who really sympathise I with
(A)
(B)
them in the moments I of distress. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

46. There were I eight industrious workers I W1<l five lazy one/
(A)
(B)
(C)
in this factory. I No Error
(D)
(E)

()He sent I all the furniture to Patna that I he had bought I in

47. Under no circumstances I have I harmed I him, and he I


(A)
(B)
(C)
knows. I No Error
(D)
(E)

~)

Chennai. / No Error
(D)
(E)
35. You say I it's your problems I but I say it's I my also. I
(A)
(B)
, (C)
(D)
No Error
(E)

48. The beggar I whom we had suspected /to be guilty turned


(A.)
- (B)
(C)
out I to be innocent. I No Error
(D)
(E)

I luxurious than I
(C)

49. I ordered I some books on English Grammar I but none I

36. The hotels I of Patna are more

(A)

(B)
Muzaffarpur. / NoError
(D)

(A)
has arrived yet I No Error
(D)
: (E)

(E)

37. The articles I published in this magazine I are better than I


(A)
(B)
(C)
that magazine. I No Error
(D)
(E)

who is the greatest I playwright of English. I No Error


(C)
(D)
(E)
41. She was more I garrulous than I either of her I three
(A)
(B)
(C) .
sisters. I No Error
(D)
(E)
42. Toe candidate I being a graduate, I he is eligible for I the
(A)
(B)
(C)
post of Probationary Officer: I No Error
(D)
(E)
43. Your are I the same I problems as I mine./ No Error
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
44. You have never I spoken a word against I your master, I
(A)
(B)
(C) .
that is a proof of your loyalty./ No Error
(D)
(E)
~He lent me some I money on the condition I that I should
(A)
.
.
(B)
return the same I before November. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

(Q), _.

ANSWERS
1. (D)

all great tragedies/

~)

.,

(A) ,
(B)
any I apparent reason. I No Error
(D)
(E)

39. The Principal ordered I the peon to/ let the boys I and I
(A)
(B)
(C)
go in. I No Error
(D)
(E)

(~

(C)

SO. I don't appreciate I those who laugh I at others withottt

38. He is one oi! those who would much rather I sacrifice


(A)
(B)
his life than turn I disloyal to the country. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

40. He claims to have I read Shakespeare's

(B)

3. (D)

2. (C)

5. (D)

4. (C)

6. (B)

7. (A)

8. (E)

9. (A)

10. (D)

11. (B)
16. (C)

12. (D)

13. (B)

14. (E)

17.(C)

18. (D)

21. (B)
26. (C)

22. (B)
27. (E)

23. (B)
28. (A)

19. (A)
24. (A}'

15.(B)
20. (E)

31; (A)

32. (A)

29. (A)

25. (B)
30. (D)

34. (B)

35. (D)

39. (D)

40. (B)

36. (D)

37. (D)

33. (E)
38. (C)

41. (C)
46. (C)

42. (C)

43. (A)

44. (D)

45. (C),.

47. (D)

48. (E)

49. (E}

50. (E)'

EXPLANATIONS
1. (D) itself~ ~
themselves <liT >"!<WT m11T. ~
~
~ Subject 'The Board of Directors' t, ~ ~
Collective Noun ~ ~ if
-;,m ti ~ ~
~
<tir ~-T moT t, ai"'a': ~ Plural Number jt t
~
<filZoT Verb 'want' (':l" fcF wants) q;r "ll<ITTT ~ t

cm ~

alh: Reflexive

m,ITt

Pronoun 'themselves'

~ -ni fc!; family, crowd, government. committee,


jury, audience, team, public, federation 3lTR <fil' w:rtrT
~
Collective Nouns ~ ~
ii'
(IT ~ ~

Pronouns-it, its, itself~


(i) The team

cfif

shown

>!<ITlT ~ t 1rnits

,!,

J.

Subject

Verb

Pronoun

(Sing.)

(Sing.)

(Sing.)
~.
~

has

~
~

ability.

J,

Nouns 'B' <l'R ~


members cfif ~
~
~
~ Nouns of Multitude~ ~if~

~-!'

- 46

A Mirror of Common Errors

m ~~Pronouns-they,
~

q;r

Jf<ITlT ~

(i) The team

t
Subject
(Plural)

2.

them, their, themselves

t; ~-

Pronoun
(Plural)

our <fil" Ji<ITlT Al ~ W fcli <JR GT <IT


GT ~ ~
Pronouns~
~
~ Subject~ ~ ~
;;n- Pronoun a;cn: ~ ~ q;r
'3'm qi("
....,------.Plural ~ cf;T Objective, Possessive <IT Reflexive
Pronoun q;r 1l<ITTT ~
~ ti ~-<JR First Person
~ Second Person ~ Pronouns 'and' ~ rt t ~
~
~ Subject l
Pronouns us, our,
ourselves enfs Al ~ ~ ~You and I~ us, our, ourselves
You and he~ you, your, yourselves ~
He and I.~ us, our, ourselves
You, he and she=-s you, your, yourselves 3!1Rf

(C) my ~ ~

~ mm

mrrr

m ~

1.

1-

yours mllT ~
your om yours~
tr
Possessive Pronouns l ~
your q;r Ji<ITlT fu*
Possessive Adjective ~ ~ ~ ~
~
~ Noun
t1 ~ yours q;r ~ ft:rq;
Possessive Pronoun js ~ ~ ~
t
oflG
~Noun~mt;
~(i) This is your
book.
t
..I,

3. (D) your~ ~

t am ~ -~

am ~

Possessive
(Adjective)

~.

Noun

Noun

cm

am:

and

each

(Sing.)

Verb
Noun
(Sing.) (Sing.)

given his consent

Possessive
(Srng.)
5. (D) his ~ ~
_their q;r

'Sl<Wi ft

cf;T

Subject
"The
Vice-President
and
The
Vice-Chancellor" t' ;;n- Plural number # !1 3lo:
Pronoun 'TI Plural m,n1
6. (B) who '4; ~
that q;r "lf?ltlf ~ ~
~ 'llR ~
Antecedents ~ Noun 'l!T. Noun equivalent ~
~
Relative Pronoun cf;T ~
W. l) 'and'~ ~
l% o!ffifi ~ ~ crerr ~ ~ '4; IBtl: ~
Reiativ~ Pronoun that q;r
irar ti
7. (A) None ~ ~-Neither "!fiT ~
miiT ~ None Cf;i

m am: ~

m~ ~

~ ~ ~. cllF<re.:n

<IT ~

ft;ro:

mr t

Neither cf;T ~ ~ ~;
~(i) None of the three flowers is red.
(ii) Neither of the two teachers is competent.
8. (E) ~
~
Each cfiT 'lf1'.ITTr ~ <lT ~ ~ ~
~ ~

t,

(i) Each of the two mirrors is broken.


(ii) Each of the three mirrors is broken.
9. (A) prostrated ~ ifJG: Reflexive Pronoun 'himself'

Possesive Pronoun
(iii) This is your book but that is mine (my book).
my book Gm Possessive Adj. + Noun t)
mine
~ Possessive Pronoun s) ~ replace~ R<U l'nfi' ti
~ Personal Possessive Pronouns :

<rm

cm

my

mine

our

ours

his

his

her
their
Column

hers

Each

mrt;~-

(ii) This book is

mm

were fighting among themselves.


..I,
..I,
Verb
(Plural)

4. (C) Their ~ ~
his cf;T 1f<TI'7l' WTTI ~ ~ Singular
Nouns 'And'~~
oYIT ~,ffi Each <IT Every
q;r ~
Subject
Singular.ltRT ;;irnr ti ~
RYITTl' ~ Verb \ft Singular~
t
Subject ~ ~
'3l<TI"lT ~
~ ~
Pronouns <IT Possessive ~
Singular~ t; -tt(i) Each member
and
each worker has
J,
..I,
..I,
!
!
J,

theirs etc.
Possessive Adjectives ~
-q q;rif ~ t ~ Column B ~ Pronouns
~ ~ Possessive Pronouns ~ ~
~ q;pf

ffltt

A ~

m;;r ~I

;m::

q;r

W fcf;-

absent, present, enjoy, introduce, confine, devote,


sacrifice~
Transitive Verbs ti ~ ~ <IT <IT ~
Object 3"iraT t <IT ~ Reflexive Pronoun tt(i) He enjoyed

the

arty.
Object
(ii) He enjoyed himself in the party.
~
Reflexive
Pronoun

10. (D) than ~ ~ the one cfiT ~


m-Tr cFl1f.:f; Comparisos
GT dogs~~
tr~
Comparison 'the dog I have
~ The dog you have' '4; aft.l lt ar: ~ the dog
the one~ replace fcf;;rr ~ !; ~~
(i) These new books are better than those old ones.
~ ones= books).

cm

A Mirror of Common Errors

win1

11. (B) me ~ -~
I cfiT ~
~ ~
Nominative

~ mcrr t.

Standard English ~ than


Case ~
~)
cfif Pronoun

* wRT ?J cfim ~ ~

<i) You are better than I

q;m

q;ijf

if
ar: <ml'T 3ffi: ~ ~

(:r fcf; You are better than me.


'you' q;m
'me' q;if1

am:.

Af t_ "1l .<l"ffif t I
~ ~ ir You~

m~
t ~

t~

Case cfif

ti'

~ ~

ir

'me' Objective Case

m, <IR ~ q;if ~

cflTI'fcf; ~

I~

Nominative Case ir
'You' Nominative Case

ir, -m-

Wm
m ~ mcIT ti ~~

'1"ffif

t'

than ~ ~

N.B.

m,rn ~

<m ~

~~'

one's cfif 1l<rr1T A ~


~
Subject
one cfiT "5l<IT1T lT ~ ~
Anybody <IT
People in general cfiT ~
-gt
one cfif Possessive
one's q!!ff Reflexive oneselfmcrr t; ~-

13. (B) his ~ ~

(i) One should respect one's seniors.


<IT, (ii) One should keep one's promises.
~~cfif~t-

(i) Everybody should respect his seniors.


(ii) Everybody should keep his promises.

~~t,

15. (B) which ~ ~


who cfiT "5l<IT1T <IT that cfif ~
~
~~criminal~~
t 3ffi: ~-~ ~
Relative Pronoun 'who' cfiT
t, 3ffi: which
cfif "5l<ITlT ~
~ -~ <IT lower animals ~ ~ fcf;m
f~. 'that' cfiT "5l<n'1T ~ ~ ~ fcf;m ~

wwr ~

~ t,

~i,
NOTE : ~
cx:m:!U
lTQ; who/which/thatjs

fcfffi ~

~ 3'ffl ~
18. (D) him ~

th~I ~ ~

14. (E)

Person, Plural Number

Objective

am

~ ~ ir ~

mm~ ~
m

ii'

~
Nominative
'She' t
Objective 'you'
and 'me'~
ti' ti
(ii)~. She lov~ -~ou ~~re
ffl !1
~
Subject (Nominative Case) She~
I~
ti' t'
Object
you !1 ~ ~
cfif 3 t She loves
you more than I (love you).
12. (D) each other ~ ~
one another cfif ~
Modem Grammarians ~-Thomson and Martinet)
each other cfif >l<IT1T ~ <IT ~ ~ ~
~ ~
~
.:tr-ra t, ~ Nesfield ~ each other cfif ~
~
?J
~
<IT ~
~ ~
~
one another cfif ~
~ <lT ~ ~ ~
6Zjf<R!41 <IT ~
~ ~
~
'3A'il ~ t'1 Ni{>i~l{>i ~ Nesfield ~ ll'r-<!T

am:

N.B. <tt!' ,:ft- t:lfR


Everyone, Someone, No one, Nobody, Somebody.
Anyone, Anybody~
Possessive
his q!!ff Reflexive himselfq;r ffl
~I
17. (C} themselves~~
himselfq;J' ~
m7rr cfllilq> ~
cfif ~
Subject 'The officer' i "1T Third Person
Singular Number if t, -;r fcf; assistants ~ Third

t"1

(i) She loves you more than me. = She loves you
more than (she loves) me.

~
his cfif ~
Subject Everybody t ~
Reflexive himselfq;r Ji<IT1r

m; ~-

(am).

ft cflil'fcf; ~
qi;i'
~ Possessive his ~
ft ti
W fcfi <lR ~
cfif Subjet:t

16. (C) their ~

'll<fllT

Pronouns is 3tffl ~

<m ~; ~-

(i) The man who I that is here is my brother.


(ii) The dog which I that is here is mine.

if ti

~ ~ Subject-Verb
msqr 3 ~ o!froffl ~I

W'JTI

he cfiT ~

~~11~1
19. (A) introduced ~ ~

Agreement

o!froffl ~

Reflexive 'himself' q;r

WTTI

~~~~~o9~1

20. (E).

. @CB)
.. ~"'<
~

~~t1

whom ~ ~
who q;r 'lf<rrlT WTTI Relative Pronoun
'who' <fmf ~
if i, a:r: <tt!' ~
~- Verb iffiir t
~
who q;r <fi'f ~
whom
t ~
~
~
ir ~ Verb ~
ti who cfiT Possessive
Case 'whose'~
!1
.

mm-

mm-

who 1iT whom ~

~. ~ ft;ro: ~

'!l<ftlr ~ ~

qJq<f

if Verb ~

(and~ ~

m!IT ~

Subject

~~q;)'fiR~I
~

'Sfc'm ~

.
Verbs

~ ~ ~ t, ~

Verbs~
~ ~
He came and talked to me)

m-

Subjects \fl'
~I ~
~~
20 if The
players~
Subject t ~
Verb t are.
we ~
Subject t ~
Verb t have selected.
am:, ?J Subjects
Verbs t'1 am:, ~
~
~
Jl'r-l'~~
21 if The guests~
Subject t 3t'R
~
Verb t are;~
Subjects we! ~
Verb t
were talking. ~
Verb 'have come' % ~
~
Subject ~
~ an 'tgT t'1 ~
Subject who
WIT, ';j' fcf; whom~
whom Objective Case-qt
~ ~ ff q;r cfiTlt -:rt!" ~ ~

am ~

t,

mm:r

t,

~ ~
qfcfqj <R ~ 'Sfc'm ~(i) The players whom we have selected are

Tt
s2

l
s1
young and ambitious.
(ii) The fuests whom

. si
have come

v3

yl
talking about

v2

are my brothers-in-law.

v'

~(SJ=~
(S2

T T
s2

.T

v2

Subject)~

=~

Subject)~

=~
CV2 = ~

CV1

~erb)
Verb)

A Mirror of-Common Errors

48
~(ii)~ V3 t

t'1 3i<'f: whom~~


who cnf "Q<IT"fT ~
~ S 3 q;r cfiTlT cfitllTI
22. (B) who~ ~
that <N 3f<TITf ~I ~ ~
qf(f.f..>'.lfu ii'
who 7.fT which ~ ~
that qi[ "5f1WT
t ~ ~

-:mm t ~
~~of~~
(i) There

mm

wf<f;....AH I None I N9thing I only I Superl~tive degree ~


A.diective

1 ifie same (~ -arre: ~

ai-m; ~ <ii1G Relative


'l!Wr mm. ti~- ,

Pronoun~

Verb
~--q- it

qi!'

mT

"IDI)
'that' q;r

(ii) He is the best man that I have ever met.


(iii) This is the same man that helped me.
~
The same~ ~ Relative Pronoun~ ~ it As
chT 3f<lTlT m<IT ! ~ ~
~ Verb ~ W fcfi<IT 1fllT

m,~(i) This is the same dog as mine.


-:m
t1
.
.

[mine~

ro Fil t -;,- ~

cfiT ffl

~mt,~(i) His ailment is not such as to cause us anxiety.


27. (E). GT"<:P-f ~
such~ arre: Relative Pronoun 'as' cfiT
~mm%, 1 f<l; who I which~ that cf,TI
~:.. (A) Any % ~
Eit"l1er cnr ~
WTTl 6!!).'. q;r ~
.
Any one q,T ~
~
in ~ ~ iii ff&_mm i

t,

f'5I Either q;r WWf mIT ID: A :furQ; Nfil i.;~(i) Any of these three girls can do it.
(ii) Any one of these three girls can do it.
(iii) Either of these two roads leads to the station.
29. (A) Every~ ~<IB Every one cfiT >f<rr1T "ITTTTT ~
Every
~
~ ~ Adjective t, 1 ~ Pronoun t -mf:, Every
~ ~ ~
~ Noun cf,T w:rriT itm'; tt-Every
boy, Every book ~t ~:
Every of cfit
mGT t, ~ Every one cfif ~ ~ ~ ~ ~- if of
l1 -mi: Every one of~~
m-rITI ~

m ~

~ ~ mm

<f.'TI' ,ft

"ITT~
You

iflrr I

q;l" ~
mTf Myself/Yourself~
Subject~ ~ "lf ~
ii' ~ t ~
~ ,n;rn- !1
~:-,
(i) Myself is Ramesh ~ ~
I am Ramesh.
.(ii) Yourselr"is Sonu ~ ~
You are Sonu cfiT

N.B. : ~

~~'-.

32. (A) They ~ ~


Those cfiT
BIJ.!l..tjil: They ~ Them
Antecedent

rim ~ ~
~
"*r Relative Pronoun

W ~~ti

~~Those

q;r

q;r

fcFi<n' ~ t; ~(i) Those who sing well will be awarded.

[-::r ~ they who]


(ii) I like those who behave politely.
R fci; them who]
~'
It + be + they ~ qfcp;r q;l" ~
~
They ,ft
Relative Pronoun q;r Antecedent "ITTTTf; ~(i) It is they who have come late.
~.
They f.lctf<iif~~ WITT ~ qfcp;r it" Relative
Pronoun cfiT Antecedent
t"1
(i) "They also serve who only stand and wait."
-Milton
(ii) They are also secured who have tickets.

m- ~

him.

"*r

...

<IT, (i) Such was his behaviour that everybody


. disliked him.
m ~- ~ ~
f<f:; such as to cfiT ~ ~
fcf;<IT

w ~

mm t ~
mm t ~

3T'i'-f
,ft '!f<IT1T

here, and each. is

31. (A) myself~ ~


I q;r. ~
mtlfl ~
~
Reflexive Pronoun qfcp;r q;r Subject~
t; ~-Yourself will do it ii' Yourself~~

such~ ~ that cf,T


~fcf;'; ~(i) His behaviour was such that everybody disliked

m~t

...

(ii) Each of these three boys is laborious.


30. (D) give~ <m:. it q;r ~
if.rr1 give~ Transitive Verb
t ~ ~ ~ Object ~ ~I
q\'q<f ~ ~ ~
~
permission js ft;fQ: give~ ~
it q;r ~

mm

qnf42i!lfd ~ ~

are two students

intelligent.

Verb

23. (B) which ~ ~


that q;r >l<IT1i WIT! o!ffi9!IT "3'i'R-'tj"@IT
22-il'~~
ti
24. (A) Whomever ~ ~
Whoever q;r rim "ID'TJI
Whomever Objective Case if t' ~
~
Verb
comes q;r ~
W ~n Verb q;r WITlT Nominative
Case~ ft?i"t!:
i ~ Whomever cfif Nominative
Case Whoever WoT t"t
25. (B) which ~ ~
that <iii" w:inr m,TTI amsm ~ ~
"3m-~22~l
@>(c) that~ <11~.?l a~~~
m,!TI such~ 4Js R=e
.
Pronoun~ fl if as I
whoL h

~ lhat.<f;fl ~

furr t; ~-

it,rr1

(i) All that glitters is not gold.

lf>

Each q;r ~~~~~~~;it


Each cfif 3f<WT ~ c:ir -eJ" ~ ~
~ ~

Every~~

S3 ~

33. (E)

cflq<f -~

ti

34. (B) ~

Antecedent cfiT ~
~
t'1 ~
~
~
Antecedent ~ Relative Pronoun ~ ~-~
~
~
cfiT ~
~
;;JRT ~I
~ ~
ft ctl~~q; Antecedent 'furniture' ti -mi:, ~
"ctt
~
m-;ft ~-He
sent to Patna all the furniture
that he had bought in Chennai.
~ if qfcp;r 'q,'l" ~ ~
t ~ ~ 3N ~
t
~ fl ~ -*r ~ -?f' ~,
Gm 3T4m-::r t) I
35. (D) my~ ~
mine "A ~
~ m1TT (my problem).
~
~
~ ~
~~'tj"@IT 3~ ~
~I
36. (D) Muzaffarpur ~ ~
those of cfiT ~
~
~.
~
~
the hotels of Patna i'felT the hotels of
~
~

Muzaffarpur ~ ~
37. (D) that magazine ~
magazine cfif

it ~

ti
~

those. published

m m:rr ~. ~

articles q;r ~

if ~

in that

RT ~ ~
articles

49

A Mirror of Common Errors

ti ~

<fir_ ~

~-

m-;ft ~-

t fcfi

q"fq<f

cm ~

1fcfiR

'

(i) The articles published in this magazine are better


than (hose published in that magazine.
[~~#those=
the articles]
38. (C) his ~ ~. their <fir 1l<ITlT fl
~
Relative
Pronoun 'who' <fir Antecedent 'those' t ~ Third
Person~ Plural Number ir lt
39. (D) I ~ ~
me <fiT >1<TITf RI Let ~ olR" Pronouns
~
Objective Case it
lt 3-m ~ fcf;m
Preposition (tt-betwt?en, except ~
~) ofrG' 'ifr
Pronouns sitstr Objective case it ~
!1 ~-

(i) He has paid his debts, which is a .clear proof of his


honesty.

m~~ ~

~- ~ ~

~o

~l

m!1
cnr
part ir he ~
~'q;J'~~~t,.
~ ~ 'ifr ~ ~ fcfi fci;m Antecedent ~ ofrG' ~
Relative Pronoun mm t ~ Relative Pronoun ~ ofrG'

42. (C) he <fiT


superfluous (3Hlcl~<lcfi)
Subject 'The candidate' t't am:, ~

Antecedent ~ ~
Object~~#
~

Noun I Pronoun Subject ?:l'T

mm t ~-

.
~~

cffcPl

cf\T~~t(i) This is the book which I lost yesterday.


~

-q' ~

q"lcf<l"

cf} ~-

(i) The candidate, being a graduate, he is eligible ...


[~ cflcf<l' it being a graduate= who is a graduate.]
3'ra: ~

qfcFlf <fiT ~

are:

t,

qfcFlf

(i) This is the book which I lost it yesterday.


~
qfcf<l" it the book, ';511' Antecedent ! ,
Pronoun 'if <fir ~
fcf;?:l'T Tf<IT t ~ 7R=rn' ti

it cfil' ~

t-

m 3lT t'

~ ~

wrr- t, ;:;fl~

m,rrr The same

$ -~ it 'ID'fil t .afR ~

mm t

cfiT

cfiT

<Sf1c: ~

~..:__

book

Noun
coat etci

(ii) The same

28 ~ olIT&lT

t1

Adjective

debts $ ~

s.aTI ti ~

3l!RT q;ef ~

-~ Noun cfiT -~
(i) The same

cnr '3l'<ITll"

Jl<WT

<fiT

Clause ~ ~

'cflfl'fcf; either

any ?:l'T any one

~m~~~~mt,
N.B. : ~

if which

tr:':')
$14He.t6 cfiT ~
~ (C) the same~ ~

"I!

~ mrrr-m

Jl<WT ~

~I

t,

~ ~

( vi) Except her, and me.


40. (B) all :gre:at tragedies of Shakespeare <fir WTI'1T ~ ~
orfcfi Antecedent (Shakespearej tret Relative Pronoun
(who) <fir ~
{414"1(-4 ~
$1 olIT&lT ~ ~
~-~34~1
.

which cfil' ~
Rt ~ that q;r' '3l'<ITll"
who ?:l'T which ~ ~
'ID'fil t, ~ fc!;m Clause cH
refer q;f.'t cfiT cf;\1'f' Relative Pronoun ~ ~ it fut
'which' <R ~
who, that -mR fcfim Clause ~
refer;itr <R ~
t; ~-

(v) Except Ram and me.

<fir ~

44. (D) that ~ ~

any <fiT

3 cm

<fin:-~

(i) Let you and me.


(ii) Let you and him.
(iii) Between-you and me.
(iv) Between him and me.

[who is= being]

...
The candidate, being a graduate.Is eligible ...
~3. (A) Your ~ ~
Yours <fir ~
~
~
~
(Your problems) m7TI'I ~
~

41. (C) either~

a!':

Noun
Prenoun ~ ~ it the same cfil' ~

'cfiBT TR'!<f

~Same or the same, in the sense the aforesaid thing(s)


or person(s), as a substitute for a pronoun (it, him,
her, them, they) is one of lhe usages whose effect is
discussed in ILLJTERACliES.
-H. W. Fowler: A DICTIONARY OF MODERN
ENGLISH.USAGE (P. 511)
46. (C) one ~ ~
ones cfil' '5l<TI1T m,rr cF.ilfcl; one cfiT ~
Singular Noun~-~
if 'ID'fil t ~ ones cfiT Plural
Noun~ ~
itt ~ <N ~
% eight industrious
workers and five lazy workers.
~, ~
Noun ~ repetition ~ ffi '~ ~
Pronoun cfil' >l<TI'7l' ~
~
t, ~: Five lazy
workers ~ ~
Wf. Five lazy ones q;r

m~

~I

The candidate, who is a graduate, he is eligible ...

-at

~
~ ~
-q;: 1rR ~
3iTCf ~
fcfi 'The
candidate' Relative Pronoun 'who' cfiT Antecedent
ar: ~ Antecedent ~ ~ 'who' ~ ofrG' Pronoun
'he' cfiT 'll<IT7T ~ m,rr1 ~ ~
~ <fir ~ ~

t-

t,

47. (D) know& ~ ol'R: it cfiT '3l'<ITll" m'Tl'l ~ 'it' ~


~ 4<?c,
~
~ cITT.1T Clause (Under no circumstances have
I harmed him)~ refer~
~ ~
~
WI .

48. (E)

~~t,..

49. (E)

q]cFf

t't

SO. (E)

q]cFf

t1

The candidate, who is a graduate, is eligible ...

.,

...........

;;
.';!

..(

..... --

***

"

~,.:

Chapter-Z

ADJECTIVES

An adjective is a word which qualifies


pronoun.

a noun or

(b) such I the same I !le other I any + Singular


Or Plural Countable Noun.

For examples:
.

~-Such a book 'tlT Such books


~
the same book <ii' the same books
any book <ii' any books.

(i) She is a beautiful girl.


(ii) They are good.

CLASSIEICATION
(1) PROPER ADJECTIVES : ~
Nouns ~ q.ffi !; ~-

Adjectives ~

NQwi
J,

Adjective

India

Indian

America

American

J,

CARDINAL : one, two, three, four etc.


ORDINAL : first, second, third, fourth etc.

Chinese
Shakespeare
Shakespearian
(2) POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES : My, our, your, his,
their, her, its.

: Each, Every,

~ 'tJT ~ t ~
~fflt{I
(i) There were two I three I ten boys. Each boy was handsome.
(b) Every /"Each and every-lfil' ~
~ t ~
$
(a) Each~~

if

MULTIPLICATIVE : single, double, tripple etc.

ORDER OF DEFINITE NUMERALS :


t:r ~ Adjectives q;r ffl' ~

mm~

if~~t-

<JR ~

qJcflf

f-tt.tR!fmf ~

~-

The ~

car

Ord
NOTE:~

siple .

-ra' fcfi ~

rooms.

mul

W1T

'tR

3lJT:trfto Problems~

~t;'tt(i) The five first chapters of this book.


~

1'f1l'T expression Order of Definite

am:~~

t,

Numerals ~ ~

t-1 ~~

(i) There were three boys.


Every_/ Each and every boy was intelligent.

cfil'~~~

(c) Either'tJl'.Neitherqif '5JcTI'1T rat~% fl:l"Q:1

(ii) The first five chapters of this book.


(b) INDEFINITE : Many,
great many, a good many,
many a, several, various, numerous, a lot of,_ lots of, plenty of,

'A-

--There are two novels on the table. Neither novel is


interesting.
(d) Each I Every I Each and every I Either I Neither$
Noun~

Article q;r '5JcTI'1T -=tlft'

Each comb I every toy

...,0-rdin-.-al--+-C_a_rdinal_.
__ +_M_u_l-ti-pli-.
ca-tiY-.-....e

(i) This is my house.


(3) DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES
Either, Neither, Each and every.

I other+ Plural

~~-Certainradios (:r fcf; certain radio).


(5) NUMERAL ADJECTIVES : (a) DEFINITE :

China .

~'

(c) these I those I~


Countable Noun.

Proper

f-T rcti Each

iraT ti tt-

a comb 1'T every a toy]

SQRTii
Each/Every%

Article q;r

ll1fl1T ~

Problem ~

;;nm

some, enough.
ORDER OF INDEFINITE NUMERALS & DEFINITE
NUMERALS : Qji<l!l<lcf,dl
!Indefinite + Definite
Numerals
q;r ffl ~
silTclT t; ~-

(i) Miny
Ind.

4. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES: (a) Defmite:


this I thar/ these I those I such I (the) same I the other.
(b) INDEFINITE:
gqr-r

(ii)~

aTIRI

(iii}M!"y

Tii

(a) a I an I a certain I another I this I that +


~-a certain boy (:r ftfi a certain boys)

rooms

sinflc
Def.

sinf1e
ind.

a, an, a certain, certain, another, other,

some ~), any, any other

m~

Ind.

rooms

Def.

students

Def.

(6) QUANTITATIVE ADJECTIVES : much, little,


whole, a lot of, lots of, a great deal of, plenty of, some, enough
etc;~-

much milk, plenty of sugar.

51

A Mirror of Common Errors

NOTE : ~
Nouns qi1' ~
oil ~

ii' Countable am: Uncountable


m::ir ~ ~ Adjectives

m m <S-llqli<lcfidlj:el<

fq,"ll <lfRT ~; ~-

fcf; 'oranges' Plural Countable Noun

t,

t ~.

Uncountable Noun
am:, oranges ~ ~
Y@icifi:lcf> 'many'. <fiT WiTf s3U-~ <lT 'milk' ~ ~
ill:Ml~cfi
much q;r1

-NOTE : ~
W fcf; ~ qycf<f't ii' 'many oranges and
milk' <IT 'much milk and oranges' <J;T, Jl<ITIT Problem ~ ~ ii'
~ ~ ti am:, 'many oranges and much milk' <IT 'much
milk and many oranges'~ Expressions N'ITI
(7) QUALITATIVE ADJECTIVES : good, bad,
intelligent, sharp, long, short, small, tall, beautiful, handsome,
lovely~;~(i) He is a handsomeman.
(8) INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES : Which, What,
Whose anfi;t ~(i) Which book is yours ?
(ii) What book do you like most ?
(iii) Whose book is this ?
(9) EXCLAMATORYADJECTIVE: What.
*~-(i) What nonsense this is!
(a)

DEGREES OF COMPARISON
POSITIVE DEGREE : ~ ~
"llT

~ ~

(Tlrr) cf,"t ~; ~(i) He is good.

(ii) She is beautiful


(b) COMPARATIVE DEGREE : ~ ~

~ :JUT ~)

.
<IT

~ai'f

<fit RT; ~-

(i) He is better.than you.


.
(ii) Soni is the better of the two girls. (c) SUPERLATIVE DEGREE : ~ t ~

<IT

~ Tr (Tlrr) <R ~; tt-

(i) Ram is the tallest boy in the class.


(ii) Moti is the best of all the players.
~

(i) He is senior

'than' <iiT

~ ~ t, am: ~ ~

than <iiT 1l<l1'7T

- m. ~ ~

more<IT most~

circular, spherical. triangular, rectangular,_Q.arallel, golden,


.:..
.
~ f:r=
~-e .:..
61
milky, lunar ~
~
'1 Positive Degree li ,....-.~. ~~
Superlative Degree;~(i) Her beauty is unmatched. [~
~
~
!]
arcr: ~ ~ -:r more~
Comparative-:r ~ most
~
Superlative 'aRT<!T -'ifRIT
NOTE : ~ ~
ifi ffl' more I most ~
PROBLEM~
-:srrm !1 aIB:, ~ ~
~ ~
more/most js
~

1R ~

t,

-ra'; ~-

(i) This is one of the most major operations.

.:ir

Problems

to 'cfil"

~ mm !~1~-.t

'

(i) He is more senior to me~


Tfffif \1 ~
~
(ii) He is senior to me~
~I
(3) minor, major, ulterior, interior, exterior 3ilR Positive
Degree js Adjectives ti am;, ~
more/most <IT~
ofR: than <IT to cfiT 1PIT1l' ~ ~ ~.; ~- .
(i) This is a minor problem.
(ii) The interior decoration of the room is excellent.
(4) ComparativelyI Relatively
Positive Degree cfiT
Adjective ll1fl1T ii' 3TiaT
(i) The weather is comparativelybot today. (-;r 1% hotter]

i ~
.

t,

NOTE : Comparatively/Relatively"...~ GfTG ~


.
Comparative Degree cf>l
Proolerh ~ .;jyffl t1 a..!E

m ~

WI

i1

Positive Degree'q;t 113DJI J?tm


(i) He is intelligent enough to understand your tricks.
NOTE : Enough ~ ~
~
Comparative. .:ir
Superlative Degree ~ Adjective <fiT ~
~
Problem ~
"1"Rll lt ~-better enough, worse enough. am: enough ~
ffi ~
Adjective~ Degree~~
WI ~(i) He is smarter I enough to get I selected for this I
(5) 'Enough'* ~

(B)

(C)

prestigious post. I No Error.


(D)
(E)
[B.S.R.B. (Patnaj 92]
[~ ~

~ PAIIT (A) if smarter ~ ~

lll;rr11

a.iic:i\llh6 ~-

m ~

~I

mm t ~

(1) U_igye, e~nt, perfect, unmatched, unparalleled, ..,.. . .., (6) Prefer~ 'ofTG to cfiT WITl!
major, extreme. universal, whole, complete, full, , round,
Noun Equivalentsir "ID"; ~-

to_ me. [-;i- fcFi senior than]

NOTE:~~~

(A)

one of the;

m ~ t. ~

~-

t:zfR'

.. ;,~~

(2) Senior, junior, superior, inferior, prior, posterior js ~


Preposition to q;r
1% Conjunction than cliT,;

(i) Has he bought many oranges.and much milk?


~
milk'

(~~~'most' ~ 6GRT ~
major operations~
~I)

(.) Sh
&
1
e pre1ers

ik

~.

to

Noun

o
.J,

T
m1

Noun

Rf

.
tea

smart

'prefer' ~ 'oiTG 'rather than' cfiT ~


~ 'ffl'; -tt-

(i) He prefers to sit

~ Nouns <IT

1mlT t <lR

rather than

,L
Infinitive

WlTlT

~
~

T.

<n Infinitives~

q;r

Infinitive

A Mirror of Common

52
(7) Preferable js

to cfiT

'5l<fllT ~ ti

PROBLEMS BASED ON.ADJECTIVES

(i) Winter is preferable to summer.


(8) ~ Adjectives

if tITT1 t; ~-

.:JR and~

m m' ~

~ ti"

..

Degree

(ii) better and wiser [-ey::jY Comparative} .


(iiijbest and wisest [zyff Superlative]

2. He. wanted I certain boy I to make

INTER~CHANGES OF DEGREES :
(~Superlativ~ ~ Comparative ~

ciTcf<l1' ~ ~-

Positive

oRR ~ ~

Superlative : He is the best boy in the class.

'IIT,

(ii) He isbe.trer"than ariy other boy in the class.

Comp~ftv_~ '!" than.(

all other + Noun (Plural)

., . . .

Positive: (i)-No other boy in the class is as good as he.

No other +Noun (Singular)+ ...

+ so I as+

...... - Positiye'Degree Adjective+ as ..


~

~-~- ~- (Group) ~

~~~~cllf<m~~~~m.
Rule: Nll + Noun (Singular) + ..
.. , Degree Adjective
. (i) No

so I as+ Positive

(D)

(C)

6. I feel I a certain problems I in the execution I of this plan. I

Comparative Degree~~

00

(E)
7. In spite of facing I much problems, he did not I desert the

cfiT

(B)

path I of honesty./ No Error


(D)
(E)

8. Can you tell me how / .many eggs and I milk he has

(ii) He is not better than you. [Comparative Degree]

ciTcf<l1' cR Synthesis cfif.t 'IR,

(i) He is as good as if not better than you.

3l2ml_ Positive Degree~ ~

(So I as
as) .cfiT J1<fl"fT
Comparative Degree~-~
(Comparative +
than) cfiTI '~
Synthesis 1R ~
PROBLEMS ~ ifM' 'as'
~ ~ ~ t ifM' than cfil' 1TI'
Comparative Degree
~ ~
Superlative Degree qi!' ~
cg ~ \1 ~-'

ma,- t ~

m ~

(i) Anjali's performance in the I drama was best than I


(A)
(B)
Deepali's but not I as good as Vaishali's. l No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)
[B.S.R.B. (Patna) 1993)
(~ <rrFr ~ Part (B) if 'best' ~ ~
'better' cfiT 'll<fllT

@These sort of men I attain worldly success by hook or by


(A)
(B)
crook I so they deserve to I be looked down upon: I
(C)
(D)
No Error

(i) He is as good as you. (Positive Degree]

err

(B)

No Error

(ii) No country in Asia is as rich as America.

ffl'rrr]

(A)
No Error
(E)

city."~ India-is so/as good as London.

~ ~

I soldier

(A)
.
(B) . , -:.
was equal I to five policemen. I No Error .
(C)
(0)
(E)

(E)
~

+ as ..

(10) Positive Degree~


Synthesis.

entry into I the

4. The ten captains I had each an I achievement of I his own./

any other+ Noun (Singular)

Rule:

!.!JI

(C)

(A)
., (B)
Principal's chamber. I No Error .
(D)
(E)

3. There were only two I soldiers but each a~ery

Comparative : (i) He is better than all other boys in the


class.

Rule ; .

Directions : Fine out the error in each of the following


sentences, if any. If there is no error, the answer is 'E'.
(;lBut for your help,/ no boys would have I succeeded in
(A).
(B)

(C)
. -eAll India competition like this. I No Error
(D)
(E)

(i) good and wise [-ey;r( Positive}

Errors

(A)
(B)_ . brought I home ? I No Error .
(D)
(E)

(C)

~ole the chapt~r I ~f the book is full of printing I errors .


(A)
(B)
"
which are the outcome I of the proof reader's carelessness/
(C)
(D)
No Error

(E)
10. He did not /
(A)
No Error
(E)

li~e to lend me I any book


. (B)

(C)

I or any money I
(D)

II. Her black long I hair adds I glamour to I her looks. I


.
(A)
No Error
(E)

(B)

(C)

(D)

. !

'

53

A Mirror of Common Errors


.

12. I began to I tremble when I saw'/ a sharp long knife I in


(A)
(B)
(C)
my enemy's hand. I No Error
(D)
(E)
1.:/13. I saw I an anxious pale girl I who when asked let me know I
(A)
(B)
(C)
that she was suffering from consumption, I No Error
.
(D)
(E)
fact
14. It is a
that I Mahatma Gandhi was I the first politician/

7~

he has a remarkably I lovingly appearance I which


(A)
(B)
brings her honour I and admiration as well. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

25. A lots of books I on English Grammar are available I in


(A)

. (B)

..

the market but I this one is the best.


(C)
(D)

I NoError
(E)

~)

of his time. I No Error


(D)
(E)
gate I was standing a guard I holding a gun
(A)
(B)
(C)
in/ his hand. I No Error
(D)
(E)

15. At the~

16. Delhi is I further from I Patna-than I Kolkata, I No Error


(A)
(B)
(C)
. (D)
(E)
17. This book is I undoubtedly ~rable than I that in many
(A)
(B)
respects and its printing I is also comparatively good. I
(C)
(D)
. o Error
(E)

26. He does not have I some money to buy a ne~ay I


(A)
(B)
plant. so he is f.:~nk)n anxiety. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E) .

. i1. Gold is the. most- precious I of all metals I that are used in

w-

ornaments, I

.'{q

(B)

20. Seema is I senior to me I but you are I junior than me. I


(A)
No Error
(E)

(8)

(C)

(D)

;@. No less I than

fifty audiences are sitt.i~g I in the hall and


(A)
(B)
waiting for their I beloved artiste's appearance on the
(C)
(D)
stage./ No Error
(E)

30. Her father told her I that it would be all the more I better
(A)
. (B)
if she would find her I groom herself I No Error
(D)

(C)

(E)

31. She had no other I hobby than that of I wearing


.

(A)
.
(B)
the latest design. I No Error
(D)
(E)

a, dress, of/
(G;J

32. This young lady is I more beautiful I but not so cultured I


(A)
(B)
(C)
as her youngest sister. I No Error
(D)
(E) .
4

21. Everybody knows I that Ragini I is the most unique I


(A)
(B)
(C)
singer of this college. I No Error
(D}
(E)

22. Rita can sing I much than fifty songs at a I stretch and
(A)
she has developed
. (C)
No Error
(E)

(E)

(D)

(D)

19. You can trust I this agency/ for the last news I of this
(A)
(B)
. (C)
. week. I No Error
(D)
(E)

28. He is the most I successful man I in the world I I have ever


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
known. I No Error
(E)

18. Of the two I players, he I is the luckiest, I be sure. I


(A)
No Error
(E)

as far as we all know. I No Error

(B)
I this ability

hard. I

by labouring
(D)
.

@he was curious to I know what it was that made I him


(A)
(B)
stronger I and braver than any man of this village. I
(C)
(D)
No Error
(E)

33. Much to his fortune, he I married a girl who was I more


(A.)
(B)
. tall and lovelier than I her elder sister. I No Error
.. ","
(C)
(D)
(E)
34. What pleases him I more I is a healthy criticism I of his I
(A)
(B)
(C)
performance. I No Error
(D)
(E)
. ..... - - . ~.
35. It was no I other than Indira Gandhi I who evinced a:;1.
(A)
(B)
exceptional ability to lead I the country to fame. I
(C)
(D)
No Error

(E)

t:

..~\Mfr.ro,r

'

9f Common

36. Now-a-days,'/ the weather I is getting cold' arid I colder. I


(A)
. (B)
(C)
(D)
No Error
(E)

37. He

often tells I us that he 'does not I like anything more


(A)
(B)
(C)
than I sleeping peacefully. I No Error
(D)
(E)

38. This photograph

I was comparatively better I than that

(A)

(B)

49'. He felt happily/ to learn that his I younger brother had got/
(A)
(B)
a prestigious job in the Bank. I No Error
(D)
(E)

. (A)
(B)
plans but.the professors I have even greatest ability to foil
(C)
(D)
them. I No Error
~
(E)
''

39. She was startfed I to see in, her'diawing 'room I a most


(A)
.. (B)
(C)
popular film producer. I No Error
(D)
(E)
40. India is I better than most others
(A)
(B)
countries I of the world. I No Error
(D)
(E)

(C)

SO. The Principal has great power I of making some useful I

which he had kept I in his purse. /No- Error


(C)
(D).
(E)

:;..

Errors

I .film producing
(C)

ANSWERS
2. (B) .

1. (E)
6. (B)

7. (B)
12. (C)

11. (A)

4. (E)

5. (A)

8. (C)

10. (E)

13; (B)

9. (A)
14. (C)

18. (C)

19.(C)

23. (D)

24. (B)

IS. (A)
20. (D)
25. (A)

29. (A)

30. (B)

34. (B)

35. (E)

36. (C)
41. (C)

27.(EL ... ~ . 28. (E)


32. (B)
. 33. (C)
37. (E)
38. (B)
42. (B)
43. (D)

39. (E)

40. (B)
45. (C)

46. (C)

47. (E)

16. (B)

17. (B)
22. (B)

21. (C)
26. (B)

31. (E)

- 41. None can' I believe that I Ramesh is happier I than grieved


(A)
-(B)
(C)
(D)
to know it. I No Error
(E)

~ (B)

44. (B)
49. (A)

48. (A)

SO. (D).

. ,42. Delhi is far (petter than any other I metropolis I of


(A)
Pakistan. / No Error
(D)
. (E) .

(B)

(C)

43. All your -attempts /.are daring I but this one is certainly I
, (A)
(B)
the more daring./ No Error
(D) .
(E)

(C)

EXPLANATIONS
1. (E) <l1<f<I' ~
t-1
2. (B) certain ~ ~
~

~
~

r- ::

', :.

certain books.

TI:i-

aTIR ~~Noun

47. Science has given I us a lot, yet / life is becoming I more


(A)
(B)
(C).
and more painful./ No Error
(D)
, (E)

48. Ramesh is as good, I if not better than all the I members


(A)
(B)
of the club I which-is known as the Lions Club. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

(countable) Singul~~

~.

!1

These I those I certain I other I many I A great many I


A. good many I several I various I A number of~
'ifi
oi'TG
Noun ml' Plural Number if ~ !1 Any I No I
The same aTIR Adjectives ~ oi'TG Noun Singular <IT

(~

despite his thoroughly I study of the book.? No Error


(C)
.
. (D)
(E)

t ~
if ~ t ~

A I An I A certain I Another I Each I Every I Either I


Neither I Each and every I Many a (an) I Such a (an)

(C)

,. - 46. He failed to find I out the, solution to al) the problems I

CN

boy ~ ~

m si!rnl'

(i) A certain book

(C)

45. There is no one I whom I esteem I highly than I your


(A)
(B)
mother and father. I No Error
(D)
, (E)

1R <l1<f<I' ~

~-

44. This is the I more difficult. sum, I I have ever solved I


(A)
(B) .
within five minutes. I No Error
(D)
(E)

a certain cfi'r ~

boys q;r)
certain ~
Noun Plural Number
a certain js
Noun (Countable) Singular Number if ~
t;
~

. Plural Number

if m' ~

t1

(i) N_o boy <IT N,o boys


(ii) The samem~
3,(B) Each and .every~
~

<IT The same men,

ffi

Each q:;r 'Sl<ITlT ~t

Tii-Each cfiT 'Sl<ITlT c!J' <IT c!J' ~ ~


every <IT Each and every <fiT

~ t~

c!)'t~~~~t-1

~ ~
'Sl<ITlT ~

,
55

A Mirror of Common Errors

i@. (E) ffl ~ t,

(i) There were .two boys and each boy had a red pen.
~
qfq<f if each ~
~
lR' every ~ each and
every) q;r '5fmlT ~ m1lT I ~ :lfcliR,

'long black' 'cfiJ'


~
fcf;tfl' Noun ~ ft.rQ: Adjective of. size ,3m
Adjective of colour cfiT
Adjective of
size anm t ~ ~, ~ Adjective of colour; tt(i) A tall black man.

m m m ~.

'

(ii) There were ten students in. the class room and
each I every I each and every student had a red pen.
~
qfq<f if .each, every ~
each and every) if t
fct;m
~

4._ (E)

'q;f

mm~ t.

~ q;r f.mf;

~~~~if

ti

tI

cfl<Pf ~

N.B. : Part (D)

'if 'his' $ ~

'their' cfiT

~~I

5. (A) sort $ ~
sorts q;r 'Sl<ITlT m1lT ~
~ ~
~
Adjective these t" ~
dl1G Noun Plural
Number if
t1 tt these $ ~ 'this' ~ men
~ ~
man q;r 'Sl<ITlT ~
t 1fr Part (A) ~
lTI' ~ t. ~
Part (B} ii' Verb 'attain'
Plural Number if t ~
Subject
,fl- Plural oRRT

mm

'*

~I

6. (B) a certain $

problem q;r
~

certain~

~
~ ~

2 cR' ~

~4ra!IT

many cfiT
m1lT ~
~ Quantitative Adjective ('11:llcffiilcfi
~ ~
Uncountable Noun cfiT

7. (B) much ~ ~

~
~

problems ~ ~

ffl' m1ll'I

~I

much~
~

m ~

t,

t;

tt-

much milk I much money. ~ '31"1n.R, little I a little I


the little
'11:lli:ll'iilcfi
~
~ mer ~
Uncountable Noun cfiT
t1
-qw ,ft- ~ ~ il&-All I Some I Enough I Part of I
A lot of I Lots of I A great dealof I One third of~
$ ~ Nouns Countable q?.ff Uncountable ~ ~ ~
~ t't ~ Countable Nouns int t
Plural Number ii' ~ ti ~-Enough boys. ~
enough sugar. ~. Some cfiT
Indefinite
Demonstrative Adjective ~ ~ if ~ t ffl ~
t q?.ff ~ mer Noun- (countable) 1fr

m mm

m~~

m ~

~ ~ mm
Singular mm t, ~-

Some boy has taken my pen.

it-u ~

"6" m to

8. (C) milk ~
how much
Uncountable Noun cir ~

~ '*
41:licffqcfi

cfiT

=~
cfiT

~) ~

m ~ ~
~

t, ~ ~

analyse ~
tR ~ -qrn t ~ how many
eggs and milk
how many eggs and (how many) .
milk,~ ungrammatical t"t Slo:, milk$ ~
how
much~
tR
qfq<f ~
9; (A) whole the~ ~
the whole~
WlTI whole~
Quantitative Adjective t ~
~ the <fiT ffl mm'
t, -;i- fc!:; ~ if1 ~. All ~ Numeral Adjective
~
Quantitative \ft) ~
~
olTG the ~
t;
tt_:__All the boys. <IT, All the news.

,.,..--~

Adj. Adj.
of
of
size colour
i)' Qualitative Adjectives <fiT

~ ~

~ t

~ m

m -~

ii' ~ ;.;Jffi

*1,'l1:-4a:

m ~

mm t,

Noun ~

ffill" ~

f.li:.if<-1f~a

t,

(i) Adjective of size <tt-long, snort, big, small,


large etc.)
(ii) Adjective.of general description {tt-good, bad,
fine, sharp, etc.)

(iii) Adjective of age ~~old, young, ancient,


modem etc.)
(iv) Adje.ctive of shape ~-round, spherical,
oblong, rectangular etc.)
(v) Adjective of colour ~-red,
blue, yellow etc.)
(vi) Adjective of origin <tt-American, Indian etc.)
(vii) Adjective of material ~-st~el, iron, plastic,
etc.) ~
(viii) Adjective of purpose. ~-a waiting stick)
12. (C) A sharp long knife $ ~
A long sharp knife cfiT
~
1P1TI ~
~~
11 if ~I.
13. (B). An anxious pale giri $ ~
A pale anxious gjrl cfiT
1Pn'1T 'A ~
Adjective of human emotion I
personality 'cfij'
'pale' 'dark'~
~ ~
14. (C) first $ ~
foremost cfiT
m1lT ~
Fore cfiT
Comparative former m-m- t ~
Superlative first
~ foremost~~
first~ order (if;tf) cfiT
~ t; tt-The
rwst boy of the class. ~
foremost cfil' a1f -gm most notable;~(i) He is the foremost singer of our time,
15. (A) utmost ~ ~
outermost cfiT ~
~I
'tflG' W fc!:;
out 'cfiT Comparative outer q?.ff utter
'Superlative outermost 'd"tT utmost
ti outer omoutermost~ ~
t ~ utter Positive Degree if
~~,tam~~~
t 'complete',
utmost cf>!' 3N ~ t greatest.

mm t,

mart,

mm

-araf.t $ ft.rQ: ~

" ffl' ~

m ~ ~

11. (A) 'black long'.~ ~

t. ~

-t(i) The outer gate ~


~)
(ii) Tl;le outermost gate ~

-~.

cfiT ffl)

(i) He did it in utter(= complete) ignorance.


(ii) He. is
recognition.

a man of the utmost (= ~

~-

~6

~ Mirror of Common Errors

16. (B)- further$_~


~

farthe; cfiT."!f<lT.11

.m:T

cfiT

mm..t ~

m,rr cfllTI%
"ffl'

3llif # ~
it; ~~

addition to/besides
farther cfiT ~ ~- ~

further ~ -~:- in

<il1m

't ~

22. (B) much ~ ~


more _q;r ~
WTT cpnf<J; much
Positive Degree ~ Quantative Adjectiv~ t ~
Comparative 'more' ~
ti. ~ mariy Positive.
Degree q;r Numeral Adjective

23.
'

(ii) His house is farther-than mine(= my house is)


from Gandhi Maidan.
17. (B) than ~ ~
to cfiT ~
WTTI ~
~
f<i;
preferable/prefer 3TIR ~ -rlG 'to' Preposition cfiT ffl'
~
-;;rrm t, -::i- fcn than Conjunction q:;r1 ~
~
~
~ Latin Adjectives t -:;n- ~
-r1G 'to'
Preposition cfiT ~
ti ~ Latin Adjectives t :

am

mt

q;.f-~-q;lf

f<f; q.f

ti ~ ~

cfR'

if ~
,t

qij" msqr

m1

(ii) He is better than anybody else in the class.


<lT,

(iii) He is bett.et
~- Adverb

cfiT ~
WTTI ~ W fcfi late cfiT
Comparative later I latter ~
Superlative latest I
last ~
ti later ~ 'hte~t ~ ~ ~ ~ t'
~
latter o~ last si'ii::r ~; ,~-

(i). Who is the list man to join the team ? (affir.r


-~)
~, (ii) What is the latest report ?. (cfF51T) : ....
20. (D) than~ ~
to cfiT ~
"ITTlJTI -~
~
~ ~
3m:-~
18 .ti-~
~l
21. (C) unique ~ ~
the most cfiT Jl<rrTT ~ WTT ~
~
ffi a cfif ~ mrITI ~ m'" ~ ~ ~ Adjectives
t' '111 Positive degree # ~
l, ~
.Superlauve Degree q:;r ~ ~ t'1 ~- Adjectives t-

ma-

than all other boys

in.tlie class.
loving 'cfiT
lovingly
~ app~arance (~ Noun) cf;I' qualify
ti Noun .'!'fil qualify ~ ctiT -..;ii:r
t, -:i- ~ Adverb,

24. (B) lovingly ~ ~

t'

t ;sn- fcl;m-

(i) Only

Mira

was there.

No.un
she.

can manage it.

-i
only
(ii) Only

only
Pronoun
25. (A) A lots of 'cf>!' ~- ~ ~
~
<lT Lots of, ;sn- idiomatic t ctiT
~

~-A dozen of I

cfiT

~t,

wrr.1 ~

26. (B) some~ ~

more parallel

cfif ~

MHHI<' cfif

,cflrr

more triangular ~
~
~
t '*Pil1H1<' (fl"~
3N ~ ? ~ affelq:; ~

<Plr~~?
NOTE : full, perfect ~

any cfiT ~
sentence
sentence

it

mTTT,
~
cfiT

complete cfif Comparative

if ti

w:n'lT

A lot of

of I A.thousand of

m1 1:l'l'G ~

fcfi some

<lT

Predicateif lrr (fl" Assertive


some cfiT ffl' Affirmative
cfiT ~
Negative sentence if

qJ"q<f ~

aj141.:.ia<11

if om any

'ffilT 't ~Ihave some books. (Affirmative).

any book. (Negative).


Interrogative sentence if Some ~ Any

t,tt-

& Superlative formation ,t -~

A hundred

any ctiT

(ii) I do not have

cfllTI% Parallel

A dozen of books~
~ A do~n books
ctiT ~
A lac of I A pair of 3TIR cfiT ~

Geometric~! shape "lcii~ql(-\


Adjectives
~Parallel, spherical, round, triangular, rectangular) cfif ,ft
am:,

m- mtITI

!; tt!1 ~

'Sl<ITlT ~ ~

(i)

~~ti

At leas.~ t Eve.n I Almost aTifG ~


Noul_l <lT Pronoun q;j- ~
'Ill'

-~ttt-

unique, excellent, major, minor, maximum, minimum,


perfect, complete, whole, full, universal, impossible.

Comparative <lT Superlative~

-m ft ~

Only I

N.B. : ~
Adverbs

.J..

19, (C) lasi -~ ~-1-atest

<lT,

Adjective ~

qfcpf

m1

(i) He is better than any other boy in the class.

(i) He is senior to me.

~
.

ffl'~~;~-

-;,m' ~. ~

(i) He is the best boy in th~ class.

Comparative Degree 'more'


lITTll' t-1 am: ~ .iQ:
~
if 'more than fifty songs'~~
(D) any man ~ ~
any otherjman ,'lIT anybody else cfiT

Senior I Junior I Superior I Inferior I Prior I Anterior I


Posterior; ~.
(ii) This is prior. to that.
18. (C) luckiest ~ ~- luckier cfiT wrr-rT ~
cfllTI%
comparison fu1:f; ~ ~
~ ~
ti Superlative
Degree js Adjective cfiT ~
q;i::f-~-q;i; cfR' ~
<lT ~
~ ~
qij" 11W ~~ m-q: pt;
~-

t ~ ~

(i) I have given you a lot. I don'i want to give you


anything further.

ctiT ~

lITTfT

Have you SQme money? <lT Bave_you any money?

NOTE : ~
soine q;r

Subject ~ Pan if any cfiT ~


Affinnative om Negative~
t

~~-ql?f~.t,tt(i) Any graduate can apply for thi~. post.


(Affirmative)

.A Mirror of Common Errors


(ii) Any boy of your age can be allow~d to come in.
(iii) Some boys have not come yet. (Negative)
(iv) Some boys below ten will not be allowed.
(Negative)
27. (E)
28. (E)

~~t1
~~t1

29. (A) 'No less' ~ ~


quantity~
t
N.B. : zj@lfc:ffi::lci,

. , -~ mar t1 ~

'No. f~t!r' ~ 1flITTT \Wlfl 'less'


'fewer' number~
ti
Plural Noun ~ ~
No Less q;i~ qf~f,(t.lfit if No Less ~

~ -~
Quantity t; ~-
(i) No less than forty students failed.

Gmm:r ~

WIT ~
more better ~ double
comparative -r-r ~
t, ~
~ Standard
English if ~
ti ~ Jl"cm:, double superlative q;iWTI"11' \fr. Standard English if~
t; ~~

(i) the most brightest. ~


q;i-

m m'l'JTI

ft:lif; the brightest

31. (E) cfrci<r ~ t1


32. (B) more beautiful ~ <lllG than q;r ~
WIT ~
if Comparative om Positive Degree q;r ~
qlq<f

q;r

!1 ~

but (this young lady is) not so cultured as her


youngest sister = This young lady is better than but
noi so cultured as her youngest sister.
33. (C) more tall ~ ~
taller q;r ~
mTJT cflilfcfi ~:
~ syllable ~ Adjective q;r Comparative-r/er om
Superlative-st/est~
iRTllT ~
-;,-fcf; more <IT
m~t~;~.
Positive
Superlative
Comparative

t.

(i) wise
(ii) tall
N.B. ~

.!.

wiser
taller
~

~ ~

syllable~ Adjective~

ffi

wisest
tallest~!

'!Jun'

<til" ~
~ aT ~
'1t more m ~
~

t;~(i) He is more wise than intelligent..


(ii) She is more tall than fat, ~I
34. (B) more ~ ~
most q;iml1T cflilfcfi more ~ ~
than cfil'
qlq<f if ~
ti 3TIT:, ~ qf-0-{-ilftt if
What pleases him most = The thing which pleases
him most~~~~
writ~~
ffl" t)

q;rm~,

~,

What pleases him more than you is writingcfiT

m'llTI ~

~ ml'll-

The thing which pleases him more than (the thing


which pleases) you is writing.
35. (E)

~~ti

(i) relatively good [:r t% better]


(ii) comparatively fine [-:t' fiJ; finer]
39. (E)

~~t1

40. (B) others ~ ~. other cfiT '5l<ITl'T WITI Any other I all
other I most other if other ~ cf>'fl' \ft Plural -;,tf
'aRl<IT '51TclT

-t I

41. (C) 'happier' ~ ~


'more happy' cfiT ~
fl cflITfct;
-;jfcif ~ Adjectives ct!' RT Comparative Degree ir msyllable ~ Adjective ~ ~ more cfiT '5l<IT7T

....

wmt;~q[cf<I'

(i) This young lady is better than (her youngest sister)

.!.

~~t~-

m~

3-1?.f t-

.!.

m1

36. (C) cold ~ -~


colder q;i- -51~!-:
fy;m ~ ~
gradual development <R ~
~ ~ Comparative
Degree ~ Adjective cfiT ~
fc:f;;n' ~. t, -;, 1%
Positive Degree js Adjective cfiT; ~(i) The weather is becoming hotter and hotter.
.
(ii) She is becoming more and more depressed.
37. (E) cfTcFr ~ t I
38. (B) better ~ ~
'good' ~
~
comparatively,
relatively ~ il1G Positive Degree ~ Adjective cfiT

cfi+f

~~~~I)

30. (B) more q;r ~

57

.) ..

(i) more wise than intelligent [-:r fcf; wiser]


(ii) more smart than handsome.
42. (B) other q;r '5l<rr1T ~ m7TT ~
~ ~ ~ ~.
~
1:JT ~
~ ~
Comparative Degree if
~
,3B:f group ~ ~. ~
<IT ~
~
Any + Singular Noun' cfiT ~
t; ~(i) Rajan of this orchestra is better than any artiste of
that orchestra. [~ Rajan ~ ~
~
orchestra'~

I'

~ ~

t] I

~- m ~ ~

orchestra

q;m 'CfifT

aT

js cfil'ilcfil-0 ~

lany other +

Singular Noun! cfiT '5l<rrlT m7TT; -tir(i) Rajan is better than any other artiste of this
orchestra.
43. (D) more ~ ~
most cfiT ~
mTJT ~
~ ~ ~
~~<IT~~~~~<IT~

<til" ~
W aT ~ Superlative Degree~ Adjective cfiT
'5l<rr1T ffl t; ~ :(i) All the boys are good but you are the best.

(ii) All the books are interesting but this one is the
most interesting.
44. (B) more ~ ~
'most' q;i- w:rriT mlTT ~
"I have
ever solved" ~ ~ ~
t fcfi ~ 'q;t ~ solve
fcfi<lT
(most difficult)~
t,.

tm~

45. (C) highly~~

'higher'

ml1T ~

'than'~
~ -qm ~
t fcf; cflcfll ComparativeDegree cfiT !1
46. (C) 'thoroughly' ~ ~
'thorough' cfiT ~
mTJT ~
thoroughly ~
Adverb t, ~
thorough ~
cfiT ~

mm

mar

~ * ~~~ ~i
it>~lcfil-0

am: ~

Adjective,
No~n ~ Qualify.
q;r qiftf
Adjective ~ <i>IT l; ~ :(i) a thorough
knowledge [':f fcl:; thoroughly]
J,.
J,

synthesis ti '9:l'R' -~ f<fi ~ ~


~
Positive degree ii'
"So/as + Positive degree + as "

Adjective
(ii) a comElete
J, ,

Noun
book
J,

(i) Ram is not so/as

Adjective

Noun

~.

(iii) a thoroughll'.

J,
Adverb
r=r fcn thorough]
(iv) a comeletel~
I

'oV

p;
47. (E)

A Mirror of Common Errors

58

Adverb
fcn complete]

Adj.

Noun

destro;ied
J,

shoe.
J,

Adj.

Noun

influential

as

Positive.
Degree.

as

Shyam. .

J,
so/as

source.
J,

q\1' -~

~an ~

~t~-

[':f' fcl:; completely]

exhausted
J,

49. (A) happily ~ ~


'happy' q\1' ~
~
~
feel,
taste. seem, appear, remain, look; 311R: Copula Verbs
! .m- 3TtR" 4l1"G Adjectives cfiT ffl' ~ t, -::r ~
Adverbs cf;f; ~(a) He looks handsome. ("=f f.F handsomely]
(b) The table feels hard. [':f' fcn hardly]
(c) He remained silent. [':f' fcfi silence m silently]
SO. (D) 'greatest'~ ~
'greater' q\1' 'l!'mlT ~ ~
~
'Principal' (!'eJT 'Professors'<-zt 1!cf;R ~ ~
~ ~

i,

~~tt

48. (A) 'as good'~ 4l1"G 'as' q;r ffl' ~


~ ~
ll'r-f
q;r ~
Positive Degree ~ Comparative Degree q\1'

am:

-ey o!if~41 m ~

Comparative Degree ii' ~


Degree~ Adjective cfiT ffl'

cf>1 ~

t fil
~

75ITTl'T

Comparative

ti

***
(:

,._.

-=--=---=--~_=.:___,---~~;;;;;,;,.iiiiiiiii,iiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiii

Chapter-8

VERBS
Verbs

<it ~

~ ~

~ M ~

<it

Diagram

-ra

'Ql'R

fcf; ~ R<RT cf>T ~


~
Verbs~ ~ ~

fsf;"lrrarr ~ ~

~I

cR ~

,i-q: ~

,ft ~

cf;f

~<mflt~~~~'=tmt; ~-

Verbs

Problem

(i) Did they I not heard I this I story.


Auxiliary Verbs

.I

Primary

J.

J,

Do cf;f

hear q;i:

Main Verbs

lntranstive

Modal

Transitive

I
Mono-

L~

I
Di-

ir heard~

qlq<f

Primary Auxilieries

(a) ~
(be, been, being)

G!R ~

2. MODAL VERBS

J,

Modal

yl

(ii) Meera

can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must,


need, dare, used (to), ought (to)

ttt-

f ~

(i) He

v' ~

(V + ing) cf>T ~

-=m' mm t

ii' Be ~ ~

(i) Many books were

V3 cfiT

'Sl<fll'T

mar

V3

'Sl<fll'T ~

had

(D)

(E)

WTTI]

'ffl' ~ ~ ~ moT t1

(B)

(C} (D)

(E)

am must q;r 'Sl<fll'T ~

~ <iT

<IT ~

should

it.

come

beore you rang me up.

q,J'

(i) He should

and

J,

V3

'q;1'

ffl' ~

J,

'Sl<fll'T ~

'Sl<fll'T

mm t; ~-

tome.

(ii) They

do not

make

any mistake.

(iii) He

did not

come

here.

-r

<iT

m fu,f;

Conjunction ~

must go now.

J,

Modal Conj. Modal


V1 cf>T

fcfi'lJT Tf'lIT

<iT should and must q;r1

done

write

Do~

(C)

it 'to' qif '5l<fl"IT ~

[Part (B) ir should


~

does not

"T

(B)

(c) ~ Modal Auxiliaries q;r


~~;;yr~t;~-

fcfim "it ~ ~ ~

~~

':50' lTffif ti]

fclN=r ~
She

me.

used <it ~
~ \ft Modal ffl G!R 'to'
Modal ~ G!R Infinitive Particle to cf>T ~
'to' cf>T ~
~ Problem~~
t; ~-

must

Have~

(i)

v1

the conclusion.

-y-

-r

( C) Do~

Modal

(A)

ii'

t; ~-

reached

have

(iii) She

Modal

(c) ~ Modal Auxiliaries cf>T

mr t1
V3 cf>T 'Sl<fll'T mm t am ~

Passive Voice

~ ~

cf>T ~

has

(ii) You

J,

(i) He I should must I do I it. I No Error.

be

(i) Geeta

help

J,

(A)

t;

stolen yesterday.

~-r

ffl ~ ~ ~

mm t; ~-

will

[Part (C)

(B) Have~

<it

(i) He will I to finish I the I work. I No Error.

tt-

'Sl<fll'T

J,

(b) ought~
:rgl' mil' ti ~

to part with us.

Passive Voice

Note : Being cf>T

can and

V4

to be

win the race.

J,

(C) Do-do/does/did

m'" : (A) Be ~ G!R

'Sl<fll'T WTTI )
ii' f4qfo1f~ari

hear q;r

V1 cf>T

(i) They can

(B) Have-have/has/had

l!llr-r

(D) Modal Auxiliaries : ~

~"ra'-

1. AUXILIARY VERBS :
(A) Be-is/are/am/was/were

v21v3

Past~

(d) Modal Auxiliaries, Subject~ Number


~j~IIRid ~ ~
t1 ~
Subject, Singular

Modal Auxiliariesjs ~

ii' ~

moT t1
Auxiliaries t ~
~

Note-Need ~
Dare, Modal
Verbs ,f\-1 3!':, ~
~
ir '=!'
not/dares not
t, '=!' -gi, ~ ~
ti ~ ~ Medals ~ ~ it' ffl ~

m~

am Person~
m <iT Plural

m~

Main
Singular needs

'to' cf>T

1f<lT1T

t; ~-

W 8cr.ot

.,

60
.....~
I
,;...

A Miri'or of Common Errors


(i) He

nor

need

do

(iii) She dare not

meet you.

li!lr-r ~ f.i; ~ 1(ct;R ~


Plural Subject~ ~ ~
~

it.

v1

(b) ~ Need ~
Interrogative~
it'

~; tt-

(i)

Dare he ~

(ii)

Need he ~ now ?

J,

J,

Modal

V1

m- ~

h ~~

if

(A)
[Part (D)

No~

ffl' ~ Verbs~-~
ffl' ~ t; tt-

if

Wm

m~
w~ ~~

(i) He has

done

J.

,!. .

Primary

V3

-J.

and

! .

~ ~

it'

will

,!.

'done'~

will ~

ft;rQ: do cfiT V1

~~Verbs~~~~~~
Problems ~
~

fct.

<l1fT shalVwilVc$/could.

has ~ ~

'do' <lir

y3

~do__. cfiT ~

ti

[Part (B)

(D)'

mm~

,!. .
Subject
(Plural)

Aux.
Verb
(Plural)

Subject

mef

(Singular) Verb
(Singular)_ .

'q;)' ~-

v'

T.

n, ~) Bore
m- ~

Passive

wt ~ t]

vz

(vii)lay~.

borne
born

if

~:al t; tt-

~)

found

found

founded

founded

hung

hung

hanged

hanged

lay

lain

laid

laid

(viii) lie ($io ~

lied

lied

(ix) rise (31'TRT, ~)

rose

risen

'3o'RT, raised

raised

~ !It q;f' '3oRT)

J.
Aux .

(x) raise~~.

J.

vi

killed and one .. was . injured.

,!.

(v)hang~~
(vi)lie ~)

~q;rm~~~;~-.
.
~

Verb cfiT "SJ<IT'T

Verbs 'd'IIT ~
~
ri
Problems ~UJli..cjd:

~~)
(iv) hang ('(-jc!q,J-11)

m-

Verb 'work' ~ v3 ~ ~
'has worked and will work'~
~ 'ffl1TTI

(F) <5ja1' ~ Subjects N=l'-fir-r Numbers ~ lR' 'd'IIT


~- To be (is, are, am, was, were), Have (have, has)~
~
cfiT ffl
Subjects~~~~
(i) Three

~-

a.r:, Verbs ~

(ii) find (tJRT)


(ii\) found c:ft'q' ~.

(E)

it' has ~ ~

mfl ~

He was born in 1980]

(i) Meera I has and I will work I hard. I No Error.


(C)

~ ~

[Note-Born q;r

~(B)

t,

(i)Bear~~.

Verb~~~~~~mProbl~m~sil'raTt;

(A)

1:iFfl

(ii) Who discovered radium ? ~ ~

ti~.~~~~~~~

am:~~

~
Verb ~ ~
~
meaningful -::ml' W 'q'Jfil tr

FJ Main

!, ~ ~

will $r ~

m t, a.!':,

ffl'

etc. + V1 cfiT

qJcfll'

~~'

do a lot of work."

v3 cfiT m- h t

have I has I had +

Fclt11v.if1101 ~

Who invented radium ?

Modal V1

has ~

(E)

He rose a problem.

l
;

(D)

(C)

(i) He raised a problem. ~ ~

(E) ~
W fci; '51'.o!' ~ Primary Auxiliary Wtrr ~ Modal
Auxiliary cfiT
'and' ~ ~
f.t;ilf ;;imr t <l1fT
~ ~ ~
Verb cfiT "ll<n'lT f.t;ilf "3ITTII". t <IT 3414.ltlcidl3tlt<
~
Auxiliariesjs ft.rQ: ~
Verb~ -~
(forms)
~;~-

.i

(B)

if 'two'~ ~ 'were' cfiT m ~ ~


~ 'ltJtrT if w:r if ~ 1Tl1: cfTlP.rr 'q;)' ~

t~

(A) ~
~

m-

It
I

(E) .
~I]

t~-

(iii) Do they need some money?

'

(D)

'i#;r 'lPWT ~

MAIN VERBS I PRINCIPAL VERBS


Main Verbs% ffl' ~ ~
cnf '!f<.fiR ~ W:f ~

(i) They need some money.


(ii) They do not need any money.

(C)
'was'

(ii) One was I beautiful I but I two ugly. I No Error.

Tl'RT "Im

(B)

[Part (D) if one~ ~

a car ?

Need cfiT

(c) ~ Dare~
Verbs qlj' ~

(i) Two were I intelligent I but I one dull. I No Error


(A) .

Dare cfiT

ir Singular Subject ltT


Verb 'q;)' ~
Problems

~~t;~-

J,

Modal

ii. c=r ~ needs not]

do

(ii) You need not

J, .

FJ ~ Verbs 't F5R$ ~


~ lllftlT if ~ t1 F ~ ~

(B)

-am

Past Participle ~ t
Problems ,ft ~ 73i"Rr

t;tt(i) The lead has melted.~ ~


(ii) The

ship has sunk.~ ~

The lead has molten.


The

shif has sunken.

A Mirror of Common Errors


~

Verbs cm-

~-

_vl

y2

J,

J,

(!) bind

61

(~)cf>if ~~it;
'"'

y3

bound

bound

(i) N(> one wants

J,
Object

bounden

(c) fif;l:rr (Verb)* Complement*

(i) He is to go.
,!.

(ii) drink

drank

drunk

drunken

(iii) get

got

got

gotten

(iv) shrink

shrank

shrunk

shrunken

(v) sink

sank

sunk

(vi) strike

struck

(4) ~

struck

stricken

(i) He sold

(vii) cleave (10 cleft/clove

cleft

cloven

(viii) grave

graved

graved

groven

(ix) melt

melted

melted

molten

(x) seethe

seethed

scathed

sodden

(xi) shear

sheared

sheared

shorn .

Note-V3 ~
(~

(A)

it ~ ~

cftm ~)

Verb~

Past Participle ~

q;r q'ifif ~

cause
~~lffi~)

l; ~~

1ff 1fiRl1r ~

much.

Object+ To+ V1 .1'1

it ~

(B)

sunken

(i) He

-iro: Past _Particll?le ""1

-1-

(ii) She compelled

it at

once.

to yl

.-drunk.

Infinitive 'non-finite verb' q;r

qW ~

*' ~.

:-

to

the place.
1

y2

Jt1n1T ~ Passiv.e Voice -q' m <IT~ ~~ :;~


To+V1<tifmT~t;
~.
l:m'

(i) She was permitted


,!.
permit

"t- .-au 'To'~~~

to

with him.

.j, ,!.
to VI

qif

y2
(C) Like, want,, wish, promise, ~

(i) I want to go. [Infinitive with to]

(A) Infinitive if; ~

"'I

compel <tiT Object

'To'~f<Rr~~t;~(ii) Let him go. [Infinitive without to]

to leave
.,!,
J,

xou

J,'

INF1NITIVES

v1

To+ V1 cfil" Jlcff1T ~

(i) I. want

~ ~ it; ~-

Subject

do

'

y2

mm, ~

,!.

to

.!..

advise cfil" Object

Adjective Noun
: .,,: .. ,
ar:, ~ qJcflf (i) it 'sunk' W ~-'.'spke~ 1ff ~
~41 ~
<IT TJmf
"3(cfiR: ~
(ii) ii' .
ifil' ;ifq
'drunken',~
(iii)it 'sunken~~
'su~k;~
cffiPr (iv)
if drunken'~~
'drunk' q;r ~
1Rttf ~I

(i) To swim

me .

.!.

Adjective
Noun
(iv) A much drunken
man.
J,
-1-

(a) ff

rittr 'ffl'<l'T t; tt-

advised

shJP

~ lffi ~

(B) Ask, advice, allow, command, force, forbid,


'
~
'
invite, . encourage, compel, beg, order, imagine, 1 instruct,
permit, persuade, tell, require, remind, teach ~
~ .~

ffl t; ~-

~ectjy_e <fir ~
(iii) A

bis watch to buy books.

V3

y3
~

~ ~; ~-

~~*~

~
~

ffi

(ii) He started weeping to see his son dead.


. ,!.

y3

v3

(cause)

purpose

{purpose) "lfT ~

J.

(i) A ship has sunk .

(ii) He has drunk

it; ~-

Complement

sunken

'

ttto die.

is a good exercise.

(ii)

want
1

ev7one

to

listen

J" ~
Object

T T r
want

to

V1

to

v1

*~

qf~,ject + To +

t; ~-/,
to this notice.

62

A Mirror of Common Errors

mm

(D) ~
~ Verbs ! fJt';fc;; ~
Infinitive <iiT >1'lITlT
appear. seem, attempt, try, endeavour, begin, decide,
desire, remember, forget, stop, fail, happen, hurry, refuse,

mar t.

promise, prove~;
(i) They

t:2iR'

Problem

to

work

J,

J,

j,

refuse ciiT

to

yl

for you.

[Part (C)

-*

'c2fR
~

that

-1,

-!.

~ ~ ~ l1 ~
t 'Bare Infinitives'~

to

V,1

(i) Allow him

the examination.

To + VI ciiT ~
Problem~
~

[Part B

(B)

qlcflj"

ciir ~

(D)

(C)

ir 'that he should' ~ ~

am ~ 1l<fiR

i-He

~~Infinitive

~ ~

[to+ V1] om G~rund

'q' 3RR 3iraT ti

;f< . llrr-f

(E)

fV (ing)]

~. Let him go.


to q;r ~
in:ra miJT]

remember

infinitive

Bare

hear <iiT

~ ~

Infinitive

(ii) We watched

qi!'

post

efit" 11"{

(iii) I made

(ri ftf1lt2" ~

Infinitive

[fl~

V2
Passive

,:ft;rr ~ cfx:

j,
Gerund

Bare

Tl

(E) know~~
3M~<l"-dlj~I< how/where/when/why ciiT
'Sl<n1T <R Infinitive ciiT ~~-;;rm
t;.

tt_.:.-

how

Infinitive
'3tJU'ffi qfom Verbs

a paragraph.

make <f;f To-Infinitive


y2
(B) Modal Auxiliaries (can, could, may, might, shall,
should, will, would, must, dare not, need not)~ ~ Infinitive
ciir "5<ftTr f.RT To%
!1 ~ Modal Auxiliaries [used om
ought ~ ~] if; ~
Bare Infinitive <fii' ~
t;

mm

~-

(i) I shall

to the station.

-r

Modal

-r

Infinitive

To-Infinitive

.J,

Bare Infinitive

Infinitive

(ii) They k.uow where I why I when to start the work.

% ~

- --

to laugh.

mar

y2

to wTite

Bate

.J, .

.J,
smoking.

return.

laugh.

(i) She was made

y2

stop q;r

Infinitive

make qif

~ ~
~

-!.

Infinitive
her

~~mcirt;tt.
(iv) He
stopped
~/~~I]

-r-

J,

~~lr~$1].

stop q;r

him .&. and


J,
Bare

V2

[~w~tafR:~~~$tJ

to smoke.

fq;

watch

(ii) I will remember posting the letter [~

Bare Infinitive!

verbs

to post- the letter,

J,

(iii) He stopped
I om:TI]

go~

(A) let, bid, watch, behold, see, feel, make ~ olR:


Infinitive~ '5l<n'lT ~ 'To' if; tnm t; ~~-(i) I ~
him sl?ak on several subjects.

V2

J,

(i) I know how

'5fcIT1T mlJT]

t; ~-

rm

~-

(i) I will remember

qiT

Infinitive

t; ~-

'to' <iiT "!l<lT1T ~ ~


forgot to bring a pen.]

NOTE-remember, forget, like, stop ~

'how'

to go.

(i) He forgot I that he should I bring a I pen. I No Error,


.

J,

<f;f ~

(A)

'ffl' ~

Infinitive efiT" ~
~
'To' t ~
~ ~ if
Infinitives~
~ To qiT '5fcIT1T ~

pass

W 1% ~ .cflcPif 'q'

~liti-<wll

-q- 'knew'~

to

fail <l>T
y2
,.

cfiT

OMISSION OF 'TO'

y2
(ii) He failed
j,

mm Infiqitive

Fcf; know ~ -arR:

(i) He informed I me that be I knew to play I on the


(A)
(B)
. (C)
harmonium. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

~-

refused

-ra

fu:clT -;;rm t; ~-

(ii) You need not

Modal

work

-r

hard.

Bare Infinitive

63.

A Mirror of Common Errors


(C) Had better, had rather, had sooner, had as soon ... as ...

~ ~

Bare Infi2,itive (Tnfinitive' without 'To') qiT" Jl<TTTT

t;~-.

(i) He had better

now.

Bare Infinitive
as

(ii) She had as soon run

Bare
Infinitive

TYPES OF PARTICIPLES

Bare
Infinitive

Zl'R ~ r<f> had sooner, bad better ~


Jl<TTTT cg Problems~ -;;rra t ~--

v3 qiT"

~ ~

Participles -ey Jl'itiR ~ ~ !-Present Participles cll'.fT Past


Participles.
(A) Present Participle ~
qiT" ~
~
t' f-;roil' '- ing'
~-running, walking, swimming etc.
(B) PMi Participle.~
cfiT ~ ~ t ~
~:

~ mm t,

(i) Ihad I better gone I than stay I here. I No Error


(B)

(A)

[Part (B)

(C)

if 'gone'~ ~

(D)

'go'

better+ V1 qiT" ~
~
i)
(D) Conjunction 'Than'~ ~
mrT V1 q:;r

W1T ~

qiT"

Jl<TTTT

(i) '-ed' ~

(E)

'To' ci)- ~

had
~

(ii) '-t; ~

(iii) '--en'~
ffiT 't
eaten, beaten etc ..
(iv) '-ne' ~ ~ 't:
done, gone etc.

write.

-r-

Bare
Infinitive
(E) ~ But ~
Preposition ~ ~ if
~
'do' Verb cfiT ~ ~ ~ ~
But~ ~ Bare Infinitive
('Infinitive' without 'To') cf>T
i: ~(i) He did nothing but
wander.

Participle ~

than

-m

m~ ~

m
-m ~

-r-

but

Bare
Infinitive
lalgh at others.

(ii) She does nothing but

but

~-

is my younger brother.
Noun (~plr~
tired me.

T
Verb
(iv) A tired man is sitting in the shade of a tree.

TT
Adj.

Noun

'SflTilT ~ ~klf~d Problems AA ~


<fil' ~-

~i:i~fula. A

-m: ~ 1fT ~

(1) Participle <fir

~~mr~t;tt-

~ ~

t'1 ~

<R ~

He took the gun. He shot the tiger.

~~ ~ i

aw:r ~ f<f; Subject common t ~


~ ~ t 31YITTI' He (took the gun + shot the tiger).

Participle~~~~
ti ~:,
(i) Having taken the gun, he shot the tiger.

~wf<fi~~~~.~if.t~GJTG~~
m Participle 'Having' cfiT 'Sf<TI'lT ffiT t mrT construction
!'Having + v3j (Active voice) ~!Having + been + v3j <IT
!Being+ v3 (Passive voice) ~ ti
. (2) ~ Participle ~ ~ ~ Subject of Reference war t;

~ t

-r-

Adjective
(iii) The work has

tt-

~!

t ~~ ~ ~ ~

:r

~-

~q(.p.n'~~~~~~~~t~

PARTICIPLES

Verb
(ii) The running

~ ~

Bare
Infinitive

Participle ftfi;n" (Verb) cfiT ~ ~


mrr ~ ~
(Adjective)~ ~ 'q' <l>l'ir cfi'@ l:
(i) He is runninz in the field. [~ ' t]

t; ~-

sent! bent etc.

mm:t; ~than

t; ~-

tired, amazed, surprised, worked etc.

A ~

Bare Infinitive qiT" Jl<TTTT

;;rrm !1 ~

(i) He had betterread

q;Jlf

walk.

-r

maT

Present Participle t ~ ~ ~
(ii) ii' ~ Present Participle ~q;.
~ Jl'itiR, ~ (iii) if 'tired'~ Past Participle t ~ ~ ~ q;r cfim ~ ffl t ~ (iv) -ij'
~ Past Participle~ Adjective cf>T 1:f;Jlt' ~ ~ ti
(i) 'if 'running' ~
cg ffl t, ~
~
Adjective cfiT <fi'Pr ~ W ti
~

if

~-

Having taken the gun, he shot the tiger if 'Having'


Present Participle t ~ ~
Subject of Reference ~
~
~
~
cfiT Subject 'he' ti
~ W fcf; Participle ~ Jl<TTTT -q- ~= Participle ~
~ ~
Subject cf>T ~
';f' ~Problem~
~ ti

~(i) Walking in the field, a snake bit him.


~ ~
~ 'Walking' Participle t ~ ~
Subject of
Reference 'a snake' t -ii' lfffif ti ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ f.lcf;ffiii
t ~'q'~~*~~~ft;r?:rr~~~

f<I> ~~

'q' ~

w ~. ~

m~ ~ ~

A Mirror of Common Errors

64
.f

t, ~

~,
~ 1!m, (i). if R<IT ~ ~
'?rt-rn'
Problem q;t Unrelated'Participle cfiT Problem qzj' ~
~

cfiT ~

t't ~

~I.

Subjects

i~~
ffl ffl ti ~ ~ qf<Pf t-

ir~ ~ ~

q(<Pf

t atR ~

3ffi'll'~

q;t ~

(i) He was walking in the field.


(ii) A snake bit him.

m, ~
ert

nm ~

Subjectcfi'I'

'ifl'

Subject~
cfi'llT~
-m
q;rij' fct;<IT ~
~
ti~ fcr; ~ ~ ~ ~

if ~

;;fi.;r

Subject ~
while~~~~

t,

i::im ~

w 'fcr; ~

'afR'

m~

NOTE--:;ror
Participle cflm ~
~
~
~
Clause ~ Subject cITT +Fr-m-lf.T Participle ~ ~
~
~i <1R ~ Subject~ ~
Participle~
3 ~ t 'ffi' ~
~ t fcr; Participle cfiT ~ ~
~
ti <!R ~ Subject
~~Participle~
3 ~ ~ t
t ~

m ~,~

Participle cfiT ~

t; ~-

(i) Walking I in the field,- I he saw a I dead tiger I


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
No Error.

(E)
~

qf<Pf

~ ti

qf<f.ll'

if Participle 'Walking' ti ~
~

~ ~
ti ~

Subject
'he' q;!'
'he walking' (while he was
~ if Participl~ 'walking' '!fit'
1!m Participle cfiT >l<l11T

cfiT

Subject 'he'

m ~
~
ti am:, ~

;walking'-~
~
walking) fiR;rm ti ~
Subject of Reference 'he'

~ti

~.

(~

@)

~ ti

Error.
(E)

(ii) Being I a beautiful sight, I it charmed I all of us. I


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
.l
.....
No Error.
(E)

~
(i) if. 'Being' Unrelated Participle t ~
~
Subject of Reference 'we' ~ ti ~ we q;J ~
Subject of:
Reference -i:iFIT ~
we being a fine day (= we were a fine
day)~
t;;.m- ~ 'iTI' ~~ti~.~.
Day,.time.:
weather, sight 3iTR ~ ~
Introductory Subject 'It' '1'>f
fcf;m" ~
.am: Being ~ ~ It q;r ~ ~ ~ qfl:J<T ~
t1 ~ ~. It being a fine day(= It was a_ fine
~
~ m:r.1Tl-3f:, ~ oq; ~
(i) ~ Part (A) if 'Being''

'It' cfiT
~.

ffl' ~ ffl !

(ii)

if 'Being'~ ~

3T<if

Part (A)~

~ ~ Subject
glass' ti ~ 'the

It being a beautiful sight(==_ It was_~ be_a1,1tifuJ~ig ~


ar:_. ~
(n) if .'Be~ng\,

Subject of Reference 'It'

fm ~ ~

m, ~ ~

cfiT

WTm ~

ti ~:.

Reference!!~-~.~

R-m:

Participle~

(ii)~

ti

v3 cm- ~

t ~

fcf;crr ~

having+ been+ V3 m being~


taken

v3 cf;T;

ffl

"fo: (3) Active Voice if fci;m action ~ ~

SulljecHi

~ ~

Passive voice:

~-

breakfast, he went out.

,j,

Having

~ ~

V3

cfiT' ~

..... J

t-

(After he had taken breakfast, he went out)


(ii) Toe leader

having

been

killed,

,i

,i

having

been

the

V3

followers ran away.

ti

Part (D) ir 'her' cfit ~


~ i::im ~
t
t fcr; ~ ~ attf.r -qft:r ~ ~ 3iT ~
~ ~
7T<IT' ~
~ a:r.f ~ ~
cl>f.t

f.F1f("1(trn ~

'lt'l. ._

m~

\~

ftR,

Subject of Reforerr~

Subject~~
if
'It being' ftR.Tm":

t. ~~~ti

~~amt~~~

am:

ti

'6of oq; Part (A)~

~ti~.~~-~~~
m !1 ~ 'It'~ 'Being'~

(i) Having

q;r Subject 'the


glass'~
'coming'~
~
~
~ 'the glass coming towards
her husband' (:;:: while the glass was coming towards her
husband. ~
~ ~
a:!<f.t -qft:r ~ 3m 3iT -m ~) ~
t,
~ meaningless !1 ~
Participle 'coming' cfiT Subject of
Reference 'the glass'~
t
ti
~

q_~~

,j,

ir Participle 'coming' t ~

qf<Pf ~

*IB~

wt ~

from her hand. No Error


(D)
(E)
qf<Pf

No

having +

(ii) Coming towards I her husband, I the glass slipped I

--~---

(i) Being I a fine day, I he went out I for a walk. I


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(i) While he was walking in the field, a snake bit him.


~:

-- .

~~~~~-

t-:-

-m ~

Part (A) if 'While she was coming' cR

,rq;n: ~

~ ~

m,
(iii) The leader

-~

~-

(i). While site was coming towards I her husband, I the


(A)
(B)
glass slipped I from her hand. No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

being
j,
being

killed, the followers ran away.

,j,

V3

NOTE-having been killed:;:: being killed.


~

(ii)

am (iii) cfiT 3

t-

(i) After the leader had been killed, the followers rar
away.

65

A Mirror of Common Errors


~

ffl fci; ~

'e'2iR'

c!'m

qT<FlT

it-~

having +

v3 qif WTI'lT m:rr

+ been + v3 <if being + v3

having

Problem k;.41 -::i!rnT

t. 3m ~

having+ been+

<m having+ V3 cti1' ~

v3 cf.I' ffl m:IT ~

qif ~

@le.is very I drunk, so I he cannot tell I you even


(A)

qi<'.

~;

3. The problems that our I country has and will face I are the
(i\)
(B)
outcome of the selfishness I of our so called saviours. I

~-

(D)

(C)
NoErrot

(E)

$ Part (B) # 'bee~~ ~

~ ~

1T<.-fcf

!, ~

To

Be (is, are, em, was, were, be, being, been) + V3 cfil" ~Tll
Passive it
t 3TR rise~.
iafTlRT, 3o-lT) ~
Intranstive
Verb t ~Passive~ moT !1 am:,~~~-:(i) The sun having risen, the fog disappeared.
(= After the sun had risen, the fog disappeared.)

(E)

@Never before

(D)

(E)

(A)

{D)

(C).
(A)

~.
c:t'fi1<f> ~
if 'having' Participle q;r Subject of Reference
'she' t-1 .am:, Participle~~
'she' <Fr
"G"<: 'she having
deserted by her husband'~
t, -;m meaningless ti --m,
Parr (B) if. ~
'by her husband' ~ _'ITI" '1"m ~
t f.fi
Participle q;i- ~
Passive it ~ ~I am: Having been
deserted by her husband = After she had been deserted by
her husband (= 't!ftr $ IDU qfu.llcR{ .. ir-1" $ 'allG) I ~ m, ~

'allG 'been' cfil" 'SfcIT1T ~

(D)

(i) Having been deserted by her husband,


(= 'lfti ~ mu qft~cRi
oflG

m- ~ ~

7. We would also like to help you/ if you intend to execute/

mt

. (C)

'

(D)

<IT. ~

t -m-

m~

(D)

(C)

(E)
[:S.S.R.B. (Patna) 1988]

*9. Rajan abided


by I all the rules which I were explained to
(A)
.
(B)
(C)

him I before the programme. I No Error


(D)
(E)

Subject of Reference ~ ~

(B)

thoroughly I upset Mr. Gupta. I No Error

sh~ committed

~ ~ o-t' ~

(E)

ti)rhe unreasonable behaviour I of his daughter I

~an- ~ ~ ~ ~

m~

<Fr ~

(B).

(A)

such lofty plans for the welfare I of the society. I No Error.

"ffil)

TJ<iT <iR<f ~

(E).

(A)

suicide.

NOTE-fqgjj~ljOj

(B)

(C)

iWTI-.

.'qlcp.IT

(E)

used to working I hard in all circumstances. I No Error

(B)

all your programmes I till tomorrow morning. I No Error


6. Do you doubted about I the success of this boy,./ who is

if 'having' $

( 4) ~

. ,. .

5. It being a stormy night, I you must thought of postponing I

(E)

ffl

(B)

(C)

suicide.z No Error.

c!Tq<f."<f>T ~

ment are dominant, I No Error

(ii) Having deserted I by her husband, I she committed/


(A)
(B)
(C)

~ ~

the students of India have so much been

frustrarted I as today when the problems I of unemploy-

~.~-

(D)

(A)

mm

fcf; ~

hr,

tD)

(C)

(E)

No Error.

Participle

(B)

name. I No Error

v3 <if being+

. (i) The sun I having been risen I the fog I disappeared I


(A)
(B)
(C) . . (D)

ffl

i,~~i-

[S.B.l., P.O. Exam. 1989]

considering, judging; referring, concerning, regarding."


viewing, broadly speaking;~(i) Considering the case, I took that decision.
(ii) Considering the case, that decision was taken.

Directions z Find out the error in each of the 'following


sentences, if any. If there is no error, the answer is 'E'.
1. You must I not held in high esteem I those who are I

dangers to our society. ! No Error


(D)

(E)

(A)

..

(B)

(C)

heard I the children shouting. I No Error ,


(D)

(E)

[B.S.RB. (Bhopal) 19"~

+. ll,

PROBLEMS BASED ON VERBS

10. We were still talking I about what we should do I when we

Being very often ill I and frequently absent, I he had no


(A)

(B)
opportunity to finish his work I or do much of it in fact./
.
(C)
~
(D)

No Error
(E)

[S.B.J., P.O. Exam.

A Mirror of Common Errors


@Being a rainy day, I Vijay decided to stay I at home and
(A)
(B)
(C)
_.work I further on the problem. I No Error
(D)
(E)
[S.B.I., P.O's. Exam. 1989]

22. Shail you like I to accompany us I in the picnic which I we - ,


(A)
(B) .
(C)
.
are going to arrange today./ No Error
(D)
(E}

23. During the course of investigation I the police learnt that


(A)
not only I the house

13. School offers many opportunities of meeting I helpful


(A)
people, reading useful books I and 'obtain information
(B)
(C)
about I a variety of public careers. I No Error
(I))
(E)
[S.B.I., P.O's. Exam. 1989]

14. They did not came out victorious, I yet they were not

v\)

disappointed I rather satisfied because I they had played


(B)
(C)
(D)
well./ No Error

(E)

15. He complained to the police/ that his briefcase had been


(A)
(B)
stolen I and that he was lifted I without any money. I
(C)
(I))
No Error

(E)
,

TBSRB P.O. Exam. (Bhopal) 1989]

~~he .P.M. said that his party would I not repeat the
~~(~
(B)
mistakes I done by the I previous government. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

17. l hope the country's condition/

may go from bad to


(A)
(B)
worse/ unless all necessary steps l are taken to suppress
(C)
{D)
terrorism/ No Error
(E)

18. Taking tea I he went to the office I and disposed I of a lot


(A)
(B)
of work. I No Error
. (D)
(E)

(C)

f9. Only one dispute I has been settled I and others left to
(A)
(B)
both the parties / to settle. I No Error
(C)
.
(D)
(E)
~

Without taking proper care, I the doctors could not have


(A)
(B)
been saved I this patient, who received I a bullet injury in
(C)
(D)
-

21. Going towards


.
(A)

~-

away. I No Error

(E)'
24. I know I '&)l be I compelled to leave this house I this
(A)
(B)
week, which will be I very disadvantageous for me. I
(C)
(D)
No Error
(E)
.
@once, we were dwelt I by the seaside I but now we have I

00

~-

settled ourselves in Mumbai./ No Error


(D)
(E)

26. I am really I very sorry to learn I that a reasonable man


(A)
(B)
like you I has lain to me. I No Error
(D)
(E)

(C)

27. The boy was trembling I with anger when she drowned I
(A)
(B)
all his books I and articles. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)
28. He does nothing I but 'to find I faults in others and laugh I
(A)
(B) (C)
.
at them. I No Error
(D)
(E)

29. The radio broadcasted / last night that I the temperature in


(A)
Kashmir I would go below
(D)

(B)

-1oc.

(C)

I No Error
(E)

30. The workers f~ll I no fewer than two hundred trees I


(A)
(B)
within six hours and thereby I showed their efficiency. I
(C)
(D)

31. Most of the rivers I in Bihar have overflown I their


(A)
(B) .._,...
banks and plunged I a large number of villages. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

@we advised

him I to marry his daughter I because

oo

she had/

come to marriageable age. I No Error

the chest I No Error


(E)
.

(B)

was looted but I also the things taken

them I with ~e

cups of I

tea in the tray,

(B)

somebody knocked I at the door. I No Error


(C)
(D)
(E} .

(0)
{E)
33. The criminal I will certainly be hung I because the charges
(A)

(l3)

(C)

brought upon I him are very serious. I No Error


(D)

(E)

AMiroorof
~

. .

eon'iiji~~rs

. ,,

}l4. He seated in this examination I thrice but he always failed/

(A)
.
(B)
because he never I took it seriously, I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

35. Owing to his I ill health, he will / not be able to give this
(A)
(B)
examination, which means./ he will have to lose one year./
(C)
(D)
No Error
(E}
36. Our leaders should I not let the criminal I activities
(A)
(B)
to grow I in our country, I No Error
(Cf
(0) ..
(E)
. 37. The eminent journalist I expressed his helplessness in
.
(A)
(B)
.
making I the seminar to be held I
the university

in

_(C)
premises./ No Error
(D)
(E)
38. Since they were not aware I of the consequences, they I
(A)
.
(B)
might has asked you to I transgress this social decorum. I
(C)
.
(D)
No Error
(E)
.
l@)rhe audience still flock I to his-concerts to hear him to
(A)
..
(B)
sing I as they perceive a sense of purity and piquancy in

.
. (C)
his music that is hard I to come by today. I No Error
.
_(D}.
(E)

40. Having had reached I the station, you I may buy your
(A)

{B)
ticket and wait for the train for New Delhi. I No Error
(C)
(E)
.._

41. She stole something I from my room and hid it I in her


(A)
(B)
recently got sari, so I can't tell you anything about I the
___..(C)
stolen thing unless or until Icheck the room . l No Error
~
(D)
(E)
\_5)Walking in the field / late at night, a snake bit me I and

that was the reason I why' Iwas in a hurry. I No Error


(C)
(D)
. (E)

43. It is better to stay at home I than to walk in 'the street I


.
(A)
~
(B)
when there erupts I a communal riot in the town. I
(C)
(D)
No Error
(E)
44. He works hard I thai he should please I his Manager
(B)
'
to 'promote him I to the post of Sales Executive. I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

<M

67~,.

..:~.;.:.~:~.. ,."'~ ......,,,wt

. .,."

..

....

45. If you apologise for 'ltavfng / fail in ,lceeping yol'M'.:


(A)
.
,
(B)
promises, I your friendl'Witi-'forgive I you, be sure. /-No
(C) .
.
(0)
Error

(E)
@when he.came out/ of the ci~ema hall, I he noticed'
_(A)
(B)
somebody I had stolen his. pu~e. l No Error
(C)
(D)
. . (E)
.

@He will propose to his friends I that they will join this
(A)
. company,

{B)

I which may provide them I with promising


(C)
(D)_ : ,

careers. / No Error
(E) '
.
'
48. Judge everything in the light of what 1-tpe pleaders of-both
,
(A)
.
the parties had said, I the Judge came to the conclusion I
(B),
(C)
that the case was false. I No Error
(D)
(E)
49. When she entered t. th room, 'she found the I child
(A)
{B)
sleeping peacefully and I the fan move slowly; I No Error
(C)
.(D)
(E)

so. "Work

hard, lest you I should fail", said the father to his

. (B)

son I who was taking his I


(C)
.

M.

A. examination

that year.

(D)

No Error

{E)
51. Not only will she go I to the pictures but she will I also
(A)
(B)
meet some of hercommon-z friend's in the evening. I
(D)
(C)
No Error
(E)

ANSWERS
I. (B) .

2. (E)

3. (B)

4. (B)

. 5.(B)
10, {E)

7. (E)

8. (C)

9. (E)

lL (D)

12. (A)

13. (C)

16. (C)

17. (A)

18. (A)

14. (A)
19. (C).

21. (A)

22. (A)

23. (D)

24. (A)

26. (0)

27. (E)

28. (B)

29. (A)

25. (Ai
30,(A)

31. (B)

32. (B)

34. (A)

35, (C)

36. (C)

37. (B)

33. (B)
38. (C)

41. (C)

42. (A)

46. (C)
51. (E)

47.(B)

. 6. (A)

15, (C}

20.(B)

40.(Al

43. (B)

39 .. (B)
'"44, (B)

48. (A)-

49:(D)

50.(E}

4~(BI

.u
.- mro

!Con'lfflo.ttEttors-
A.M
"'''"' .. .

.... led/

. He seated in ~

examination I thrice but he

al;r fai

because he never I took it seriously. I No Error

35. Owing to his I ill health, he will / not be able to give this
(A)
(B)
examination, which means./ he will have to lose one year.I
(C)
(D)
No Error
(E)
36. Our leaders should I not 1et the criminal I activities
(A)
(B)
to grow I in our country. I No Error
(C).
(0) ..
(E)
. 37. The eminent journalist I expressed his helplessness in
(A)
(B)
.
making I the seminar to be held I in the university
(C)
premises./ No Error
(D)
(E)

38. Since 'they were not aware I of the consequences, they I


(A}
.
.
(B)
might has asked you to I transgress this social decorum. I
(C)
.
(D)

No Error
(E)
'@Ine audience still flock I to his-concerts to hear him to
(A)
.
(B)
sing I as they perceive a sense of purity and piquancy in
(C)
his music that is hard I to come by today. I No Error
.
(D).
(E)
40. Having had reached I the station, you I may buy your
(A)

(B)
ticket and wait for the train for New Delhi./ No Error
(C)
(E)

41. She stole something I from my room and hid it I in her

(A)
(B)
recently got sari, so I can't tell you anything about I the
(C}
stolen thing unless or until I check the room ../ No Error
~I
(D)
-(E)
~Walking in the field I late at night, a snake bit me I and
(A)
(B)
that was the reason I why I was in a hurry. I No Error
(C)
(D)
, (E)
43. It is better to stay at home I than to walk ill the street I
(A)
~
(B)
when there erupts I a communal riot in the town. I
(C)
(D)
No Error

(EL
44. He works hard I that he should please I his Manager
(A)
(B)
topromote him I to the post of Sales Executive: I No Error
(C)
(D)
(E)

45. if ;~~,-;poiogi;

..~ .

(A) . . . . .

promises,

..:

fot)1,avi'ng I fail in keepmg yoo_r:.

. (B)

I your friendl:w.iJf fo'tpve1 you,' be sure. / -No


.

~-.

Error
(E)
@When he.came out / 'of the cinema hall, I. he noticed'
(A)
. (B)
somebody I had stolen his purse. i Ne> Error
(C)
(D) .
. (E)

@He will propose to his friends I that they will join this
(A)
(B)
company, I which may provide .them I with promising
(D). : ,

(C)

careers. / No Error
(E)
48. Judge everything in the light of what 1-tpe pleaders of-both
,"
(A)
.
the parties had said, I the Judge came to the conclusion I
(B),
(C}.
that the case was false./ No Error
(D)
(E)
49. When she entered /, th(f room, 'she found the I child
(A)
(B)
.
sleeping peacefully and I the fan move slowly; I No Error
(C)
_(D)
(E)

50. "Work hard, lest you I should fail" ,'said the father to his
. (B)
son I who was taking his I
(C}
No Error

M.

A. examination
(D)

that year.

(E)
51. Not only will she go I to the pictures but she will I also
(A)
(B)
meet some of hercommonz friends in the evening. I
(C)
(D)
No Error

(E)
ANSWERS
1. (B}
. 6. (A)

5. (B)

8: (C)

4. (B)
9.'(E)

10. (E)

14. (A)

15.(C)

2. (E)

3. (B)

7. (E)

11. (D)

12. (A)

13. (C) .

16. (C)

17. (A)

18. (A)

19. (C)

20. (8)

21. (A)

22. (A)

23. (D)

24. (A)

25. (A't

26. (D)

27. (E)

28. (B)

29. (A)

30,(A)

31. (B)

32. (B)

.33. '(B)

3.4. (A)

36. (C)

37. (B)

38. (C)

39. (B)

41. (C)

42. (A)

43. (B)

44. (B)

46. (C)

47. (B)

48. (A)"

49.'(D)

51. (E)

35. (Cl

40.(A}

45.(B)
50. (E}

I
I

68

A Mirrorof;;Cotnmon:Errors

EXPLANATIONS

. :,

n ~

1. (B) 'held' ~ ~

(ii) They do

J.

'hold' cfiT -~
'held',
'hold' cf;r 'Past form t ~- Modal Auxiliary Verbs
[can, could, may,. might, shall, should, will, would,
must, dare not, need not~] ~ ~ Verb~
ati:r:t

J.
=,

Modal Aux.

(3,j::jjcij~<lcfi)

~~t1

'!l<WT "tf1TT ~

<n ~

11. (D) 'do'~ ~


infinitive 'to' cfiT '!l<WT m1TTI
.
1-2. (A).Being_~ ~
'It' 'cfil'
mrTT, ~~Participle
~ ~ ~ Subject of Referenc ~
~
~
'if
Being ~ ~
Subject of Reference ~
~
'cfil' aN. ft [we being a rainy day= we were a
rainy day,] '3ft ~
~. &if41,EXIG ti ""2fFi ~ f<f;
'weather', 'season', 'time' ~
'afa'R' ~ ~ ~
Introductory Subject 'It' cfii 'Jl"<IT1T ffl :t tt(i) It was a fine morning.
(ii) It was four o'clock.

Auxiliary Verbs cfiT ll"<IT1T ~


Conjunction t ~
~ ~ '3ft 31'1R ofR 'Verb'~ 3IB11"~ fo~s mt
mrr ~ Aux. Verbs ~ ~ ~-~ Main Verb cf;T.
Aux. Verbs ~ -~ Main Verb
~ forms~ ~
~ ~ ~I ~~.'Have'

t, ~ ~

~ ~ mm~

,ft ~ - tt-Have, Has, Had

cfiT ~

[Past Participle form of tM Verb]~ t;


(i) They have done it in no time.

am ~

v3

~-

TT

have

afR ~ 'It'
t;tt-.

V3

m if ~ ~ cflcPf
~~i--

f.:tqf~Rsd ~

lfi Synthesis

(i)
~

(i) He has written a lot of answers.

He [has written+ will write]a lot of answers.


{ +] ~ ~
'tR 'and'
.
He has written and will write a lot of answers.
~(B) the students ~ ~
'have' cfiT ~
ft ~
'Neverbefore't ~~~if~
fti;<rr cfiT
'll<WT Subject~ 'q"ffl
t afR ~ 'Subject' 'the
students'!, atcr:, Verb 'have'~I ~-

m~

Modal Auxiliary.! ':3IT

t, ~

ati:r:t

ofR V1 cfiT -~
(1) ~ ~

~ ~ ~-~

ffirr

~
~

'doubt' cfiT

WIT ~

~(i) Does

T
Does

he write ?

--rV1

!1
!1

R&.lf('!f<sfd .

vi

m-

'left' cfiT
m1TT ~
'l.ift' <iiT a1f
~ t ~ ~ 'leave' cfiT
t ~i
Leave~ Lift~ ~ q;t" ~Present
Past
Past Participle

15. (C) 'lifted'~ ~

J,

J,

'Do' cf.I' ~
~ form ~
ofR v1 ffiIT
~
'Do' ~ aR forms 'does' 'dm 'did'

q']q<IT q;I" Participle ~ ~

J.

~I

6. (A) 'doubted'~ ~

~
~. GflG V1 cfiT 'lf<ll1T ~ t I
He does l did not ~. there.

mm

Never before have I seen such a beautiful girl.


5. (B) 'thought' ~ ~
'think' cfiT ~
m11T ~
'must'

It was a_ fine morning. We. went out

It being a fine morning, we went out.


13. (C) 'obtain'~ ~
'obtaining' ft ~
1* ,m: ~
#
it Verb 'cfil' sequence t :
of meeting
reading
and obtaining.
14. (A) 'came' ~ ~
'come' ~
<Rl'fcf; Do, Does, Did

-qt

Participie <fir Subject of Reference ~

qfcp.f~-

(ii) Hewill ~rit~ a lot of answers.


~ $rr ~
if He 'd1?IT a lot of answers cfiT Common
~

cm superfluous

tJ

ti

9'. (E) ffl<Pi ~


10. (E)

V1

~~tt.

2. (E)
0) (B) 'has' ~ GflG 'faced' cfiT

J;

did
V1
7.(E) ~~!1
8. (C) 'was' cfiT '31'<it1T ~ ~.

do it

J. '

V1
not . ~-

J,

~(!) He will/ can I should I must

J.

do
(iii) She did

it ~ !:

First Form [i.es, V1]

not work hard.

(i) leave ~)
(ii)

lift ~)

16. (C) 'done'* ~


idiomatic~

J,

left

lifted
'made'

m1TT

ti are-: ~

left
lifted
cf<n'1% 'make a mistake'
~ ,~ Passive Voice
'a mistake made'.

~n m~ ~ ~ ~
Pict~f&d Phrases cit- ~(i) make a mistake.

wt mm

A Mirror of Common Errors

..

{iv) <.>mm.it a sin I crime.


.
(A) 'hope' ~ ~
'fear' cf;'f
WIT ~
'hope' cf;!'
3[1.tf1'T pleasurable things (an=i<<l4l ff)
~ ~ ~
t; ~-(i) I hope he will succeed in the I.A.S.
Examination.

(ii) I hope the country will progress by leaps and


bounds.
'
~

'fear' cfiJ"

~~~t;~-

m- unpleasurable
t ~ 5:~

.C~

things ~ ~

~. ~~

<f;{.\cliffi

ffl')

(i) I fear the dacoits will kill Dr. Sinha.


18. (A) 'taking' q;r ~
~
"ID1TT ~
'taking' ~ "ll'1WT ~
AA im: ~ q;i- ~ ~
t fcf; ~ -AA ~ ~
~
~
Tfl!T" ~ ~
iil~l~e: ti ~ Part cf;'f
~
~
m-After Taking tea, <1T After he had
taken tea. <1T Having taken tea <1T When he, had taken
tea.
19; (C) 'left'~
~
'have been' cf;'f WWT ~
~
';;J'if'
qJcflf if~
Subjects fi:R"-f,r-r Numbers~

mm~

Verb~ form

(i) One

was

cfil' ~

~ ~ ~; ~-

killed and

five

were

-r- T

Subject
Verb
(Singular) (Singular)
"3m "31cm:,

TT~

TT

injured.

has

Sub.
Verb
Sub.
Verb
(Pl.)
(Pl.)
. (Sing.) (Sing.)
been released.
_
~
~
Subjects cfi1" Number ~ ~ it
ll<6 -gt
Verb~ cfiT1f ~ ~
t; ~..,__

Two were killed and five injured.

~ ~ if 'five'~ ilR 'were' understood jr ~ ti


20. (B) 'been' q;'r ~ ~ my- ~
To be [~
~
~
is I are I am (was I were I be I being I been] +
v3 q;r 1!<TI'1T Passive Voice if moT t, anr: AA lfl1:
~

cm ~

fcf; 'doctors~

n ~

'taken' ~ ~
'wer~ <fir ~
house' Singular Subject t, 3Tcf.: ~
~
'was'ciiJ
WWT s3lf t; ~ 'the things' Plural Subject aw:
~
~
'were' q;r WWT ~
Wt!TI ara:, qJcf<f <R"

~~n,

(i) Not only the house was looted but also the th~
were taken away.
24. (A) will~~

'shall' q;r ~~~First


Person
~ m-er ~ 'shall' cfi1" 'lflITlT ~ t ~ ~ efR 'be
obliged' I 'be grateful', 'be forced', 'be compelled',
'under the necessity of' anR q;r JflITlT
tt-

m;

(i) I shall be obliged to you. [':f fcf; I will be obliged


to you.]

m, ~

25. (A) 'were'~~

qJcflf
~

[~

t ~

'lied' cf;! ~
Past Participle ~
ifift At.ff<::tf~d Verbs.~

Active Voice if

26. (D) 'Iain' ~ ~


q;i-

(i) lie ~

~)

(ii) lie ~).

Subject Verb
(Plural) (Plural)

(ii) Five have been sent to jail and one

(i)

.,.!.

(iii) score a goal.

~ ~ ~~ n

.,<

..23. (D)

(ii) make a noise.

'17.

'

(iii) lay ~

t,

'lain' lie
'lied' 'lie ~

~-

lied

lied

lay

lain

laid

laid

~~t,

27. (E)
28. (B) 'to' cfil' 6GRT ~. ~
'Do'~
~ nothing but (!'P.l'T Verb l;t

fci;m- fonn ~ .:rn;


Verb f.RT' [to] q;r
~ i'raT' tt-He does nothing but sleep in the
day time.~
'sleep'~ ~
'to' q;i- "Sl<iPT lJffii HI
29. (A) 'broadcasted'- ~ ~
'broadcast' cfi1" ~
'broadcast' q;r Present, Past om Past Participle ~
. ll<6 ~ ~ ti ~ ~ cast, recast q;r m-:rr ~ ~

m~

t,

n~

mart,

30. (A) 'fell'~

~ l!'lm t ~

'felled' cJ;T" "ll'1WT


ftm;rr'' ~~

'fell' cfif

yl

v2

y3

J,

J,

fell

(i)fall ~)
(ii) f~ll ~

fTRAT) felled

fallen
felled

..

~ -~
<il'T
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t fcf; 'doctors' patient
(iii) feel ~
~) felt
felt
cfil' ~ ~ ~ ?ITI [~
~
ft.;flrr] I
31. (B) 'overflown'~ ~
'bverflowed' cf;! 'li<TI'lT ~
cf41f~
overflow cf;T Past ~ overflowed (!'P.l'T Past Participle
21. (A) 'Going' cm ~
'Participle' ~ ~ if ?f t ~
~
Subject of Reference~
~ ti anr: ~ ~
~
overflowed
Rt.ffo1f~a Verbs~ ~
~
fcf. 'While II she I he was going

22. (A) 'shall'~


~
'will' q;r 1l<IT7T WIT ~
~~-,ii~1-4~a4-,
Present (V1)
Past (V2) Past Participle (V3>
'shall' q;r
Second ~
Third Person ~ m-er
!
j,
!
Interrogative Sentence if~
t; ~flew
flown
(i)fly ~)
. (i) Shall you go ?
(ii)
flee
(\WT
7ilRT)
fled
fled
(ii) Shall they go ?

~qi)~--:-

~ cfrcPIT if

'Will' q;r

mm t,

mm

ffl ~

~t

(iii) flow ~)

flowed

flowed

70

...

, . . ,

. A Mirroilrroon\monEtrdrs

"' .. "

..,

;:,

.. 1.

.32. ('B) 'to marry his dau'g~~~ -~


'to' get his daughtef
married <fir WT .t<Zifqfi'n ~
'we advised him
,
to marry his daughter' .cfil' a1'f '"gif,r ~- 3N-fl' tt

it ~

~ ift/~
a-t ~
~

<6'' ~

-gir ~

:~

m
* m. ~ ~ * ~
f.l*-lf{-IRsd cflcPf ~ ~(i) m ~ m: ~-He
got a house built

.
33. (B) 'hung' ~ ~

'hanged'

w~-

Ml

cfiT ~

'hang'-~

40. (A) 'had' cfiT


superfluous
'Having+ y3, cfiT ~
~

J.

c!\''1

(i) Let

use

'Let+ Subject+ V1'

41. (C) 'got'.~~


'gotten' q;r 1l<fl'1T m"ITI ~
Participle ~ Present Participle cf;T ~
Adjective~ ~ if ~ t; ~(i}He is running. ~ ~ t-11
J,

v'

. Let

Subject
~ 'll"ffl \lJR ~ fct;
Sul>jed + watch l behold I see I make I hear +

iraf t, -;r fcl; To +

Object+ V1 lfi1' ~

tt-

larb.

(i) I made . him

-r-

Make

Obj.

V1 1'11';

(";r ~ to laugh]

yl

v2

(ii) I heard him say so. f-f frf; to say so]


37. (B) 'making' ~ ~
'joining' 'llT 'participating in' cfil'
'Sf'lfl'lT
seminar 'q'
!311' ~ t 'llT
;_~;~
',wr' ~
~
'Make a seminar' 1'11' -~
~
t1 m 'seminar' 'arrange'1ft ~ ~ !L
: 38. (C) .'has'* -~
'have' lfif ~
m-'1T ~
'might' 'Q;cfi'

n. ~

t ~ ~

Modal Auxiliary
~

39. (B) 'to' <iii'

~rair~a

t,

~ ~

m ~

offl:-msqr

m-'1T ~

-r-

hear

him

object

I~

V1 ~

t1

oZJl1!fT ~I

'bear+ Object+ V1' 1'11'

irar t: -tt-

(i) I heard

~ ffl1T

sir-

v'

lfif

v2
. --..,,_:_ ... ~~_

..............._

-ra fcf; Past


Verb

<1v.rT

(Present Participle)
(ii) I saw a running horse.
-1-

Adjective Noun
~. ~ ~ Verbs lITTI' i ~
Past Participle if~
~ [Two forms] lITTI' !1 ~ ~ ~ Verb~ ~ if
~ ira1' t ~ ~ Adjective~ ~- if1 ~ ~
Verbs 'fl Main Verbs I Principal Verbs_~ (A) it ~

?\

'Q.cf ~

~I

@.A) 'walking' ~ ~

'While I was walking' q;r ~


'walking in the field, a snake bit me'
if 'walking' 1'11'
Participle ~ ~ if t m<fif,
Subject 'A snake' ti ~
~ t f.i; ~ ~ ~ i:t
~
~ tn't anr:, Participle cf>I' Subject of Reference-

~ n ~

them

J.

Having . V3

~~~h1T11Tt1

~ ~ A ~
~*mt:~-

t; ~-

t.o the library.

n1 ~~

36. (C) 'to' w

W fcfi

[31-!lc:llt <lcfi] t1 ~

(i) Having read the book, you should return it

f.t;

Past Participle
P35t
Present
(i) hang ({1c!<fiHI) hung
hung
(ii) hang ~
~) hanged
hanged.
34. (A) 'seated' ~ ~
'sat', 'appeared' 1ff' ~
'took the
examination' 'qif ~
(i) Students/ examinees appear at I in an
examination.
....,,.;.(ii) Students I examinees'~e an examination.
(iii) Teachers I invisilators give an examination.
35. (C) 'give'~~
'take' cfiT ~
~
cfiRUr offl:-~
34

..

M'iffi~~~mr~;~-

(i) Sitting in my room, Ram came to see me.

~ 1f?t <flcFlr q;r

t-

Ram was sitting in my room. Ram came to see me.


~ ~ ~- ~ t fcf; I was 'sitting in my room.
Ram came to see me.
~ ~ ~
W~
~ -~ Conjunction 'While'
W ffl ~
imf ~ . .~ ~ .mriT fcfi While I
was sining in.iy. room, Ram came to see me.
~ ~
~ P~ciple ctre qTcp:I" if am ~
~ ~
Subject~ Participle~
ti ~
~ Sut,ject <'!'IT Participle cf;l'.. on-r-irn itcfi J
~ t ~ Participle cfiT
ti ~ Subject cPIT
Participle~ ~~
'-llft' t <IT ~
aN t fcfi
Pa.'ticiple ffl ,wr if Error
~--"l'f'Q; qTcp:I" W

m~ ~m
m~
m~

t, ~

~(i) Sleeping in the train, a thief removed all my


luggage.
~~if~
flF;7.ir removed 9it.S.ubject'a thief' l1
~ Subject ~ Participle ~ ~
~
'tR ~ tfra t
fci; 'A thief sleeping in the train'. ~
A theif was
sleeping in the train.' ~ ~
~ ~
t fcfi Subject
<'!'IT Participle'cfiT on-r-im" ~ t ~
~ ~ ~

--

----

-',ij

71

A Mirror of Common Errors

t ~ ~ ~ ~
~

if

n ~. ~ ~ ~ w ~

~-1JT'lflif ~

-g'.21" ~

aw ~ ~

~, ~

-m~~~~~-

46. (C) 'noticed'~

~ ~ t

~-

While I was sleeping in the train, a thief removed all


my luggage.
43. (B) 'than' ~ GflG ,e1q1..J.1<1: Infinitive Particle 'to' cfiT

-m ~ ~

t ~

~-

<ff ~

v'

'notice

~
~ ~

'fiodi~
llRl)J

(i) I found him lying in bed.


(ii) I found my purse missing.

~.

irar t

cfiT ~

~
'found' <$T lPrr!T ittrr
observe, see ("21R' ~. ~)
get back after a secU"ch ~

(i) I noticed how he was quarelling with his tools.

(i) You had betterto dosome work than

wander.

.J,

V1

than
44. (B) 'should'

'may'

f-:iAf('1f&d Verb sequence cfiT

cfiT

lflrr7T ~

(ii) I noticed he was becoming


agressive.

.J,

47. (B) 'will'~

mlfT ~

(ii) He works hard in order that he may pass.


(iii) He worked hard I so that I in order that he might
pass.
fcf;tjt cfi1cf cfiT ~
dldi-lqil-1 qfCflff ii' ~
Clause
~
Future Tense ~
Present Tense if ~ ffl
Dependent Clause ~ that ~ so that 1lT in order .
that~~~
t ~ 'may' cfiT ~ ~ ..m,r
Clause Past Tense if it <IT Dependent
Clause if 'might' cfiTI ~
~
~ ~
cfl'<flif ~
'may' 1lT 'might'~ ~ shall, will, should, would

.~

~>

48. (A) 'Judge'*

'Judging' <W ~

t. ~

(i) Considering all the points,

~ ~

Subject
(ii) Considering all the points, the decision was

.i
Subject
given.

pr 1'$ went]

the judge

gave his decision.

come. [;r ~ came}

gone.

U4R ~

,1,

has, having alTfu ~ ~ V3 [Verb cfif Past Participle.


Form J 'lf"lTI1T if 31Tm t; -;tq_

v3

~i'rart;~-

(ii) He labourd hard in order that he should


compete with others. [W ~
if 'should' <fil' ~
~ti~~
'might'cfiT~~-~I]
45. (B) 'fail' ~ ~
'failed' cfiT ~
'ffllTT ~
have, had,

have

ti ~

Imperative Sentence (V1) ~ ~


~
t ~
Participle ~ ~
Judging, considering I viewing I
referring /regarding~~~~*~~
"'1<IT t1 ii' mt vrse: -iTI' Participle Jfto
t
'Subject'~~
(Free)~

'may'cfiT~~

.J,

t, ar:-

will

(i) He labours hard so that he will do well in the


examination. [ll1 ~
~ ,_wil!' cfiT lf1nlT ~
ti

J,.

. (ii) I propose that he can stay with me.


. t=1' qr,pff ~
I can ~ li1n1r ~
should 'ifiT JPU1T A ~I

cfiT~~m;~-

(b) He has

~ 'Sl1ff1T ~

(i) I suggest that he will do it.

t.

. (a) They have

JPU1T mlfT ~

Subject+ should+ V1 'ifiT ~


~
t; ~I suggest to Raju that he should go. ,
~ ~ 4 shall I will I can I co~ld I may I might

(i) He will work hard, so that he may pass.

~~

'should' cfiT

Suggest I propose + to + somebody + that +

t-

am: ~ ~

more and more

49. (D) 'move' ~ ~


'and'~ ~

m ~ m Verbs ~

'moving'
'form' v:,.t; -gt ~

t 'ffl ~

t; ~-

.i

.i

(i) running and walking [-;r ~- walks I walk I walked}

has

v3

(ii) run ~d walk [";f

(c) Having

J,
having

taken breakfast, he went out.

.i
V3

r-r 1'$ took]

50. (E)

~~ti

51. (E)

~~t,

***

fcfi walks I walking I walk]

.
Chapter-S

- L

A_D_VE
__ R_B_S
Adverb~

(i) fcf;m fif;m


(i)

t ~--,--

*~

iffifm -%;. ~-

Verb

Adv.

Fortunate!

Verb

Adv.

(i)

he did not receive any injury .

J;

Adv.

Sentence

.I

t. ~ ~

(i)

~
fcl; -~
f.mr-r ~ ~
'11<rr t ~'.-(i) if 'fast'
Adverb t ~ ~
'runs'
t al!IT qjcp.f (ii)
'clearly'~
Adverb t ~ fif;iir 'speaks'~ ~
~
ti
(ii) fcl;m

(vii).~:
Noun m Pronoun~
~
~
cf;!" cfillf
Adjectives~
itit: Adverbs
<ffl o<fi fcfim
Noun m Pronoun <ti' ~
ti-~ Adverbs t-Only,
even, at least, almost; ~.
.

clejly.

(ii) She spcjks

y,

.j,

i___....

ii

(vi)~~(Sentence)~~~t;~-

fast.

He r.uns

1'

_..

*~

f<mlfUT (Adjective)

You are absolutely

q;t ~

t ~-,-

-r- .

Adverb

"Adjective

Only Hari has passed. (~

.J,

s3TI' t')

.j,

Adv.

Noun.

i .. -

t -

(ii) Only they can save you. ~

right.

.. l

t~

m .rem

'ffilT ~

of'qT

~-ti)
. CJ:,ASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS
Adverbs ~ ~
*'mt't't
(A) Simple Adverbs

(ii) She is ave(

(iii)

Adv.

Adj.

She writes

(C) Relative adverbs

(Adverb) ~

vLy

carefully.

Adv.

Adv.

I
'

t;

where, from where~

Adv.

Prep.

(v) fcf;m Conjunction~

Adv.

t_i

t; ~-

his head.

fcml.fclT ~

(i) He killed her sim[1y ~

t; ~-

she had refused to marry him.


Conj.

Relative Adverbs

!1

(iii) Adverbs of Number-once, twice, thrice

fcfim Preposition~

.. (i) Adverbs of Time-today, yesterday; last month, last


year, ago, at present, presently, shortly, directly, late, lately,
recently, etc.
Adverbs of Time -~ Interrogative al!IT Relative Adverbs
when, how long, whence~
ti
(ii) Adverbs
Place-here, there, in, out, away, indoors,
outdoors, far, near, etc.
Adverbs of Place ~Interrogative

Adv.

(i) The bird flew eyctly

t :-

of

fast.

r
(iv)

Adv.

..

. J,

(ii) You can run vtry

.. (B) Interrogative Adverbs al!IT

(A) SIMPLE ADVERBS f.lizif<.1f-clq '3f<m: ~ ~

f~- rai<IT-~

~(i)

gof

"'

girl.

&
Adverbs of Frequency-seldom, never, always, scarcely,
rarely etc.
Adverbs of Number/Frequency ~ Interrogative ~
Relative Adverb, how many times ti
(iv) Adverbs of Quantity, Range .or Extent-too, very,
much, quite, enough, sufficiently, completely, wholly, partially,
fairly, rather, far, etc.
Adverbs of Quantity. cfif Interrogative
Adverbs how much, how far, to what extent~

al!IT

Relative

t'1

(v) Adverbs of Manner, Quality or Stat~-thus, so, badly,


carefully, fluently, beautifully, fast, etc.

A Mirror of Common Errors

73

Adverbs of Manner~ Interrogative clYfT Relative Adverbs

.~

h.9w,J.n.what way, ~~( vi) Adverbs of Affirmation or Negation-yes, no, surely,


certainly, not, etc.
3i<i -~

ADVERBS

~~~t,

cfil" ~ ~

~-

Problems

bad.

J,

none too Unpleasant

~~~!U':fffl'll)
(= This essay is not very bad.) .
(6) Only too= very

glad, to happy, to pleased, too healthy-~~

t,

1F"f { f.5rcRr ':fffl' ~

t ~~

~, ~ ~

q;r ~-

..

qycprr if Too ~ ~

(2) Too - to "tR ~


~-PleasantAdjectivelfil'

ffl

,fl"

m~

t; "tt-

to receive yourietter.

~t

if ~ ~

tt-

(i)

She is

7ol'T
(ii) Sita is

Pleasant Adj.

very
(8) Very

wicked.
(4) Too Much + Noun; ~Too much

pain, too much- carelessness,

too much

(l'el'f

very

~-much too painful, much too careless, much too

Much~

Your

<IT. Unpleasant A~j_ectives ~

beautiful.

=
.

vef

(3) Much too+ UnpteasantAdiectives

= I am very

. .
.
too bad.

is only

Jl<tl'lr_ Pleasant

(7) Very~

~mrt

(i) .He is too intelligent to be cheated. (= He is so


intelligent that he cannot be cheated.)
NOTE : (i) if ~ lT1?: ~
(i) cfil" so ... that
~c:l'W.Too+glad':fffi'"ffl"~tl)

am only "too glad to rec~fve your letter:

.(a) I

glad

pleasant ~ unpleas~nt Adjectives ~: ~

(b) -.-.Your performance


performance is.very bad..

(ii) I am very glad to meet you.

~Unpleasant Adj.

Jl<tl'lT ~ ~

~ ~

/..

:b'lcIT t;

(A) Very q:;r 'SPTI'1T Positive. degree ~ ~tt-very good, very wise, very lucky, very lion~t

m; ~-

~
much too ~ el'R Nouri clYfT too much ~
Acfective cfiT
~ Problem ~
~
too much
q;r
much too ~ -;;m much too q;r ~
<ffli' too much cfiT
problem R'llT ;;irnr

much better, . much ... wiser, much luckier,


much more
~.

m
~-

~ cm

m ~

t,

.~

<Wf<l' ~

R ~

qlq<f

~ R ~

NOTE: very much + Comparative Degree ~ '3t<ITIT

mm

t;ttetc.

(B) very

him/

if

Part (D) if much too~ ~


~ 'pain' -q:cfi Noun !1]

much too
(D)

'too much' cfiT

1ff much cfil'

moT ti ~

Part (B) if too much ~ ~


much too cfiT
~ Part (C) if painful~ Adjective !1]

(a) This essay is none too

:r:
none too

go,r:
Pleasant
Adj.

'ffl'm

stiperlative Degree ~ ~
+ sup. ~
Much + the+

Sup;~-:-

best

(a) the ~

~.

the

J..

boy.

+ very + Sup.

(b) much
much

Unpleasant Adjectives~~

The + very

--r-

t (5) None too= not very.


~~-Pleasant~

very much .better, very much wiser, very much luckier

(b) His wife's I rude behaviour I gives


(A)
(B)
(C)
pain. I No Error.
(E)
[~

honestett..

(i) His failure I is too much I painful I for me. J No Error.


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
[~

much~ Comparative Degree~

insincerity.

m:rr ~

..

to

Adj._

(i) I am too glad to meet you lfil' ~

J,

~
~
Unpleasant Adjectives ~ ~
moT t1
~-too bad, too naughty, too wicked, too fat, too dull, etc.
TJ'ffif

i@f" ~

(b) This essay is none too

(I) Too-more than required (3ll4:tl!cfidl ~ .amlq;)

ar: "too

(= This essay is not very good.)

the

best boy.

TT
+ the + Sup.

war

(C) Very cfil' 'l!<ITlT P.resent Participle ~ ffl


t;
-ttl"-very int~ing, very daring, very perplexing,
very challenging, very entertaining.

~
much ~ Past Participle ~ ~; tt-much
amazed, much ~ved, much surprised, much admired, etc.

74

I'

A Mirror of Common Errors

m-

NOTE : Very q;r


Past Participle js
-::rtt' ~ t
~ f.:p..Jfclf~d Past Participles js ~
Very~ ~ t, .
very . tired, very dejected, very contented, very
.
ed

discontent , very pleased, very drunk, very limited, very


delighted.
_

mm

m1

(ii) I. was much pleased with her letter. [Here glad or


happy cannot be substituted for pleased.]
.. =-Nestleld : ENGLISH GRAMMAR, COMPOSmON
AND USAGE
(9) Quite q;r ar4 t 'perfectly, completely' ~.
-cr0....., ,l<K-.:.q-01) 3m ~ '3f<lT1T 'very' q;t ~ -::rtt'
ti ara:,
(i) She is quite lovely.

mar

(ii) You are quite handsome.~

B q]'q<IT q;r ~ ~ t(i) She is very lovely.


(ii) You are very handsome.
(A) ~
very ~ ar4 ~ quite

Participles js ~

t-

~ ~

ti

'Si<IT7T

mar t-

Adj. + N

'q;T ffl' f.:il-!f~f@d Past

qi!'

~-a rather difficult


,!.

w:mr mm t,

problem

J.

NI

:r

~ quite

"q;T

f<:'

quite chilly, quite cool, quite warm, quite rift, quite


wrong, quite alone, quite well.
.
~
(C) Quite o"1T all q;r 1flnTl' ~
-:rt!' ~ ti. am:, He.
. is quite all right~
~
ti
~~He
is quite.right.

:r

Adj.

Noun
(B) Fairly 'cfiT Jl"lIT1T Positive Degree ~ ~
~
!1
tt-fairly
wise, fairly good.etc.
~.
Rather q;r 'Si<IT7T Positive cm Comparative Degreejs
~;
~-rather
bad, rather difficult, rather worse, rather
hotter, etc.

~Qo;:.~-~ ~

(C)_ F.3~rly~
~ olTG too '4't'

mm t; ~'----

q:;yir ~

Adverb

~-

(i) He is absolutely ,quite right~

~~.
(ii) He is absolutely right.

!1

~I

(A) I a+ fairly+ Adj.+ N


~....:...a fair~y

good ,

J.
Adj.-

l'q;T m

book.

J.
Noun

Rather

m ~
mart m ~m- ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~-~
~~~t~-

:rnl'

t~

(i) He is intelligent enolgh to unde~~tand it.

Adjective

enough

(ii) She

runs

l'2!R' ~

fcl:i Adjective m Adverb js

enlugh to win the r~ce.

cfR: Problem~

-:srrnr t'; ~-

enough cf;!'

ffl'

(i) He is I enough lucky I to get I a job. I No Error.


(A)
(B)
(C) (D) . .
(E)
[Part (B) ii' 'enough lucky' %i ~
lucky enough ~
WTTI]
.
.
'
(B) Enough~
ffllT Positive Degree~ Adjective m
Adverb "q;T ffl'
t-1 ~-be;mtiful enough, car;ful
enough, tall enough.

m
mm

m,
(iii) He is quite. right~
(10) Fairly 'dtlf Rather

t~

tr

Adverb enough

'q;T

~. rather too good~


~-~ !1
(D) Fairly--~ <illG Pleasant. Adjectives cfil' 'Si<IT7T ~
t;'
tt-fairly wise, fairly beautiful, etc.

Rather ~ <illG unpleasant adjectives q;r; ~-rather


wicked, rather difficult, rather troublesome, rather dull etc.
~.
rather amusing, rather good, rather clever, rather
pretty, rather beautiful qi!' Jl"lIT1T
t,
/
(11) Enough
.
. (A) Enough "q;T
Adverb of Quantity ~ ~ if

ctR:~t;

mm t,

mm

He is all right~
WTTI
(D) Quite q;t fcrn,rnr Gf'd'R

Adj.
Noun
.
~.
rather+ a/an+ Adj. 7
q;r oq\' ffl'
*-rather a difficult problem.

(i) fairly too good~

Quite delighted C.= very delighted)


Quite tired(= very tired)
Quite finished(= completely finished)
(B) ~ Rl-!foif@d Positive Degree ~ ~

:,

I a + rather+

m- mm

~
~ 'pleased ~ ~
'very' q;r
t 'lJR
'pleased' q;r 3N glad, happy
'pleased' ~ ~
'much' q;r 'Si<IT7T
t ~. 'pleased' q;r .3l?,f 'satisfied'
~.
.
(i) I was J1e,:y pleased to hear this. (Here pleased=
glad, happy]

m1 ~-

&fl' ~.

~ i,

ffi.

Comparative err Superlative Degree q:;r

m ~ '4't' Problem~~

t; ~-

. (i) He is I greater enough/ to pardon I you. I No Error.


(A)
(B)
(C)
(P)
(E)

A Mirror of Common Errors


(ii) She is luckiest f enough to be/ selected for/this post. I
(A)
(B)
(C ) .
(D)
No Error.
(E)
~
(i) ~ Part (B) if greater~~
great~~
~ Part (A) if luckiest ~ ~
lucky cnr ~
WTT
Positive Degree + enough q;t ~
~

NOTE : Present Perfect <if Past Perfect~


~ Problem fsnr ~ t-1 tt-

(12) Hard~
Hard cnr ~

(ii)

Adverb~

It is a

(i)

. J,

j,
Noun

works

hard.

(i)

She hardly

J,

comes
j,

Adverb

Verb

(13) Late~

t ~

Late cnT ~

Adjective
You are late.

(i)

-r-

Verb

Jq,-g Lately ~

(after the right, fixed or usual time)


(1?:11' Adverb~ ~
if ~ t; tt-

su.mmer, _ .:

[~

0T f.fi

last night

~' soon est

lately)

~~;;rmt;

Adverb
Adverb

aw t ~

t ~

~ f.f; ~

time expression ~ ~
~
Past Tense
'ffl'lTT;

it'.

(i)

~ 3lv.f if ,ft ~

~ ~

~, -q' ~

~
~

m if ~

lrr if'

~ ~ ~ $

~--

(ii) The -judge


appeared.

t?]

(17) Just

t aw;rr?J

Adverbs ~

W7T ~ ~

if ~

(1?:11'

pressed. the bell and the peon soon

Just now

Just cfiT ~
'a moment ago' (t% a;l111'-~)
Adverb of Time js ~ if PresentPerfectTenseif

~-~

if

mm-t; ~-

(i) He has just gone out.

if 'lately'~

~<f.ROT

~ m if 3lR ~ crn:ur fine~


(14) Ago cnr -m- ~
'TI'

'fra ~

(i) He came to see me soon after he arrived.

t; ~-

~ Part (D)

Gf!G)

. (i) He arrived early in the meeting. ~

~ t ~

Noun

ffi'. aw;rrl)

(ii) I've just had dinner.

(i) He was I fined for I coming I lately . I No Error.


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

WTT <Fil%

Adjective

..

(ii) Did he came late? [<FlT ~


~

early
j,

~ ~ ~ '"~

(B) Early cfiT ~

(i) Has he come lately? [~


fc:1t11~1,101

if

(ii) Roses blossomed early this spring.

(recently)~-

Problems~~

He came in the

Adj ', , Noun


came
late

(iii) He

....

presently.

Adverb -ey;:ff ~ ~
'f<f;m~q;)"~~~-~;~~

nt,~~t

Adjective

m t. ~...:.,-

(ii) They will go shortly.


(16) Early (1?:11' Soon
(A) Early cnr ~
Adjective ~

--r-

(ii) In the late,

if

(i) He will come


;:i- ~

to me.

Lately

am: ~ ~
(I)

Future Indefinite

Adverb

t ~~
if ~
mm- !; ~-

is in the room.

At present We don't need any more


f.f;.:g, Presently I Shortly q;r ~
future Action % ffi'Q'.

Hardly cnr ~

m Adverb~

~-

(ii)

..,I

Verb

1('

(i) At present he

Adj.

am: ~ ~

t (~, ~ ~)

At Present cfiT -~
Present Tense if mat :t

~-

.i
~.

"(15) At Present/Presently/Shortly

tt-

hard

(ii) He

(i) ~ Part (B) if 'has come' $ ~


'came' (1?:11'
(ii)~ Part (B) if 'had seen'~ ~
'saw' cnTwrT ~I]

[~

~~~Adjective~

~if~!;

il,

ago q;r

. (ii) I I had seen I him a I month ago. I No Error.


(A) (B)
(C)
(D)
. (E)

<Fil%

Hardly

t ~

{i) He I has come I a month I ago. I No Error,


(A)
(B)
. , (C)
(D)
(E)

t,

1t,:'

15

fine~
~
~

Past Tense
ag? cnr ~

<l'R
~-

He came week ago.

~.'late'~
"GIT ~
~ t'i]

~.

"5l<TilT

t' BfcR

(A) Just now~

'at this moment'

W ~ ~

-~ if mm- t: ~".I am busy just now."


_
-A. S. Hornby : OXFORD ADVANCED
_LEARNER'S DICTIONARY
(B) Just now cnr
'a short time ago' ~
~
~)

t-1 am:, ~
! ~ ~ t f.fi

if ~

m-

<IT 'a moment ago'~

if ~

if i'rai- !1 ~ ~
if m'ffl t; ~-

~-q~1=1f~ ..~

Past Indefinite Tense

_76

A Mirror of Common Errors


(i) They

left

just now.

home

t
Past indefinite
Just now ~ 3l<ITlT -~

Just~
cm~-

if

""f-l~A""f("l'""n::..,&=q

(A)

f.l.rin' .
(E)

the present perfect tense

(B)

if Adverbs <f.iT

(D )

(C)

qJ<i<f ~

~ ~ m

m~

mm

Come I Go I Arrive + Adv. of Place + Adv. of Manner.

~-

POSITION OF ADVERBS .
related

(i) The students went

-r

problems ,ft ~ ~ t; ~-.


(i) He came I always. late/ last I month. I No Error,
(A)

(B)

qJ<i<f ~

Part (B)

(D)

.(C)

. .

home

gtckly.

of
Place

Adv.
of
Manner

-r
Adv.

v2

ffl' t, ~
Verb ~

go q;r

(E)

.if 'always' q;r ~

always; seldom, never a:rrR <fir ~

to

,fl" problem~~

Part (C) if 'well' cm.~


~ tr w~H .<R'
ffl" in the town hall~
~I]
NOTE : Come/Go/Arrive 3TIR Verbs of Movement !1
Adverb of Place (destination) fiR Adverb of
Manner q;r 'ffl'
t1 ~
.
[~

I have just had a phone call from Sarah.


Se careful with the expression just now. This can mean a
moment ago, but it is used with a past tense.

Sarah range up just now. I felt a sudden pain just now.'.'


. ~ Michael Swan : PRACTICAL ENGLISH
USAGE (p, 353)

(~

NoError.

When just means a moment ago,


isnormally used in British English.

(i) She sang I in the town hall I welli/ last night. (

just now.

order if

Adverbs~-~

t; 'tt-

w: mm

(E) Adverbs of Quantity <fir

WWT ~:

~ ~

mmmt~~il",~t~"""'.'""

too bad, very difficult, quite right 3-lTRI


Positiono~Adverbs~~~~~cm~t.
Exception : Enough.
(A) Subject+ Y_ (int.) + Adv. of Manner
uir:r ~ Positive degree~
(i) He speaks fluently. [=r 1% fluently speaks]
Adjective I Adverb + Enough q;r ffl
t;.
(B) Subject+ V (fr.)+ Object+ Adv. of Manner
~-kind enough, clever enough, bold enough,
(i) They wrote it carefully.
.
intelligent enough, lucky enough, faithful enough etc.
NOTE: mitr-lr ~
it Adverb of Manner cm Object~
(F) Infinitive cm ~
Adverb cm >l<ITlT -:ml' ~
~
~ 1'm ~ ~ t ~Object~ ~ ~- who/which/that- ~
~- Split Infinitive cm ~ a:mtr t; ~~
Clause W 7l'T ~
~ ~ ~ Object~ fcl,E,qfRe! ~ -~
~
(i) He asked me to carefully do it.
Adverb of Manner q;r >l<ITlT Object ~ ~
'41"
t;
t
.!,
t
~___:_
to
Adv. V1
(i) He rewarded liberally all those who had worked for
~
~
if
carefully
q;r
ffl"
Infinitive 'To do' cm ~
him.
..

mm

t m

mar

(C) Adverb of Place I Time ~


cl'm: ~ 3Rf if
t; ~-

mm

(i)

He went

q;r ~

*11'11-<ld:

there.
~

. t

'e2tR

Adv. of Time
q;r

m- mm t; ~(i)

She sang

if Adverb of (Manner+ Place+ Time)

well
J,
Adv. of
Manner

t-

NOTE : ~
~
if
~ Adverb ~ ~ ~

t, ~

fqml!!1i101 ~

_.,.-fl_(."f_..-.i,-(."f

if Infinitive ci'I'

Adverb ~).
~

lR'{q

cf;!'

m- ~

l:l'Rt. ~ ~

w 1% Split Infinitive ssr Problem~~~

!1

. (G) Hardly, . Rarely, Scarcely, Always, Seldom, Never, .


Often~
<fir ~-Tobe~ ~ ~
~
Verb~~
~

t
qfcf<f

t.

11<lT
-it~ tr~ cfT<flr cm~~
(ii) He asked me to do it carefully.

"!RT ~

. Adv. of Place
(ii) She came
yesterday.

(D) fctajl- -~

in. the town hall . lcJ$t night.

i
Adv. of
Place

J..
Adv. of
Time

t~(i)

You

allays right. .

to be always
(ii) He never listens to the radio.

-r

n ever

-rmain
verb

A Mirror of Common Errors


(H) fc:1~1~1101 ~

~ fcf; Adverb % ~

WUTT ~= :itT .fcf.<rr

;;rrar

~~~-t~-

Preposition q;iProblems Preposition js

t, ~

(i)

(i) He listened I to me I with I carefully./ NoError,


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D) .
(E)
[Part (C) if . 'with' cfil"
Ad~erb of Manner t, -m-

WWI"

am ~

ireo

t, ~

l_

Tl

seldom

Aux.

:itT -~ t1J

(ii) Harf y

Inversion

q,v,T

3TIR

mm.t; ~-:(i) He

is

To be
(ii)

'had'~~)

Questions

if ~

"5JmTT tmrr ti Inversion

fs!;crr- t, ~ Subject 'he'%


if Inversion q;r ~
t-1

t' ~

Proble~s ~

"IR ~

~-

She

(i)

Rit ~ l1

. . (i)

M.V.

Never

-r. -r

does

never

Aux.

Sub.

No sooner

(ii) No sooner

% t-

(A) Partial Inversion it' Auxiliary Verb cf;T 1l<IT1T Subject%


3lR ~ VERB (M.V.) q;r Subject%~; ~(i)

Hardly

does

he

come

J" -y-

to me.

Here

comes

-r-

(i) Only

,l..

q;r

m mm t

the dead body of

see

the dead body of

,l.
M.V.

cfil{ Adverb-~
~

J,
- Adverbial

Wm ~ ~
did

he

J,

J,

<IT Adverbial"
~ Inv.ersion

Aux.Sub.

Expression
get success.
standing

:r

~-

J-

USES OF INVERSION
(1) Seldom, never, hardly, rarely, scarcely ~ ~

cfTcf<1T ~ Inversion

Aux. Sub.

by working hard

only

~-

1R ~Problem~-

(i) Only by I taking a risk I he saved I her life. I No Error.


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Aux. V M.V. Subject

she
j.

m t ~-.

seen
j.

In~ersion <!'i,

Sub .. M. V.

John!

M. V..
Subject
(ii) Just outside the gate was

,l.

(3) Only % ~Bxpression jt ~ ~


~
q:;r "ll<lTlT

.mm

{i)

she

J,

-q \ft

her husband than she burst into tears.

Aux.
Sub. M.V.
(B) Complete Inversion~-~
Verb <IT Auxiliary + Main
Verb q;r 'S!<IT1T Subject% ~
t; ~I

come here.

had

did
j.
.

(B) Complete Inversion

~ mm t

she

her husband than she burst into tears.

(A) Partial Inversion

here.

Aux.

mm

t ~ 1l<m

comes

never

fcf; Hardly,
Verb % lfre

never

v.
cfliYfcf; Neveri ~~~ti
(2) No sooner t ~ ~ ~ ~
11<WT~ t; ~-

[~ ~
% Part (A) if Inversion q:;r ~
ff, ~ <IT
'No sooner did the plane land' <IT No sooner had the plane
landed cfil" ~
m,IT; ~
No sooner i ~ ~ <Ira ~
if Inversion q;y: ~
t1]
Inversion~

i:nrr

crerr ~

never wrong.

. never
-r-

~.

Inversion q;r

(i) No sooner the plane landed I at the airport than I a


(A)
(B)
group of armed I commandos surrounded it. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
(B.S.R.B., Patna; Clerk Grade Exam., 1992)

To be % "ciiR

q;r ~

(i) Hardly had he gone out, when his father arrived.

awrr ti W J!cm:, ~ ~

Aux. _ Sub. M.V.

rr -r-

-Michael Swan

~~if

to college.

NOTE : Position of Adverbs if -.raf<!T


seldom ...

"Inversion means putting the verb before the subject."

~_f
.

~-t1

such a beautiful.

iR:ra ti]

[Seldom I have seen~

INVERSION
Verb <ITT Subject ~ ~

seen

Sub. M. V.

v.

. hardly

sight.

carefully ~

Preposition

Seldom have

[Part
~

(C) -q

'he saved'~

Inversion q;r

ffl

W'JTI]

'did he save'

cf,f ~

tWtt1

A Mirror of Common Brrors

_78

Only yesterday, only the day before yesterday, only.last


month, only after a year, only in a few countries, only in
this way, only then 3iTR ~ ~ ~
~ if Inversion 'cfiT

i, ~

q;r -~
(i)

wwr~t;~(i)

Only yesterday

did

he

J.

,!.

die.

[~

Wfl'lT

(4) .. ,No... ~ -af.!- expression 'cfiT


emphasis ~ ~
Inversion 'c!>I' ~

'5l'rnT

ti ~ ~

if ~

Expressions 1R ~

(i)

~-

will

! do

Sub.

were I

= If I were.]

had

.L

if

Sub. Aux.

-1,

J,

Verb

Sub.

(ii) Had
,!.

J.
Sub.

Had I= Ifl bad.]

mwm:.
Ten miles beyond the school/under a tree/on the bed,/
Nowhere else.

~~*
wwr m- ilt ~

(ii) There

M.V.

Sub ..
~

(8) So

ffi

-1.
Sub.

(6) Unfulfilled .wish, condition, desire


~~ 'If' 'cfiT

>fmlT

mm t

(i)

~-

m ~ ~m~~

were

J.

J.

J..

If

T""

Sub.

Verb

she

ffl ~ ~
ii'

Inversion '!fiT

1f<rrtT ~

Sub. Aux.

a bird, I would

fly.

TT

Aux. Sub.
So Adv.
of
Manner
everybody was off ended.

(ii) So well

So Adv.

l; ~-

ru?ely did she

.T"T

If

if ~

went.

he

+ Adverb of Manner ~ ~

Inversion cf.T

l1]

(ii) Under a tree was lying a tired old man.


M.V.

Sub.

(Pronoun)

(i) So

J,

M.V.

11,acy !

Sub.
(Pronoun)

mwm:.
Aux.

Sub.

(i) Away

John.

J,
[Round the comer did John go~

M.V.
gzes

(ii) There

t; ~-

went

:r

~. ~
~
~ ~
~ <fR Subject ~ ~
Pronoun jr it Verb 3'lf Subject~ ofR a:rRIT l; tt-

come, walk, lie, stand, go 3iTR Verbs '!fiT


Verb, Subject ~ ll"re amrr ti ~ ~
if

Round the comer

Sita.

went

~ ~

't ~-

Away

On a hill, In the valley, Round the corner, Under the


table, Outside the gate, Along the nortberu/southem
frontier.

(i)

Wt

Adverbial Expressions

3iTR cf>T 'Sl<fl'lT -:,m' ~

done well, I wouldhave been

(7) Here/There/ Away/Out/Up/Indoors/Outdoor$ a:ufG t


~ ~ qffi qJcf<lf il' Inversion ~
t. a.~ Mairi Verb ~
(Aux. + Main Verb) cf;!' w:rfTT Subject~ ~
~ t; ~(i)

-q- '41" Inversion cnT ~

do/does/did

done well, I would have

~.
[~

the P.M. aware of

cf><-li:11~

Aux.

_rewarded.

what was happening.

(5) ~

-1.

Aux.

J. . i . J.

-1.

,!.

it.

Aux.sub. M.V:
was

am:

been rewarded.

Under no circumstances

(ii) At no time

Were

,!.

At no time, Under no circumstances, In no way, On no


account, On no condition.
~

*~

(i) If

if

cITcf<I" ~ ~

t; ~-

m t

'I were (Subject + Verb)cITcf<I" ~ 'If' qi!" ~ ~


~ 'ITT
a bird, I would fly.~
~I
:"

'If' q;r

mwm:,

Aux. Sub.

it'

q'fcpf

did

TT

he

behave that

l
M.v.

stg that

Aux. Sub. M.V.


of
manner
everyone started liking him;

Tl' \fr

79

A Mirror of Common Errors

(9) 'To sucht.' ~-to such an extent I to such


lengths I to such 'a point I to such a degree ~) t ~

~if~

Inversion tst

m ml" t; tt-

has

(i) To such an extent

TT

he

He did not go there. Nor

analysed

Aux. Sub.
me poem that no problem is left.

~ ffl' ~ ~

(~

M.V.

= ~ \ft" ~

Problem~-

~)

~)

rebuked him./ No Error.


(D)
(E)
[~
q'fcFlT ~ Part (B) ir 'he made a noise'~
make a noise' ~ '5lcTI'lT ~
WIT' ~
~
degree't ~
J3,T ti]

(10) Not only ~


Not only t

Inversion tsr
(i)

Not only

.,.

but also ~
qfq=lT . ~

mcIT t

~-

did

she

TT

'did he
'To such a

*W ~m

Verbs qi!' ~
~
Not only ~ ~

read

but she also wrote.

Aux. Sub. M.V.


(11) Direct Narration it Reported Speech ~ 'all'G: ~
Reporting Verb cfiT 'Sl<n1T W ~ ~
Subject~
Noun W
Reporting Verb it Inversion cfil' ffl ~ t'; ~-

(i)

"Let us go to the pictures",

said

:i:

Verb
(ii) "Do it at once",

said

Sub.
(Noun)

Mohan.

-r

Verb

Sub.
(Noun)
~
Reporting Verb cfiT Subject ~ ~
Pronoun W
Inversion cfiT
ti ~ 'Subject (pronoun) +

m ~ mm-

Verb' cfiT
(i)

>l<lTTT mfil t; tt"Please, help me,"

she

said.

Sub.
(Pronoun)
(ii) "I will do nothing here',

Verb

1T

said.

Sub.
(Pronoun)

Verb

(12) Conversational English it Neither, Nor ~


~-~
~
~ ~ f<r;<rr -;;rrm
~ GiRr qf<F~ra cfiT m ~ fcf;.iT 11<rr

t. ~

So ~

~m ~

t ~ qfo-~rn
\ft" m ~ ~ t1 Neither, Nor, So~
t ~- ~ ~ ~
'cl'J"cR'.IT" it' Inversion cfiT wrrrr ~ t; ~~

(i)

He went there. So ,

did

I.

i.

Aux. Sub.

[<m So did I = I went there too = -4' \ft" 'iffl 'l'fllTI]

I.

J: Aux. Sub.

Aux. Sub ..
(ii)~ Neither did I = Nor did I= I did not go either
1'fllT I]

Directions : Find out the error in each of the following


sentences, if any. If there is no error, your answer is 'E'
1, Although he is my bosom freiend, I I cannot ask him for I
.
(A) .
(B)
money without any I vividly reason. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
2. Prabha was exorbitantly paid/for how skilful she received/
(A)
(B)
the visitors and entertained I them./ No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
3. The captain came I presently butI I can't say where he
(A)
(B)
(C)
has I slipped out unnoticed. I No Error.
(D) .
(E)

4. They were exceptional -good/ orators, so all of us/ listened


(A)
,(B).
to them I very attentively.Z No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
S. He has been trying I to lure her for months {:but owing to
(A)
(B)
,
his misfortune he has I not still succeeeed.r No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

Mohari.

.. T"

did

PROBLEMS BASED ON ADVERBS

(i) To such a degreeI he made a noise I that people I

(~

(ii) He did not go there. Neither

6. The amount which the company I has paid to the depen(A)


dents of the dead worker I was fairly unjustified. I
(B)
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)
7. He is almost quite competent I for the postof Manager, I
(A)
(B)
so when given a chance, he can lead the company to its
(C)
(D)
goal. I No Error.
(E)
8. The imported articles I which you sell are I enough costly
(A)
(B)
to allow the pocket I of an ordinary man to buy them. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.

(E)
9. The students requested their Principal f to be enough
.
(A)
(B)
kind to grant I them five thousand rupees for I the recons(C)
truction of the tennis court. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

80

A Mirror of Common Errors


about / .tw o years ago and have I
(A)
(B)
remembered her I ever for. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

IO. 1 met Neetu

11. His essay was unmatched, I so he was awarded the best


(A)
.
(B)
prize I in the form of a shield made of silver and ename. (C)
lled I with some precious stones. I No Error.

(D),

(E)

12: The leaders of the striking I teachers cal.led on the Chief


.
(A) ..
,
....
' (B) .
Minister/ for negotiation and/ returned happily. I No Error.

~-

00

13. India played very careful tright from the. begining of the
(A)
match- I held.
Sharjah
order to I win the match. I

at

in

23. He was very I tired of work, I so he said that he was I


(A)
(B)
(C)
sorry to accompany us. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

24. He is a linguist I and always tries to I make his students I


(A)
(B)
pronounce a word correctly./ No Error.

. J4. Although be only earns I -siX: hundred, rupees a month I he


(A) . . . . ..
.
. . (B) .
.

26.

When the prince saw the princess I he cried out that he had I
.
(A)
(B)
never seen such I a beautiful lady before. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

27. When asked, he I took tea I and said that it I tasted


(A)
sweetly, /.No.Error ..
(D)
(E)

the

_16. All of them will execute I the plan so skilfully I that their
(C).

17. I came across I her in Delhi last month I and invited.her I


. (A)
(C)
to come to Patna. I No Error.
(D)
(E).
18.. Hardly he likes t . to hear my name I after the rift which
(A)
(B)
.
(C)
occurred I between him and me. I No Error.
(D}
.CE)
_19.This room is very I beautiful but too much I small to
(A)
(B)
accomodatez all of you. I No.Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
20. He was fortunately I not present on I the rostrum when I
.
(A)
(B)
(C)
the bomb exploded. I
Error.

No

(E)

21. My brotherdoes I not know to make I friends, so he leads/


(A)
(B)
(C)
a lonely life: I No Error.
(D)
(E)

~)

(C)

28. The old man is blindly, I so don't call him a liar when I he

(D)

. (A)

members of the staff, I the C. M .. said that the state I


(B)
(C)
needed sincere men like them. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

15. Only by .talking to I the officers .concemed / they will


. (A)
=,
(B)
.
make out
hidden / implications of the agreement. I No
(C)
.
(D) .
Error.
: (E).
(A)
(B)
officer J will feel surprised . I No Error.
(D)
. (E)

(C)

. (D)
(E)
25. Being much contented with the sincerity I of the

No Error.
(E)

manages to support I his family./ No Error.


(Q
(D) .
. (E)

. 22. I liked that opportune moment I where the workers proved


.
(N
(B) their. might I to take .on the company. I and came out
.
(C)
(D)
victorious.Z No Error.
(E)

. (A)
(B)
says that he I can't read. I No Error.
(C)
(D) .
(E) .

29. Such obstacles will I not stop him; nothing never I did;
(A) .
(B)
this is why he is progressing I by leaps and bounds. I

(C)

(D)

No Error.
(E)
30. Not only drinking I but also smoking I is very injurious I
(A)
(B)
(C)
to health. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
31. If you ask me, I Shyama is quite all right I but I can't tell
(A)
(B) .
(C)
you I much about Radha. I No Error.
(D)
(E).
32, My friend said I that he was only too glad I to.. hear the
CN
(B)
~
result I of his wife. I No Error.

_ (D)

(E)

33. "Nobody should try I to disturb me I without any


(A)
(B)
(Q
urgency," I the Doctor said to his assistants. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

A Mirror of Common Errors


34. Who will believe I that she was not I hardly-hit by her I
(B)
(C)
husband's death ? I No Error.
(D)
(E)

li

Somebody reported to I the contractor that his partner I


(A)
(B)
bad only died I a week before./ No Error.
(C)
. (D)
(E)

36. He asked me to I completely forget her, I but only I know I


. (A) .
(B)
(C)
how easy it is to say so./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

will give us I a clue to the

37. When carefully examined, I it


. (A)
.
mystery of/ the case. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

(B)

47. The eastwards wind. helped I the boat going from tb!!~ _
(A)
(B)
western bank to the eastern I bank of the river'. I
(C).
(D}
No Error.
(E)
.
.
48. Not only we lost I what we: had on our disposal, I but we
.
(A)
(B)
. (C)
also / lost our patience. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
49. "Under no circumstances I we can help I you in this
(A)
(B)
(C)
illegal I work"; said the Manager.Z No Error.
(D)
(E)

. SO. Under a tree I was sitting the saint I whom we had seen I

38. She looked I at him lovely/ but he did not/ respond to her./
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
No Error.
. (E)
39. He never
liked I to treat his brothers friendly, I that's
(A)
(B}
why he could not I win their love and favour. I No Error.
(C)
.
(D) .
(E)

(A)
. (B)
somewhere else./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

6. (D)

7. (A)

8. (C)

9. (B)

11. (E}

12. (E)

13. (A)
18. (A)

14. (A)

15. (A)

19. (B}

20. (A)

27. (D)

23. (E)
28. (A)

24. (B)
29.(B)

?5. (A)
30. (E)

32. (E)

33. (E)

34. (C)

36. (B)

37. (A)

38. (B)

39. (E)

35. (C)
40. (A)

41. (E)

42. (A)

43.. (E)

44. (A)

46. (D)

47. (A)

48. (A)

49. (B)

17. (E)
22. (B)

41. I hardly ever I sec him because I in my opinion he is not I

26. (E)
31. (B)

minutes/ she realized that it was not I going to be so easy./


(C)
(D)
No Error.
{E)

43. I know that eventually I he will succumb to me I and


(A)
(E)
confess that he I has committed a crime. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
44. "Where else I did you go besides I the office T" she asked
(A)
(B)
(C)
her husband. / No Error.
(D)
(E)
45. He said that the examination was bad I and added that he

(A)

46. Every member I of the family ls I addicted to drinking I


(A)
(B)
{C)
and so Tom is. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

45. (E) .
50. (E)

51. (D)

EXPLANATIONS

I. (D) 'vividly' ~ ~
'vivid' q;r JflU1T
<Ff'lfcf; vividly
~ Adverb l <il1' Noun .tr fc:rittraT -:,m' ~ ~
!;
~
vivid ~
Adjective t ~ Noun .tT fcriti:rai
~ !1
t fcf; 'reason'~ Noun t ~
q;r cliTli ~ Adjective cRlTTI Vivia~
vividly zyrr ~ JflU1T ii' ~
~-

irr ~

(i) He presented a vivid


J,

description

of his

J,

Adj.

(B)

could not answer/ questions enough I to pass-it. I No Error.


CC)
(D)
(E)

4. (A}

5. (D)
10. (D)

16. (E)

42. Before the game she felt surely I of winning, but after five
(A)
.
(B)
.

ANSWERS
3. (B)

2. (B)

1. (D)

21. (B)

(C)

(C)

51. I don't like/ such nasty I thingsJNorhe does. /No Error.


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

40. They are very senior I to me; so I dare not play a joke I on
(A)
(B.)
(C)
them. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
(A)
(B)
a man to be admired. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

-.

81

Noun

journey.
(ii) Thisis a

vividly

J, :
Adv.
of his jourriey.

presented description

. J,
Adj.

A Mirror of Common Errors

82

.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

m-

2. (B) 'skilful' ~ ~
'skilfully' cfiT
win ~
verb 'received'<ti' ~
<fffi<'IT t: tt
(i) He works carefu)ly. [Assertive]

-r

'l('g'

Verb
Adverb
(ii) How carefully doeslie work?
[Interrogative]
Adj.
(iii) I don't know how carefully he works.

-r

Verb

Adv,

'shortly'

WTI'1l'

3. (B) 'persently' cfiT

WlT ~

Adverbs of Time$ ~

cfi1" ~

mm

'presently',

ii' 'without

delay'~ al?f if Future Tense)r ..


t: ~.
(i) He will return presently I s~ortly.
~ it re:il" ~ qf$f if 'The Captain came' Past
Tense if t1 ara:, 'presently'-~ ffl ~
t1
~~just
now cfiT
. (i) He~
it . p~~rntly I stiolly..

m ~ ~; ~-

Fu.ti.ire
Tense

presently I shortly

ffi

(cffi ~

(ii) He did
~

~f.f;m')

mm ~

4. (A) 'exceptional'js ~
exceptionally
'good'
~ Adjective t ~ 'exceptional' ,it" ~ Adjective
ti ~ Adjective ~ Adjective <ti' ~
~
~ !1 Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition,
Sentence ~
'*I' ~
~ cfiT cf;Ti:r Adverb cfifT

t:~-

(i) Heis

got . -

5. (D) 'still'

cf;T

>flIT'lT ~

-r

:r:

Sentence

mm am: ~ ,i\" 'succeeded'~ Gf!G; ~-

'yet' cfiT ~

'not succeeded yet'.


~ "1r=r m' 1% 'still' cfiT ~
~:
Affirmative
Sentence -q ~ t ~
'yet' qif Negative Sentence

lll~-

en:Cgh
Adv.

Adj.
(ii) kind enjgh

Adv.
Adj.
(iii) he~ful enol!Bh

Adv.
enolgh etc.

~enoyi;:1
(i)

if ~

t~

~:

mRiTcIT

t;

brs

Adj. Noun
(ii) enoygh mrey

Adv. Prep.
they are safe.

mm ~ ~ ~

intelligent

Adj.
Adv.
~
Adjecti- ~ ~
Noun~ ffi ~

Adv.
much wiser than you.

~r

Adv.

(i)

(iv)

Adv.
Adv.
(iv) He trew a stone exactlv at the gate.

(v) Fortunat~.

tt-

-i.

vly

Adj.

Adv. Adj.
peacefully.
(ii) He slips
Verb
(iii) He is

t,

mm ~

t,

just now,

m ~

mar

8. (C) 'enough' cfi1' 1l<U1l' 'costly'~ 'ai'TG' mrIT ~


Adverb
of Quantity~ ~ ii'~~
~ 'enough'~~
~
~ GflG 3lTffl t ~
~
~ ~

T"

[Affirmative]
(ii) He has not come yet.
[Negative]
NOTE: 'yet' cfiT
zyrr i:f ~:~if;
3Mf if
t ~ rci; qrcp:r (ii) if fcFlT 1TlIT
6. (D) 'fairly' ~ ~
'quite' "llT 'rather' cfiT ffl'
fairly ~ .i\TG ~
~
~
if ~
~ ~
Adjective cfiT JPTI'1T ~ l; tt-fairly good I honest I clever a.~1
~
quite~ rather if; GflG ~
~ 'F' ri if
~
~
Adjectives~ ffl'
mm t: tt(i) She is quite right.
(ii) You are quite wrong.
(iii) The film is rather amusing.
(iv) The film is rather: boring.
7. (A) 'almost' cfiT ~
:rtl' WIT ~
'quite'~ ~
~
Adverb~~~
:rtl' ~ l: tt(i) almost quite right.
(iij-very quite right.
~
phrases ii' 'almost'/'very' cfif >flIT'lT 'quite' if;

m~t,

ct,~I)

it just now.

Past

(i) He is still in bed.

Adj. NOU!! ... N. B. : ~.


Adjective ~ ~ if Enough cfiT
Noun~ ~ ,it" ii' ~
ti ~As an adjective enough occurs in the pattern
enough+ Noun or Noun+ enough

-A.S. Hornby : OXFORD ADVANCED LEARNER'S


DICTIONARY.

A Mirror of Common Errors

83 -

.(ii) Hafily had


It used to be common to put enough after a noun;
this is not very frequent in Modern English. Have I
got time enough to go to the bank ? (or, ..... enough
time ..... ?)

-Michael Swan : PRACTICAL ENGLISH


USAGE (p. 203)
9. (B) ~

~~~~3'ffi:-~8~1

~
Clause: Present' Perfect if
Clause, Past Indefinite if; ~-

t" ~

much too
20. (A) 'Fortunately' q;r ~

:r

~:

wrriT ~

'carefully' q;r

mnrar it~

~~~Ht~

(ii) He only went there. [<ff qgY -~

TT1ff I

~ ~ mr t

'olrn ~) ~

~I ~

~.

hardly, rarely, scarcely,

seldom~t~~~if~~q;r

mm t "d'l!IT ~ ~
cfR Verb mar t; ~-

1f<lTlT Subject ~ ffi


Subject~
(i) Seldom does

T""J

he

Seldom . Aux. Subject

~
J,
v1

me.

23. (E)

'when'~

1IWT"

'ITmf

t ~~

,ft si!T ~

'ift-1 3lvm(_

wt1

~~t1
NOTE : ~
Past Participle ~ Adjective ~ ~
much q;r ~
iraT l; ~-much surprised I much
shocked 3lTR, ~
~ tired, dejected. COnlented,
drunk 3TI'R ~ ~ very q;r "5llITlT ~ t; ~(i) I found him ~

"li<n7T R ~ 'likes'~~

~;

if 'the time'~ ~

aT2f
qyq:qr if %"lIT
~ tt ~
if q]cfq"~

<Etklf..%ffl.
~

(time)~

'where' <ifirl
'the time' q;r- mit brackets~~~
t 'the place I the time' q;r Ji<TI'Tf ~
(ii)

qJcfll'

>fcliR ~

'By talking

'when'-~

if 'the place'~ ~

'the place'~

I (~

tr

17. (E) ~~tr


18. (A) Hardly~ oi"R 'does' q;r

-t.

(i)

R ~
t ~

(ii) I don't know (the time) when he comes.


~

(alR

~~~14~~~1

how I when I where I what

(i) I don't know (the place) where he usually sits.

I (3l=ll"

only to the officers concerned: , ~

q,(-11

.,

~-

fc!;"lrr)J

(iii) He went only there. [~ ~


~
~~~)}.
15. (A) only q:;r 'Sf<IT1T 'to' ~ ~
RI ~

'like'

'Adverb' _<R ~

w- i\' ~ t; ~-

q1q<f ~

m-rr ~

!1 ~ .......

(i) Only he went there. [~. air ~


~~))

16. (E) <if<Ff ~

~ oi"R Infinitive (To+ V q;r ~


m-aT 't ~(i) I know how to swim.
(ii) I know when to start some new business.
(iii) I know what to do with a rascal.
22. (B) 'where' ~ ~
'~hen' cf;T JlcU7T ~
Relative Adverb js ~ if 'where' ~
(Place) ~

m ~

~l*.filR.lil ~

-q lrr1TI" ~

1)

t. ~

qf<t<f ~

~- W fcl'i know ~ ~

Verb
'played' <it ~
~
~ ~ ~ Adverb <it
~ti~ W fcf; careful~ Adjective
carefully~ Adverb.
14. (A) 'only' ciiT ~
~
!1 ~ ~ 'six hundred
rupees' ~
~I %'.llR W fcf; 'only',
'almost', 'even' 3flR cf1l' ~
<EtlitF4d41 C3tq; ~

Adj.

(ii) Unfortunately, he was wounded in the head.


21. (B) 'know' ~ 'to' ~ ~
i\' 'how' cJir "!flnTT ~ _mrrTI

Present Perfect

13. (A) 'careful'~

par:

(i) Frankly speaking, you are dull.

t,
t,

11. (E) cfl<J<r ~


12. (E) cfl<J<r ~

<fil ~

qf<t<f

(i) I saw him two years ago and

Past Indefinite
have remembered him ever since.

too much Noun


(ii) It is much too pailful.

>IWr

m. ~ m ~ w fci; ever since

ti

if ~

~ -a:Rf

:r

(i) It gives me too Tuch

n ~ Adverb js
if since q:;r >l<ITlT ever js ~ mm t am: ~ q1q<f
'since' q:;r

10. (D) 'for'~~

reached the station,

' 3
Hardly Aux. Sub. "V
when the train started.
19. (B) 'too much' ~ ffl
'much too' ciiT "S("lIT1T q;(';IT
~
'too much'~ .iR Noun qiJ' "!flnTT ~ t
'much too' ii>~ Adjective ciif; ~-

m-rrr

kind (Adjective) ~ .iR

'enough' q;r ~

he

dejected .

.j,
very

Past
Participle
. ~. very pleased~
much pleased~

~ ti ~

ftzj'a-

if ~

m m-

3RR 3lT ~

t,

-~-(i) I am very pleased_(= glad, happy) to see you.

(ii) I am much pleased (= satisfied) with yoc


performance.

84

A Mirror of Common Errors

24. (B) 'and always tries'~ ~


is the reason why'

'Linguist' . ~
~
cfirolT-im:um:f q;r ~

f.:iAR-!Rgd qfcf1.!1' q;I'

'so he always tries' 111' 'this


qif

n ~

'mft ~

(cause-effect relationship) !1

~-=-

(a) He is intelligent, so he understands it.


.
(b) He was late, so he was fined.
25. (A) 'much' ~- ~
v~ry q;r ~
j\,m cfiroJT ~-m!IT

23~~~i,
26. (E)

~-~t1

m'

tt-

(i) Sugar tastes sweet.

Adj.
(ii) A rose smells sweet. (:r

J,

'

(v) She looks at him suspiciously.

l
Adverb
'Look'q;r~

~~m~am~

~,,

fcfi

(iii}~ ~

~m

(iv)~

q'lq<f

(i) He

~ ~

~ 3N=I' ~

(v) if~

'q;I'

28. (A) blindly ~ ~


'blind' q;r
A ~
'blindly'
~ Adverb ! ~
'blind' ~ Adjective;
Verb
'To be'~~
'Adjective'<fir
'ffl<TT t 111' 'Adverb
+ Adjective' <fir; tt(i) He
is
handsome.

am

(Vero)
(To be)
(ii) He is ~

J,
Adj.

m ~

30. (E)

cnTm'?rartr
~~!1

(iii} She

t]

mn ~

'Nothing
'Nothing + ever'

peacefully.'

Adv. of Manner
fast.

"T

Verb
Adv. of Manner
examined it
critically.

:i: ,

Verb

Obj.

38. (B) 'lovely' ~ ~


'lovingly'
'lovely' ~ Adjective t ~
of manner t; tt-

(ii) She

ti ~

sljps

(i) She is a lorly

J,

Adverb . Adj.
29. (B) 'never' ~ ~
'ever' q;r
+ never' cjiT
moT

t"]

~
~

t ~ ~ ~'fil lfU' I
lflIT1T 'her' % om:: A ~

handsome.

.L

cfrr 3N

Verb .
(ii) They run

.J,

% ~

37. (A) 'carefully' q;r ~


'examined' ~ ~ ~
~
Adverbs of Manner [~
carefully, critically,
beautifully, lovingly, peacefully] cnT JlcTilT ~:
Verb~4"G~t;
~-

or,

t~

qJcpf

~,,

t ~ 1% ~
~ ~ ~ ~

I -::i-

36. (B) 'completely' W


'to + ,
completely + forget' if 'Split Infinitive' cfrr ~ '31T

Adverb

Adjective 'ffilT

'tl'

~~)

(i) He only died yesterday. ~


(ii) He died only yesterday. ~

Adj.
(iv) She Iooks suspiciously at him.

'Adverb'~

~~t~~~;tt-.
(i) He was hardly hurt. ~

tt-

Adj.
(iii) She looks beautiful. (=r 1% beautifuly)

t: ~

(ii) Shyama is all right.


32. (E) ~~tr
33. (E) ~~tr
34. (C) 'hardly' % ~
'hard' cf;T "!l<IT1T ~ ~
'hardly'
<fir 3N
~%~;~'hard
cfrr 3N ~
t ~1 ~ 'hard-hit' cfrr aN W1J

m'r

1% sweetly)

-r-

-;;J1I'

111',

(ii) He was hard-hit, ~ imr atTiITTf ~)


35. (C} 'only' cfrr '5flIT1T 'a week ago'~ 'q"ffl ~ ~
~
R ~ ~ 'q"ffl ~
'only died' q;r ~ t
~
iro', ~
~
mft 3N ~ ~
t;

(:r f<f; sweetly)

-:r-

~~.

~ it ii

mt~~.

27. (D) 'sweetly' ~ ~


'sweet' lfi1'
A ~
taste,
feel, seem, appear, look, smell, remain ~
'Copula
Verbs' t' ;;ii' 3lti:I' ~ Adjective~ t, ~ f.l; Adverb

31. (B) quite tl!lT all cf>I" ~


~ ~
;m' ~ !1
.
~
~ <fir ll<fl1T ~ ~ ~ ~
t; tt(i) Shyama is quite right.

Adj.
smiled

---r--

:r:

Adv. of Manner

'ffl'lTT ~

<t'il' ~

lovingly ~

Adverb

Noun
at him

"I

-r-

lovingly .

Verb Prep. 'Obj, Adv. of Manner


39. (E) cl'l<Pf ~ tr
40. (A) 'very'~ ~
'much' q;r lflIT1T WIT
ffl Positive Degree ~ ~ ~
Comparative Degree~ ~;
~-

t~

'very' cf;!'
'much' cf.T

A Mirror of Common Errors


(a) He is

go1d.
Adv.
much

(b) He is

-r-

--r-

cfiT~~~t; ~

(i) He is far

'far"

..

better than you.

Adj. (Comp. Degree)


NOTE : Superlative Degree ~ ~
'very'
'much' ~
cfiT J1<it7T ~
f.li:.tf("!f&a 3RR
The + Very + Superlative Degree + Noun

t. ~

t,

~ ~

<fVfT

'rf

~(ii) Much the best boy.


'E2lr-i

-ra f<f;

mrr t

'hardly ever' cfiT


'very seldom'.~~)

wrr ~

am

~I

ti

Verb
~. (ii)the

mm~

42. (A) 'surely'~ ~


'sure' cfiT ~
'felt, feel'
cfiT Past ~ t
feel ~ Copula Verb t ~
~
Adjective cfiT '5f<UlT" moT t, -;i- fcf; Adverb cfiTI
N. B.: ~
~
~ ~ ~.~
27~ crmllT
43. (E) ~

Hardly Aux. Sub.


47. (A) 'eastwards' ~ ~
'eastward' cfiT ~
'eastwards' 'Q;qi Adverb ! ~ 'eastward' ~
.Adjective; 3'ITT: Noun ~ ~
ffl q;r q;p:r
~= Adjective ~ t; tt(i) He went eastwards.

mm ~

Much+ The+ Superlative Degree+ Noun.

3li

3TP.f t 'ultimately'

'eventually' W

t, ~

44. (A) 'else' cfiT ~


superfluous (~Hlct~_qq;) ti
<tit everywhere else, anywhere else; somewhere else

cf;T

>PWT mm

ti ~

qT<Ff ~

~'rf

t~

t,
'enough'

m 'fil~:

enough

J.

money
J,

46. (D) 'so Tom is' ~ ~


~

arH.1'i:ll<:'i

f.li:.tf<1f,@d ~
Subject~~~~

J..

<iR'(qe

<fiT-

J,

.!.

J,

not only Verb but also Verb


or
(ii) Not only did he come but he also

'lf'lTI'1T ~

to buy a car.

Adj.
Noun
(ii) There were enough boys
.!.
.J..
Adj. Noun
NOTE:~~~~~

~,

Ptct~l'&a ~
J,

~~
TT ~ ara-mm t; ~-

(i) He has

wind.

(i) He not only came but also stayed here.

Adjective~
Noun~ffl~lmT

cfiT

Adverb
eastward
J,

Adj.
Noun
48. (A) Not only~ ~ 'did'~
fif;m 'cfiT' 'Sl<TI'1T ~
~
3ITT 'lost' cR 'lose' ir ~
i:rtrn', ~
'not only
..... blot also' ~ ~ Verbs ~ ~
cfii ~
fcf;crr '?f<lT

(afffir:)I

45. (E)

amrr

TT

(i) The very best boy.

ti

Sub.

~-

qT<Ff ~

Verb
(Aux.)

far

t. am~

J,

or,
(ii) She did not go there. Nor did I.
(iii) She went there. So did I.
NOTE : ~ ~ Hardly I Scarcely I Rarely I Never
Before, So + Adverb of manner tt So beautifully,
So tactfully
t ~ ~
'ctT<f<l1' if ~
~
(Auxiliary Verb) Subject~~
t; ~(i) He hardly comes to me.
~
(ii) Harj1y does he come to me.

--r-

41. (E)

I.

J,
Adj. (Positive Degree)
better than you.

Ad v. Adj. (Comp. Degree)


~. Comparative Degree js Adjective~~

~.

(i) She did not go there. Neither did

"T

not only Verb

-r T
but

also

stared here.
Verb
49. (B) 'can' ~ we ~ ~
~
~
~
'Under no
circumstances' t ~ ~
qfcf1lT ir \lt Aux. Verb,
Subject~ ~
3lraT ti ~(i) I can do it under no circumstances.

in the class.

~o

8 'l:f>t ~

'so is Tom' c!fil' ~


~
ft
<fit ~
(Colloquial English) 'rf
~ 'cl'lcf<lT -q ~
~ cfiT ~

~.

Under no circumstances can I do it.


SO. (E)

~~tt

51. (D) 'he does'$ ffl 'does he'~


~I
~
~~~-~46~~~1

***

........

~hapter-10

~------~~--~-------C_O_N_JU_N_C_T_I_O_N_S
~--~--~-----J
Conjunction ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
! ~ ~ <if ~ ~ 3l'Ncfi
~
(Words), ~
~
(Phrases), Ucf<liltti (Clauses) 'aV{T
q'[cflIT (Sentences)~~
t: -tit-
(i) A good and intelligent girl.
(ii) A new coat as well as art old coat.
(iii) You sing but she dances.
~
qfcf<f (i) i\'. and
(good ~ intelligent) ~
qTcf<I' (ii) if as well as~ ~
~
(A new coat Q2fT
an old coat)~ ~
t. ~ ~ (iii) if but~ ~ (You
=, sing Q2fT She dances)~ ~
am:, and, as well as Q2fT
but Conjunctions

m~

~ t

t,

t,

SOME IMPORTANT CONJUNCTIONS & THEIR USES


~
sifd<nflHU ~
if ~ ~ Conjunctions ~
JTm7T ~ ~
problems ~ ~ ~
Conjunctions

t, ~

-~~~~~~~-

(1) Not only ~ <iTIG but also

Either~ <illG or, ~


Neither~ <iTIG nor q;r
ti ~ Conjunctions esl
Co-relative Conjunctions <IT. Co-relatives ~ ~
ti ~
~
t .f<fi if ~ Subjects~ ~ Objects et ~ Verbs 3llR ~

-m war

~t;~--

(A)

o"2ZIT ~ ~

(E)

W ~I ~

Ji"cm,

Verb

-m

(D)

'or' <f;T

-m

problems unrelated

fu:ll ~ t; tt-

(i) Not only he/goes to my house/but also/stays there./


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

No Error.

ffi

NOTE : fc1a11!ifi101 Not only..... but also ~ ~


qfurn
fcrN::::r ~
~ ~
~ ~,
~
Not only..... but also~
t ~
~ Problem's~ -;;ira t ~ ~ varieties

w-IT~I
Not only..... but also ~ ~

'he'~

Verb

(E)

-mt, ~

~ m~

~m-;mmt,.

-m

if ~: Part (C) if 'else'~ ~

*~~~+IR' ~ ~

Not only ~ ..... but..... also opeyd ~ \ft ~

No Error.

~ ~

(C)

~ t fcf; ~ cfrcPf it Balance "not only a hospital but


also an inn"~~
~i
.ar:, Part (B) if not only q;r ~
'to open'~~
';f" ~~if~
~I
(iii) Not only he has I opened a hotel I but he has also
opened I a hospital.
.
~
qTcf<I' if f~ia,~101 ~
~ ~ ~
confused ft
t
l. ~ ~ Not only he ..... but
he~ construction balanced~
~I~.~
31N ~
fcf; also opened (Verb) <f;T
not
only~~
,fl" Verb\ft ~~I'~~~~
t(a) not only q;l has~ <illG -ra'1 ~ Ji"cm, He has not only
opened but..... also opened~ ~
~
'?!" ~ t,
(b) 'has'~

Verb
Verb
Either..... or, Neither..... nor q;r 'Tl'
m1TTI
~ W fcf;' Either <IT Neither~ <illG but/else 3llR <f;T ffl' ~
Problem~ ~ t; ~(i) He will/either do the work/else return/the money. I
(C)

(B)

<if,

- Object
Object
(iii) He will not only~ but also L.:l there.
.!.
J,

(B)

.ar:,

(D)

Subject
Subject
(ii) I like not only Deepak but also Moti.
J,
J,

(A)

ti

inn.lNo Error.

J,

~ m,

stays q;l ~

No: only <f;T ~


goes~ ~
~ ~I ~ Jl"cfiR,
..... not only goes..... but also stays ..... ~
<f;T ~
~
WITI ~
Part (A) if Not only <f;T use ~
t 3lR' ~ WITT
Part (A) 1Tffif t1
(ii) He is going/not only to open a hospital/but also an

(i) Not only Deepak but also Moti can do it.

.!.

if ~ Verbs goes ~

qTcf<I'

,m~t,
(2) 'Although' 1iT 'Though, ~ <iTIG 'yet'
Problems ffllT but, or, else, and <f;T '5iirriT ~

mqT t <i!ilfcs
fu:ll -;;rra t;

tt(i) Although he is rich but I and he is dishonest. ~ qTcf<I'


if but/and~ ~
yet q;r Jl<ITlT ~I
NOTE : ~ ~
~ ~ ~ 'yet'~ ~ 'Tl' fu:<IT ~ t
Comma~ ~ ';51TdT t; tt(i) Although he is rich, he is dishonest.
(3) 'Both' ~ <i11G ~
'and'
t ~ Problems 'as
well as', or, else~~~~~
t'; tt(i) Both Ram I as well as I Shyam may I come today. I
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
No Error.

am: ~ ~ ~ ~

war

(E)

[Part (B) i\' 'as well as'~~

'and' cfiT Jl<ITlT m7ITI]

87

A Mirror of Common Errors

'or' 3lffiT" ti~


use~ R.
'if' q;r ffl' ~ Problem
~
.;i-rar
'l1FT if 'or'~~
q;'t ~
~am~
fcf; qlq<I' balanced t <IT~;~(i) I don't know, ,hath~ I will come I or not. I No Error.
<illG ~

(4) 'Whether'~

if whether js

'that'

t, ~ ~ ~

(A)

<IT

(B)

or qi\"
(i) I have not met him or invited him.

(C)

"T

,k'

l:'.Zl'R'

~ qfcp:rr 'q' f.f;1:rr ~

t; ~-

never
or
f% Not/Never ~ GfR nor qi\"

'ti'

~ wrm

(i) Work hard, I lest you-I-may I faiU No Error.


(A)

~negative statements, so is more usual with negative ones.


He is not so/as old as he looxs.
-F.T. Wood : CURRE.~T ENGLISH USAGE (p. 29)
(i) Birds do not fly as fast as the aeroplane.
-Nesfield : ENGLISH GRAMMAR, COMPOSITION &
USAGE (p. 254)
(6) Hardly I Scarcely ~ al'?'G when q;r ~
~
\ (W'~
~d~ ~ ot1G before~ ~
q;'t ,it ~ ll'FTT to
~ W f% Hardly/Scarcely ~ ~ than/then/that ~ q;r
ffl' <R P1 '1-,em ~ ~ t; ~(i) Hardly had/he gone out of/the office that the

[Part (D) if that~ ~


when <IT before n1]

(7) .feldom if ever <IT Seldom or never E Jrm'1T lITTIT ti


seldom am ever ~ .fR 'or', seldom am never ~ ~
'if'
~Problem~~
t'; ~{i) Seldom if never have I hurt you.
~
cfrcflf if 'if'~
~
'or' rfiT 'Sl<ITlT n1 ~ 'lfffl,
seldom or ever js ~
seldom if ever 'ifil' ml' ~ m1TTI
(8) Rather om other ~ ~ than qi\"
t, ~
~
~ ~
but <IT f<f;m 3T-<f conjunction qi\" m
<R

m- ~

-;;rrar

t; ~-

The same ~ <illG that q;r

(A)

(B)

(D)

(C)

(E)

[Part (C) if 'but'~ ~


'than' q;r ~
nJ
(ii) I would rather I have the bat I not the I ball. I No Error.
(A)

[Part (C) if 'not'~ ~

(B)

'than'

qi\"

(C)

(D)

ffl

W'lT_I]

'S)

(E)
cfiT

m- ~

;;rar ~

Verb

(i) This is the same book tha~ I wanted.


(ii) This is the same cow tlUlt was grazing in

Verb

the field.
~
Ascfirffl'oifW: t~Verb~~m; ~(i) This is the same dog as mine.

m- ~ ~ ~ -:W !).
m- if As cfiT m Verb~

(as~~ verbcfil'
NOTE : ~

mT ti~

(10) ~

R'lt ~ ~

Nesfield ~ ~

'tR:

\ll'

t ~

~~~~~'iffil

ffllelf1101 ~
~ ~ the same~ <l're: who/which
<R Problem~
~ t; ~(i) He is/the same man/who helped/me./No Error.
(A)

(B)

[Part (C) if who~ ~

(D)

(C)

that cfiT

cfiT

. (E)

ffl

(A) Such~ ~ as cfiT ml' mot t; tt(i) He is not such a good singer as I expected.

,1.
such
such% ~

(i) I have no/other object/but to/get ajob./No Error.

(D)

~lrrl~-

telephcne/bell rang./No Error.


(E)

(C)

m-~t1

(q

(B)

(B)

[Part (C) if may ~ ~


should q;J" :.;~ m1TTI]
(10) The same ~ GfR Relative Pronouns that m as

As is always correct, whether used with positive or

Problem ~ ~.

<R Problem

[Part (C) if nor~ ~


or cfiT m n1J
(9) Conjunction Lest ~ ~ Auxiliary Verb should q;r
t ~ ~ ifTG may/will~
q;J' ~
~
Problem~ ;mrrJ; ~__:.
:K.

(ii) Ram .s not as good as you. (Negative)

(D)

~tr

(i) I have never/seen him/nor heard/about him./No Error.


(A) (B)
(C)
(D) .
(E)

(i) Ram is as good as you. (Affirmative)

(A)

~-~t;~-

. ~<IT~~~~~Ffi1:IT-~t1
~w<A> So ..... as q;r >llnTT Negativ~~
if i'rar t ~(i) Ram is not so good as y~u. (Negative)
~
As..... as q;r ffl' Affu]MtiY.e~ Negative~~

-r-

m-

[Part (B) +t 'that' ~ ffl 'whether' c;;r


lrr1TT cflitfcf;
Part (D) if or i.ot q;r ffl' l1]
(5) So ..... as I As . as qi\" ~
Positive Degree Tf ~

"'1

not
or
(ii) I have never spoken to him or written to him.

(E)

<D)

m- ~ t; ~-

(I) Not/Never~ ~

J.
as

. (B) m
as q,,1' ll<l'rrr mot' t " ~
~
Infinitive qi\" ~
!1
(i) Her ailment was not such as to cause us anxiety.

Infinitive

-88

A Mirror of Common Errors


(ii) I am not such a fool as to believe that.

(14) Relative Pronoun~~

-=rm' lITT!l" t ~

J,

Clause

it

such ~ ~

(11) (A)Such ~~'that


q,qt -~ such qffil "Clause

that

qi!'

-m:aw:r (effect/~esult)

'!:!<WT ~

(A)

,ft lITT!rt
cfiRUT (cause) ~

that

m; ~-

'and'

qffil

There Was SUCh a noise .that W(!, could not hear ourselves.
-F. T. Wood : CURRENT.ENGLISHUSAGE (p, 255)
(B) Such ~ ~ ~ Verb ~
such ~ ~ that R t;

tt(i) Such was his behaviour that everybody disliked him.

. '.
\.:::/

t ~

UUSil @I~

~ ~ t ~ -=rm'

3:ft) ~

snl:fil_l_~

m s:m:m t': ~-

~ ~

Glf ~

-=rm' ~

~ ~

~ -ra fcf; unless * ~

q;r ~

Problem ~

-:sirnr

(i) You can not/do


(A)
No Error.
(E)

until

-=rm'

unless

(>

~ Part (B)

if

t fcr,31 ~

t; tt-

qfq<f

am ~

therefore, so,_~-~
q;J"
Pro.bk.mE!lL~-

m- ~

ti ~

if ~

11<IT

t fcii

t. ~

-F. T. Wood: A REMEDIAL ENGLISH.GRAMMAR


FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS. (p. 108)

m ~-Because

he did not work hard, therefore he

failed. (Omit therefore)


-Nesfield : ENGLISH GRAMMAR COMPOSITION
& USAGE. (p. 212)

_..

t, ~

-ra fcf; (15) if qf'imr Adverbs


t; ~--

Problem~~

-4 t,
That/As to cf>!'

js ~

(B)

(C)

(E) .

(D) .

'that'

qi!'

ffl' ~

'TI' That/As to q;y ffl' ~


(A)

(B)

(C}

~
~

(D)

t1J

a:nR Interrogative
!; ~(E)

-=rm' Al]

(17) Unless/until/lest ~
~
'not'q;y ~ mtTI'
Problem~
;:;rm t; tt-

ti ~

not qi!' 'Sl<ft'1T -=rm'


~~-'not'

lITTll"
q;J"

t.

'Sl<ft'1T

. (i) Until he/docs not solve/the problem,/I will stay with


(A)
.. (B) .
(C)
. -~(D)

[Part (B))

if 'does not solve' ~ ~

'solves'

q;J"

'Sl<ft'1T

m-rr1]
(18) Else~~

butq;f

mT ~ ti

by than not but


nothing else than are the alternatives.
Else is followed

-J

l
II

.l

'the

him./ No Error.
(E)

But not. because he transgressed the law, so he was


punished.

r-:

[Part (B) if that <Iii' 'Sl<ft'1T

because ~ ~
therefore cf;!'
-:r ~
'so' q;r ~
~
-:srrnT
-~
~
!1 ~-"Because he transgressed the law, he
was punished."

j.,,

"5fq;R ~

;,,

t'-

[Part (C) if where~ ~

(ii)

(i) Because he came late, he failed to see me.

m-

. (i) He asked/me that/who he/was./No Error.

~~__:_
~

words~~

m- ~

if therefore/so 3TIR q;y

NOTE : ~

_'!:!<WT Interrogative Adverb of Time

mtrr ~

(A)

you/prepare yourself./
(C)
(D)

(i) Because he came late, therefore/so he failed to see me.


~

ffl" ~

t; ~-

until ~ ~
unless
until qiT 'Sl<ft'1T ~I)

(13)_ Because, Since, As~

~ m fq;.rr ~

qi!'

?)

(16) Who/whom/which/whose/what/

(C) if

Part
unless~ ~

when.

<R ~

(i) She does/notknow/thatwhere/Mohan lives./No Error.

hs~ay/here unless/she 'goes/back/No Error.


: (A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

,,\cii<i<r (i) ~

'when' Relative Adverb of Time

v.JR

''''(i'i) iwant
' .~"~"

(i) I don't know when he will come.

~I)

t ~

(ii) I don't know the time whenhe will come.


time'~~~

am until ~

well/until
(B)

if

~~if

~~~~~~{I)
(ii) You wi~l not succeed unless you work hard __
'

Relative Pronoun

!1]

~.

Unless

(i) Wait until I come back.

'who' ~

(E)

~~if~t,

if.:.not)

if

mT ~

(i) When will he come ? ~

. (U) Until oifT Unless

qi!'

(D)

(C)

(15) When I where I why I how I how much I how far I


how long aTIR_ Interrogative <Im Relative Adverbs t'1 ~
~
that/as to 3TIR qi!' ffl' -=rm' lITTll" t; ~-

'>

(B)

[Part (C)

q;J" ~

it

qi!'~

t; tt-

(i) He is a I good boy, I and who I is my friend./ No Error.

Infinitive

it

'l:7Wf ~~ fcfi ~ ~
Pr~ble~ ~
Wfil iJ

'And' Conjunction

mr ~Problem~~

nothing but and

Iinsist that you tell me nothing but the truth.


He wanted nothing else than to go to sleep but he had to
finish his essay.

Nothing else but is incorrect.


-F. T. Wood : CURRENTENGLISH USAGE. (p. 93)

- I

A Mirror of Common Errors.

10. You must either I inform the police I else be prepared I to

Nesfield ~ ~.
"Else should always be followec:rof-but, and never by
than"

It is nothing else but (not than) vanity.


-Nesfield : ENGLISH GRAMMAR,COMPOSITION
AND USAGE (p.173)
~ 'Slq;R, else~-~
'than'~
'but'~ ffl' it lffm: !t
' ~.
~
'else but' cit' ~ correct use ll'RI

Directions : Find out the error in each of the following


sentences, if any. if there is no error; your answer is 'E'.
1. He was not I so well versed in I English that we I had .
. CN
~)
(C)
expected. I No Error.
(D)
. . (E)

2. Mrs. Varun I not only stopped coming I here but also

going to any place f which is related to her past tragedy./


(D)

(C)

(B)

(D)

(E).

11. As soon as. the peon I rings the first bell.. then all I the
(A)

(B)

students assemble I on the ground for prayer. I No Error.


(D)

(C)
(A)

(B)

having a glimpse of I the extremely beautiful sales girl. I


(D)

(C)

No Error.
(E)
13. Hardly had he I come out of the bus I then the bomb
(A)
(B)
(C) .
exploded I and shattered the bus into pieces. I No Error.
.
'(D)
(E)

14. Scarcely had he bought I the ticket when the guard I


(B)

showed the flag and I the train started. I No Error.

(E)

(C)

3. Nobody else but I you might be declared I responsible for


(A}

(B)

(C)

(D).

(E)

15. I don't know I if any of the members I of the party is


(B)

(A)

(B)

notes as many times as possible I lest you would fail." I


(D)

(C)

(D)

16. Many of the founding fathers I of our constitution are l so


(A)

(B)

(C)

(E)

5. Seldom or I ever have I tried my I best to defend my


(B)

(D)
(A)

(B)..
(D)

(E)

18. This is perhaps I the same dog which I bit her while she

(E)

(A)

6. Seldom or I ever have I turned I a beggar away without I


(A)

(B)
(D)

7. The officer was doubtful I if some of the clerks I of his

(D)

(A)

(B)

<N

(E)

(C)

CN

~)

(DL

(E)

(C)

about some changes in the plan. I No Error.

the phone rang up. I No Error.

(E)

21. As he is I a perfectionist, I so he always insists I on

9. Because he has I been ill for a month I so he does not I


(B)

come to the office. I No Error.


(E)

(C)

20. Both Hari I as well as his wife I are determined to bring I

8. Neither the doctor I nor his assistants I were asleep when I

(A)

~)
(D)

~)
(B)

(E)

Civil Service Examinations. I No Error.

office were I involved in bribery./ No Error.

(A)

(C)

19. He asked me I that why I was I not preparing for the I

(E)

(D)

(B)

was returning I from market. I No Error.

(C)

giving him some alms. I No Error.

(D)

(C)

solved I with a little effort. I No Error.

(D)

No Error.

(E)

17. This is not such I major problem I which cannot be

(C)

friends, who are after I all guilty to some- extent. I

(C)

(E)

reverend as Ambedkar I if not more. I No Error.

No Error.

(C).

conspiring I against the President or not. I No Error.

4. The teacher said I to the students, "Go through the I

(A)

(E)

(D)

(A)

' the/ loss of those articles. I No Error.

(D)

(E)

(A)

No Error.

'(C)

suffer any loss. I No Error.

~}

(A)

12. He not only comes I here for 'shopping but also for I

PROBLEMS BASED ON CONJUNCTIONS

89

(C)

(A)

(B) :

regular practice. I No Error.


(D)

(E)

(C)

: 90
A Mirror of Common
....-.
22. Although these rooms I are in need of repair, I but the
33.
(A)
(B)
owner does not take I any notice of their condition. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.
23. The teach er asked I the students to go to I market and buy
(A)
(B)
some fruit I as appels, oranges, guavas, etc. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
24. He suggested to me I that I should I do all the work as I
(A)
(B)
(C)
quickly like him. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

(A)
No Error.
(E)

(B)

(D)

(C)

35. The newsman was doubtful I that the man who had been
(A)
(B)
run over I by some vehicles had lain I there for more

(C)
than one day. I No Error.
(D)
(f)

25. He was so clever I that everybody's attempt I to misguide


(A)
(C)
him I proved to be futile. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

36. Becuase he is intelligent, I therefore he gets good I marks


(A)
(B)
in all the I examinations he takes. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

26. No soo-ier did I he find out any solution I tothe problem

37. Both the rich along with I the poor are responsible for a I

(A)
(B)
when I another problem appeared. I No Error.

(D)

!'!.

Dr. Sinha was not only I sympathetic to the rich I patients


(A)
(B)
but also I to the poor ones. I No Error:
(C)
(D)
(E)

34. He has lots I of money and I he dare. not start I a factory./

(E)

Errors

((,j

(E)

28. The robt crs had I hardly put the ornaments I in his bag

C~

~)

than I the housewife woke up. I No Error.


(D)
(E)
29. Scarcely had he I gone a few steps I that he was told by
(A) ..
(B)
,,
(C)
someone I that his mother was no more. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
30. Scarcely bad I I walked out of my house I when I saw

00

my I friend coming towards me. I No Error.


(D)
(E)

31. Mrs. Sen told me that though I .ier son had worked hard
(A)
.
(B)
but I he failed to make I any mark in the last examination . .'
(D)

(C)
No Error.
(E)

32. Hardly had the speaker I finished speaking, then I the

(A)

(13)

lights went out and I where was an uproar in the hall. I


(C)
(D)
No Error.

(E)

(B)

great many vices with which our society I as well as

27. Not only has he built I a hospital for the poor I but he has
(A)
(B)
also built an I orphanage for orphans. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

CN

(A)

(Q

country is inflicted. I No Error.


(D)
(E)
38. His offence was such I as he was bound to suffer I and
(A)
(B)
ultimately I meet his doom. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
39. She was too .beautiful I to be rejected by any I youngman
(A)
(B)
who whished I to make her his wife. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
40. Since Diwali is Lst approaching, I my teenager son has
(A)
,.,
bought many fireworks I as rockets, creackers, etc. I all of
(b)
(C)
which cost much. I No Error.

(D)

(EL_

41. Scarcely had he gone I than a policeman knocked I at the


(A)
(B)
door to enquire I about his whereabouts. I No Error.
(C)
(E)

42. No

sooner had the train I arrived then the crowd rushed I


(A)
(B)
towards the compartment to greet the leader I who was
(C)
travelling by that train./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

43. Hardly had the wheels touched I the ground than the ;)ilot
(A)
(B)
indicated I with his fingers how many I injured people he
(C)
(D)
was carrying. I No Error.
(5)

,
91

A Mirror of Common Errors


44. No sooner was the agitation I in Darjeeling silenced, I the
(A)
(B)
Bodo Land activity I in Assam erupted . I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
45. I cannot confirm I you if he .. has paid /the bill or returned/
(A)
(B)
(C)
the goods. No Error.
(D)
(E)
46. Ten years have passed I that I returnetl from I London and

00

settled I in this part of the country./ No Error.


(D)
(E)
47. It was almost I ten years ago since he wrote I a letter to
(A)
(B)
(C)
rr- to I remind me of my lapses. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
48. The patient would not I have died/ when the doctor had I
(A)
(B)
(C)
come in time. !No Error.
(D)
(E)
. 49. The programme was I almost fixed and it was I my
(A)
(B)
friend's insincerity that upset the whole I thing and dis(C)
.
(D)

EXPLANATIONS
1. (C) 'that'~
lR

'as' 'cfiT

1l'mlT

m cflil'fcn ciTci<I'

'so ... as'

.3TI'1:llftcr t; ~-

(i) He is not so smart as we expected.


~

so/as as' q;r ~

~.

(3(f.lT ... ~).

'so that' ~ so that

(mfci;)

cfiT

'ITI'. "ll<ITlT

mm ti

f.l.:.:ifaf&a cfTcPi\" q;t- ~(i) He is so weak that he cannot walk.

[~ ~

fc6 ~)

tlJ

(ii) He works hard so that he may succeed in the


examination.

[~ q;ra;r ~
<Rm t fflf.5 cfli ~
1l ~
-?!"
~I]
2. (B) not only cfiT ~
comlng js ~
m-rIT ~
but also
<!'>I' ~
going~ ~
ti ~
fcn' Not only ... but
also I Either .... or I Neither ... nor ~ ~ Subjects I
Objects I Verbs I Gerunds 3lTFc:: q;t- ~
-;;rror

-ra

~(i) Not only Ram but also Shyarn is dancing.


(ii) I have invited not onJy Ram but also Shyam.

(iii) He is not only good but also intelligent.


(iv) He not only reads but also writes

appointed us. No Error.

(E)

(v) He sits not only here but also there.

50. He did i.ot I succeed in the examination, I yet he had I


(A)
(B)
(C)
worked hard./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

(vi) She likes not only dancing but also singing.


3. (E) q"fq<f ~
ti
4. (D) 'would'~ ffl 'should' q;r ffl' WJT ~
'lest'~
<ITG 'should' q;r ~
~
t; ~-

51. I cannot all ow you to I go out of the class I unless the


(A)
(B)
teacher comes I and gives me some instructions. I
(D)
(C)
No Error.

T (i) Work hard, lest you should fail.


S. (A) or~ ~
if <!'>I' JfllPT mTTT ~
'seldom if ever' a:rR
' 'seldom or never' q;r JfllPT ~ ti ~ 'seldom or q;t'E2ir-r ~ ~
'ever' q;t- 'never' 1l ~
q;r ffe ~

(E)
ANSWERS
1. (C)

2. (B)

3. (E)

4. (D)

5. (A)

6. (B)
11. (B)

7. (E)

8. (E)

9. (C)

10. (C)

12. (A)

13. (C)

15.(B)

16.(C)

17. (C)

18. (B)

14. (E)
19.(B)

21. (C)

22. (C)

24. (D)

25. (E)

29. (C)

30. {E)

20. (B)

m~

t. ~

_'llJq

11c!T ~

'ever' <f>T 'never'#~~


~tq,t<lcfidl ~
'or'ci} if~~~
~lq,t<l&idl ti
6. (B) 'ever' q;'I" 'never' ~ ~
<fiT 31fq,t<l&idl
~
q;r ~ t 1% ~ fci;'m ~
q;)' f.r:rr

~~~

~ q;,n ~ ~

W<IT

t. ~

f<f;

t ~
~

ti}

7. (E) cflcf<I" ~
it doubtful nt doubt~ <ITT:: whether nt if
q;r ~
-?far t "<l'R cflcf<I" Assertive Affirmative -?f I
~
doubt ~ doubtful ~ ~ that cf;!' ~
-?far t
~ ~
Assertive (Negative)
Interrogative -?!";
~:-

m~

26. (C)

27. (E)

23. (D)
28. (C)

31. (B)

32. (B)

33. (A)

34. (B)

35. (B)

I am not doubtful that he will come today.

36. (B)

37. (A)

38. (B)

39: (E)

40. (C)

Do you doubt that he will come today ?

41. (B)

42. (B)

43. (B)

44. (C)

45. (B)

46. (B)

47.(B)

48. (C)

49. (B)

50. (C)

51. (C)

t,

8. (E) cflcf<I" ~
ti 'Neither ... nor' '&,J" 1l<fPT ffi'\'
9. (C) 'so' q;r ffl' ~ ft q:zjl'fcf; because, as, since a,yfu:
Conjunctions of Reason l1 ~
~ so/therefore

3lTR

<iii'

ffl' ~ "ffi'ciT t; ~-

A Mirror of Common Errors


(i) As he is ill, he will not come out.
[-;r fcf; so/therefore he will not come out.]
ie, (C) 'else'~ ~
'or' <fiT ~
WIT ~
Part (A) if
either cfiT ~
afR 'either' ~ ~ 'or' amfT" t, ':!"
fc!; else/not ~I
. 11. (B) 'than' cJiT ~
-=rnl' h ~
As soon. as, As long
as, So long as % <JR than/then q;r
':fiff fcfitn"

-;;mrr

t tt-

(i) As soon ashe came, the.peon opened the door.


[-;i- fcf; than/then the peon opened the door]
12. (A) not only .q;r ~
'for shopping' % ~
m;rr ~
~
but also q;r ~
'for having'~ ~
!1
NOTE:~~~~~~o
(2)*smszrf
~I

13. (C) then~ ~


'when' "llT 'before' q;r ~
WlJ ~
Hardly, Scarcely % ~
'when' "llT 'before'
'conjunction cfiT
t; tt(i) Hardly I Scarcely had he come when/before it
started raining.
14. (E). ~
~ lt 'scarcely. when' cfiT
IS. (B) 'if' ~ ~
'whether' cJiT
Part (D) if
~
'or' ~ 'qoT ~
t fcl; Construction
'whether... or' ~ ~
"tt
16. (C) 'so'~ ~
'as' cfiT
'so ... as' q;r
Negative~
ir ~- t ~
'as ... as' <fir
Affirmative "llT Negative~ ir; tt-.
(i) Ram is not so I as good as Mohan. [Negative]

m mcrr

w:rm- ~ t,

m~ ~

m ~ ~

.1.

w:rm-

.1.

so/as
as
(ii) Ram is as wise as Mohan. [Affirmative]
17. (C) 'which' 1f; ~
'as' q;r ~- A <Pilfcf; '$Uch' ~
~ 'as' cfiT
mcrT t, ':f" fci:; which, that $1'1 ~

-ra-

w:rm-

(~) such+ noun+ as[~ ..... ~~


(i) He is not such a man as I expected.

.1.

.1.

such

as

(b) such that (ttm fc!;)


(i) His behaviour was such that everybody felt hurt.
(C) such+ as + infinitive
(i) His ailment is not such as to cause. us anxiety.
18. (B) 'which'-~ ~
that cfiT 1flU1T ffll1T ~
'the
same' 1f; ~ 'that' cJiT ffl'
t
Verb~ ~;

mm

tt-

(i) This is the same book that was missing.

J.
Verb
(~)

~.

the same~

"Sl<rr1T

'as'~

~~;tt-

mm t

<1R Verb

(i) This is the same book as mine. [is]


[Verb~]
19. (B) 'that' cfiT "Sl<rr1T ~
Indirect Narration if
Wh-question ~ ~
~
Conjunction cfiT 'Sl<IT11' ~

n ~

mmt;~(i) He asked me why I was late.


G fci:; that why] .. : ..
20. (B) 'as well as'~~
'and' cfiT
miTT ~
'Both' '
~ ~ 'and' Conjunction cfiT
mot' t ~(i) Both Sita and Geeta.
(ii) Both You and I.
21. <C) so w
NOTE : ~
~
~ ~ ~-~o
(9) <fiT olffi9!IT

m- ~ n1

~I

- ..

22. (C) but ~ ~


yet cfiT ~
~
~
Although I
Though ~ ~ 'yet' cfiT ~
'ffla1' ! ; ~(i) Although he is rich yet he is dishonest.
(ii) Although he is rich, he is dishonest.
[Although~ Clause~ ~ Comma jt ~ ~ yet cit

~~~~':51T~t1J

m1TT ~

23. (D) 'as' ~ ~


'like' cfiT ~
Nominative js -mer

mm t ~

'as' cfiT
'like' cfiT Objective .

~-mer;~-

(i) He helps a man like me. [-:r fc!; as meJ


~ ift ~ ~
q,'t lJGG cfiIT i I)
~
(ii) He helps a man as I do. [help]
~

q;l" ~

<fiIT

t~

m~

fcl:i ~I)

24. (D) 'like him'~ ~


'as he' cfiT
W1TT ~
as
... as cfiT ffl' traT t
Comparison 'he' ~ 'I' ~
Nominatives it t; ~(i) He runs as fast as L [-::r fc!; like me]
25. (E) qrcpf ~
ti
26. (C) 'when' ~ ~
'than' cfiT ffl' h
~
'No
Sooner than' q;r Jl<IT1T ~
t ~
Hardly I
scarcey... whenlbefore q;r; tt(i) No sooner did he leave for Mumbai than his
father died.
(ii) Hardly I Scarcely had he left for Mumbai when
his father died.
27. (E) ~~t1
28. (C) 'than'~ ~
when cfiT
At
NOTE : ~
~
~ ~
~
~o (26) q;l"

am:

smszrT ~I

29. (C) 'that' ~ ~


Hardly'~~
30. (E) ciTcPi ~

t,

'when' cfiT ffl" WlT ~


'when'~ before cfiT ~

.l

'Scarcely/

WITT ti

A Mirror of Common Errors


31. (B) 'but'~

'yet'

NOTE : ~

cfiT

JlcWT it'rrrt

'or' q;r

~ ~

32. (B) 'then'~~


'when'cf;T ffl' ~n
33. (A) 'not only' cfiT
'to the rich patients' ~ ~

~
but also cfiT
NOTE : ~
~

'to the poor ones'~


ti
~ ft;ro: ~ 'tj'~ (2) <fl o!lra!rr

~I

'but' .cf,T 1f<TI'lT WIT ~


'but'~ ~

34. (B) 'and'~ ~

qualities

cf>1 eraR ~ ~

~-

(22) ~

~o

o!ffi9lIT ~I

<n contrastive .
cf>1 ~

. (i) He is poor but honest.

(ii) She is beautiful but proud.


'whether' cfiT ffl' Rt
36. (B) 'therefore' cfiT ffl' -::rm ~I
NOTE : ~
~
~ ~ ~ 'tjo (9) <fl '6!ITTs!lT
~I

(i) It was ten years ago that his father died.


48. (C) \when' ~ ~
'if' 'EfiT ~
past ~
unfulfilled wish I condition I desire ~ arcRf ~
~

mm- ~

If + Subject had + V~ 'llT Had + Subject + v3


'EfiT ~
Conditional Clause if 'ffl<ff t; tt{i) lfhe had come on time, he would have seen you.
~, Had he come on time, he would have seen you, .
~
Clause cit
cl"lT Conditional Clause ~ 'liJIG
~

(17) ~

i1

n ~

'like' cfiT ~
as q;r
'SlmlT ~: Nominative Case (<mlf cf;Rq;) ~ mYi
t ~ like cfiT Objective Case ~ qiR<f;) ~

~I

(i) I do not love a girl like her, (-;;. fcf; as her]

[~~~~ium:~~{1]
~,
(ii) I am no orator as Brutus is. (;r ~ like Brutus is]
41. (B) 'than' ~ -~
'when' <fr 'before' cfiT ~
'ffl'1lT

~
'Scarcely/ Hardly' ~
~ -arre: '.when' ~
'before' cfiT ffl'
ti
'then'~~
'than'cfil' ffl' WIT~
'No sooner'
~ ~ 'than'cfiT ffl' ~~ti
'than'~~
'when'cf;T'5l<WT ~I
'the'~ ~
than cfiT 1f<TI'lT ml1T ~
No sooner js
~ 'than'cf;T~~~t1
'if' ~ ~
. 'whether' cfiT . ffl'
m1TT ~
'whether... or' cfiT ~
t ~ ~ Pan (C) if

45. (B)

Simple' Past
'ago'~~
fcf;. since cfiT;

A~
ma,- t, -;;

if ~~,5(T~t; -tit-

40. (C) 'as' ~ ~

43. (B)
44. (C)

mlfrl'

-tt-

~~I

42. (B)

'whether'

.J,

Present Perfect
47. (B) 'since'~~
'that' _cfif ffl'
'that' Conjunction cfiT ll<fl'lT'

q'!cf<f ~

if if~~

l .

37. (A) 'along with'~ ~


'and' cfiT ffl' itrrr ~
'Both'
~ ofTG 'and' 3lrnT t, .. -;; fcfi or, as well as, with, along
with, together with.

39. (E)

3To: (B)

(i) I am not sure whether he will come or not.


(ii) 1 do not know whether he will help you or not.
46. (B) 'that'~ ~
'since' cfiT ffl' 'ffl11T ~
since cfiT
~
Conjunction of Time ~ ~ ti' ~ i ~ ~ if
m<YT t ~ -~ ~ ~
Present Perfect + Since +
Simiple Past.~
t; ~ :-.
Two months have passed since he came here. .

35. (B) 'that'~ ~

~.o

ll<fl'lT' t.

~t~-

38. (B) 'as'~~


'that'cfiT
WTTI
NOTE:~~~-~~

93

(i) He.would have seen you ifhe had come on time.


49. (B) 'and' ~ ~
'but' cfiT 'lf<WT ~ ~
~ fclirtra
qfmt4fd4'f <ffi. ~
~ ~ ~ ~
'but' cfiT

wwr~~t1
(i) You are right, but he is wrong.
SO. (C) 'yet' ~ ~
'although' 'llT 'though' cfiT ~
~
~. ~
'although/though' condition ~
t
~yet~I
(i) Although he worked hard yet he did not succeed.
(C) 'unless' ~ ~
'until' cfiT ~
luntil'
~
-:rt\') ~ time (W,lf) cfiT ~
t ~
unless ~ ~) i condition Cffif) cf;T; ~(i) You will not succeed u.nless you work hard.

n ~

si.

mm

***

mm

.!.

Condition
(ii) I will not go out until he comes.

.J,
Time

VOICES -1-1----~----------------------------~'
_
. .--------~----------~~~----~C-h_a_p_re_rVerb q;r cffl ~ ~
tjm' ~
t fcfi q;m ~ q;ri:r cfiIT
1R tt ~~mt
t Voice~
!1
tt-(i) John writes a letter.
(~ ~ "ff 'tfclT ~
t ~ qi'ijT (Subject) 'John'~

! ~~

q;ri:r ~

ti]

f'q:;{, (ii) A letter is written by Iohn.


[~

t ~ q;m

"ff 'tfm ~

cllcFI"

q;r-q- ~

A. TENSE & VOICE


Active Voice if Tense ~ 12 ~ ! ~
irr:r atra ~

Note : [~
,fl- Perfect.Continuous ~
Tense q;r Passive~
!1J
1. PRESENT INDEFINITE

(Subject) 'A letter' 1R tt

Active :

tI]

Active : She

s
Passive :

General Rules ;

(v) Passive

-q oR" Object~ ~

~ !1 ~

(by

Preposition 'by' cfiT

(optional) ti

(i) Sita invited Mira. [Active]

Mira was invited by Sita. {Passive]


(ii) Mohan has beaten Radha. [Active]
Radha has been beaten by Mohan,

called

''T
;.

her.

v3

are

by Agent.

;nlf

I
oj
I s1 +is/are/am+ being+ v3 +(by+ Agent)!

Active : S + is/are/am+ V(ing) +


Passive:

-ftActive: Mohini is sin~ng

-i-

s
SI

t"1
ffl"

!1

ti

+ Object) ~ (by + Agent) ~

~ ~ t, ~ ~ ~ t ~
~~qifffl"~-

VS
are

Active: John loves Mary.


Passive : Mary is loved by John.
2. PRESENT L\1PERFECT

!1

To be er ~ ~ ffl" if~~

v3 q;r m- fcf;cir

r.

SI

Passive : A solg

mm~

(iv) To be~ ~

II

-r-

calls

~wm,

Passive <fiT Subject_~


~
(ii) Active~ Subject~ Passive cm Object~
~
(iii) Passive lf ~ Subject ~ ~
~fifi<rr cfiT
~ ti <lR ~ ~
~ To be ::;tr

R" ~ ~

You

(Object)

(i) Active~ Object~

cmJT (Subject)

~am~

a; ~

= Passive q;r Subject cll!fT (by+ Agent) optional

~-

NOTE-Voiceq;r
t f;jra MID-VOICE~
QUASI-PASSIVE q;m ~
ti ~ Voice cf;t ~
~ t ~
~
q' ~ Active~
~ ~ Passive mTT t; tt(i) Sugar tastes sweet.
(= Sugar, is sweet when it is tasted.)
(ii) Wood feels hard.
(= Wood is hard when it is felt.) .
Active~ Passive~

[~ s1

Is+ v1N5 + oj

I s1 + Ware/am + V3 + (by+ Agent) j

Passive :

cm

FlIDJJ~l!!!I)erf~ct

mm

t11

KINDS OF VOICES
Voice~
~ ~ 'cit "SfcfiR ~ t1. ACTIVE VOICE
2. PASSIVE VOICE
(A) Active Voice-Verbq;r ~ ~ ~
~~~;tt-(i) She helped me.
(ii) They did all the work.
(B) Passive Voice-Verb q;r ~ ~ mit
~ Passive q;r Subject t") cfi1. ~
~; tt(i) The letter was posted.
(ii) The thief was arrested. .

Passive Voice if

t,

m~

'TI

a syng.

.r

o.
is V(ing)
is bfng slng

Mohini,

is being sung by, Agent.

"SfcfiR,

Active : They are playig cricket.


Passive: Cricket is being played by them.
3. PRESENT PERFECT
Active.:

v ol

IS+ has/have+ 3 +

Passive = I S1 + has/have + been+

~-

v3 + (by + Agent) 1
.

Active: Meena

-r-s

Passive: A car
-!,

st

has

T.

bolght a car.

y3
has
0
has been
bolght ~

TT
has

been

y3

~-

by Agent

A Mirror of Common Errors

~Active : He

~;rem,
Active : You have cheated Sohan.
Passive : Sohan has been cheated by you.
NOTE-Present Perfect Continuous-No~ve.
4. PAST INDEFINITE

Active : S + v2 + 0

Is

Passive :

~-

1 +was/were+

Active : India

won

SI

was

v3

Active:

~-

1 +was/were+ being+

Active : Hoey

s
Passive : Jloti

was

Passive :

~-

Is

3 +(by+ Agent)!

Passive:~

~~.

v3 + (by+ Agent)

phoned

had

v3

SI

had

been

'J ~

will

have

phied

p: tu;

V3

by Agent.

a yar.

V3

11 ~~
will have been

IS+ mod~I + V

V3

by Agent.

+O

Active: You

solve

can

Active : Dinesh had kilkd a snake.


Passive': _A snake had been killed by Dinesh.
NOTE-Past Perfect Continuous-No Passive.
7. FUTURJ"INDEFINITE

Passive: js1 +shall/~+ be+

bo?ht

Passive : S1 + modal + be + v3 + (by+ Agent)

~--

T
0

Active: f S +shall/will+ V1 +

v3 +(by+Agent)!

Wffi,

Active :

her.

TT

modal
Passive : This yroblem

had

by Agent.

(B) ACTIVE & PASSIVE OF MODAL VERBS

Active : He

him.

,.. T

Active : Soni will have finished the work.


Passive : The work will have been finished.by Soni.

:r:

+ had_+ been+

S1

PAST PERFECT

v3

!p'.._

Is+ shall/will+ have+ v3 + ol

Passive:

was
V (ing)
being talght ~

Active : S + had + v3 + 0

be

will

SI
was being v3
by Agent.
~ ;rem,
Active : Moni was making a doll.
Passive : A doll was being made by Moni,
6.

s1

Active : ~

teaching

J" T

~-

5. PAST IMPERFECT
"'.-ctive : ~IS_+_w_
_as/_w_e_re_+_V.,_.
(_in_g_)
_+_O-!

is

1T

Passive:ls1 +sball/will+have+been+

by Agent.

~ ;rem,
Active He sold the house.
Passive : The house was sold by him.

Passive:

Active : The C,M. will address the meeting.


Passive : The meeting will be addressed by the C.M.
NOTE-FutureImpcrfect=-No Passive.
8. FUTURE PERFECT

was won

rT

it.

~Wffi.

v3 + (by+ Agent)

:r:

do

will
V1 0
will be done

S
Passive : It

Passive ; The match

will

TT

the match.

ry2

95

ol
v3 +(by+ Agent.))

S1

this

1oblem.
0
T ~ ~ ~ T.

-r
yl

can be

V3

by Agent

Active : I must do it.


Passive : It must be done by me.
NOTE-can, could, may, might, shall, should, will,
would, must, ought to, used to, need not, dare not Modal
Auxiliary Verbs!1
C. ~ OBJECTS~
VERBS c5T PASSIVE~ ~ Verbs l '1fl" ~ Objects~ ~
(i) He gave me some money. ,
(ii) You presented her a ring.
~ cfrcPn ~ ~-~ Objects ti ~gave
me
some money
presented her
ar7g.

.T

Indirect
Object

Direct
Object

!; ~-

..

:,

96

A Mirror of Common Errors


NOTE--(a) ~

Verbs ~

l; ~:---

Transitive Verbs~

t. ~

Mono- .

Verb.

fcf; ~

it

Objects

lliT

Passive:

T.

. (i) They betrf e~ .


. ..

Object

t; -~-

(i) Indirect Object~. Subject~

~
~
Active : .He lent me .some.money..._.... : ..
Passive : I was lent some money by him.

Object

[Mono-Tr.]

(ii) Direct Object cf>1 Subject~; ~Active : He lent


some money;
l
Passive: Some money was lent (to) me by him.
Verb Object
,/

[NOTE-~
Objects ~ ~- 'ctil' Passive ~
~ ~
[Mono-Tr.]
. . .
.
.
:Sl+lirn: Indirect Object cf>1 Subject of.!'RT ~
~
~
(b) ~ Verbs ~ Objects ~. t; -~ Di-Tra~sitive Verbs
t ~ Direct object cf>1
~t;~.
Subject <iR'RT ~
ti
~
~
~
-4 Passive ~ Subject cfir
(i) You 12resented
me a golden watch. .
-~
~ "Ira ~ ,ft ~
cfiIT
S11"4ftli$,(ij !<t>~ ~ ~
(ii) Dipu admires

me

~ t. ~

Verb
(Di-Tr.)
offered

.(iitl

Object
(Indirect)
him

-r-

a!b.

Object
Object
(Di-Tr.) . (Indirect). (Direct)
'QfR' ~
f<fi ';.'i(of fcf;m Verb 'ctil' w:rr1T Di-Transitive tfi ~
if ~ 'ffi" ~ -~ Objects mt t ~ fcf; a"$ ~
if ~
~ !1 ~ Objects ii' ~ ~- <IT ~
~
What ~
question q;f.t ~ ~
t ~ Direct Object t ~ -m- ~
<IT ~
~- 'Whom' ~ question ffl lR P1ffi!T t ~
Indirect Object it ~ ~(i) He gave me a chance.
Question: What did he give ine?
Answer : A chance.
.
.
'A chance'
~ ~.
'What' ~ question ~
'IR ~
fiRi'm ti ~
'a chance' Direct Object ti : ,

(c) ~
(i)

~ Verbs t; ~Mono~

t; ~~ . .

He told ~_styn:_ (~told~

a stp.

'

'm"

<IT

No. (::: I am not.)


(b) Wh-Question--srr ~
Interrogative Wordf.(why,:
who, what, how, when, where ~)
t ~
cfir ~~(Yes)<IT -;rr (No) ir' W re.7ff ~
'l!v-n'
q;r ~
~ clTcFf (Sentence)q;r ~
~ ~ ~ !; ~(i) Question : Where are you going ?
Answer : I am going to Delhi.

m t, ~ m
~JI'~

Di-Transitive~~

Mono-Tr.

it
if

tJ

!Pa.s&veofYes/NoQuestionsl~ ~

(a) Do/does "it ~


Passive:

Obj.
object
(indirect) (direct)

t ~

iliT

Active "it

I Do/Does + S + V + 0 ? !
Passive : I Is/Are/ Am + S1 + V3 + (by + Agent)?!
1

tt.
Active : Does "' he need

somemonev ?

TT

ls

S1

(b) Did~--~

(d) tell, give, fetch, promise, offer, present, lend, get, .p~y,.
sell, bring, take, teach, promise ~
~ ~ Verbs
Mono~ Di-Transitive~~ ii' CfiTir ~
ti

cf>1 ~-

Questions

Does
S V1
Passive : Is some money needed

[~m Told~- Di-Trt]

Active :

--!.-

object
(ii) He told

. (D) PASSIVE OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


Questions~:
~ 'Sl<m: ~ !. . (a) Yes/No Questions-~ ~
~
~
t ~
t, (tt-does, do, did, has, have, is, are, am, can, could, may,
might~) ~ ~
~ (answer)
(Yes) <IT ';fr' (No) if
~~t:tt~
Question:
Are you ready?
Answer:
Yes.(= Yes Larn.)

Question: Whom did he give a chance?


.Answer : Me.
.1
~ wm:; 'Whom'.~ question~ ~ ~- 'Me' Prnm
'Me' Indirect Object ti
.

q;m. ~

~ ~

Verb

m,

t~~

t,1

Object
(Direct)

.it~~.~-

-r

V3.

<

0-

i'.
J.

him?

by Agent

Questions?.liTActive"it Passive:

Active : Di<!- + S + v1 + 0 ?
I
3
.,j
Passive : Was/Were+ S. + V + (by + Agent) J

A Mirror of Common Errors

~-

Rule-Why, How, When, Where, What 31TR ~


t'1 ~. Who ~ Whom ~
~ ~
~
Questions~ Passive~ ~Active : Who wrote the Ramayana ?
{ Passive: By whom was the Ramayana written?
~

Active: Did

he

Did
Passive: Were

;.

entertain

'r

SI

yl

were
S1
(c) Have/Has/Had~
~ Passive

0
him?

entertained

:r

ifl.\Qi~

:I

by Agent.
Questions <ST Active

?I

Passive Have/has/had+ S1 +been+ V3 +(by+ Agent)?j

~-

Active: Has

John

written a book ?

-F.T. Woo!f: A REMEDIAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR


FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS (p, 156)

m.

Active: Whom have you invited?

T-r

been
(d) Modal Auxiliary Verbs ~ ~
Active~ Passive:
Has

Active

by Agent ?
(l-%cti~ Questions

V3

:j Modal + S + V1 + 0 ?j
control

Modal
him?

Bl+ll-4<1:

be

0
controlled

"llT

:r:

(a) Order~

I V + ol
Passive : I
+
~Active:

S1 + be + V3~

Active : Shut
j,

i1

vi

\ Active: Have you broken the mirror?


Passive: Has the mirror been broken by you?
31-r ~
Yes/No Questions ~ ~
Interrogative Word

~~Active : Why have you broken the mirror?


Passive: wry has the mirror been broken by you?

"'0
st

Let

be
,1.
be

shut.

y3

'SfqiR,

Active : Bring a glass of water.


Passive : Let a glass of water be brought.
(b) Suggestion/ Advice~~
cfiT Passive:

Yes/No.Question
Interrogative
Word
~
Interrogative Words + Yes/No Questions
Interrogative Questions.

the door.

the door
,1.

Passive : Let
,1.

w.

~ Passive : ./

Let

~-

~~t; ~-

(iii) Please save my life.

y3

Agent.
(e) Passive of Wh-Questions:
Yes/No Questions cfiT Passive ~
~
Interrogative Words~ ~ ~ Wh-Questions ~ ~

fV1]~

(i) Do it at once.
(ii) Save my life, please.

51

Active Wbocf>T Passive Whom~ i'lm


Active Whom cf>T Passive Who ~j

~[~

-mitim\1 ~~

this situation ?

Moda1 S
V1
Passive : Can
this situation be

Passive: Who.has been invited by you ?

Imperative Sentences ~ order, request, suggestion 3lTR

~rr -r-

~~

(E) PASSIVE OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

Passive.: !Modal + s1 + be + V3 + (by + Agent). j


Active : Can he

<IT
Passive : Who was the Ramayana written by ?
[Whom was the Ramayana written by ? ~
~
ti]
\. ~
: " .. :if the preposition comes ~~...J;Ln_cLofthe
sentence orclause, then use ~"

Who is that letter from ? [not whom]


Who did you give it to ? [not whom)

----r

y3

Has
s
Passive : Has a book

V1

~ m

yr?

Active : Have/has/bad + S + V3 + 0

cr.T

97

Active :

Passive

I V1 + 0

:I S + sho.uld +be+ V .!
1

cfiT

A Mirror ofCommon

98
Active :

Hep'

t.

W ~
if 'I' Subject
'novel'~
Noun t ~ 'to
read' W Noun$ G11G ~
Infinitive
cfim (I) ~
~
(read) !1 ara:, W Infinitive cfif Passive -:m' ~ ~

the needy people.

v'

O
should

Passive: The needlpeople

s1

be hep,ed.

should

be

...

,..,

NO~

y3

.....,.'

1fcm,

Passive : The poor should be loved.


Passive : The seven dead_ly_~Jns should be bated.
Request~

~ t ~

~ ~

i5I'

Passive:

3Rf

t; ~-

if ~ ~

tt"

mar t,

t,

"If the subject of the sentence is the person who has to do


the action, the active infinitive is used."

8 fcfi to be washed)
(ii) I have a letter to write. 8 fcfi to be written)
(1) I have two shirts to wash.

(ii)' Post this letter, please.

affeRI' ~ 'ffl" cffl' Infinitive Passive if_'mm ti

tt-(i)
~!

~t,

Doit for me, kindly.


~ c:flcF.ff <ST Passive :
(iv)

You are requested + to + V1 + 0 $ ~

sr:rTllT ~

t;

~(i) You are requested to help that old man.


(ii) You are requested to postthis letter.
(iii) You are requested to vacate the house.
(iv) You are requested to do it for me.
NOTE-You are kindly requested cfif ~
~
"CR ~
Problems~
;,;yra t't

m Noun + Infinitive m -~ ~ m

Subject ~ ~

(iii) Kindly vacate the house.

nr

t fcfi ~

fcf;?;(1' ;;irnr

~ ~ ~~~':ff!' ti~-

(e) ~

(i) Please help that old woman.

, ./

'l'Jcrr

'to be read' ~

~:,

(Active Voice~) cflci<il' if ,fi [V1 + 0] cfif


~ ~_please~ kindly q;r ~

~ 'll'R'T if ~

mircr R:<7T

t,

I have work to do. (Not: Ihave work to be done) ; ..


-Michael Swan : PRACTICAL ENGLISH USAGE
(p. 326)

Active: Hate the sevendeadly sins.

(c) Request 1!!l1'M ~

t, ~.

if ~

q;r passive 'to read' ~

Active. : Love the poor.

Errors

Mahatma Gandhi was a man to be admired.


Gandhi was a man to admire ~

Mahatma

[NOTE-~ "CR~
1fcfiR 'lfR

(d) ~

"ffl' ~

cfil1f

cfif Subject~

t~

':m' ~

ti}

Problems~~

~
lR cfil1f

~ Pronouns $ G11G Passive Infinitive

!1

Noun 'llT Pronoun


it -at' ~ Nouns

mm t. ~

'ti' ~

fcfi Active Infinitive; tt(i) These sheets are to be washed. 8 fcfi to wash)
(ii) The letter is to be posted. t-r fcfi to post)
(e) il~e

+ To be+ Noun + Infinitive

j <fiT

Passive~-

ti

(F) PASSIVE OF INFINITIVE (To+ V1)

I Active: To +_V1 I
I Passive : To+ be+ V3 1
.,.,
(a) (i) I am to do it.
(ii) You are to serve him.
(iii) They are to buy a car.
(iv) She was to sell the watch.
~~if
Infinitive (To+ V1) <fit'~
t't ~
~

(i) Active : There is

V1 + 0

tr 'ffl" ~
v3 !~ ~

Passive: There

ffl fcfi

Subject

There

to be

Noun

-r

Noun

Infinitive

V3.

There are six books to be written.


Infinitive cfil' ~

Activem

-q mm ti

{G) PASSIVE OF
Active :

T-

to be

.Th;.;are six books to write .

Passive :
Passive voice

tt-

-r rr

am:, There+ to be% ~

.(b) ~.
~ Subject% G11G <Rf. Noun "gt om~ Noun~
sr,c: ~ Infinitive-. ~ Subject~ ~
1fim tlr it ~
fofinitive 1f.i passive~
'iRTm ~
t;
(i) I
have gOl a novel to read.

do.

V
(Infinitive)
to be done.

work

is

-r-

(ii) Active:

Passive : S1 + is/are/am/was/

were+ to+ be+


iA'aT t; tt(i) It is to be done by me.
(ii) He is to be served by you.
(iii) A car is to be bought by them.
(iv) The watch was to be sold by her.

to

There To be Noun to

'"'s_+_11_o_be_+_lnfini,,....,.,....,...'ti"'"'v_e_+_o~=.....-;s::-+--:-is/-:a-re/:-:-a-m/-:w~asl-:w~.ere-:-

. + to +

work

-i-r--rTT

'HAVFJHASIHAD +TO+

v1

I S + have/has/had + to + V + 0 I
1

Passive :(~1-+ havdbaslhad + to+ be+ V3 (by+ Agent~

tt(i) Active : I

have

l T
S

have

to

borrow

'"! ,_to

v1

some

:r

money.

99

A Mirror of Common Errors


Passive : Some money

by

Agent

has to be

T J" T

SI

has

to

Orr

borrowed

be

31cf,

(A)

You have to choose a bride.


Passive : A bride has to be chosen by you.

S
Passive : I

~ t

He is known to me.
The news surprised me.
I was surprised at the news.
~

-q- ~

Prepositions

known to, surprised at, amazed at, astonished at, startled


at, vexed at, annoyed with somebody, annoyed at something,
contained in, embodied in, included in, crammed with,
decorated with, filled with, ornamented with, thronged with,
tired of.

~(i) Active: You annoyed me.


Passive : I was annoyed with you. 0 fcf; by you)
(ii) Active: Your behaviour annoyedme.
Passive : I was annoyed at your behaviour. 0 fcfi by
your behaviour)
fqE111!)'!',101 ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~
Prepositions est
WI~
WWT ~~Problems~~
!1
(I) PASSIVE OF VERB + PREPOSmON+ OBJECT
~ ~ Verbs t
Preposition ~
ooT

m~ ~ ~

Object 'ffit ti
~
Active : + Verb + Preposition + Object.
~ construction ~ ~
~
q;r Passive iRrn" ~
~ Verb~ m"l!f Preposition est ~
~ ~ -ra'T si1'raT l1
~Passive:

IS

I S + to be + V + Preposition + (by + Agent), I


1

~(i)

Active: The 1_rice enguired into

s
Passive : The case

l
SI

was

Prep.
enguired

To be

v3

the case.

l
0
into

Prep.

(E)

T.

V
Prep.
was laigbed at

0
~

S1 To be V3
Verbs q;\" ~,

him.

Prep. by Agent
Preposition ~

m~

I know him.

Verbs Qiff

(D)

~ Verbs -;;n- action -::r ~


'state of mind <fT feeling
~~by q;r ffl"-: \" ~~(appropriate)
Prepositions~ t'; ~-

ffl" ~. ~
m- ~ t; ~-

cm~-

(q

(B)

[Part (B) :q 'laughed'~~


'at'~
laugh at(=~ ~
somebody cnr
(i) Active : ~
laulhed

(H) PASSIVE OF STATVE VERBS, etc.

(i) Active:
Passive:
(ii) Active :
Passive:

by
Agent
' ~.
Passive if ~ JJcfiR ~ ~
~ Verb ~ ~ ~
Preposition q;\" ~
Problem~ '1fTm t; ~-:(i) He was / laughed by I most of I bis friends. I No Error

V3

me.

(ii) Active:

the police.) . [by +Agent~ ~

r-

J,

~
~
~
Objectm ti
look at
look after
look down upon + Object
look into
laugh at
smile at
deride at
mock at
fire at
af:, Passive if ~ Verbs ~ 7ilTG Preposition ~ -ra'T
'1("raT

t,

PROBLEMS BASED ON VOICES


Directions : Find out the error in each of the following
sentences, if any. If there is no error; your answer is 'E'.
1. Any step that the centre I takes to establish I peace and
(A)

(B)

harmony in the country I will be appreciate./ No Error.


(C)

(E)

(D)

2. The policemen I who were on duty in this area I were


(A)

(B)

discovered I two drug addicts. I No Error.


(C)

. (E)

(D)

"@ ~the first

PresidentI of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad I was

(A)

(B)

known by all types/of people in the world./No Error.


(C)

(E)

(D)

4. The P. M. assured I the people that his government I


(A)

(B)

would do its best I to suppress couununalism. / No Error.


(C)

(D)

(E)

5. The teacher asked I the students whether they could I tell


(A)

(B)

the name of the man I who had been discovered


(D)

(C)

America. I No Error.
(E)

JOO

A Marer of Common Errors

6. The case was I enquired a month ago I but no report I has


(A)
.
(B)
(C)
come yet. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

19. They were pleased I by the news I which they had


(A)
(B)
(C)

7. She held something I at her side which I was totally

20. A Police Inspector sent I to my house I and all the rooms I


(A)
(B)
(C)
were checked. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

00

hiding I by the folds of her sari./ No Error.


(D)
(E)

8. I was surprising I at not having seen I her even though she


(A)
(~)
was standing I just beside my, wife. I No Error.
(D) .
(E)

(C)

9. In case you apologise I for having broken your /. promises


(A)
(B)
you will / certainly be forgave. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

10. After every student had I gone away, I the peon locked
(A)
up I the classroom./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

(B)

(C)

11. Had the police not I reached here I on time, I would I have
(A)
. (B)
killed by the robbers. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

~)

was fla.t." I No Error.


(D)
(E)

13. We have not been I informed about the I death of our


(A)
(B)
beloved I leader and torchbearer. No Error.
(D)
(E)

21. The dacoits looted I the house and before I the police
(A)
.
{B)
arrived I the things were taken away./ No Error ..
(C)
(D)
(E)
22. When the leader I was shot dead, I the followers I were run
(A)
(B)
. (C)
(D)
away. I No Error.
(E)

23. He was said I to have been won I the prize because of I


(A)
(B)
the partiality of the judges. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

(C)

24. The burgalars were broken I into the house and I took

(C)

12; The teacher said, "Years I ago, it believed I that the earth I.

received I a day before. I No Error.


(D)
(E)

(C)

14. They were kindly requested I to attend the seminar in


(A)
(B)
which I lectures on the evils of communalism were I to be
(C)
(D)
'delivered. I No Error.
(E)
15. The headman advised I the members of the family to I
(A)
(B)
inform the police I of the occurence. / No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
16. By whom I was he helped I when he seriously wounded I
(A)
(B)
,
(C)
by a terrorist ? I No Error.
(D)
(E) .
17. The conclusion will be arrived I but what we need I most
(A)
. (B)
is to keep I patience and I to wait. I No Error:
(C)
(D)
(E)
18. We were extremely I surprised by the poor results I of that
(A)
(B)
.
(C)
scholar's son and daughter."! No Error.
(D)
(E)

(A)
(B)
away some cash land many precious things. I No Error,
(C)
(D)
(E)
25. She advised by I us to meet the Chairman I and. appraise
(A)
(B)
him of her I subordinate's misconduct. I No Error.
. (C)
(D)
(E)

26. The needy man I was approched to the money lender I and
(A)
(B)
requested him to I lend him some money. I No Error.
(C)
.
(D)
(E)

27. When the damage has been I done and the future of the I
(A)
.
(B)
people has darkened, I nothing will be of any help. I
(C)
--- (D)
No Error.
(E)
28. It was suggested I by the doctor I that the patient I should
(A)
(B)
(C)
be taken care. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
29. The bed has been arranged I for the newly married I
(A)
(B)
couple but it has I not been slept. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
30. The Chief Minister laid I the foundation of a bridge I and

(A)

. (B)

was hoped that it would be I completed by January. I

(C)
No Error.
(E)

(D)

A Mirror of Common Errors


31. Drawing the attention I of the public, I the leader said I

(~

that he should be listened. I No Error.


(D)
(E)

101

43. The report says that I a lot of things I including some drugs
(B)

(A)

(C)

are I to sell in the shop to be opened shortly. I No Error.


(D)

(E)

32. Tile reporter said I that the eminent/ scholar had been run/
(A)
(C)
over by a car. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

44. An unprecedented I riot was broken out I in this part of

33. My father suggested I to me that I should I be written I to

45. Mr. Gupta disowned I his son only because I he was

him

al

(A)
(B)
(C)
least two letters every month./ No Error.
(D)
(E)
(B)

(A)

(C)

35. A new programme I is soon to be I telecast from the


(A)
CS)
(C)
Delhi I Doordarshan. I No Error.
(E)

by I her lover's

(A)
(B)
unreasonable I behaviour./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

(C)

(A)

(A)

(C)
(E)

(D)

[BSRB (Jaipur), Clerical.Exam., 1990]


49. No other leader of India I is hold in so high esteem I as

(0)

(C)

No Error.
(E)

40. Pt. Nehru was I a man to be I admired and I so was Mrs.


(A)
(B)
Indira Gandhi. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

(C)

(A)

strengthening I cornmunalism to achieve their I political


(D)

(C)

42. Having found I guilty of murder I they were sentenced I

(B)

to life imprisonment. I No Error.


(D)
(E)

(B)

(q

~)

(D)

Nation. I No Error.
(E)

50. The names record I in this register deserve I much


(B)

attention I of the police officers. I No Error.


(D)

(C)

{E)

51. The lonely traveller puzzled I when he discovered I the


(A)
(B) .
foot prints I on the sand. I No Error.
(C)'
(D)
(E)
l. (D)

41. Some Hindu and some Muslim leaders I are bent on

(B)
goals. / No Error.
(E)

(A)

(A)

39. A five star hotel I is to build I in the centre I of the town. I


(B)

(C)

Mahatma Gandhi, who is I called the Father of the

the I bus accident which took place last night. I No Error.

(A)

(B) .
(E)

(E)

(B)

{B)

ago, he was taken I that decision. I No Error.


(C)
(D)
.(E)
[Alwar Bharatpur Rural Dev, Bank Exam. '88]
48. Dogs soon know I the person whom I they are I kindly

(D)

38. Five persons killed I and a baby was I badly injured in


(A)

(E)

(A)

(B)
(D)

(C)

47. Looking into the situation I that prevailed a few years I

bus was to detain I by some ruffians. I No Error.


(C)

(B)

pleasure to the brave. I No Error.

treated I No Error.

37. Many of the tourists I did not reach the place I because the
(A)

(E)

46. Accepting I all sorts of challenges I that life offers is I a

(D)

36.She was extremely I annoyed

(B)
(D)

(E)

(D)

(C)

(E)

(D)

(C)

Gandhi I of our time./ No Error.


(D)

(B)

married I a schedule caste girl. I No Error.

34. By whom I was Mr. Awdhesh Singh worshipped I as the


(A)

(A)

the I state this month. I No Error.

6. (B)
11. (D)
16. (C)

21. (D)
26. (B)
31. (D)
36. (B)
41. (E)
. 46. (E)
51. (A)

2. (C)
7. (C)
12. (B)
17. (A)
22. (D)
27. (C)
32. (E)
37. (C)
42. (A)
47. (C)

ANSWERS
3. (C)
8. (A)
13. (E)

4. (E)
9. (D)
14. (A)
19. (B)

18. (B)
23. (B)

24. (A)

28. (0)

29. (D)

33. (C)
38. (A)
43. (D)
48. (B)

39. (B)
44. (B)
49. (B)

34.-(E)

5. (D)
10. (E)
15. (E)
20. (A)
25. (A)
30. (C)
35. (E)
40. (E)
45. (C)
50. (A)

!-- Mirror of Common Errors

102

'into' q;r >f<lTT!' Al <rrG: ~ f.f;


Active Voice 1l' ~ f.f;m ~ Verb q:;r ffl"
ciflG ~
Preposition 3Tiffi' t ~ ~ Preposition ~
ciflG Object, 'ffi" Passive Voice il' ~ Preposition ~

6. (b) 'enquired' ~ ~

. EXPLANATIONS
~
'appreciated' q;r ffl' WTTI
Passive
Voice
ii'
~
'To
Be
[is/are/am/was/were/be/being/been}+ v3 [Veth q;r
Past Participle~] q;r wttTr '\mlT' t; ttwas
(i) This book
bol.ght byme.

I. (D) 'appreciate' ~

~~~t;~(i) He

J""

To Be
(iii) It is

btng

q;r

1IT ~I

ti

5. (D) 'discovered' ~.

f.lC!fctf~o ~

'Cfrn

'been' q;r 'S!"<rr1T ~

~I

~ ~-

To Be

fflq;j' 1Tf ~

3lcf:, ~
~'ITffif!I

?)

fcii who had been discovered America

Adverb
fu}1y

-r-

mm-

v3
convinced.

To Be Adverb
v3
8. (A) 'surprising'~ ~
'surprised' q;r >f<lTT!'
N. B. : ~
~
~ ft;rQ: ~ ~

mTfft
(2) ~

(7)

~~~I

9. (D) 'forgave' ~ ~
'forgiven' q;r 'Sl<TI'lT ~
~
'forgave' forgive rf;f ~
~
[Past Form] t, ~
forgiven~
~ [Past Participle Form].

m, ~ ~ Verb (forgave)~ m 'be' [::m- To Be cfiT


~ !J cfiT ffl t, arcr: 'be' ~ ~ v3 (forgiven) cfiT
ffl' m11fl
-

10. (E)

~~t,

11. (D) 'have' ~- ~


'been' q;r >l'lIT7l' m,rt
Passive
Voice ii' v3~ ~
~
~ ~ ~ -:r ~ To Be
~ t-1 ToBeq;r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
qffi
~
~ ~ f.!,ti: ~
t; ~-

(i) I

am b1ng

tauF.ht

by Mr. Sinha.

....

v3

Aux. Be

q;r

?)

~.
Who had been discovered? [Passive]

comTetely

(ii) They were

(i) Who had discovered America? [Active]


(~~~~qi)-l'ft

(i) He

'1l<ITJ

m-

prep. by (Agent)
(Passive]
7. (C) 'hiding'~~
'hidden' q;r
mTiT ~ Passive
Voice ir To Be + v3 q;r >f<lTT!'
~I f.:p.,fof,:ga

~~~'Q"ffi' ~

obj.
[Active]
the Ji:lice).

117.1' qlcfll' it The police discovered cf;1' ~


~,
-::f' fcf; The police. were discovered cf;l'I
3. (C) 'by'~-~
'to' q;r
m,rtt
~
~ fcl; ~ ~ Verbs~ ! <ill' State of mind 'lfT
State of feeling ~ ~
!. ':!' fcl; f.f;m action ~)
<irrl ~ Verbs ~ ciflG Passive Voiceif ~ ~ ~
~
~
(Appropriate) Preposition q;r ffl'
~
'5ITTrr t ';{' fcl; 'by' if;f; ~(i) I know him. [Active]
(ii) He is known to me. [Passive] [':f fcl; by meJ
(iii) The news surprised me. [Active]
(iv) I was surprised at the news. [Passive] [':i fcl; by
the news]
,.
~ (i) ~ Passive ir known~ ~ to~ (ii)~ Passive if
'. surprised ~ ~ at cf;1' ffl" ~ 1'fllT ';5fl' ~ !1 'to' 'lfT 'at'
. ~ ~
'by' q;r ffl' 1ffi'(f itcrr1
ql.pf

the case.

TT

Verb.

ai:, ~

4; (E)

by + Agent

into

(iv) The case was en9rired ~

ft; tt-

l
v3

To Be

Verb Prep.

discovered.

Prep. Obj.
(bytm). [Passive]

.J,
by Mohan

[Active]

""T

Verb
prep.
(iii) The police enquired

~.

were

me.

1.

....

To Be
v3
2. (C) 'discovered'~~
'were'<R >f<lTT!' ~
(i) The police discoveredit. ~
~ ~
(ii) The police

at

-ry3

laughed

Verb
(ii) I was lau hed

v3
To Be
'done by you.
be

(ii) It should

m~

v4
(ii) I

have

been blamed by my friend.

-i-T
have

be
q;r

v3

v3

A Mirror of Common Errors

12. (B) 'it' ~ ~

WTTI f:lt.1f<HRlid cl'fcFllT

'was' q:;r ~

<tit

~~~
'tf mcrm-~tl)
(ii) It is believed that God is omnipotent. [Passive]
~

ti

_;rnrr

t~~

~4:ltf<Mili"f ti)

<tit ~-

f.lt:j~Rd ~

(i) We have not informed him. [Active]

~~~~~ti)
~~~~"l'fmtl)
14. (A) 'kindly' q:;r ~

~-

Active ~ ~

~~

!)

~-aiG'cfit~)

(~~t)

-afG ~

an,:m ~

~ ~

f.f;1'f ~

t r.t; 3TT'Cf ~

a,m fcf;1:n" ~

~~ti

m- n

'was' q;r

am Passive ii' t1 ~-

1'T

-afG ~ t,)

~ ~ ~ 11W

(i) He wounded me seriously. [Active]

(3Wr ~ "tNR~~ ~
[Passive]

ffl

~~~<fit~

1'1ffl)

'at' <ti!' 'Sl<IT1T ittJT ~


Active
Voice if 'arrive at a conclusion' q;r 'Sl<IT1T ~
ti
PASSIVE it arrive~-~ ~ at <tit ~- ft:rltT ;.;rnrr t1
31(1':,

(i) 'They will arrive at a conclusion. [Active]

-r

"J

arrive Prep.
(ii) A conclusion will be arrived

at (by them).

"l

arrive Prep.
q;r v3
[Passive]
18. (B) 'by'~~
Note :
~I

'at'~mn1

mvr ~

~~ ~

~ ~

"I

m!TT (3) 'lit arr8'T

m ~

1R-ffl
~
TIQ; ~

~ Simple ~
<tit ~ Passive ~
Synthesise fcf;1:n" ,;JT ~
t; ttA pen was taken, A letter was written <ti!'
SynthesisA pen was taken and a letter was written.

<fit R?.tfl)

(ii) He was seriously wounded by a terrorist.


~~~&JU
17. (A) 'arrived' ~ ~

He took a pen and a letter was written

(iv) You are requested to shut the door. [Passive]

16. (C) 'he' ~ ~

t; "tt-

it~
fflcfR
<tit Active Voice -q ~ ~ ~

~-

~~-aiG'cfit~I)

15. (E)

~~~~&JU~

~ ~ m T-f ~

'they took away

Al

He took a pen. He wrote a letter. ~


He [took a pen+ wrote a letter].
am:. ~
(i) <tit ~ f.:ii:tf('ffurn

R7.lT ~

(iii) Please/Kindly shut the door. [Active]

(i) He took a pen and wrote a letter.


~ clPPf ii' He~ ~ q;p:r ~
-~ ~
~
(fflT
~
~
~I ~
~
it ~ Simple cf!cFllT q;r
Synthesis ti ~~ !-

(ii) Let the door be shut. [Passive]

~~qcR.< w ~ wm

21. (D) 'the things were taken away'~~

m.:rlr ~ Passive ir 'you are


~ t-1 f.:ti:tf{1Rsld ~
<tit

(i) Shut the door. [Active] (~

<fit

mt ~

the things' q;r

n ~

Kindly, Please ~
requested' q:;r ffl"

-afG

. (i) The news has pleased me. [Active]


(ii) Ihave been pleased with.the news. [Passive]
(iii) I am pleased to see you.
20. (A) 'sent' ~ ~
was cf;T
W11T <Fitfcl; A Police
Inspector sent <iiT 8
3ffem ~
~ ~
~
'A Police Inspector was sent' <ti!' 3N ! ~

(ii) We have not been informed. [Passive)

19. (B) by~ ~


'with' q;r ~
~ ~
'Pleased with
something'~
'Pleased to do something' q;r ~

mm ti f.:ti:tfcHf'9a clTcFllT CR ~-

(i) He believes in God. [Active]

13. (E) ~

103

JITT

it ~

T('Q; 'q'Jcfil' cfiT ~

~-

The dacoits looted the house ..... The dacoits took


away the things. ~
The dacoits [looted the house
+ took away the things].
~ Ilq;I"{ looted wtr took~
Active Voiceit i1
22. (D) 'were run' ~ ~
'ran' <ti!' WWT ~I 'run' ~
'Intransitive Verb'! Intransitive Verb q;r Passive
:ml' ~ ti 31'; 'They were run away <IT He was sat
down.~~~
t-They ran
away tfttT He sat dawn.

t, ~ ~ ~

23. (B) 'been'q;rm~n1

~(i) He was said to have been won.

TT

To Be v3 (Passive]
~ ~ ft.rllT 71'<l'T]
~ ~ ~ ~ t fcf; 'He~ ~ 41Rffi~cti (firu
prize) ~
~1 a\":, ~
~
Activ~ Voice <5i:
.
['He' <tit

mm~~-

i.

104

A Mirror of Conunon Errors


(i) He was said to

have

-rT

~.

won the first prize.

have V3
24. (A) 'were broken' $ ~
'broke' cfiT

(ii) I should be written to. ~

[Active]

~I ~

~$~~~25. (A)

(B)

The burgalars [broke into the house and took away ..... J
'advised' $ ~
'was' cfiT
A ~
advised
$ 1i!R 'by us' cfiT Jt<lTlT t ~
'QaT ~
t fcfi ~
Passive Voice if ti
'approached'$ ~
'was' cfiT ~
~
mrTTI ~
~
if ,ft~
ff (The needy man)~ cfillT cfil1"
t'-"approached ..... requested ..... "~
\it,t<\<<i4<!.
o1IfcRr ~
$ ~ ~
"3"f.TR
if;
~~-amiw~'i
'has'lf; 1i!R 'been'cfiT "5l<IT1T miITI
'care' if; 1i!R 'of' Preposition cfiT ~

27. (C)
28. (D)

<R ~-

R.:.f~f&a ~

(i) They took care of the patient. [Active]

(ii) The patient was taken care of. [Passive]


29. (D) 'slept' if; GfT<!. 'on' cfiT ~
"ffl11T. ~
Subject +
Verb + Preposition + Object% Passive if Verb if; -mer
Preposition ~ ffl ~
~
!; ~(i) Nobody has slrt
this bed . [Active]

V
Prep.
(ii) This bed has not been sler

on.

:r

SUB.

V. Prep.
[Passive)
3Q. (C) 'was' cfiT Jt<lTlT -:rm m1ITI hoped nq'i Active Voice$~
~
cfiT Synthesis ti ~ ~ m<P-n' % ~
t(i) The Chief Minister laid ..... _.
(ii) (the Chief Minister) hoped .....-.
~
(iii) The Chief Minister laid ..... and hoped .....
31. (D) 'listened' $ 1i1R 'to' Preposition q;rAl ~
Active Voice it Wl"m listen % ~ 'to'~
Object

cfiT

ffl t ~-

Ci) They listened

to

me. [Active]

am:.

listened Prep. Obj.


Passive Voice if listen $ ~

;;mrr

!1

3ilR ~

f.l.:.ffo1f,&a ~

cf;T

cfiT

to ~ ffl ft.9<rr
Passive Voice

ffl1TT-

(i) I was listened to by them.


3.2. {E)

qT<R ~

35. (E)

~~!1

q(cflf

t1

33. (C) 'be written' $ ~


.
written' Passive t,

'write' cfiT "5l<WT m1ITI 'be


cffcflf if Active Voice cfiJ"

~t,
(i) I should write to him. (~

~I]

~I]

36. (B) 'by' $ ~


'at' cfiT ~
m,n1 ~ annoyed with
somebody ~ annoyed at something cfiT
cfrn'r

t;~-

(i) She was annoyed


J,

with her husband.


J,
J,

annoyed

n,

t,

34. (E)

am: ~ ~

with

somebody

(ii) Iwas annoyed at his sarcastic remarks.


J,
J,
J,
annoyed at
something
37. (C) 'was to detain' % ~
'had been detained' q;y Jf?WT
"WITI 'the bus was to detain' cfiT ~ t ~ <}q:;~cUffi
'It' ~
'the bus had been detained' cfiT 3N t ~
"Uq; "eft lJcft" ~ I '
38. (A) 'killed' $ ~
'were' cfiT 1lmlT" WIT. ~
Five persons were killed (t1Ff arm; 1:IR ~ Passive

if

t,

39. (B) 'to build'$~


to be built
Passive Voice q;I' ~
ti

40. (E)

q(cflf

l1

41. (E)

q(cflf

!t

mrrt', ~

cfiT ~

42. (A) 'found'% ~


'been' cf;T JilTilT mrrTI Active 'Having
found guilty of murder' cfiT ~ t ~ cfiT ~ i:fl"cR'
~
Passive 'Having been found guilty of murder'
qif

t ~

cfiT ~

'5fR" ~, ~-

(i) Having found him guilty of murder, the judge


sentenced him to death.
~ qJq<f R.:.ff(,,lfoad. ~ ~
cfil' Synthesis t(i) The judge found him guilty of murder.
(ii) The judge sentenced him to death.
lfR cR fci; ~ ~ qJcflf Active Voice if
Participle cfiT Jnn'lT ~ Synthesis "cfif.t ~ Having
found him guilty of murder... ~
~(i) Having been found guilty of murder, he was
sentenced to life imprisonment
~ ~
f.ls:tref~a ~ ~
cfil' Synthesis t(i) He was found guilty of murder.
(ii) He was sentenced to life imprisonment.
lfr< cfi't fci; ~ ~ ~ Passive it t, 3:fR ~
Participle cfiT Jf?WT ~ Synthesis ffi lf<Having been found guilty of murder....
43. (D) 'to sell'~~
'to be sold' q;y "Sf<UTT
(i) He is to sell a book. [Active)
~ l!:cfi ~
ffl cl'R-IT

t ~ ~

n1 ~-

to

A Mirror of Common Errors

105

<IT
(ii) A book is to be sold by him. [Passive]
~

ID"U ~

cm:ft

ti)

mrrr1

44. (B) 'was broken out' ~ ~


'broke out' cfiT ffl"
break out cfi1' ~ t" '~' I ~(i) Cholera broke out in this village.
ITT!' lJ'i'q- if ~ ~ lJ<ITI)
45. (C) 'was' q;r
'had' cfiT ~
~I

m ~ w.rr, ~

~(i) Ram married a poor girl. [Active]


(ii) You told me that Ram had married a poor girl.

47. (C)

~~t-1
'was taken' ~

Active Voice ii'


48. (B) 'whom'js ~

'took' q;r

!1
'by' q;r ~

WWT n

m-~t-1

'Hold' q;r Past ~ 'held' ~ Past Participle ~ ~


'held'm~WI
50. (A) 'record'js ~
'recorded' qiJ' 1l<fi1i ~t
'The names
recoreded' = The names which are I were recorded.
51. (A) 'puzzled'~ ~
'was' cfiT
m1ITI ~(i) He was puzzled. [Passive)
(ii) They were disturbed. [Passive]
(iii) She was tired. (Passive]
~. (i) He puzzled me. [Active]
(ii) They disturbed us. [Active]
(iii) The work tired her. [Active]

ro

(~;)'~~~~ffl"~I)
46. (E)

(ii) I know the man who helped him.


{Active]
49. (B) 'hold' ~ ai~ 'held' cfiT 3l'<TI"IT m,n-1 hold Present
Tense, Plural Number ii' t ~
v1 t ~ Passive
if to be (is/are/am/was/were, be, being, been] + .v-' cf;!"

qf<Ff

n1 ~-

(i) I know the man by whom he was helped.

[Passive]

***

Chapter-12

NARRATION
t ~1 ~

Narrate t 'af':IT J31T ~


t
Narration ~ 3R" SynonymsStatement, Assertion, Declaration amf; ~ ~
Narration~ 'Sf<TI"7l' Grammar~~
term~~
if~
<ilTfil !
~381"~~~1
Narration tst ~

,~

'cffiRT' I

t ~

Statements~.
~ Statements cm-

3nT"ra

~)

mt,

(2) ~

mu ~ ~

'5ll1'IT ti
') ~ (" ") ~

~ ~-cfil'-~
~
Inverted Commas ('

Reporting Verb Present Tense ~ Future Tense if


Speech ll:; Verb ~ Tense ii' ~ ~
~

~ m Reported
mmt tt-

(i) Direct:

(i) Mira said, "I am late".

am ~ 1'J"llT

Statement "I

am late"

R<!T ~

~m ~

m ti tt-(i)

if ~

q1"q<f

~~~ti

Reporting Speech/Reporting
Clause
~ -::iri:r t '5l"AT

~ ti

ll:; ~

it

m~

m~

(ii) Direct :

it

Present
Tense

:i:

~';{Ti:f t ~ ~ ti
ii'~

it

DIRECT NARRATION

Direct Narration

t ~~ ~

Direct:

Indirect:

*~ ~

Rules
(Sentences) 1R ~
~ ti
Rules ~ General Rules q;m "'1m ti 'it General Rules ~
~ f*ll{:,f&a t-

Past Indefinite

'I never

You said,

-!,

~ ~

Reported
~

if ~

Sf there'.

Past

Present

Tense

Indefinite

You said that you

never went there.

--r

Past
Indefinite

Past
Indefinite

cm- Past

Nita said,

:i:
Past
Tense

INTO INDIRECT NARRATION

*~

if ~

Imperfect

if~~~

t:~Direct:

~:;.fr~ it

t Indirect Narration ffl

Present
Tense

t:~-

(b) Present Imperfect

(iii) "Jane Austen", said Mala, "was a great novelist."

l"

"!

(a) Present Indefinite ~

~~if

'cll'q<f ~

~t-

t; ~-

q')q<j

:i:

Present
Future
Tense
Tense
Mira will]ay that Mohan is

(3) ~ Reporting Verb Past Tense


Speech ll:; Verb ll:; Tense it f.11:1f"1f&c1 ~

Reported Speech/
Reported Clause/
Reported Statement

ll:; ~

-r-

Mira will say, 'Mohan is always right.'

Indirect :
always right.

(ii} "Let's go for a walk", she said to. her friends.

't,

Present
Tense

Future
Tense

The teacher said, "The school is closed for a month."


q1"q<f

~
~

Rita comes late.'

"We are lucky".

(b) Reporting Speech cfiT 'Sf<TI"7l' ~

(i)

Present
Tense

She sFs that

!itJ allcl4ib \ii1-tl:6tfo,1l :

(a) Mohan said to his friends,

if~

-r

Mira said that she was

it 1ITTT ~ am ~ '11t ~ ~ ~

NARRATION~

3R'f

She says, 'Rita comes late.'

q1"q<f

m ~

late. ~

Indirect:

ti

Direct Narration -4 ti
2. Indirect Narration : ~
~
'o!l'fcRr ll:; mu ~ ~
Statements tst ~
if ~
t', ~ ~ q;m ~
~ ~
~
ll:; am ~ ~ Statements~ 'Wf, ~. ~
3ffi:,

:r

Present
Tense

if .fRT ~

') ~

t; ~he is ready.

Indirect : He says that

~~ ~

Inverted Commas ('

(' ')~~~~i,

t~

if ~ ~

(1) Direct: He says, 'I am ready'

KINDS OF NARRATION

Narration~ ~
~ ~
1. Direct Narration : ~

it ~

(1) Direct Narration


Indirect Narration

Indirect:

'I am willing to do it'

l
Present
Imperfect

Nita said that she was willing to do it.

T
Past
Tense

l
Past
Imperfect

'5ll1'IT

107

A Mirror of Common Errors


(c)

Present Perfect~

Past Perfect if ~

-;;J"loT

t;

Indirect :

Jyoti said that they had been talking

Direct:

Dipu said,

T.

Past
Tense

'I have bought a red pen.'

J:

Past
Present
Tense
Perfect
Indirect:
Dipu said that he had bought a red pen.
T
.!Past
Past
Tense
Perfect
(d) Present Perfect Continuous ~
Past Perfect
Continuous if ~ ~ ~ t; ~Direct: Mohan said to me, 'I have been living here for a
month'.
Indirect : Mohan told to me that he had been living there
for a month.
(e) Past Indefinite~ Past Perfect if ~
~ ~ t;

~-

~-ifi-~mt,
NOTE (B) : ~

err Habitual Truth


~

Reported Speech ii' ~ Universal Truth


Reported Speech ~ Tense if ~

m cit

;rtt' ~
~ t; ~(i) Direct : The teacher said . 'The earth moves

Past
Perfect
Indirect:

(D)

[S.S.C. Clerk Grade 1986]


[Indirect Narration ~ ~ ~
~ Part (C) ii' 'is' ~ ~
'was' cfiT ~
Reporting Verb 'told' Past Tense

m:m. ~

(ii) Pressed by his students/the Principal suddenly said I


(A)
(B)
that I am in no way responsible for the quarrel. I
(C)
(D)

[L.D.S.B. 1990]
~ Part (C) i\' 'I am' ~
Reporting Verb 'told' Past

[Indirect Narration ~ ~ ~
~
'he was' cfiT ~
~.
~
Tense if ti
(t) Past Imperfect ~ Past Perfect Continuous ir ~

-;;J"loft;~-

Direct :

'~

(A)

Jyoti said, 'They were talking to the Principal'.

J,
Past Tense

J,
Past Imperfect

r-

f.lC!fctf{gd ~

llIIIIJ ~

'q"{ ~

jt

Present
Tense
\:ft'~

i,

m tr it

First Person Subject ~ ~.

Second Person Object ~ ~


~
Third Person No
Cbange;~(i) Direct: She said to me, 'I am right but you are wrong.
Indirect : She told me that she was right but I was wrong.
['I' First Person t ;.m- Subject 'She' ~ ~
~
'she' W lfclT
'you' Second Person
Object 'me'~

t. ~

~~

No Error.

Past
Present
Tense
Tense
My father said that the earth is round.

Past
Tense
(4) Reported Speech~ Pronouns

(C)

No Error.

ti

Present
Tense

:t:

(B)

=r:

round the sun.


(ii) Direct : My father said, 'The earth is round' ..

NOTE: (C) Fcltitllffi!OI ~


ffl Fcf; ~ ~
'Q'{ ~
~Problems~ ~ !1 ~(i) He told his servant I that his work I is not satisfactory I
(A)

Present
Tense

Past
Tense

Past
Past
Tense
Indefinite
You said that she bad written a letter.
Past
Tense

-:r

Past
Tense

round the sun.'


Indirect :
The teacher said that the earth moves

You said, 'She wrote a letter'

Indirect :

i\'

Past Perfect
Continuous

to the Principal.
(g) ~ ~.
can-could ii' shall-should ii' will-would
if, may-might if~~
ti
NOTE (A) : Past Perfect err Past Perfect Continuous

Direct:

:r

~-

t. ~

'l'm'lfclTtl]

(ii) Direct: You said to me, "He is handsome".


Indirect : You told me that he was handsome.
['He' Third Person t, ai:; ~
~
change~
7l<IT !1]
(b) <l'R Universal Truth ~ ftw: 'we' <fiT '5l<ITTr
'we'
Indirect Narration it ~ ~
~ t'; ~Direct : They said, 'We cannot live without air.'
Indirect : They said that we cannot live without air.
[~ ~
q' 'we'~ -;rm~ "1J<l'f t, ~
~
Universal Truth ~ ftw: ~ !1)

Ji-

fcfi<fr

mm~
~

108

A Mirror of Common Errors

(c) ~
our, us ~

Magazine,

cfiT ~

~: it, its~

it

.;:.;
'i

cRclT

Newspaper etrfs ~
~ we,
Indirect Narration if ~

!C..'il

" ~

~;

"I<:!-

[~ ~
~ Part(C)# tomorrow'~~
on the morrow
<IT the next day cfiT ~
WIT, <Ffrfci; tomorrow ~ on the
morrow <!T the next davJ if ~
~ ~ t1]

m, ~-

Direct: The Times of India says, 'We are trying our best

(i) Mira said, 'I am responsible for it.'


(ii) Deepak said to Meena, 'You are punctual.'
RULES :

keep you well informed,'


Indirect : The Times of India says that it is trying its best
to keep us well informed.
to

[<l'm

'we' om 'our'~: 'it' elm 'its' if~~


Reporting Verb 'if Object cfiT ~
Reported Speech if 'you' ciiT ,1f<rrlr W
3ll<H4<r>(\lj~lF( Third Person <IT First Person if

. (d)

'tlR

TTir ~]
'ITT om
you ~

m ~
~

~-

(a) said_ said~ ~mt <lT observed, remarked, pointed


out, asserted, declared, proclaimed enfa if~~
ti
said to_ said to~ ~
t <lT told/informed/reported to

.;, == ~ t,
'i

'"""'

otm: Object cfiT told cfiT ~


~
'tell' 'Q;<fi Transitive Verb
lR ~
WTm ~

cfiT ~

NOTE (A) :

{i) Direct: She said, "You are guilty."


Indirect : She said that he was guilty.
(ii) Direct : She said, ''You are all guilty."
(iii) Direct: He said, "You are guilty."
Indirect : He said that l was guilty.

we were all guilty,


i\' ~ Reported Speech ii' Present
~
t 'ITT f-1AR.1ftrn ~ if 'TI'

Indirect : He said that

~~tt
then~~

This~

that

~ ~
-~ Part (A) if 'told' <fir
~
~ object~
'told'~-~
~
~!]

NOTE (B} :
;im 1%clT '5TffiT t; ~
Problem ~
'5iT ~

~~~)

ti

if ~

[~

night
Hence ~ thence

'said'~

Tonight ~ that

il' ~

Next day ~ the following day


Ago --1before

NOTE : This I here I now I today I come


~ ~
I ~
I ~
I 3llre: ~ ~

31TR

<fir ~

js

1. INDIRECT NARRATION OF ASSERTIVE

SENTENCES
~
~
~(f
PROBLEM~.
(i) The lady said that I she should be away I from home
(B)

tomorrow as Malti 's I friend would come to visit


(C)
(D)
Mumbai./ No Error.

(E)
[B.S.R.B., P.O. Examination (Kolkata), 1991]

...

l; ~-

i:l:; Part (A) if 'said' ~ ~ 'to' cnf ~


'said me' ~. ~
'said to me' q;r ~
'told'~ ~
q;;:.rr ~!]

{c) Reported Speech ~ Verb ~ Tense

~~~t,
(d)

a.Rf if

Full Stop (.) q;r


cfiT -qn;,.,

Narrations f.t.:.ifc1forn

m ~ Speaker
~ ~ ~ m ~%~~mm m ~ #i 'ffiIT ti

(A)

'to' ~ Object cfiT >f<TI"Tr


Object q;r ~
~ '4't"

Tomorrow :-"7 the next

Last night -e the previous night,

WITlT ~

mTTT

<IT

(b) Inverted Commas est W2T ~


~
t' -3fl"{ Reported
'
Speech~~
3ili:l~4cfidlj,~.m. 'that' q;f '3fciTIT ~
ci1ciT ~,

!1

day I on the morrow


Thus ~ so

"1ffia'said' cfiT

qJ'q<f

~I ~

fflTT ~)

!; ~

Jl<TilT

(E)

(~~-:,fr)
These ~ those
(~

'said' ~ cW::" ~
said i:l:; 1ifl'e: ~

No Error.
(E)

No Error,

Today ~ that day

Here ~ there

Object

(4) She said me I that she I liked that I young man. I


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Come=-s go it~

mm t

mm t; mt-

t,

(iv) Direct: He said, "You are all guilty."

Now'~

Problem feur

(a) He told I that he I was I hungry./


(A) (B)
(C)
(D)

Indirect : She said that tliey were all guilty.

(S) Indirect Narration


Tense ~ Past Tense if ~

t,

ffl

11'

...

3ilct4'**11j*lk

wn-rr ~ ~ ti

"tR ~

Sentences ~ Indirect

m'Tt-

. (i) Mira said that she was responsible for it.


(ii) Deepak said to Meena that she was punctual.
-qr

(iii) Deepak told Meena that she was punctual.

2. INDIRECT NARRATION OF INTERROGATIVE


SENTENCES

~(i) He said to me, 'Are you going there ?'


(ii) She said to me, 'Do you know his name ?'
(iii) You said to me, 'What are you doing ?'
(iv) Mahesh said to Gauri, 'Why were you late?'

', 109

A Mirror of Common Errors


RULES:
(a) Say~
cl c:.e1

if

ask, enquire (of), want to know (of) ~

R<fT <ilT'ITT t I
(b) Inverted Commas

!1

C ') ~ ~ fe:<rr ~

mm

{c) <l'R Reported Speech ~ Yes I No Question


Reported Speech ~
if I whether 'q;J" WTI1T ~
~

~-

Direct: She said to Mohan, 'Can you help me' ?


(d) ~
~ Reported Speech jt Wh-Question (-;m who I
what I how I where I when I why 31TR ~ ~
t") if)"
Reported Speech ~ ~
~
Interrogative word ~ ffi"
~
Conjunction 'q;J" Jf<ITlT ~ ~ ~ t; ~Direct
You said to your wife, 'What are you doing ?'
Indirect :
You asked your wife what she was doing.
NOTE : ~
m' fcf; ~ ~
lR ~
~
Problem
Interrogative Words ~ ~
'that' 'llT 'as to' ~
~ -sira

m m

t';~He asked me I that how I got I time to write I all these


(A)

(8)

(C)

poems.
(D)
[~

qfq<f ~ Part (8)

[B.S.R.B. (Patna), 1990]


'how I
Interrogative Word 'how'~ ~

if 'that how I got' ~ ~

got' 'q;J" >PWr ~ ~


'that' Conjunction q;J" ~
'?fRo ti]
(e) Reported Speech~ Assertive~ R<IT '1fIBT t ~
Verb + Subject ~ Subject + Verb ~ Order if mt ~

ti

~(i)

-:r.

Verb

-r-

Problems ~1

~ ~

(i)The receptionist asked me I who do I want I to meet


(A)
(B)
in the office I No Error.
(q

'q;J" 'G"ID

cii\"

'q;J"

wrnrr t ~

'tZfR ~
'whom I wanted' q;r

00

"S!<TI"ll ~
~
'who'
'whom' ifi%tt> "ififl
~ ~ 'who do I want' ~

~~~I

$ ~ ~ Sign of Interrogation (?) ~ ~


Full
Stop (.) 'q;J" ~
~
~
t; ~Direct : Ramesh said to you, 'Whom have you invited ?'
Indirect : Ramesh asked you whom you had invited.
{~ t fcf; Direct Narration ~ qJq<f ~ ~ ~ Sign of
Interrogation (?) t ~
Indirect Narration ~ qfcFf ~
~~Full Stop(.) ti
3r.f ~ ~
q;r ~~~~Topic~~
if~
TTtl: "1RT ~
~ Indirect Narration cii\" ~(i) He asked me if I whether I was going there.
<IT, He wanted to know if I was going there.
(ii) She asked me if I whether I knew his name.
(iii) You asked me I wanted to know what I was doing.
[":f fol, that what was I doing]
(iv) Mahesh asked Gauri why she had been late.
[-;, 1% that why had she been late]
[~
~ fcf; ~ Reporting Verb Past Tense -q'
ReportedSpeech lf was I were 'q;J" Jf<ITlT
'was I were'
'had been' if ~
-;;irar ti)
(f)qfq<f

mm~

m~

war

mor

(i) Ragini said to her servant, 'Bring a glass of water.'

do that day.

mxr "tR

whom

~-

Sub. Verb

NOTE : ~

'ef>'dfifiF(q,'

~ m.fl' ~

{b) ~ ~
Verb~ ~
!; ~-Go, Bring, Make
(c) Negative Command 'Do not <IT Don't~~
%;

Sub.
Indirect : Roma asked me what I would

!1~~-

(iii) 'who' $

anR lITT!T t,
l

a:m: 'do I

3. INDffiECT NARRATION OF IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES
(a) Imperative Sentence ~ Order (~), Request
(~),
Advice ~), Negative Command (~cf>I-Otttcf> 3-lffl)

Direct : Roma said to me, "What will

T do today ?"

mm t,

(ii)~
Reporting Verb 'asked' Past Tense it' i, am: Indirect
Narration if 'TI' Past Tense q;r >T<WT W'lTI ~ ~
! 1%
'I want'$~
'I wanted' m-rn-1

Indirect; She asked Mohan if I whether he could help her.

(i)

(i) Indirect Narration it Sentence Assertive


want' q;r Assertive 'I want' Wllfl

(D)

[S.S.C. CLERK GRADE 1987]


[~~~Part (B) ~ 'who do I want'~~
'whom I
wanted' 'q;J" ~
mm1J

(ii) Ramu said to his father, 'Please bring me a pen.'


(iii) My friend said to me, 'Join my company.'
(iv) She said to her children, 'Don't walk in the sun'.
RULES REGARDINGORDER I REQUEST
(a) Say I said cii\" ~'ef ~ ~
order I ordered; request /
requested; advise I advised; ask I asked; beg I begged; tell I
told~
-q ~~ti
(b)Inverted Commas(' ') q;t" ~~Verb~~

q;fffl~il

'to'

A Mirror of Common-Errors

110

(crReported Speechjs Pronouns Tl'

3.lli:li\'<l<#i:llj*II< ~-

ffi t:1
(d) Kindly, Please~

cm- ~ ~ t't

311<!.("{i::lcfi ~

(a)Say I said cm- ask I asked, tell / told, remind I reminded


'it ~l!ql(<lcfii:llj*II< ~
R"<lT ~

t,

m ~

(b) Inverted Commas ~ ~


not + to + v1 'cfif
-;,rm ti ~
'Do not go'~
'not to go'~ ~
"51'"cfiR, Do not make arar 'not
to make'~ ":5frnT t"1
\
NOTE : ~
-~--

Problems

ti ~

[B.S.R.B. (Patna), 1992)


'cfif

m wrr,1

'not to go'

t;~-

....

r r

J,

J,

J,

Object

form

V4

arar, ~ f.:r<l7lT 'cfif im-r-r

,rq: Indirect Narration js ~

'Let' (ii) 'cfif ~

to

object

(i)

Direct

Indirect

mm~ ~ n

Topic ~ '5lrt'1'

m v1

He said to his friends, 'Let's go to


the movies'.
He proposedto his friends that they
should go to the movies.
I said to the villagers, 'Let's help
the injured men.'
I suggested to the villagers that we
sheuld help the injured men.

v4 (V + ing)

,ft

qiJ" ~

Object ~

mm t ~-

"ti' ~ t"1

v4

(a) Sub: + propose I suggest +

it' ~

Sub. + should + V1 +

(to suggest), ~
(to allow)~ ~

Direct: She said, 'Let's go for a walk'.


Indirect : She suggested going for a walk.
l
,!.

to

+ Object + that +

(i) You proposed I suggested to your friends that you


should have a walk in the morning.
(c) Sub. + propose I suggest+ V(ing) + ......
(i) You proposed I suggested going for a walk in the

morning.

ctil' INDIRECT NARRATION

Reported Speech ~

NOTE (A) : Suggest w.TT Propose ~ ~

~ ~-

mm ti

cm- ~

suggested

m '~~~
ir

proposed

She forbade her children to walk in the sun.*'

. 'Let' (i) 'cfif


(to propose)~~

J,

. (ii) Direct

(i) Ragini ordered her servantro bring a glass of water.


(ii) Ramu requested his father to bring him a pen.
(iii) My friendasked.metojoin his company.
(iv) She asked her children not to walk in the sun.

J,

~m~~t;tt-

J,

t; ~-

(d)Reportcd Speech~ Subject~ 1if1G slwuki~

prohibited I prevented
.your son from working.

4. LET~ ~

J,

Indirect

Direct : You said to your son, 'Stop working'.


Indirect : You prohibited I prevented

'<lT,

object
them

m ~ ~ t,

.i

mm t; ~-

m m proposed I suggested

J,

(c)Inverted Commas (' ')


~
that 'cfif

. m, prohibit I prohibited, prevent I prevented + object


+from+ V(ing) 'cfif

t,

to
to

obj. to + V1

forbade

propose I proposed; suggest I suggested Tl'

J,

suggested
(ii) proposed

Direct : He said to me, 'Don't go out'.


Indirect : He forbade me to 8 out.

.i

":5frnT

.i

m mm

forbid I forbade+ object + to + V1 'cfif

(c) ~.

m~ ~

No Error.

if 'to do not go'~~

m~

'"Srtfflcf ~

''

(b)~ Reporting Verb ir Object


~~'to'~
Object'cfif
(i) suggested
to
me

m- ~ ~ !;

(E)

cm-

(a) say I said

(i)l advised him I to do not go I abroad for I further studies.Z


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

[~~~Part (B)

~,'

RULES:

RULES REGARDING NEGATIVE COMMAND

.*

(A) Let <:iiT atti ,ff1f ~


Indirect Narration iRR' ~ ~-

NOTE (B) : propose I suggest+ to + V1 'cfif

mmt1
~

ffl ~

am:, He proposed to me to go home~


1"R,(f ti~
He proposed to me that we should go home WTr I

111

A Mirror of Common Errors


(B) LETw

~-,~

'it ~

~ (to allow)i5

~cir~-

INDIRECT NARRATION

(a) say to I said to~ order I ordered, request I requested~


it~$
~
~
R-lT ~ ti
Verb$
(i) Direct:

(c)~

m 'to'

m ~

':iiJ'rnT

':5frnT

ti

t1

Ranjan said to his boss, 'Let me go


home.'
Ranjan requested his boss to allow
him to go home.
The officer said to the peon, "Let
the man go in".
The officer ordered the peon to
allow the man to come in.

Indirect:
(ii) Direct :

Indirect:
_NOTE : 'let'

<fiT

~ ~

cir Indirect Speech it

to

let cfiT

6. INDIRECT NARRATION OF EXCLAMATORY


SENTENCES

~-

m.- ~

~it~~~~!;~.,-- .
Hari said to Seema, 'Let the children go
to play'.
Hari ordered Seema to let the children
Indirect
go to play.
~
Hari told Seema that the children might be allowed to go
to play.
Direct

5. INDIRECTNARRATION OF OPTATIVE
#}
SENTENCES

~-

it ~

~~v!q;rm~~t1

am

<iir ~-

mm t1 ~
cfiT

WWI'

(b)~

Assertive (Subject+ Verb)~

(c)~

Sign of Exclamation Cl) cfiT ~

ti

t"t

RULES:
(a) said cir ~/'qlcf $ -~

exclaimed I exclaimed with joy I


exclaimed with sorrow I exclaimed with grief I confessed
with regret I shouted with applause I cried out I eagerly
wished~
if ~ R<ll' ~ ti
Speech~~

':5frnT

~ ~

ti
Full

it ~

(i) Raman exclaimed that it was a very beautiful sight.

I ~

it Sign of Exclamation(!) ~ ~
Stop(.) cfiT m ~ ~ t1
~ ~ f.l"lllTI' q;i- 'tfTffi ~ ~ ~ Topic ~ ~
tro: 'cl'fcP.IT cfiT Indirect Narration~-

(b) Inverted Commas(' ') ~ ~


Reported Speech$
~
rha1q;f
~~ti
(c) Reported Speech cir ~
Verb + Subject t)
(Subject + Verb) ~ ~
it ~ ~ t, ~
Assertive~ R<IT ~ t"1
(d) aJlq~4cf>clljJi!R might~
q;r >r<WT ~ ~ t ~

t ~

What I How I Alas I Ah I Oh /Hurrah~

~ti

(d)~

m i,

cwf4" ~

~:

(c)aM~<lcf>cllj1< Verb~ Tense it

!1

(e)

(a) Exclamatory~

m ~

(ii) He said, 'May you succeed in the examination !'


(iii) They said, 'Long live the Indo-Russian friendship !'
(iv) We said, 'God save the P.M. !
Optative Sentence if wish, curse ~
~
ti ~
RULES:
(a) said cir prayed I wished cursed~

(i) Raman said, 'What a beautiful sight !'


(ii) You said, 'Well done ! my friends'.
(iii) She said, 'O that I were extremely beautiful !'
(iv) The old woman said, 'Ah! I am ruined.'

(b)Inverted cornmas C' ')~~Reported


'that' qi!"
':iiJ'rnT ti

(i) Mary said, 'May God bless you l'

cfiT?RT, ~

,1

(i) Mary prayed that God might bless me.


(ii) He wished I prayed that I might succeed in the
examination.
(iii) They wished I prayed that the Indo-Russian
friendship might live.long.
(iv/ We wished I prayed that the P.M. might live long.

RULES:

(b) Reported Speed}~ to allow t

it ITT~

~~~~~~~Topic~~

a1Vf -qt '81'

it Sign of Exclamation (!) ~ ~


Full Stop(.) cfiT >l<rr1T ~ ~ ti

(ii) You shouted with applause that your friends had done
well.
(iii) She eagerly wished that she were extremely beautiful.
(iv) The old woman exclaimed with sorrow that she was
ruined.
7. MUST 'avlT INDIRECT NARRATION
(i) He said 'We must love our country'.
(ii) She said, 'One must do one's dufy~.
~ msutt ~
(morality), fq~qajJqi,ficil (universality)
~
qi!" ~
must it ~ ~
~
ti am:,

mm

mm

ll2

A Mirror of Common Errors


Indirect Narration ~ ~
efiT ~
~
~ Indirect Narration f.:is:.if~f<sct mit(i)

~ ~

qJ'cf<IT

(A)
(B)
explaining why could he I not go to the office. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

He said that we must love our country.

(ii) She said that one must do one's duty.


NOTE : ~Gf must <f>T ~

m~

W<;i ~

Present <IT Future ~ ~

ft

have to I has to I had to, will have to I

would have to 3flR ~ ~


-;;nm i; ~(i) Direct
Rana said, 'l must go there at once.'
Indirect
Rana said that he had to go there
at once.
She said, 'I must go to Delhi next .

(ii) Direct

to Delhi the following week.


NOTE:~
Problems~ ~

~
~

~ ~
~ ~

t
q;'I-

t ~
lft m:ft'-mfti ~I
Narration

PROBLEMS BASED ON NARRATION

Directions : Find out the error in each of the following


sentences, if any. lf there is no erre:1; your answer is 'E'
1. He exclaimed with sorrow I that his brother died I just
(A)
(B)
two I months before. I No-Error.
{C)
(D)
(E)
2. The visitor told me that he had I come from Kolkata I to
(A)
(B)
discuss some of the I important issues with me. I
(C)
(D)
No Error,
(E)
3. Soma ordered her servant I to bring her some I hot water
(A)
_ (B)
as she has/ to take some medicine. I No Error.
(C)
(D) .
(E)
4. The father said to his son I that if he wanted to I achieve
(A)
(B)
his goal, I he must work hard. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
5. They proposed to me I to join the party I and work for the
(A)
(B)
(C)
welfare I of the downtrodden. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
6. Instead of going to London I he went to America I and
(A)
(B)
stays I there for a month. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
7. The prisoners walked slowly I for they knew that as I
(A)
(B)
soon as they cross the gate, I the jailor would ask them to
(C)
.
(D)
jog./ No Error.
(E)

9. When Meena said I that he was coming to see I me the


(A)
(B)
next day, I wondered I what problems she witi bring. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)
10. I often visited her I and found myself quite I puzzled to
(A)
(B)
see the dreadful pictures I which she had hung on the

(C)

week.'
She said that she would have to go

Indirect

8. My friend being ill sent I to his boss an application I

(D)

wall. I No Error.
(E)
11. I suggested that Ragini should I stay here at night if she I
(A)
(B)
got late but she does I not pay any attention to my
(C)
.
(D)
suggestion . I No Error.
(E) .
12. He asked me I why had I gone to the cinema/ late at night
(A)
(B)
in spite of I his clear instructions. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
13. He informed me I that our college would I remain closed
(A)
(B)
(C)
tomorrow I on account of Rakshabandhan. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
14. On reaching the station I he found that I he let the papers I

(A)

(B)

(C)

in the drawing room./ No Error.


(D)
(E)
15. He requested the teacher I to allow him to go home I as
(A)
(B)
he got I a severe headache. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
16. Jyoti asked me I what could she do I for me in that I
(A)
(B)
(C)
critical situation. I No Error.
{D)
(E).
17. The Director knowing of my I interest in Environmental
(A)
(B)
Science I asked me that I would I like to attend the
(C)
(D)
National Seminar. I No Error.
(E)
warned the shopkeepers that if I they
(A)
persist in I charging high prices, their/ licences would be
(B)
(C)
. (D)
cancelled. I No Error.

18. The Government

(E)

113

.A Mirror of Common Errors

19. I was surprised I to know why had lie turned I down such
(A)
(B)
a good offer I of marriage. I No Error.

(C)

(E)

(0)

20. My instructor told me I that if I I do the lessons regularly, I


(A)
(B)
(C)
would I certainly obtain good marks./ No Error.
(D)
(E)
21. They did not I know why the two I brothers were fighting I

with each other. I No Error.


(D)
(E)
22. My father wanted to know I that I had done I all the work I
(A)
(B)
(C)
.
assigned to me. I No Error .
. (D)
(E)
23. She says, "My cousin studied I hard in order that he I
(A)
(B)
may get a good I position in the test" I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

24. The news reporter asked I me that where the accident had
(A)
(B)
taken I place and how many I persons were injured. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)
25. He was determined to I participate in the car race I even
(A)
(B)
though he knew I that he will not succeed. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
26. The traveller asked me I if I could teJI him I the way to
(A)
(B)
(C)
the I nearest railway station./ No Error.
(D)
(E)
27. Mohan said that he was going to I the library and wanted
(A)
(B)
to I know that I could I accompany him. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
28. The youngest princess took I her father's hand in hers I
(A)
(B)
and simply said that I she loves her more than salt. I
(C).
(D)
No Error.
(E)
29. The teacher being very angry I with the pupils asked
(A)
(B)
them I why they had made I a noise like this. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
. (E)
30. She requested her companions I to wait for her I until she I
{A)
(B)
(C)
comes back. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

31. Our teacher said to us I that we should not live I beyond


(A)
(B)
our means I if we don't want to invite misery./ No Error.
(C)
(D)
. (E)

32. The

father forbade his son I to walk in the sun I and play


(A)
(B)
(C)
with I his friends on the road./ No Error.
(E)

33. When the mother saw la bull coming towards the


(A)
(B)
children I she cried out I and ask them to run away. I
.
(C)
(D} .
No Error.
(E)
34. The teacher said to the students I that a vegetarian I is a
(A)
(B)
person who I never eats meat. I No Error.
(C)
(E)

35. In one of his famous sonnets, I Milton says that I "They


(A)
(B)
also serve I who only stand and wait" I No Error.
. (C)
(D)
(E)

36. The sum and substance I of the speech of the leader was I
(A)
(B)
that the country's I future was bleak.} No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
37. The minister readily I gave assurance that/ the matter will
(A)
(B)
be looked into I as soon as possible. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
38. The guide told us I that where the island I was and went
(A)
(B)
(C)
on I narrating its history. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
39. Shyama said apologetically I that "I am not feeling I well
(A)
(B)
and so I cannot I go with you today". I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
40. The Duke expressed I his wish to see his I native land
(A)
(B)
again but there I appears no scope. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
41. Shamim exclaimed I with delight that I they have won the
(A)
(B)
(C)
match I by six wickets. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
42. The hermit prayed I that God might I help me in I my

00

mission . I No Error.

(D)

(E)

114

A Mirror of Common Errors


Indirect narration it Reported Speech cfi'I' Past Perfect
Tense it~~~
!1 ~-~ qfcflf cfiT .Direct
Narration~
Indirect Narration ~.
.
Direct : He said, "Oh ! my brother died two months
. ~go".
Indirect : He exclaimed with sorrow that his brother
had died two months before.
NOTE: .TIME & TENSE~ ~
1R ,fl- ~ ~
cfil"

43. They exclaimed with delight that it I was a very beautiful


(A)

. (B)

picture I and said that they have never seen I such a

. (C)
beautiful picture before. I No Error.
(D)

(E)

44. The commander thought I that the gates should I


(A)
.
(B)
be locked I as it is eight o'clock.z No Error.
(C)
.
(D)
(E)

!1 ~~He exclaimed' Past Tense ii' t ~

45. She said that i she would not 'tell/ anything until she I has
(A)

(B)

(B)

47. It was seven o'clock I in the evening I when the train


.

(A)

. (B)

(C}

48. The issues were complex l and especially the members I


(A)

. .

(B)

of the committee I have made them obscure. I No Error.


(D)

(C)

(E)

49. The report said J that the Judge acquitted /-them of .all I
(A)

(G

(B)

the charges. I No Error,


(D)

(E)

$0. I thought that he I would come and give I me the latest


(A)
(B)
information I about the patient./ No Error-.
(D)
(E)

1. (B)

2. (E)

6. (C)

7. (C)

11. (C)

12. (B)
17. (C)
22. (B)
27.(C)
32. (E)

16. (B)

21. (E)
26. (E)

31. (E)'
,. ~.(E)

ANSWERS
3. (C)

4. (D)
9. (D)

8,(C)
13. (C)

18. (B)

14,,(C)
.

38. (B)

-~1. (C)

42. (E)

46. (B)

47. (E)

43. (C)
48.'(D)

'bald'

mn ~

mm

be

Direct : He said, "Everybody must


loyal to his
country".
Indirect : He said that everybody must be loyal to
his country.
~ should cfi'I' has to it ~ ~
'l1<lT t ~
Direct
Narration $ ~
ii' 'must' cfiT ~
~
ffl' ~

~.

. 5.'(B)
10. (E)
15. (C)

29. (D)

3.0. (D)

34. (E)
39. (B)

35. (B)

40. (D)

. 44. (D)

45. (D)

49.(B)

so. (E)

25. (D)

_____
C'1f ~

-~~t;~.:_

~~1Tl!Ttl

_20~ (C)

EXPLANATIONS

(q

1?. (B)
.24. (B)

23. (C).
28. (D)_
33. (D)

37. (C)

i. (B) 'died'

m ~

steamed i into the station. /No Error..


(D)
(E)
.

-u;c: ti

3. (C) 'has'~ ~
'had' ofiT ~
m"l'fT ~
';S'!1ii Reporting
Speech Past Tense ii'
<It Reported Speech it ,f\Past Tense cfiT ffl' ~~ti
. .
. 4. (D) 'must'~ ~
'had to' cfiT
;;i1ii must
ofiT
(moral) ~
~ ~
Indirect
Narration ii' must cfi'I' ~ ~
~ t, ~ ~
must W ffl' suggestion <l'T compulsion ~)
-aref.t $ ~ it <It 'must' q;t have to I has to I shall
have to I will have to I had to ii' :o:tlcllMcf\dlj~R ~

(E)

(D)

t.

2d~) ~

fire. I No Error.

with

s31T, ~

~I

46. He reminded I me that he. has often I told me not to play I


-

";5l'T ~

brother$_
ofiT
Past of the Past it' ~I
,f$ past ofthe past $ ~ Past P~rfectTense cfiT
iraT are': 'his brother had died'~

(E)

(A) .

qi\-

ififlf Past ~ ~

(C)

heard the facts./ No Error.


(D)

qi\- ~

Direct: He said, "I must go now" .


Indirect : He said that he had to go then.
['iffl 'should' q;t 'had to' ii' ~ ~ ~ t cl<ITI%
Direct Narration~-~
ii' must ofiT ffl ~
ffl $ ~ ~ 1TlfT
5. (B) 'to join' ~ ~
'that I should join' .j;r
WIT
. cPi'l'f.l; proposed/suggestei:l~ ~ 'that + Subject +
1
should+ V 'cfil' ~
~
~
t,. ';!" fcti to+ V 1 qil;

t,1

tt-'
. Direct : He said, "Let us go to the pictures".
Indirect : He proposed that they should go to the

pictures.
__,

W ~
Direct
Narration 4 Reporting Verb ~ Past 'fense if 11' tlllT
Reported Speech Past Indefinite Tet)se ~ ~ <it

R ~ He proposed to go to the pictures]


6. (C) 'stays" ~ ~
'stayed' ifiT ~
W1T ~
'He
went to America' t -qm- ~
t. f<fi ~ Past Tense
-qi

t,

115

A Mirror of Common Errors

'crossed' cf;!' ~
m1TT ~
'they
knew' Past Tense if 't am: Reported Speech \ft Past
Tense if WTTI
8. (C) 'why c~uld he'~ ~
'why he could' q;r
m1TT
~
Indirect Narration if Interrogative Sentence~
Assertive <Fri: ~ ;.;rrm !; ~_.:
Direct : He said to me. "Where are you going ?"
Indirect : He asked me where I was going.
9.(D) 'will' ~ ~
'would' cf;T ~
~
~
'I
wondered' Past Tense 'ti' t am: Reported Speech ,ft
"'
Past.Tenseif min-1
10. (E) ~
~
t-1
11. (C) 'does' ~ ~
'did' q;r
Reporting
Speech 'I suggested' Past Tense 'ti' ti am: Reported
Speech 'lt Past Tenseii' W,'TITI
12, (B) 'why had I' ~ ~- 'why I had' q;r 1l'1Ulr ~ ~
Interrogative. Sentence ~ Indirect Narration if
Reported speech Assertive (~
Subject + Verb)
7. (C) 'cross' ~ ~

m-

m- ~ ~

~ti

13. (C) 'tomorrow'~ ~

'on the morrow' <IT 'the next day'


Indirect Narration it 'tomorrow'
~ 'on the tomorrow' <IT 'the next day' if ~
~
q;r

m" ~

~t,
t4.

wrr ~

'he had left' _q;r >flITlT


'he found' Past" Tense if t -~ papers ~
cf;!' q:;rir
Past~ Past if :sa-ITI ~ Past~ Past ~ Past Perfect
if express ~
~
t. am: 'he had left' ~

(C) 'he left', ~ ~

m-

~I

15. (C) 'he got' ~ ~

m- ~ ~

'he had got' cf;!'


'He
requested' Past Tense if ! ant 'headache'
q;r
~ ~ ~ :sa-IT, ~
Past of the Past if ~
~
~ Past Perfect q;r
t1 .
~ ~ Narration ~ ~
~ ,fl' -~~ c'.fT'!flr ~ ~
Direct Narration afR Indirect Narration

m ~ ~

~ m~

R'-l~l't!n, ~. Direct : He said to the teacher, "Please allow me to


go home as I have got a headache." .
Indirect:
requested the teacher to allow him to go
home as he had got a headache.
.16. (B) 'what could she'~ ~
'what she could' q;r
mirr. ~- Indirect Narration if Reported Speech
.Assertive~
ti
17. (C) 'that'~~
'if' 'llT "whether' cf;!'
Direct Narration if ~
Reported Speech if
Yes/No-Question [':3lt ~
-~
fif;ln' i ~
t1 q;r
Indirect narration if Reported
Speech~ ffl 'If' 'llT 'whether' q';l' ffl' ~ ~

He

.mm~

m ~m

t;ttDirect': He said to me, "Will you do it for me ?"


Indirect : He asked me if/whether I would do it for
him.

~-mm ~ ~

18. (B) "persist' ~ ~


'persist~d'_<fif
q:;r Reporting Speech 'The government warned' Past .

. Tense if t ~ Reporting -Speech. ~ Past Tense ir


~ ~ Reported Speech if \ft Past Tense ~ ffl

nt,

'why he had" cfil'. ffl' 'ffl'1JT


~
Indirect Narration if Reported Speech
Assertive~ t"t .
.
,. , ..
20. (C) 'do' $ ~
'did' cf;!' 'Sl<ipt ~. ~
q'J1fcf q;r
Reporting Speech 'The instructor told me' Past Tense
if
Reported Speech ~ Pasi 'Tense if
19. (B) 'why bad he' ~ ~

_t; ~

ffl1111

21 (E) cncp:r

V-S: t1

'if' 'llT 'whether' cf;!' ffl' ~ -.p:nfcf;


~
Direct N~rration if Reported Speech if.
Yes/No-Question
Indirect Narration tr .Reported
Speech ~ ~ 'if' <IT 'whether' q;r
t_ -=I' nii' 'that' cf;l'I
23. (C) 'may' ~ ~
'might' '$T
Reporting Verb Past Tense if ~
Reported Speech
if purpoSeffl ~:~ 'might'cfil' ffl ~ U
-=!' fcfi 'may' ~I
24. (B) 'that' q;r
m1lT -~
Indirect Narration if.
where/how/when/what if; ~
~
Conjunction 'l:fiT

22.(B) "that' ~ - ~

mm

m ~ ~

m- -~ ~ ~
m
t.-

m- ~

m-~~t;~-

(i) 'He wanted to know where I was go1ng. Gr f.f; that ,


where I was going)
{ii) She asked me when I would go.t-r ~--th'at when
I would go)
25. (D) 'will' ~ ~
'wo~lcJ' q;r
thougli,
~-~
~
Clause if. 'he knew'. Past Tense ff
t, ~ ~ that-clause ir 'TI',.Past Tel)se q;r

m ~ ~

"'

26.(E) ~~tr
27,' (C) 'that' ~ -~

ffl -q

. .

Narration t

ffl' ~

'if' <IT 'whether' ~

~~1'p:IT

'lfiT Indirect

f.:t.:,f0fti{i:_~

'qflR

. :'Mohan ~d __ to me, '.'I am going \o the library. Can


you accompany me ?''
~
t ~ "Can . you accompany me?"
'Yes/No-Question' t ~
Indirect Narration if
'if'
'llT
'whether'
<iiF
'ffl'
~
ti
.
.

2s. cri),-'.ioves' ~ ~

1oved' ~ m- n
Reporting Speech Past Tense if
Speech 'q' ,fl' Past Tense ciiT

m-

~
Reported :

m- ~ ~ t1

29. (D) 'this' ~ ~, 'that' cf;T -srlffiT


Narration if 'this'~ 'that'~.

.-.~~t;-tt~

~
~

~ ..

Indirect
~) if ~
;

Direct : He said to me, '!This book is yours."

Indirect : He told me that that book w~ mine."

A Mirror of Common Errors

116

NOTE : ~
this lR ~ '&ft' ~
..iT ~
t
Direct Narration $ statement lR m ~ 11'1' ~
~

R:r 'Sl"lltTT i:t ~ ~; ~-

11'1' ~

'that' i:f ~ ~I]


'Indirect : He said that he wanted to take this book.
(D) 'comes' ~ ~
'came' ,<t>T .'Sl"lltTT. m1Tl' ~
'she
requested her companions' ~ 'lfflT ~
t fcfi ~
Past .tr ti

31, (E)

qfcflf

\1.l'R

~m1T!'I
34. (E)

q'['lfll' ~

'asked' q;r ~
min cf2l1fcf; she cried
ti are-.:. 'cried out and asked .them' q;r

t. ~

Verb ~ Tense i:t

-;;rrnr

t;

ttDirect : She said, "Honesty is .the best policy".


Indirect: She said that honesty is the best policy.
JS., (B) 'that' q;r '5l<n1T ~ m1T1' ~
Direct Narration i:t
Reported Speech ~ ffl 'that' q;r 'Sl"lltTT ~ ~

t,

m- ~

m1TT ~
Direct Narration i:t
. Reported Speech ~- ffl
'that' q;r 1Jm1T ~ ~
":3ITTIT

qij ~

if ~

m~ ~

PASTi:t

t1

>l'v:T

llRT ~

~.*~if

mm~ ~ ~ ~ t

it' ~ ~
fcn Duke~

'4t ~
'there appears

'had' cfil' 'ffl m1TT cflITfcf; ~


q:;r
Reporting Clause 'Shamim exclaimed' Past Tense if
ti ~ Reporting Clause Past Tense it
Indirect
Narration if 'have' cfi1" 'had' if ~
~ ~ t;

mm

ttDirect: They said, "We have won the match."


Indirect : They said that they had won the match.
4.3. (C) 'have'~~
Tense if ti

'had' q;r

ffl' m11T ~
ftl

'was' cfil' ffl'


thought' Past Tense if t, ~
Past q,1 ti

44. (D) 'is' ~ ~

'said' Past

The commander

i:rnr ~

f.f; 'Elc-IT

45. (D) 'has' ~ ~


'had' q:;r 'ffl WIT, ~
Reporting
Clause 'she said' Past Tense i:t t'r ~ Reporting
Clause Past Tense if
Reported Clause i:t \TI Past
Tense q;r ~- ~
"3ITm !1

'had' cf;f 'ffl ft


Clause 'he reminded' Past Tense if

46. (B) 'has' ~ ~

47. (E)

36. (E) qlcl<I' ~


ti :
37. (C) 'will' ~ ~
'would' cF,T 'Sl"lltTT m1TT ~
'The
. minister readily gave. assurance' Past Tense ~
~
-i:rnr ~
t fcn ~ ~ Past .tr ti '
38. (B) 'that' q;r ~
~ m1Tl'. cf2l1fcf; Indirect Narration i:t
when/where/how -~
~ ffl 'that' q;r '3fl!tTr ~
~':ilmil
39. (B) 'that' q;r

41. (C) 'have' ~ ~

ti A vegetarian .is a person who never eats

. .. meat' ~ Uni~ersal Truth


Indirect Narration i:t '4t' ~

':5!m

q;r

m,IT, ~

<t>l' ~

42. (E) ~~l1

Voit ti .

33. (D) 'ask' ~ ~


out 'Past' if

'appeared'

"SflITlT <fit'

scope ':m'
'no scope'.

Voit ti
W t'$ Part (D) "4 Present Indefinite Tense cJiT
t ~~Voit t ~ ~ ~ i:t Un1v~ral

Trutht1 .
32. (E) ~

NOTE : ~

~ffli:tm11'!'~

~ m m 'this' cfi1" ~

30.

Direct: He said, "I want to take this book".


[~ Indirect Narration il ~ ~
~ ~

~~am:~~*

40. (D) 'appears' ~ ~


tra=rr Past q,1 t I

q;r

"'Icl

qi!"tl' ~

~~~I)

***

!1

'ffl WlTT ~

f.f; ~

49. (B) 'acquitted' ~ ~


'had' <t>l'
report said' Past Tense if t

t,

Reporting

~~t,

48. (D) 'have' ~ ~


'had' cfil'
were complex'~ -qm ~

SO. (E)

qTcPf ~

!1

'The issues
Past ctr l1

'ffl m1TT ~

'the
acquit ~
Past ~ Past i:t

a.w: judge t

<iR'

m ~ (~

Chapter-13

PREPOSITIONS
Preposition ~ ~
Pronoun ~ ~
~

m ~

m~

~ t ~ ~
Noun m
Noun m Pronoun ctil' aR"

~~~~~t;tt-

(ii) There is a table in the comer of the room.


tzrr-r ~ ~ ~
(i) ~ under ~' Preposition
<lTI'
Definite Noun 'table'~ ~
~
~
'table'~
'box' cfil'
~ ~ ti ~ -srcm:, ~ (ii) if 'in' 'Zcf> Prepositiont, <lTI'
Defirute Noun 'comer'~ ffi ~
~ 'corner'~ 'table'
cfiT ~
~
if 'of' m 'Zcf> Preposition t- <lTI'
Definite Noun 'room'~ ~
~
~
'room'~
'corner'

t.

t, ~ ~

~-rarart-1
Definition ~ ~

NOTE : ~

fcfim Noun m. Pronoun ~ ~


Preposition ctil'

t~-

Preposition
~

q;r ~

ti ~. q;m-'cf>"fi

Noun 'll'T Pronoun js ~

\ft ~ ~

(i) Who was he talking to ?


(ii) This is the person whom I gave some money to.
(iii) This is the house I live in.

CLASSIFICATIONOF PREPOSITIONS

1. PREPOSITIONSOF DIRECTION
to, towards, for, along, against, across, up, down, into.
USES-(A) TO cfiT

~-

m ~

(destination) ~ ~

-:;nm

alaTm

t. -:t" ~

3N t ~ 3iR' (in the direction of);~


~;

-tt-

(i) He is going towards the station.


(C) For q;r

\ft Preposition of Direction ~ ~ if ~

(destination)~~~
t; tt(i) He is leaving for Delhi tonight.
(D)Aiong~ ~
(i) He walks along the road. (:r ~ on the road)
(ii) She walks along the bank of the river.

m ~~ ~

(E) Against cfiT


t(a) ~
(opposite)
(i) It is difficult to sail against current

emu ~ mmr ~ w-rr cfifo;; ti)


(b) t ~
(pressing on}
(i) There is a ladder agafnst the wall.
(ii) He is leaning against the tree.

t;

,fl ~ ~
if ~ t'-:(on the opposite side of)
(i) My best friend lives across the ri~er.
(b) ~ W t ~ 'llR ~ (from one side to another)
(i) A bridge is laid across the river.
(c) ~ ~ (both sides)
(i) He threw the luggage across his shoulders.
Across$ p ~ 'J1tim.
(F) Across q;r
(a) ~

"qR

(d) go across ~ ~

~)
.
(i) Rita and Ravi were going across the field.

(e) come across.<~~~)


(i) When I was going to market, I came across
Mohan.
NOTE:~~
fcf;.come-across'CR: ~ Jl<fITT: ~ ~l+ti"4tl:
Problems fen silra t(i) I suddenly came across him.
(ii) I came across with him.
~
(i) 1l suddenly jsr ~
~
cl'JcP.l" (ii) 'it
'with' qiff
~ t2iR ~ fcti come across ~ ffl -~
,:ft" suddenly 'l!T
with cf;T ~
~

t ~

mm t,

(G)Up~)
(i) He climbed up the tree.

(i) He is going to the station.


(B) Towards cfiT

(i!

. ~ct,1"~~~~~~~~1)

(i) There is a box under the table.

cfiT

(c) ~~(in contravention of)


One must not go against the laws of the country.

(H)Down ~)
(i) Mani climbed down the tree.
(I) Into cJ;T ll'lTI1T ~
~ ~
towards inside)~ ~ ~
~
(i) A dog fell into the well.
(ii) She went into the room: : .

-~ 'l'rftf ~ ~

(motion

t; ~-

2. PREPOSffiONS OF PLACF.JPOSmON
at, in, on, above, below, ove~,. wider, between, -~~.
amongst, amid, amidst, before, behind.

(A)At~ ~
~~~~~ml;
(i) He lives at Samastipur.
. {ii) They are at home:

. )B)In~

qif

m ~~

(i) You live in Kolkata.


(ii) We live in India.

tt-

:mff % ffl; tt-

us
(C)

A Mirror ofCommon Errors

on ~)

q;r

m ~

?;;

(i) The books are lying

ft:ro:i tt-

(ii) Between the girls. (7:IT between each girl and the

on the table.'

next)
q;r ffl m,JTI
(f) Between q;r '5l<IT1T ~ ~ ~
~ ~ '!TI ~ t
1% ~
q14flq; ~
(Reciprocal relationship)

(ii) There is a cap on his head.

(D) Above av.rr Below q;r ~

i~;el ~

~-

ft:rtt ~

t;

(i) There is a treaty b~tween these four countries.


(ii) There is an alliance between these three

-. . companies.
~

{iv) The matter is above suspicion.

a'P.!T Under ~ ~- vertical position

-F.T. Wood ! CURRENT ENGLISH USAGE


(p. 40)

(i) There is a fan over your head.


(ii) A cat is sitting under the table.
(a) Between q;r

JiCl11T

Rktf~f~a oe:zrr q;t- ~I


icilfq,ij41. <l'T ~
~ ~

m~-

'q'

.. ....... between can be usedfor more than two things or


persons to denote some reciprocal action or relation.

t;tt-

-Nesfield : ERRORS

(i) Sunita is sitting between Moti andMeera,


(ii) Distribute the sweets between the two children.

(b) Between ~ oITG -~

Objective Case q;r

(G) Among q;r JiCl11T ~

(i) The Chief Minister distributed the blankets among


thepoor.

(i) Between you and me (=f

1% you and I)

(ii) Between Sita and him (=f

f.Ji Sita

(ii) The headmasterdistributed the books among the poor


students.

and he)

t,

NOTE : ~ JiCl11T 1R ~

Problems~~~

(c) Between ~ ~
~
~
-;;rrnr t; ~-

'and' Conjunction q:;r JiCl11T

NOTE : ~ 'Sl<IT'tT lR ~

Problems~

-aflG: Noun~ .Pronoun~

Plurat'~

ti
t;

(iijBetween the girls.

JiCl11T

~.*

'the' q;r JiCl11T -~ ~ 'ITT ~: 'among' cfiT


'Sl<IT'tT Consonant Sound
a'P.!T
amongst q;r JiCl11T Vowel Sound ~ ~
~
~
?;; ~
.

t ~ ~ ~ ~

them

Consonant

.
,ft each,

<l'T,:

(ii) Amongst the boys.

(i) .among

(v) Between them.

every .anf?;. <fir 'Sl<IT'tT ~

nt;tt(i) Between each boy.

~~

(~'

q;r

'<!'

sound

ti)

(ii) among you ('1i_' q;r ~


s?und "lf' ~ Consonant to
(iii) among his friends ('fu;sf' <iiT ~
sound '~' ~

to

' ' Consonant


(iv) among your brothe~s (~' q;r ~
. consonant

m,.

~~
(i) Between the boys. (<l'T between each boy and the

(i) amongst us ('aR=r' q:;r ~


(ii) amongst our friends<'*'
Vowel

to

sound '<f' l!:'cfi

ti)

(ii) Between every girl.

next)

't-1 ~ ~

among?;; a:{if ~ ~

mart;~-

. (iii) Between these t~~ ~~YS:


(iv) Between these two girls.

(e)

'5l'miT

tt-

(i) Between the boys.

(vi) Between us.


Between if;_ ~ ~

(H) Amongst q;r


?;;~~~-

. (i) Among the boys.

tt-

(a) Among I Amongst+ the+ Noun (Plural) o

(i) Between Meera and Madhuri .


(ii) Between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m .. 8 ~ to 4 p.m.)
(iii) Between :2000 and 40()0. C:f ~ ro 4000)
(d) Between~

IN ENGLIS~ COMPOSITION
-ey -~ ~
~
<IT ~
~

~fttl

'51<i11J. ~

t; tt-.

..-,

<R ~-

f.lqf~f<!ila ~

?;; ~

(ii) The three children saved over a hundred pounds


between them.

.ref.I' ~ ft:ro:

~!;~-

(F) Betweenjs ffl'?;;

~ ~

(i) There does not seem much difference between


the three of them.

(v) He is above thirty.


{vi) You are belo.w twenty.

--CE) Over

m;

tt-

(i) The aeroplane is flying above the clouds.


(ii) This work is below my dignity.
;, -; (iii) His expenditure is above his income ..

r .:

s~und ~ ~
q;r ~

Vowel

sound

ti)

'au' ~

A Mirror of
(I) Amid ~

CoDlil.lon Errors .

Amidst <fiT w:lT1T ,ft ~ ~ am:1q; ~ ft1rQ: inn t1


3RR t ~ among crerr amongst~ lf1rt1T

(i) Manisha is reading for an hour.

w:lT1T ~ ~

~t~~-

(ii) You are sleeping for five hours.

1* Present Perfect
Continuous if ur-JT "ft,rrt

t:r ~

(i) Raghu is sitting amid his friends.

(L) Before (mlR,

He

auit)

(ii) He appeared before the judge.

t,

(M) Behind {'m})

(ii) She hid herselfbehind the curtain.

(i) He married Sangita after Vasant Panchami.

F ~

m- ~ ~ ~ mtf; ~-

(i) Jayant returned this book to me after amontb.

~.

m.

After ~ .Before .w lf'b1r future Tense if ~


Point of
1ime ~ ln'f im t; tt.- .
(i) I will complete this work betore October.
(ii) I will start some new business after Monday.

at dawn. at day break, at sunrise, at noon, at sunset, at


night, at midnight etc .
~- ~

ftlff (date)~-~;

~~
(i) You shouldcome here on Monday.
(ii) He will open the shop on 22nd October.

NOTE : On <fiT "Sl<WT ~:. morning/evening ~


-~ ~ ~ t, ~ morning/eveningjs mer ~ dateiday .,.;r
w:lT1T
ffi \fl' 'on' <fit'~~
t; tt....:...

m. err~

(i) in the morning

NOTE : (i) He will do it after a week.


(ii) They will join our company betore a month. .
F ~ 1fPflll :i4' after "fl' before ifii: ,r,ntr 1jm' t
a week ~ a month ~
1'R: ~
1f'lf1'
Periods of Tune

~ m

t.

,it

~.

(i) She will inform you in a montli.

"on the evening pf May the first,"

-A.S.Homby: OXFORD ADVANCED LEARNER'S


DICTIONARY OF
. CURRENT ENGLISH
. USAGE
.~
~"Ori is used before morning, afternoon,
evening, and night when. these periods are identified by
the day of which they. are a part : On Monday evening,
On the following evening."

(ii) We will manage everything within a year.

(G)

Point of1ime ~ ~ ~ t; tttill n~xt Monday~


(ii) They will wait for you until I till next Monday.

TUI I until lfiT ~

(i) You are to stay in bed until/

(H) By 1'ir
W'f

-Geoffrey Leech & Jan Svartvik : A COMMUNICA


TIVE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH (P. 77)
Period of Time~

t,

(F) In cllff within : Preposition of lime ~ ~ ~ Future


Tense if After~ 3llf ff In cllff' Before 31lf if Within lfiT
~
Period of Tune~
ifflr t: -tt_,

(ii) in the evening.

(C) For cfiT -~

Your result' Points of

~~-

s o'clock.

~-(day)~

~ 'Vasani Panchami' ~

nmet1 .

(ii) She was reading !l novel at 9 a.m .. .

. (B) On cfiT ~

mT

(ii) You left London after your result.

at, on, for, since, before, after, within, in, till, by,
during, from.
. "(i) He came here at

t;tt-

. 3.-PREPOSITIONS OFTIME

(hour)

*~

if After if>!"
Pa,st Tense if Period of Tune "fl' Point of Tune~ mer

(E) After <f'n' Before : Prepositions

(i) She was running behind her brother.

Present Perfect

(D) Since W ~

(i) Kalpana is sitting before you ..

(A) At cfiT ."Sl<Wr

"fl'

Point of Tune~ ln'f Im t; tt(i)


has been absent since May.
(ii) He has been living in America since 1990.
NOTE : Since W
Preposition of Tune~ ~ if ~
~nt
Perfect I Present Perfect Continuous I Pat eerrect I
PutPerfect Continuous if R

(ii) Ranjan is sitting amidst us.

(i)

119

mer

irnT t; -ttyears.

NOTE : For <m ~


Preposition of Time ~ ~
Imperfect (Continuous) Tense if~ lITTIT t; tt-.

Preposition of Ttme ~

'{r,'q'

if Point of Time ~

1l'ffl t; tt-

By Sunday I had been exhausted.

(ii) John will have reached America by next Tuesday.


. (I) During 1lif

. (i) He has. lived here for a month. .


(ii) They have been working in this office for two

(i)

t;tt-.

m~

(duration)

m -~ ft:l"Q'. ~

(i)

'Duiin1 the war, many people suffered hardship.

(ii),

What will you do durin1 the summer vacation ?

120

A Mirror of Common Errors

(J) From cfiT ~~


Tense jl ~"?.T
(i) My
November.

Point of Time ~ m<f Past Tense lfr Future

ti

NOTE:~
(i)

friends

with me from September

Jived

to

(ii) He will start coming here from next month.

mm

about, off, of

(A) About

Participle

am if

(i)

cv4) ~ it ~ !; ~-

All his brothers are addicted to

(i) He was talking about you.


(ii) They are always careless about their duties.
(b) about+ Infinitive ~

cf;T 'lfq)

(ii)You prevented me from

(i) I am about to go.


(ii) She is about to sing.
(B) Off~ fcR.rlTlq (separation) cfiT ~

t; ~-

(ii) A button has come off.

(a)

ma (origin)
(i)

(b)

mart-

~~~if

(i)
(c) ~

(relation)

(i)

m if. !iif

(i) I do not depend on

W1TlT

Objective
Case

on

Prep.
(B) ~

~ ~

t ~

me.

Objective
Case

q;'I' ~

m~ ~

m ~~if;

~ ~
~~~;~-

Conjunction (and, or)


1'l=r-1'R" Prepositions~
~
Prepositions~~

(i)

Prep.

TT

working hard.

.!,

Prep.

V'
for

being late.

,ffilT

t; ~-

He will go there tomorrow. [-::r fcf; on tomorrow]

mm-

him.

(ii) She relies

(E) yesterday evening, yesterday afternoon, last night, this


morning, this afternoon, tonight, tomorrow morning,
tomorrow evening ~
~ ffi ,it on, at, in 3lTR
Prepositions cfiT ~
~
t; ~-

a:uct:tQc:fi ~

Objective Case cfiT

~l'lHHI:

nt;~-

Pr ep.

He died of cholera.

(A) Preposition ~ ~

.!,

(cause)

PREPOSITIONS~

V'

Pr ep.
V
(D) today, tomorrow, yesterday, the following day, the next
day 3lTR ~
on, at, in ~
Prepositions q;r W1TlT ~

(i) The plays of Shakespeare.

Prep.

J,

Miss Priyanka comes of a rich family.

q;roir

.!,

doing it.

J,
(iv) They were fined

drinking.

.!,

.!,
(iii) I take delight in

(i) He is off duty.

(C) Ofq;r

ft::tt ~ !; ~-

Problems~

I and engaged I in her I work. I


(B)
(C)
(D)

[Part (A) -q' conscious if; ~ ofcfif ~


~
~I]
(C) about, after, at, before, for, from, in, on, to 3lTR
Prepositions~~
~ ~
Verb (Main Verb) cfT ;rmiT
cm ~ ~ ~
(~ing) ~ if ~
Present

4. SOME OTHER PREPOSITIONS

(a) ~

'tR ~

She is conscious
(A)
No Error.
(E)

3lTR

(i) She is conscious of and engaged in her work.


(ii) He was surprised at as well as pleased with her
performance.

They arrived here yesterday evening.

R~

in yesterday evening)

lf Pli-!f8Rsd R<Pf q;'!' ~-

We almost always leave out the preposition; before


phrases beginning last, next; this, that; also before today,
yesterday, tomorrow; Did you go to the meeting last
Thursday ? rn mention it next time I see him. Plums are
more plentiful this year. (The phrases at this I that time, on
this I that occasion are however normal)
-Geoffery Leech & Jan Svartvik : A COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH (P. 77)
(F) Home~

if;

~ ~

ffi

.~m-

m~

Preposition q;r

RJ..lf("\f~a ~ ~ fcfim

W1TlT ~

~-Bring,go, get, arrive, reach.


(i) Bring somebody or something home.
[';f fcl> at home ;;ir to home l

mm t

Verb q;r

"Sl<rr'T

A Mirror of Common Errors

(ii) Come home, (iii) Go home, (iv) Get home, (v) Arrive
home, (vi) Reach home, (vii) Send somebody I something
home. (viii) Take somebody I something home.

NOTE : ~.
home js ~
~
Possessite Case js
Adjective ~
my, your, his, her, our, their) <IT noun ~
ml!!' 's ~
Ram's, Shyam's)
'<f>f
'ffi' home~

me m

mar

'to' '<f>f m'


t;
(i) I went to his home.

~-

(G) Transitive Verbs ~-discuss, describe, reach, order, tell,


demand, attack, resemble, ridicule ~) ~ dfl'G ~

Object .q;r
!1 ~ ~ Verbs ~ ~ ~
Preposition '<f>f
Problem re:<fT ~ t; ~-

me mm
me ~

(i) The poet describes I about the beauty I of Nature I


(A)
(B)
(C)
in this poem. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
~ Part (B)

(~

~lqli'lj<f>dl

ti]

me lfm l1 ~

cfil"

'about'

[W ~~Part (B)sq 'for''<f>f ~

1'R1<f

ti~~

mr

~ mar

~m;~-

'to' Preposition '<f>f

#~ ~

q;r

(i) You suggested to him that he should leave the place.


(ii) She said to me that she would help me.

*
~
~
m; tt--

(I) speak, reply, explain, complain, talk, listen, write


~ ~ ~
'to' Preposition q;r ~
t
Object~~
;i;f ~ o2JfcRr '<f>f ~

mm

(i) He did not reply to me.


(ii) You never write to me.
SOME NOUNS & APPROPRIATE PREPOSITIONS
L Abstinence ~. ~)

.I

from wine.

2. Ability ('lrrl<rdT, ~)
for or in some work.
3. Abundance~. ~)ofwealth.
4. Accession (<13<.11-0~1. "qG ~)
to the throne.
5. Access ~. ~) to a person or place.
6. Accomplice (~~, ~~
with a person in a
crime.
7. Accusation (~.

<Jqi-041) of forgery.

8. In accordance with ~. ~) some rule.


9. Adherence (f.!444-ilcl, ~) to a rule.
10. Affection ~.

mu)

to something.

to a method I something.

16. Analogy (~) of one thing with another.


17. Analogy (~) between things.
18. Animosity ~) against somebody.
19. Antidote (sifdq;1@) against infection.
20. Antidote ~) to some poison.
.

m) for somebody.

l l. Affinity (Wlrq, ~) with something.

of danger.

22. Approach ~) to (step towards) anything.


23. Arrival (~)
iii a country.
24. Arrival (awllR) at a place.
,
Wfffi) on a person or thing.
~)
+ somebody.
27. Attack (n/c) ~) on a country.
28. Attraction (~) to or towards a thing.
29. Authority. (~~) over a person.:
'

25. Assault (3rm,


26. Attack (vt) (~

34. Care ~.
~) for his health.
35. Charge (~. ~)
of murder,

ti]

(H) Say I suggest I propose ~ 4flG


t ~ ~ ~ Object~

14. Allusion ~.
15. Alternative ~)

30. Authority ~
~
'<f>f ~
~)
on a subject.
31. Aversion (fcl5'@di) to a person .or thing.
32. Candidate (3Ui1c:;_q(<, ~)
for a post.
33. Care ~) for somebody's safety.

(ii) He ordered 1 for I two cups I of. tea. I No Error.


(A) (B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
~iqli'll<fidl ~

12. Affinity (~) between two things.


13. Alliance (ir:rr, ~) with a person or state.

21. Apprehension (~. ~)

(ii) I decided to go to Ram's home.

121

36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.

Charge (a;m,:r, ~)
with theft.
Claim (GTqr) on or against somebody.
Claim (zyrr) to property.
Compact ~)
with a person.
Comment (ratl:!Uft).~n something.
Comparison ~) of somebody with somebody,
By/in comparison with. ~ ~
ii')
Compassion (G<rr, ~) for somebody.

44. Competition (llfd.!ilflidl) with somebody.


45. Competition (!i!Rl~fiH11) for something.
46. Complicity. (tjf<:'NHII) in a crime.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.

Compliance (~)
with a request.
Condemnation ~
to death.
Confidence~) in somebody.
Conformity (~) with anyone's views.
Conformity (~) to rule.

52. Compensation (~)


fol'. a-loss.
53. Connection ~) with a person or thing.
54. Connivance N\.Jljfc?ldi) at anyone's fault.
55. Consciousness ~) of guilt.
56. Consideration ~) for somebody.
57. Contact ~) with somebody f.scmething."
58. Contempt <fa<~I<) for a person or thing.
59. A contrast ~)
between two things.

I:

- L

A Mirror of Common Errors .

122

: 60.. A contrast

~,

~)

. 61 .' Controversy

. 6Z.

~)
C~ntribution ~)
Contribution ~)

: 6:3.
64. Conversation ~)

to a person or thing ..

107. Hope (3lml') of or for better luck .


108. Hostility ~)
to a person or cause .
109. Identity ~.~)with somebody I something.

on or about somethl~g.
to a fund.

.
towa~s some. project.

1 l 0. Ipunersion ~)
111. Implication
112. Implication

with somebody.
65. Decision ~)-on some case ..

-. . 66._ Decision ~)

69. Degradation. (qc;ic:Hfd) fro~ rank,


.
70: Delight.(~)
in music I in something.
7 L Descent (ffl-sntr) from ancestors.

119. Influence ~)

72. Desire ~)
for wealth.
73_ Desirous (Adj:) ~)
of something ...
_ 74: Disgust ~)
at meanness.
. 75. Dislike: (~14,t.ic;,n) to aperson or thing.

120. Inquiry ~,
-121. Insight ~)
122 .. Intercession

76. Distaste (~)

78. Duty_~)
to a person.
.
79. Encroachment (~)
on I upon one's rights. .
80 .. Engagement ~,
cfq-14l:.t:.(II) with somebody.

129: Liking ~)

forsomebody.

84. Exception (~)


to a rule.
85. (Make) an excepetion (3i'tfcn'G) of somebody or
something.' _ . .

89. Faith ~)
90. Familiarity

91. Freedom GfcRf) from care something.


i

l~

'

lI

in

130.
.131.
132.
133.
134.

92. Freedom ~.
93. Glance ~
94. Glance ~

~)
ot action.
at a person orthing.
over a wide surface.

95. Gratitude ~. amm:) for a thing ..


96. Gratitude ~.
a:JNR:) to a person.
97. Grief ~:~) at an event.

-i:rRm) against his character.

Longing ~.~)for
luxury I something ..
Lust ~)for
life /_something.
Malice ~) against an enemy.
Neglect (~.
~)
of duty.
Neglect (3W, ~) in doing a thing ..

something.

138. Partnership (~) in a thing.


139. Power ~-~)over a person.
. 140. Precaution ~)
against infection.
141.
142.
143.
144,

Preface (JF@Wtl, ~)
toa book ..
Preference (~.
~)
for something,
Preparation ~)
for examinations I something:
Proof (3JlrrOT) against somebody.
.

145. Proof ~)

of guilt.

101. Hatred ('fiUIT) of or for somebody.

149. Readiness ~. ~)fora journey.

102. Hatred ('fiUIT) of a thing.

150. Reference ~)

105. Hindrance ~
to something.
106. Hint ~)
at some reward.

for non-vegetarian/ something.

146. Qualification ~)for


a post.
147. Quarrel ~)
with somebody I something ..
148. Readiness ~.
in responding.

104._ Heir (a'tl<lft'lcfil-0) of somebody.

to an illness.

98. Grief ~:~)fora


person.
99. Guess (~)
at the truth I something ..
ioo. Harmony (Bl+Hl*4) with anything.

103. Heir (d'tl<lft'lcfif{i) to some property.:

135. Nomination ~)
of a member.
. 136. Nomination (14.fWHrto a position.
137. Opportunity (~) for going abroad I doing

in somebody or something. }

tm~r~) with a person or thing.

on anyone's action /decision.


.
~) into circumstances I acase,
into something /somebody's character .
(tlarq"RI') with a superior.

-127. Liability (~)


128. Libel (WfitFT,

8.1. Entrance ~)
into a.place,
~2. Enmity ~) with somebody.

86.- Excuse (~) for a mistake ..


87. 'Failure (f,f'fAAdl)of electricity.
, .
88. Failure (a:tfltfi(!'Hil, fi:14R:it11) . of . somebody
something.
.
. . j

..~

123. Intercession ~
~ 1' ~)fora
friend.
124. Jurisdiction ~
~
ofiT ~)
in a lawsuit.
125. Justification (~)
of or for crime.
126. Key ~,
~) .to understanding of the problem.

for mathematics I something.


77. Doubt (m) of or about a thing. .

83. Esteem ~)

into water.
in this crime.
on someone.

113. Imputation ~'


~)
against somebody.,
114. Incentive (lflci!:lll:iq,) to a worker.
.
115. Inclination (~,
~)
for sport I something.
116. Indifference (dc;l.(41-ldl) to help others.
.
.
117. Indulgence (~; ~)
to a beautiful woman.
118. Influence (;l'ITiq) over or with somebody.
.

of some ~ispute.

~7. Decline (tRA") ofan empire,


. . _
. 68. Decline (tRA", flrmte) ii1 moral I price ..

~)
~)

mm)

to a person or thing.

151. With regard ~ m,f


152. Regard (~)
153. Relation ~)
154. Relation ~)

it) to that matter.

for a person.
between two things.

l
I

with somebody)

. -,-

A Mirror of Common Errors


155. Remonstrance

C~)

against somebody's conduct:

156. Remonstrance (3IBITTf) with somebody.


.
157: Reply~.
~toaqu~ry/aperson.
I 58. Request (3IDT~)for a thing.
159. Resemblance (~
to a person or thing.
160. In respect of t<1'i ~
it) some quality.
161. Rivalry (Slrditfc:.dl) with a person.'. .
162. Rival ~) in something. .
163. Search ~) fo~ or after wealth.
164. In search (ffl) of wealth/ a job etc.
,165. Share ~) in the property /something.
166. Share ~. 'WT) with somebody.
167. Sin ('qr:r) against God I mankind I humanity.
168. Sympathy ~-with or for somebody.
169. temptation ~.
~)
to evil.
170. Temptation ~.~)in diet.
171. Trespass (~)
against the law.
172. Warrant (..lli<ll<:i<I q;r 3lT~T) for somebody's arrest.
173. With a view to. t<l'i ~
~)
174. Witness~)
175. Wonder(~)
something.
SOME 'VERBS

of or to a case.
at somebody's behaviour./.

& APPROPRIATEPREPOSITIONS

i". Abound {'ildl<ld if w-rr) in or with something.


2. Accrue ~ ~
~ ~ if ~) to somebody.
3. Accrue ~ aTIR ~ ~ if ~) from something.
4. Accuse (~tiil<!Qul ~) somebody of theft.
5. Acquit ~
~; iftt <l%IT) a person of all charges.
6, Acquit G<Rf cfivrr,. <iltt ~
a person.. in acrime.
7. Adapt(~
-RAT) to new surroundings.
8. Adhere ~) to a plan I a rule I a principle.
9. Agree ~
fl) to a proposal. :
10. Agree ~
~) with a person.
11. Agree ~
~) on some matter.
12. Aim (fmRT ~.
~ oRRT) at a target.
13. Aim (f.mRT' ~. ~
iA'RT) at doing something.
14. Alight (3'dvrr) from a bus/ a train etc.
15. Allude ~
q;"{ ~) to a fact
16. Answer (3m ~) to a person.
17. Answer (3m ~ for misconduct I something.
18. Apologize (SJlTT '<l'r<RT 'lfw!T) to somebody.
19.Apologize (@IT~
cfitrr) for.something.
20. Appeal (a:rtfR;r cfivrr) to the judge I somebody.
21. Appeal (~
q;-vl1) against a sentence..
22. Appeal (a:rtfR;r ~
for mercy I something.
23. Apply (~
cfivlT) to a person.
24. Apply (~
'lfw!T) for some post I something.
2? Appoint ~
~) a person to a post.

123

c~ ~)

with a person for oragainst a.


point.
27.Arrive ~)at a conclusion.
28. Arrive ~)
'at a station I~ place.
. 29. Arrive ~)
in a country.
30. Ask (lWFIT) for assistance.
. 31. Ask ~)
of somebody.
32. Associate ~)
with a group.
33. Blame a person ~ 'ffiJRT) for something.
34. Blame something ~ ~) onsom~body..
35. Blush ~ '51'RT) at one's own mistak~.
36. Blush ~ -;;rr:rr) for somebody who is at fa~lt.
37: Border ~
w-rr) on a place.
38. Borrow ~
~) of or from a friend I somebody,
39. Breakthenews
of somebody's death.
40.Break ~
-RAT) through restraint.
41. Break ill news ~-U ~
~-;in to a friend I to
somebody.
. .
42. Break (~
~)
(dissolve partnership) with
somebody.
43: Bring. cm-;rr) a thing to light.
44. Bring ~
a thing under notice.
.
45 . ."Burst upon (suddenly invade) (~
~
~) a
country.
. .
46. BU:~t into laughter: ~
~)
.4i Burstintotears. (IF-~
. 48. Call at a place. ~
~ -"<R ~)
49. 'Call on a person. (fcl;m ~
~ ,m '51RT)
50. Cali for.(demand, require) ~ cf.vii) something.
Call something in (order or request-the return of).
26. Argue

c~

~)

u;m

St.

. "(crrq~pwr,:rr)

..

'. .

52. Canvass for votes. (trr.: +ITTRT)


53, Care for~-~) (attach value to) a person or
thing.

54. Care about (feel interest, anxiety or sorrow, ~


~
) something.

55. Challenge ~
~ a man to combat/ fight..
56. Charge ~tiiroqo1 ~
a man with a crime: .
57. Charge ~)
payment to a person.
58. Coincide ~
~- with one's opinion.
59. Comeabot(happen). ~
m:IT)
60. Come
(to meet. suddenly). (~
f1R.RT)
61. Corrie after somebody (follow). (1fim ~
62. Come into fashion. ~
-q 3lRT)
63. Come by something (obtainby effort). (lfTtd' ~
64. Come (arr-tr) of a rich family.
65. Commence ~
~
with a thing.
. 66. Communicate ~
~) a thing to somebody.
67. Communicate ~
~
somebody.
68. Compare ~
~) somebody with somebody,

across

with

'I.
t

124

A Mirror of Common Errors


69. Compare (~~
(similar).
70. Compare ~

~) something with something

~)

to (dissimilar things).

71. Compensate (a:,~


~
for loss.
72. Compete (~
~)
with somebody for a prize I
something.
73. Complain (~l<hl<HI <R=l'T) to somebody.
74. Complain {1)1q,14a ~) against somebody.
75.
76.
77.
78.

Complain (~l<fillld <R=l'T) of J. about something.


Conceal (m'tlRT) facts from somebody.
Concede (lfR' &-IT) to some demand.
Concur ~
m;rr) ~ith a person.

79.
80.
81.
82.
83.

Concur~
ff) in an opinion.
Condemn ~ ~
a person to death.
Conform ~
~)
to a norm.
Conform ~
m:TI) with one's opinion.
Congratulate ~
~) somebody on his success.

84. Consult (~.~-~)with (discuss with) one's


friends.
85. Consult (~
~.
~
~
~)
a person I a
- lawyer I a map I a dictionary (take advice, get
information etc.)
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.

Contribute ~
~) to a fund.
Converse ~
cfivIT) with a person about a thing.
Cope ~1~41) with a situation.
Correspond ~~)with
a person (write).
Corre~pond ~
m;rr) to something (agree).
Cure ('*11' cfivIT) a man of a disease.

92. Cure (n/u) 0=tTTT, f.rolr) for a disease.


93. Cut ~
a thing in or into pieces.
94. Cut ~) a thing in half.
.
95. Dash ~) against a wall/ shore I something.
96.
97.
98.
99.

Dash ~
~ ~
over anything.
Dash into a shop. ~)
Deal in (trade in) (cllc:t,ttlll cf>'v!T) something.
Deal (o!rcfm ~) with a person.

100. Deal (cfoR ~)


with a subject.
101. Debar ~
cfivIT) from doing anything.
102. Decide (f.rorll' ~
the issue in somebody's favour.
103. Defer ~
qi'8!) to a later date.
104. Degenerate (~ ~) into an obsession I a lower
position.
105. Defraud (~
~
a person of his money.
i06. Demand (mlRT) a thing of a person.
107. Depend ~~)on a person or a thing.
108. Deprive (<if.:ra ~
a person of a thing.
109. Desist ~~)from
11 O. Despair (R'mT

an attempt

m:,T') of success.

111. Deviate (c'l'i:lf<iia li'RT) from a certain course.


112. Differ(~~)

with a person on a subject.

113.'Differ (~~)from anything (to be unlike).


114. Digress (3l'WT ~~)from the path.
115. Disagree (~
m';j'T) with a person on some
matter.
116. Disapprove ~
~) of something.
117. Dispute ~) with a person about something.
118. Dissent ~
~) from an opinion.
119. Dissaude ~)
from an action.
120. Distinguish (.a:RR ~) between two things.
121. Distinguish ~
~) one thing from another.
122. Dwell (~) in some place.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.

Embark ~
~) on the right path.
Embark ~
<R=l'T) in business.
Enlist ('if~) in the army.
Enter ('ir '!fcm' ~) a house /a room.
Enter (1l ~~ cfirn, mflR.r ~) into a new era I
conversation.

128. Enter ('llroT ~) upon a career.


129. Entrust (m1AT) somebody with something.

cm,r:rr)

130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
137.

En~~t
something to somebody. .
Escape ~
~
~) from a cage I from jail.
Excell ~
m;rr) in something.
Exchange (f~
cfivIT) one thing for another.
Exchange ~
~)
something with a person.
Exempt (ore~
a person from a fine.
Exonerate~~) a person from blame.
Fail (~~)in
an experiment I an examination.
138. Fail (~
~) in something.
139. Fall {ftrvrr) into a well.
140. Fall {ftrvrr) among rotten apples.
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.

Fall in with sb/sth. ~. ~


ff)
Fall on (attack) ~~the e~my.
Fall in love with a person. ~
~ WT'~
Feed (int) (~
~) on milk.
Feeo up. (3lft1ft<Rr ~ ~)

146. Fight ~) with or against poverty.


147. Fill ('lm) with anything.
148. Get at ~
f-li:fil,:,HI) (find out) the facts.
149. Get to ~)
journey's end.
150. Get over (f.R't1T ~) (recover from) an ailment.
151. Get on with a person (live or work smoothly with

him).
152.
153.
154.
155.

Get out of ~ ~
~) trouble.
Glance ~~)at
a picture.
Glance ~
~) at an event.
Guess (~
B'1TRT) at something.

156. Hanker (<fief~~) after money.

Hear ~) ofan event.


158. Hide (.mttRT) a thing from a person.
157.

A Mirror of Common Errors

125

159. Hope (a;mr ~)


for good.
160. Import (3ll<mf ~)
goods into a country.

204. Pass for (lrRT' "1'RT; ~


h) a dawn.
205. Pass over (omit) a passage. (f4cT ~)

161. Import (31flmf cfivff) goods from a country.


162. Impress (.:r,:r 'CR rrsrr ~
sr~)
an idea on
somebody.

206. Pass through by ~) his gate.


207. Pass (suffer} for one's mistake. ('lflRT)
208. Penetrate (3ITT:-"tl'R ~. ~~)into something.

163. Impress (tR" 'IR 7mJ '3l"llcr ~


idea.

209. Perish t-m


'1fAT) by. the sword.
210. Perish t-m
;;rr-rr) with poverty ..
211. Point(~
~)at a person.

a person with an

164. Impute (atroi:r ~) blame to a Pfrson.


165. Indorse ~~)with
signature.
166. lnduldge ~~)in undesirable activities.
167. Indulge ~
168.
169.
170.
171.

~)

oneself with wine.

Infer ~
f.lcfi1~:::i1) one fact from another ..
Inflict ~
~; ~~)pain
on a person.
Infringe (~~)on one's rights.
Inquire ~
cfiv!T) of a person about an event.

172. Inspire ~
~)
a man with courage.
173. Interfere ~
cfiv!T) with a person in his affairs.
174. Intersect ~~)with each other.
175.
176.
177.
178.
179.

Intrigue ~~)with
the opposition.
Introduce ~
<RRT) a man to others.
Introduce ~,
~
cfiv!T) into a story.
Intrude ~. f.RT ~
'11RT) on somebody,
Invest (f.rcrn' ~) money in education,

180. Invest ~)

a man with authority.

181. Jump at (eagerly accept, ~


~ ~
<iivlT) an
idea.
182. Jump to a conclusion. (~G ~~~'IR
~)

183. Live
184. Live
185.
186.
187.
188.
189.
190.

c;;ir-rr) by honest means/ labour.

r,.rr:rr) on somebody's

charity/diet/fruit/juice.

Live ~)
within one's budget I means:
Look after ~~)(watch) one's children.
Look into (~~~)(closely examine) a case.
Look for (~) something lost.
Look over (examine) an account. $
~)
Look through (examine carefully) (~
~ ~
cfivrr) a report.

191. Look upto. (Fcf;m ~ ~ 3Tim ~ ~


192. Lust ~
~) for wordly possession.

~ ~)

193. Make ~) to (approach) a person.


194.
195.
196.
197.
198.
199.

Make some meaning of (3W (.1TTRT) a statement.


Marvel (a:tlll'<lf4a R) at some sight or report.
Match (flreR" ~) one thing with another.
Meditate (~~)on an issue.
Merge ~
m:rr) into one.
Mortgage ~
~
land to a person.

200. Mourn

(ll1l<fi lRRT) for the dead.

201. Murmur (f~1"'1,rn ~) at or against anything.


202. Occur (31RT) to one's mind.
203. Pass ~)

from one thing into another.

m
m

212. Point ( ,, ) to some result.


213. Pray (slTl!RI' ~) somebody for something.
214. Pray (slTl!RI' cfiv!T) to God for success.
215. Prepare ~
~)
f~r-the test.
216. Prepare ~
~
against disaster.
217. Proceed~~
cF,{:ff) against (prosecute) a
culprit.
218. Prohibit ~~)from doing something.
219.
220.
221.
222.
223.
224.

Protect ~) from disaster.


Protest ~
~) against injustice.
Provide (a:tl<llt<lq,df .~
for one's family.
Provide ~
~) against the rainy day.
Provide ~
~)
oneself with something.
Rail ~
f1cf>i("HI) against somebody,

'iftf ~)

225. Reconcile ~
~) to situation.
226. Reconcile (-it;ft ~, :I~~ ~) with an
opponent.
227. Recover 0fllf ~) from ailment.
228. Rejoice ~
R) at the success of a person.
229. Rejoice ~
R) in one's own success.
230. Relapse ~-into idleness.
231. Relieve G<Rr ~) of or from duty.
232. Remind (Tr: ~ ~) somebody of something.
233. Repose ~
~) on a bed.
234. Repose (Tr:~
'cfivrr) confidence in friends.
235. Reprimand ~) a person for a fault.
236. Result (l1ftura m:::iT) from a situation.
237. Result (tl'ro1lq ~) in a consequence.
238. Retaliate (3ifa'ffi ~
on upon/against somebody.
239. Revolt~~)
against authority.
240. Rob ~

~) a person of something.

241. Rule ~
'cfivrr) over a country.
242. Stand against ~
~)
(resist) any infiltrator.
243. Stand by ~

~)

(support) a person.

244. Stand on ~
245. Take after ~
246. Take upon(~
thing.

~) formalities.
~)
somebody.
'tR f...i+ilciil-0 ~) oneself to do a

247. Think ~)
of or about a person.
248. Think over (consider) (fcfi:fR c:fivIT) a problem.
249. Trespass ~

cfivrr) against rules.

126

A Mirror of Common Errors

250, Trespass (~
~
on-somebody's privacy.
25l,.Trespass (3-T-iTt.Tc[~ ~ lT :;;rr;:rr) in a person's
company.
252: Wait ~~)at bus.stop.

38. Apparent (<:.~4liH, ~) to everyone.


39. Applicable ~
~ <Unr) to a situation.
40 .. Apprehensive (~)
of resulu

253. Wait (3rate.rr ~)fora

42. Appropriate ~) to an occasion.


43. Apt (expert) in a subject. ~.
f.Gur)

254. Warn ~
255. Warn ~

person or thing:

~) a person of disaster.
~) a person against a fault.

ADJECTIVES AND PARTICIPLES FOLLO~D


BY PREPOSITIONS
1. Absorbed ~) in study.
2. Acceptable ~
to a person.
3 .. Accessible ~) to strangers.

. 4. Accessory ~)

to a crime.
5. Accomplished ~) in an art.
6. Accountable (3'd<C::14l)'to a person.
7. Accountable (3'tl<c;i4l) for a thing.
8. Accruing ~
~)
to a person from something.

9. Accurate ~. ~) in his statistics.


10.
11.
12.
13.

Accused (~)of theft.


Acquainted ~) with a person.
Acquitted (ftm, ~)
ofa charge.
Addicted (~, am!t) to gambling I smoking/
drinking.

,14. Adequate. ~)
to a person's wants.
15. Adverse ~)
to a person's interests.
16. Affectionate (filer, ~) to a person.

m)

17. Affection ~.
for somebody. (noun)
18. Afflicted ~. ~:~) with pain.
19. Aggravated (alf} at a thing.

?T) with a person.

20. Aggravated ~
21. Akin ~
~)
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

to a person or thing.

Alarmed ~
at a: rumour ..
Alien ~)
to a person's character.
Alienated (~
from the party.
Alive ~)
to the problems.
Amazed (~!lMPfo, ~
at a person's behaviour.
Ambition (llt;fcqtcf>i!fil) for something. (noun) .

28. Ambitious (lil!li(qfcfii!ITT) of something.


29. Amused ~)
at something.
.
30. Angry ~) at a thing.
31. 'Angry ~)
with aperson.
32. Annoyed

c=m:r-;r)

33. Annoyed ~)
something. .

at

a remark.

with a person for saying or doing

34. Answerable (3'd{C::tlfl) to a person for something.


35. Anxious ~.
36. Anxious ~)
. 37. Appalled (~)

tt':f)

41. Apprised ~). of a matter.

44. Apt {mlR, ~) for a purpose.


45. Ashamed ~) of one's conduct
. 46. Assiduous ~) in one's studies.

with a person.
48. Associated ~.:)in some business.
4 7. Associated ~)

49. Assured (~)


of the truth.
50. Astonishing-~
q;f.lqt{"II) to a person.
51. Astonished (~) at one's rudeness, misconduct
52. Averse ~) to hard word.
53. Bereft (cm:m, ~) of qualities.
54. Born~
~ofrichparents.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.

Born ~
s31f) in city.
Charged ~
# fffi!rr) to one's account.
Charged (\RT g3TI') with anger.
Charged (~) with (accused of) forgery.
Close ~) to a person or thing.
Clothed ~
pl!') in mist.

61. Clothed ~
~, \RT prr) with shame .
62: Committed ~
to a course of action.
63. Common (~tcf ,,if-icr,) to several persons or things.
64. Comparable ~
to something.
65. Compatible (~) with one's temper.
66. Competent ~, ~
fur certain work.
et. Composed (oRl' .PTI') of materials.
68. Commune ~
'cf,vlT) with one's friends.
69. Concerned (ffiTR', fmacr) about something/ some. body. .
.
.
70. Concerned ~
. ~)of
one's Welfare .:
71. Concerned (olm'f) in some business.
72. Conducive ~) to a situatin.
73. Conscious ~. ~)
of a fault.
74. Contrary ~.
~) to rule.
75. Covetous.~) of other men's goods.
. 76. Creditable (31'~i<Et.fl4) to one's judgement.
77: Cured ($Tr, f.ro1r) of a disease.
78. Customary ~)
for. a person ..
79. Deprived ('cff.ra) of rights.
80. Derogatory (314'lH'iaf) to one's character.
81. Designed ~
82. Desirous ~)

s3lJ' -::rirrr) for a purpose.

of success.

for his safety.

about the result. .


at the sight.

84. Dexterous ~) in or at doing something .


. 85. Disappointed (Rml)' in a thing. obtained.

A Mirror: of Common Errors


86. Disappointed ~}with a person.
87. Disgusted ~, ~)
with a thing.

.-

134. Introduced

127
~

1Tirf) to a person.

88. Disgusted f~
~ 'IRT saTI') at or with a person.
89. Disqualified (~)for a post.

135. Invested (~) wi~ full powers.


136. Invested (f.)~~id) in business.
137. Involved ~)
in crime,

90. Disqualified (~) from competing.

BS. Irrelevant

91. Doubtf~l or dubious (~e.\!iR-Qi;.) of intension.


92. Eager ~) for result.
93.
94.
95.
96.

Eager ~) in the pursuit of knowledge.


Effective ~)
for a purpose.
Eligible ~) for a post.
Eminent (mr.[, ~) for one's writing.

97. Endowed {WJ:Fr) with natural ability.


98. Engaged ~)
in some work.
99. Engaged.~
salJ') to someperson,

100. Envious ~)
of another's achievement of success.
101. Essential (~) to hapiness.
102: Estranged ~, ~) from a friend.
103 .. Exempted ~.

<Rt) from a.fine.

104. Exhausted (~

saTI') with running.


blame ..
~) to light.
(fcl~c:111) to a person.
~) with a problem.
(lmf,:rcr) (well known) to a person.

G<Rf, <'l"U) from

1_05. Exonerated
106. Exposed
107. Faithful
108. Familiar
109. Familiar

110. Favourable ~)

to one's prospects.
111. Fearful (~) of consequences,
112. Fertile (3cm, ~) in resources.
113. Fit ~.~)for a job.
."114. Free G<F.f) from.errors.
115.
116.
117.
118.

Fruitful (~,
3<fu) in resources.
Fruitless ~)
of results.
Gifted ~)
with qualities.
Glad (~)
of one's success.

119.
120.
121.
122.
123.

Grateful~. ~)for kindness.


Greedy ~, ~)
of or after or for wealth.
Guilty ~) of murder.
Honest ({l-lH<!.t<) in.one's dealings,
Horrified (~)
at a sight.

124. Hostile ~)
to conducive situatiori.
125. Ignorant (~) of something ..
126_ lll (-ifllR) with fever.
127:_ Impertinent (~) to something.
128. Incumbent

c~~-0. ~) on a person.

129. Indebted (a:it'liro, ~) to a person.


130. Indebted (~. ~) for some goodness.
131. Indebted ~)in huge sum.
132. Interested ~
133. Introduced ~

m "qfffi) in a person or thing.


~

Tf<l'T) into a place.

139.
140.
141.
142.
. 143.
144.

~. ~.:i41<RI)to a topic.
Jealous ~)
of somebody ...
Liable ('1ic:41d:le;~) for payment.
Liable ('114Idie,~) to.error,
Moved ~)
to tears.
Moved ~)
at the sorry sight.
Moved .~)
with pity.

145. Moved ~)

by reciuests.

146. Neglectful ~14{cfli!D of one's interests.


147. Negligent (di%:IIE;) of duty ..
148. Negligent (t-114:tl~) in one's work.
149. Obliged ~.
a:Jl'Tm) for some help.
150: Obliged ~.
~) to a person.
151. Oblivious (fq:@l{Oj,ltTid) of the past.
152. Obnoxious ~.- ~)

to a person,

153. Occupied ~) with one's. clients.


154. Occupied ~)
in writing a story.
155. Offended ~
with a person at sometime. '
156 .. Offensive {~)
to a person,
157. Overwhelmed (~)
with grief.
158. Overcome ~) with sorrow. .
159. Painful ~) to one's feeling.
160 .. Peculiar ~)
to a person or thing.
161. Pertinent (Slt-Eifllcfi) toa question I a topic.
.
'
162. Polite t-nf, fcFl';f, f'ffl!) in manners .
163. Polite. t-nf, ~. nm!') to all.
J64. Profitable ~)
to a company.
165. Prodigal (~) o~expenditure ..
166. Profuse ~.
~),in one's offers.
167. Profuse ~.
~)
with one's money.
. 168. Ready ~. ~)
at action.
.
169. Ready ~.~)with
excuses.
170. Ready ~. ~,
in one's response.
171. Related ~talf~)"to a person:
..

. 172. Relevant (SIFSfilcfi) to the statement.


173. Replete ('IRT s3U) with examples.
174. Requisite (~)
to success,
175. Requisite.(~)
176. Resolved~)

for a purpose.
into its elements.

177. Resolved (tjcfifc.:.ld) on completing the work.


178. Responsible (3tt<G141) for an incident I something.
179 .. Responsible (3*1141) to a person.
180. Sanguine (~)
of success.
1_81. Satiated ~.

qt<r) with pleasure.

A Mirror of Common Errors

128

182.
183.
184.
185.
186.
187.
188.
189.
190.
191.
192.

193.
194.
195.
196.
197.

198.
199.
200.
201.
202.
203.
204.

Satisfactory ~d'tNH<fi) to a person.


Satisfied~. ~)of(concerning)afact.

7. The students complained I to the principal against I the

Satisfied ~,~)with one's work.


Secure ~. f-fl-*11!:jck\) from harm.
Secure ~. f-.:4'*115<Rl) against an attack.
Sensitive i<=l<Wfi~) to criticism.
Shocked ~e,+lll.l,l,{I) at the sad news.
Shocking (~
$Ft cITT.91') to all.
Silent (~) about matter.
Similar cwrr.;, ~) to a person or thing ..
Solicitous ~) of a reply.
Solicitous (RRra) for somebody's safety.
Startled (~) at somebody's behaviour.
Strange ~. ~)
to a person.
Subject ~) to change.
Suited ~.
~) to the occasion.
Suitable (cWf;, ~)
for one's income.
Suitable ~.~)to the occasion.
Suited~.~) fora post.
Thankful (a:J~~Hti<) for past favours.
Vexed (tITTTR) at a thing.
Vexed (mTR) with a person for doing something.
Worthy (<rrnf) of praise.

Directions : Find out the error in each of the following


sentences, if any. If there is no error, your answer is 'E'
1. Nobody can deny I that Gandhi's ideas I are different

~)

8. Without considering I for a moment he I entrusted me in I all


(A)
(B)
the important work. I No Error.
(D) '
(E)

(C)

9. Somebody reported to me I that Suman had fallen in I the


.
(A)
(B)
well and nobody had I tried to save him. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

10. There are certain animals I that can live without I any
(A)
(B)
effort both I in water and land. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
11. The plan was to go for I the cinema but I owing to certain
(A)
(B)
hindrances I it failed. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

12. The angry boatman I threw the cracked oar I into the
(A)
(B)
river I and returned home. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

(C}

13. My friends proposed me I that we should go to I the

PROBLEMS BASED ON PREPOSffiONS

(A).
(B)
warden and the I poor management 'of the hostel.
(C)
(D)

than I Lenin's./ No Error.


(D)
(E)
.
.
2. He was very much engaged I in his work when the
(A)
(B)
thieves I entered into his house I and took away a lot of
(C)
(D)
things. I No Error.
(E)
3. While she was returning I from college, I a ruffian
(A)
(B)
attacked I on her with a dagger. I No Error.
(C)
. (D)
(E)
4. The decline of his moral I was caused by a lot I of factors
.(A) .
(B)
. that were./ once fascinating to him. I No. Error.
(C)
.
(D)
(E)
5. Two of my intimate friends I called on me I on yesterday
(A)
(B}
(C)
when I was I away from home. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

6. Simmi took me to a hotel f and ordered for I two cups of


(A)
(B)
.
coffee I which the waiter brought in no time. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

(A)
(B)
movies and then have I dinner at a hotel . No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)
14. She became able I to free herself I with her debts by I
(A)
(B)
(C)
working day and night. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

15. My brother said that I he preferred the white I shirt than


(A)
.
(B)
the black one I which I usually wore. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

16. He always insists I that he prefers I to go home I to stay


(A)

.. (B)

(C)

anywhere at night. I No Error.


(D)
(E)

. 17. Glimpses to I the religious side of his I nature appear in I


(A)
(B)
the majority of his plays. I No Error.

(D)

(C)

(E)

18. Hardly had we settled down I for the night's rest when I
(A)
(B)
we were startled I by the loud noise being made outside
(C)
(D)
the house. I No Error.
(E)

;..

A Mirror of Common Errors


19. There appears I to be very little / liasion among I the two
(A)

(B)

129.

31. Rakesh Sharma. the Indian space I hero, is much sought l


(A)

(C)

(A)

(B)

ments derived from I the disintegration of existing rocks. I


(C)

functions. I No Error.
(E)
32. His father is I sick but I he does not I look for him. I
(A)

(D)

No Error.

No Error.

(E)

(E)

21. Found guilty I on murder. the accused I men were


(B)

(B)
(E)

(D)

23. He looked upon me I level eyed for a I few moments


(A)

(D)

(C)

33. I advised I him to consult with a doctor I but be refused I


(B)

(C)

to do so. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
34. Ordinarily when in difficulty I Renu prefers keeping
(A)

because I I had not helped him. I No Error.

(B)

(C)

beforehe I started speaking. I No Error.


(D)
(E)
24. The girl said I that she preferred I the blue gown than I
(A)

(B)

(~

sentenced I to life imprisonment I No Error.


(C)
(D)
(E)
22. Today be revealed I the fact that he was I angry on me

(C)

(D)

(C)

20. Sedimentary rocks I largely -comprised of I minute frag-

(A)

(B)

after by college students and I is invited for various

wings of the party. I No Error.


(D)
(E)

(A)

...

(B)

(C}

(B)

her counsel I rather than going about here and I there


(C)
for advice. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
35. Those who are I suffering from diabetes I are advised to
(A)

(B)

substitute I saccharine by sugar. / No Error.


(C}

(E)

(D)

the black one. / No Error.


(D)

36. This book deals I in the burning probelms I our country is

{E)

25. The smuglar yielded I for the temptation I and fell into the
(A)
(B)
police trap from I which escape was impossible. I
(C)

. (D)

(E)

26. Numerous people in India I are dying from hunger I but


.

(A)
(C)

(D)

(E)

Tl. The man who I was blind with the right I eye was a I
(A)

(B)

(C}

notorious criminal of this area. I No Error.


(D)

38. In spite of being very I busy at domestic work, I she saves


(A)

(B)

39. My father has the reputation for I being the sort of i


(A)
(B)
manager who is at least willing to listen to I anyone who
(C)

(B)

(C)

- (D)

wants to raise a point./ No Error,


(D)

(E)

40. Despite of the best efforts I made by the Government I


(A)

29. The poet describes about I the beauty of a landscape I in a


(B) .

(A)

very I attractive way./ No Error.


(E)

30. During his tour I to the north he visited I not only to


(A)
(B)
Delhi /but also Agra./ No Error,

(D)

(A)
(B)
than its I poor performance. I No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

(E)

28. Some persons I get jobs even if I they are not worthy I for

(D)

(E)

time I to the visitors. I No Error.


(C)
(D)
(E)

No Error.

(C)

(D)

. (B)

the Government seems I to be ignorant of this fact. I

(A)
them. I No Error.
(E)

(C)

37. The debacle of the Party I admits no other explanation I

No Error.

(B)

(A)

facing I at present. I No Error.

(E)

(C)

{B)

the condition of the. country is I going from bad to


(C)
(D)
worse. I No Error.
(E)
41. The captain distributed /. the sweets among our I friends
-(B}
~
who I had invited him. I No Error.

. (D)

(E)

130

A Mirror of Conunon Errors .

42. The bride said I that she would not I marry the
(A)
(B)
thirty- five./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

man over I
(C)

44. The constitution of India comprises of I three wings(A)

the

legislature, the judiciary I and the executive, and each is I


(B)
(C)
independent in its own way. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
45. The council does I not hold itself responsible I for the loss
(A)
(B)
or damage I to any article./ No Error.
(C)
(D)

46. When he was I under house arrest I he was debarred to


(A)

(B)

(C)

send I a letter even to his wife. I No Error.


(D)

2. (C)

1. (C)

43. The invitation card I says that Satish I marries with I


(A)
(B)
(C)
Sunita next month. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
.

ANSWERS
3. (D)

6. (B)

7.(C)

8. (C)

11. (A)

12. (C)

13. (A)

14. (C)

15. (C)

16. (D)

17. (A)

18. (D)

19. (C)

20. (B)

21. (B)

22. (C)

23. (A)

24. (C)

25. (B)

26. (B)

27. (B)

31. (D)
36. (B)

32. (D)
37. (B)

28. (D)
33. (E)

29. (A)
34. (C)

38. (D)

39. (A)

30. (C)
35. (D)
, 40. (A)

41.(B)

42. (C)

43. (C)

44. (A)

45. (C)

46. (C)

47. (A)

48. (B)

49. (A)

50. (E)

1. (C) 'than'%;~

'from' q;r

<ilR 'from' q;r

%; ~

ra'

.;

1i<UlT ~

'different'

Jrlll7T ~ ti

fct; different js <ilTG 'than'~

ft t

cIGf ;;r.r different~ <ilTG ~ Noun ~; ~


(i) I have read a different book than this.

-rT

4.7. We may have to await for I a new political order to

2. (C) 'into' q;r Jl'1ITTT -:;tr


~

of I

48. Governments should refrain I to associate themselves


(A)
(B)
with anything I that tends to affect the I secular character
(C)
of our state./ No Error.
(D)
(E)
49. It was apparent for I everyone present that if I the patient
(A)
(B)
did not receive medical I attention fast, he would die. I
(C)
(D)
No Error.
(E)
50. She looked very I different from I the photograph I I had
(A)
(B)
(C)
of her. I No Error.
, .
(D)
(E)

SI. In his concluding I remarks, he said I almost nothing I


(A)
(B)
(C)
worthlistening to. I No Error,
(E)

EXPLANATIONS

Noun

(D)

10. (D)

51. (0)

(E)

(A)
. (B)
restructure I our economy by adopting a modal
(C)
development closer to our needs. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

s. (C)

4. (A)
9.(9)

ft

than
enter q;r

a:tYf t' i:t

'come into I go into';~-:-

(i) He went into the class.


'lfl',

(ii) He entered the class .

~.

enter into some business I enter into a conversation I


enter upon a career~
q;r 'll<WT ~ ti
3. (D) 'on' q;r "5f<U1T ~
cprrfct; 'attack' cfif 'Sl<IT1T ~
Verb~~
if~ <ft~
G(R ~
Object 3lrnT t;

.-tt(i) China attacked

India in 1962.

.!.

.!.

Verb

Object

~
atack q;r 1i<Ulr ;;r.r Noun ~ ~ if moT t cff
~
'iil'R on q;r 'Sl<IT1T ~ t; ~-An attackon my
life, two attacks on my life.

~. l make an attack
'1fraT

+ on + Object!

cfif ~

fcF.<IT

t; ~-

(i) China made an attack on India in 1962.

.!.

.J,

on Obj.

4. (A) 'of' ~ ~
empire

'in' ~

ffl' ~ ~

decline or an

I decline of a party I decline of a man -*

lPn1T ft 't ~

decline in moral I decline in prices

~~~mt,

.131

A Mirror of Common Errors

S . (C) yesterday ~ ~
'on' cfiT ~
';fffl' m7TT ~
Yesterday, two days before yesterday, the day before
yesterday, today, tomorrow, two days after tomorrow,
the day after tomorrow ~
~ ~
on, in ~
cfiT
~

-;simr

ti
m7TT ~

';fffl'

6. (B) ordered ~ ~ 'for' ~ ~


~ Transitive Verb t 3ITT ~

order
Object 3lraT

t;~. (i) He ordered a cup of tea. r=r fcf; for a cup of tea]
(ii) He ordered me to go'out of the room.
~. order + somebody + for.+ something <fiT

~mmttt(i) He ordered the shopkeeper for a shawl.


Noun ~ ~ if ~
~ for q;r
tt-He
gave order for a
cup tea.
, .7: (C) the poor~ ~
'about'~ 'of' cfiT ~
mTTT ~
(i) Complain to somebody.
(ii) Complain against somebody.

m~

m, <!R order <fiT ~

of

~mart;

(iii) Complain about/of something cfil" ~


~
ti
8. (C) 'in'~ ~
'with' <fir ~
m7Tl', ~
entrust+
somebody + with + something <fir WftTr ~ t:

tt(i) He entrusted me with some work.


cifq,-l entrust + something + to + somebody cfiT

~
~ : ..with verbs of motion or change, 'in' is
used:He put the letter in his pocket.
She cut it in half.
She i.hrew the letter in the fire.
-Nesfield : (New E.cfition) ENGLISH GRAMMAR,
. COMPOSITION AND USAGE'(P.187)
13. (A) proposed js fflG. 'to' Preposition q;r ~
Proposed to somebody I suggested to somebody I
reported tosomebody ~
'<f?r ~
~
!; ~(i) She suggested to her friends that they should start
dancing.
(ii) He reported to me that the wall had fallen down.
14. (C) 'with' ~ ~
'from; cliT ~
h ~
free
. somebody from something ~
from something

n- ~

tree

<fil~W..t;~(i)

mm ti

~. fall in <fiT 3N

mm

(i) in water and. on land.


(ii) desirous of and loving to ~'

mn ~
mm

'in'

t, ~

~
if to
(ii) He fell into the well. ~ ~
~ fiR ~I)
(i) He is in the room. ~

all blames.

.r

:J.

Gerund

to

Gerund

~
~ Prefer i ~ Infinitives
Prefer ~ alR 'rather than' ~- ~

*~
~

~-

---r-.

rather than

l:

mm
ti

write.

-r--

'

Infinitive rather than Infinitive


16. (D) 'to'~ ~
'rather than' qi!' ffl' itmt
NOTE : ~
~
~ ~
~
"tjo (15) ~
17. (A) 'to' ~ ~

mm t,

J.

~~1

11. (A) for'~~


'to' cfiT ~
~
~
go to the
cinema/go to the theatre/go to the circus/go to the
station~ q:;r ~

Noun to Noun
(ii) She preferred playing
to goss1pmg.

. .

~~~~~;tt-

'in' q:;r
condition (f~Hlej~f) <fir ~
motion (llftr) cfiT; ~-

J.

(i) We preferred to read .

m~ ~ ~~ ~

12.' (C) 'into' ~ ~

free from

TT

J.

~- ~ ~ ~

N=r-fir-=f Prepositions~ t
if ~ ~ Prepositions

'and'~~~~

--r-0

mm

tt-

-r

free from . something


15. (C) than~ ~
'to' c1'if ~
~ ~
Prefer~ ~ ~
Nouns ~ Gerunds ~ ~
~ <fr Prefer ~ iflG 'to'
Preposition <fiT ffl'
t; ~(i) She prefers milk ! tea.

'collapse' 'ftR: "3!F!T';

(i) Tne roof fell in. ~ flR "ll<rrl)


10. (D) 'land' ~ ~
'on' cfiT ~
m7TT

free somebody from something

(ii) He entrustedsome work to me.


9. (B) 'in' ~ ~
'into' cfiT w:itTT mtTI' ~
fall into a
wen I into the river I into certain division I into line
cf>i' WftTr

Rita tried to free herself from all liabilities.

(ii) . Minu was

~mmt:~-

..

'of'

qi!'

WTI1T

m~

'get I catch a glim:p.se of'~


<fiT
(i) He caught a glimpse of her.
18. (D) 'by' ~ ~
'at' ~ Wfl1T ~

'glimpse of'

m ~
~

t; ~startled I

surprised I astonished I amazed 3Tift ii; ~ ~


Preposition ~ 'Sl<TI1T ~ i, :=r fcf> 'by' Preposition-

static
into ~

<fil; ~-

19.

(i) They are amazed at her_ beauty.


(C) 'among' ~ ~
'between' ~ '!l"f:il1T ~ ~
ftrq; ~ ~ (Two wings)'* ti .~ Tif fcf; ~

"!..J'

A Mirror of Common Errors

132

'of' cf;f Jf<TI'll' ft ~


'die of a
disease", 'die of hunger', die from a wound I over
eating I over drinking I food poisoning' ~
cf;f

26. (B) 'from' ~ ~


(i) There is a great dispute between these two boys.
(ii) There is a great enemity between
~~)

* ~ ~ ffl

~. <tr -4 ~

~~t;~-

(i) Dr. Sinha died of cholera/cancer/diabetes.

'among' q;r

(i) Distribute the coal among the three I five I ten


members.
,
20. (B) 'comprised' ~ 4flG 'of' <fiT ~
~ ~
~
comprise= consist of. ar:,
(i) The book comprises five chapters. Pf f.t. comprises of]
<IT, (ii) The book consists of five chapters.
21. (B) 'on'~ ~
'of' <ti1' ~
h ~ 'be guilty of.a
crime'cfil' ffl" ~ ~ t; ~(i) He is guilty of theft.
22. (C) 'on'*~
'with' <R ffl'
'angry with
somebody' ~. 'angry at something' W
fcAr

n ~

~t~-

angry

at

~.

(i) Describe something to somebody.


Expi~ something to somebody.
(iii) Discuss something with somebody

something

m~

at

cf;f

'look at

m ~ ~

(i) He described

looked

at somebody
at the picture.

30. (C) 'to'

..

-r-Verb

ffl h1

*~ ~ ~

(15) ~

25. (B) 'for' ifi ~


'to' <fiT ~
somebody I something ~
3lTclf ~
~)
(i) He yielded to

qif

q!JfcRr

en: ~ ~ at11\'

ffl 'fflaT t; tt.l

yielded to

3t'IR ~

T.r-

Make
:cf;f

Past~

". something

* ~ * 3tJ1t

. ,

3tl<'l41itcful

${

. make
cfil"

31, (D) 'for'

. l

.
~I)

. .

ll'1fPT mm t; tt-

<i> He made a visit

~ aw. ~ ~

-J,-

his enemr

Somebody
awl" 3tlti1~'1'i0i ~- ~I)
(ii) She yielded to her husband's will .

,l.

WIT~- visit cfiT ffl' ~ Verb if;


1f1G ~. Object am!T t; ~-

(ii) He made

yielded to

something to somebody

Noun

ifjf

yield to

~-- ~

me,

'r T

(ii) He visited Kashmir ..


make a visit to somebody I some place.

. (i) She looked him in the eyes.

NOTE : ~

(i) He visited me.

W1l1T ~ t; tt-

~~I

"<firm~

~ i\' it ffl ~

looked at something.
Look somebody in the eye(s) I face ~

'to' q;f

the event to

:r

describe
cfil" y2

"l

cfiT

~t;tt-

her.

--:r--

Something.

cfiT y2

, (ii)

t~-

24. (C) 'than'~ ~

Tm.

:r

23. (A) 'upon'~~


'at' cf;f ~
(= ~
somebody I something'

-r

mr

m- mr t,

lou.

"l

J,

(ii) You looked

(iii) He died from food poisoning.


.
~
'in' cf;f Jl7IT1T ~ ~
'blind in the
. right eye/the left. eye' ~ q'jJ" WWf
t ~
. 'blind with both the eyes' qi!'
28. (D) 'for' ~ ~
'of' q;r Jf<TI'll' ~ cfcITfcf; 'worthy of

something' ~
'qualified for a post' 'competent
for something'~
cfil' ffl" ~ t; ~
(i) He is not worthy of this job.
(ii) He is not qualified for this post.
(iii) He is not competent for this team.
29. (A) about cfil' ~
~
'ffl'TTT ~- describe/ -discuss/explain + something <fir Jfclt1T WIT t; tt(i) He explained
this
27. (B) 'with'~

with somebody
at your. behaviour.

(ii) He is ~

(i) You looked

(ii). The old woman died of hunger.

explain
with

angry

m-

(i) He is ~

"'T

m-~t;~-

Ram and Mohan.

Noun

me.

to Object

~
a visit

to

Kashmir.
J,.

Noun

to

Object

T. T

y2

* ~party 3llfG

place I a

to

~ <Pfffcf; tie invited to a


cfiT '5llffTT irm' l; ~-

'to' cfiT .wfllr

(i) I was invited to lunch.

133

A Mirror of Common Errors


32. (D) 'for'~ ~

'after'

~ t ~

mTJT ~

1fiT ~

'Look for' cfil'

'Look after' 1fiT


ftror aftlfR

~&"licl
aJ: ~
~ <RI

~-ii' ~
~
~
~ q;l' sRicflPli:f>dl

t, ~

fcr1'R Prepositions ~ ffl'

~~

fcf; look ~ mei-

fcf; ~

(ii) He suggested to me that I should save for a rainy


day.~
~ ~
~ fcf; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~I)
.
(iii) They have saved

t; :tt-

31'f ~

(iii) look after (~&illcl

q;l' ~

~~ti

34. (C) 'rather than'~~

'to'
~

39. (A) 'for' $ ~


'of' 1fiT ~
~
~
'have the
reputation of doing something' cfiT JrlWT "ffifT !1
~. 'have a reputation for something' ~ 'make a
reputation for something' "i:f>l" ~
"ffifT !; ~-

~ ~)

n,

1fiT ~

~ ~

(i) You have the reputation of being a miser.


~

(15) q;l'

oZfR9?fr ~I

'for' cfil' ~
WIT ~
Substitute
something for something' ~
'Replace something
by something' <fir ~
A t,
~-(i) Substitute saccharine for sugar.
~. (ii) Replace a Noun by a Pronoun.

35. (D) 'by' ~ ~

a subject'

ffl' ~

'with'

3!Yf t ~
31'f t 'fcf;m ~

cfif
cfi<=rr' ~

1fiT

~-

~ ~

'deal in' qi!'


'deal with somebody' cfil'
~
~ ~ 'deal with

3W t ~

1fiT

ffl

~;

(i) You deal in rice.(~


1fiT cll'l1l"R ~
ltl)
(ii) You do not deal with him. (? ~
mrf 1fflfq

~~mo

(iii) This poem deals with the beauty of Nature. ~


ffl(U ~
~ ~
<fiT ffl ~
37. (B) 'admits' ~ il'TG" 'of' <fiT ~
mTJT ~
'admit of'

,,o

cm ~) ~

~
t 'can have'
somebody info a house/some place' ~

1fiT ~

fcf,-tjl' ~. ~

'ad~it
liqffli cR

ii'~~; tt-

(i) The words admit of other meanings. ~

3!Yf

w~t)

~.

(ii) He admitted me into the house. ~

Glftrn fct;lrr'1)

~
(iii) I was admitted to this institution.

if ~!311'1)

If< -q

Ciro ~ ~

n ~

38. (D) 'to' ~ ~


'for' 1fiT ~
"save
something for something', 'save for something' ~
'Save somebody from something' ~
~ ~
lIT

't~-

..

(i) He has sared some 1oney ~


saved

something

~ff~~~~to

<firn)

(iv) look into ~


~)
(v) look for~)
(vi) look down upon (fa<m<

36. (B) 'in' ~ ~

from being drowned.


,!.
J.

J.

body

(ii) look at ~)

NOTE : ~

me

save q;i- V 3 some- from

(i) look~)

33. (E)

-J.-

something

thisf!rposc.

for something

~~~~~~~~t,).

(ii) He has a reputation for honesty.


(iii) She made a reputation for herself:

~ w~

t~ ~

q'1'cpf

(iii)

(iii) ir .has'. 'have' "i:f>l" Singular~


if 'made' make "i:f>l" Past~

40. (A) Despite ~ il'TG" 'of'


In spite of. ar:,

t,

cfil' ~

m-irr ~

Despite

(i) Despite his good performance, he was not


selected.

~.

(ii) In spite of his good performance, he was not


selected.

41. (B) 'among'~ ~


'amongst'~~
m-in-1 ~ W ~
'among' err 'amongst' 1'iT ~
-ey t ~
~~
A t, mrf 1t 'the'~ ~ among ut amongst 1fiT
~~~. ~~
'the'~tm 'among'jsr
~
Consonant sound ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~
<l'-lT 'amongst' ~ Vowel sound ~ ~
m:t ~ ~
~ ffi f.Rr ~ t; ttAmong
~the boys .
. Amongst..,..,~. (i) Among them ~
cfiT
Consonant "t]
~, Amongst us I our friends [ '~
'at' Vowel t1 m 1f'cfir<, 'atfcR'
~ Vowel ti]

sound ~

<fiT ~
cfiT ~

sound
sound

42. (C) over ~ ~


'above' 1'iT ~
WIT ~
'over I
under age' 1'if ~
mat"
above I below
twenty, thirty, forty 3l1f<::: 1fiT ~
~
t; ~(i) She isbelow sixteen. R fcl; under sixteen]
(ii) They are under age. [~ fcf; below age]

t ~

~.

(iii) They are under I above the age of thirteen.

134

. 43.

A Mirror of Common Errors


(C) marries js ofl'G 'with' <fi1' ~~~I ~

~ ~

~ 'marry' 3,'.f!R ~

ffl

fcf;

Object~

t;~(i) Ram married Sita.

pr ~

married with Sita]


<IT (ii) Sita married Ram. [-:f ~ married with Ram]
be + married+ to+ Object q;r 'lflITlT ~

~. I

t,

47. {A) await~ ofTG 'for' q;r ffl" 11ff m1TT ~


'await' =
'wait for'. ar<f:
(i) He is waiting for the result.
?tr, (ii) He is awaiting the result.
48. (B) 'to associate' ~ ~
'from associating' cfiT ~

WTTI
NOTE : ~

~-(i) Ram is married to Sita.

~~.

(i) Deepa weds Mohan. [-f fcf; weds with Mohan)


(ii) Mohan weds Deepa. [-:f fcf; weds with Deepa)
44. (A) comprises js ~ 'of' <iiT WWT ~ ~ ti
, 45. (C) loss ~ ofl'G. 'of' cfiT "Sl<rr7T
'loss of
something ~. 'loss of blood I prestige I health I
money' ~
q;it
'2iR' ~ f<t; 'the loss
. of or damage to any article' ~ Phrases <iiT Synthesis
!1 it w-if Phrases t' 'the loss of any article', 'the
damage to any article' ~ zyn' Phrases <R" or~ ~

n ~

m- mr am

"lR

the loss of:>


or

~ ~m~

~o

(46) ~

mm ~

~
listen + to + object

m~

46. (C) 'to send' ~ ~


'from sendin 'q;r ~
debar I abstain I refrain+ from+ V(ing) q;r ~

~-

P;

(i) Listen to what he says.

(i) He abstains from smoking.

49. (A) for~ ffi 'to' cfiT 1l<IT1T


apparent I cle~ I
obvious to somebody cfiT W1T m-aT t ~(i) It is apparent I clear I obvious to me.
50. (E) cfT<R ~ t-1
.
51. (D) 'to' <tiT '5fllTlT 11ff WIT ~
listen to somebody I
listen to the radio anfG cnT ~
m-aT t"1 ~.
worthlistening~ 'iilTG 'to' q;r ri-r 11ff ~ !1
NOTE : 'listen' Intransitive Verb~ Transitive Verb
~ ~
~ 'qiJlf ~
t"t ~ ~ ffl" Intransitive
Verb ~ ~ ~ 'm err ~ ~ 'to' q;r Jl<TI'1T -::nfi' ma,t1 ~ ~ 'listen' ~ ~ ~ Object~ m err
~
ofl'G 'to' .,ft- ~
t; ~(i) We listened but heard nothing.
(ii) Please listen carefully for the telephone while I'm
upstairs.
-A. S. Hornby : OXFORDADVANCED LEARNER'S
DICTIONARY OF CURRENT ENGLISH USAGE
~, ~ listen cfiT ~
Transitive Verb ~ ~ -q ~
~
GfTG to cfil" "5l<nTr ~~Object cfiT ~
Ffi'llT ~ ti

~~I

., !

~ ~

mm

any article

the damage to
~
'the loss of or damage to any article'
NOTE : ~
~ ~ ~ ~ <ITT:: 'ra' fcfi '5fif ~ ~
and, or~
~ ~ ~ a"el'T ~ ~~
Prepositions
Prepositions~ ~ ~~~I
NOTE : ~
~
~ ~
~
~o (11) ~

~~I

(ii) I listened to him.

from Verb (ing)

***

Chapter-14

SUPERFLUOUS EXPRESSIONS & SLANG


~

Superfluous Expressions : ~
~
cfi1' ffl'
~ ':.i'r Expressions

~ ~

oi-!lqlil!i:fi

t ~

ffl' ~

t; tt-

Superfluous Expressions~

ffl'

if 'for a long period' ~ ~

Expressions

31-llcl!loff;

t~

'oftime'

ti' t ~

'period'cfi1' ~

for a long time

Slang : fcf;m ~
qlf ~ ~
s;:ru
(words), qfcfcjffi (phrases) '4T ~

1l<nl1' ~ ~

Standard English jl

-'il'Tffl

qif

l ~

~ ~

~ ~ ti ~
'lecturership'<l>I' ~

cfi1' l'{iil'

-w;: ~

(Note-'cl'Tcfll'

if

'freeship' qif ~
~
't 'freestodentship'
~ t 'lectureship'.

if ~

11m

ti ~

m ~ ~~

return= go/ come back=~


~/31'RTI
12. Reimburse back ~ back qiJ'

3!4iq!l<lq,

t; ~

=~

conclusion~

final ~

6. funeral service

ti

if service

qiJ'

funeral~~
if service ti 7. kindly requested if kindly cfi1'
active if ~
'requested' ~
request ~ ~

kindly/please
qiJ'

m ~

m
~

ti'

ti

again

qiJ'

~.Jlcl!l4q,

t,

overshadow= throw a shadow over

~ o1'TG 'over',qif

ffl ~

n1

20, equally as good as if equally

'i::fiT ~

31-lWM$

ti

(i) Ram and Shyam are equally good.

if
if

'4T

Shyam).
~

Adjectives~
Noun '4T Pronoun cit' ~
11' ~ ~
~-a
kindly smile, a kindly thought '4T a kind thought, a

t"t

~ ~

recapitulate

(ii) Ram is as good as Shyam.

a:l4icl!l4q;

ar:

~-

kindly q:;r
requested ~ ffi' -::rtl' ~ q:;r ~ ~
~ t fcf; kindly~ Adjective t, ':.i'r Verb 'requested' fcf;

ifil' if cfi1' ~

~I

~I

m. ;rm' ~

t; ~

overtop = rise over


3ttl':, over-ride, overturn, overshadow, overshoot, overtop

t ~

passive
Active/Passive

kindly manner, a kindly way 3TIRI

~.Jlq!t,;j$

overturn= tum over

cfi1'. Passive.]

8. supposing

qif

19. over-ride = prevail over

~~~~t,
t't

cfi1'

~ ~

t, ~

3,j..jjq!(ljq,,

t't [~

ir -ift back

17. Recast= rewrite=~ ~1 ar: recast, rewrite


,ft back cl>I'
3.l.:jjq!(ljq,i t-1
18. Reborn, rebuild, regain, reiterate, recast, recall,

recede~~~

3141clli<lc:fi t; .p.:n'fcf;

ft:rQ;

overshoot =Shoot over

~..flclli<lij;

~ ~,

back, repeat back~

'lftr ll'T ~I

tiT0 ~,

cf<Tifct;

14. Recede back if ,ft back qiJ'


~-tlciit <lcfi t; ~
recede = go back from the observer or from an earlier position
,:fi'0 ~
~
~ ~
~
~ ~ tl'm <il'RTI
~- The tide receded. (= went back)

4. 'consort husband' I 'consort wife' if husband, wife cfi1'


'Sl'<lTTT 31-llcl!l4$ t; ~
consort = husband or wife

5. final conclusion if final q:;r

t, ~

16. Recapitulate = repeat =

t ~

opinion' if 'opinion' 31..fiq!ll!


'consensus'= collective opinion': ~
~
I
3. 'consensus

cfi1'

period ~

during.~ ~

recall = summon back, recollect, take back

'41'~~~1)

'4T during the war

m1fT ~

31-il~:i<ltfi

15. Recall back

qfl'flf

He, She, Geeta, Ram, Shyam ~


Ff; cousin q:;r
fcf;,u '1T4T

especially of a ruler = ~

suppose cfi1'

'3i<WT

retreat= go back=

m- iifl<.9,,m?1 fcf; ~

(i) He is my cousin brother ~


t-He is my cousin.

~ ti' ~ ~

'ffi

m- 311ici!ll!c:fi t

t- ~

cfi1'

'4T

reimburse= pay back= ffl ~I .


13. Retreat back if .,ft back cfi1'

ti

2. 'cousin brother'/'cousin sister' if 'brother', 'sister'


superfluous t ~
'cousin' cfi1' 3li ti'
,:nf/ ~
~1

ar:,

11. Return back ii' pack ~

SOME IMPORTANT SUPERFLUOUS


EXPRESSIONS & SLANG

I. 'freeship', lecturership'

'aiN mffl t I

n1

ffl'

1l<nl1' if ~

during the war q;r

~
qiJ'

for a long period '4T

10. during the period of war

qif

'4T ~

cfi1' 'TI1T ' I

ar:,

ti

'if superfluous

Suppose you won the first prize, what would you do? '4T
If you won the first prize, whatwouldyou do?

(i) for a long period of time.


~

9. suppose if~ ~
"4T ucfil'; tt.-

mn

21. mutual agreement


agreement~
~

mt,

ir mutual

fcf; equally as good as


.
qiJ'

i ~ ~ ~

22. mutual friend ~


common friend q;r
ffl
~

t-f

col,1llllon interestffl

3!.jjq~4q;

(parties) ~

ti ~ ~
ir ~ ~. mutual
~

t,

t;

accept

~
interest~

!,

136

A Mirror of Common Errors


23. mutual dislike of each other#

~-tl"F~14cfi

'of each other' 'cfiT ~

ti

24. await= wait for,

(i) My brother is an English teacher.

despite = in 'spite of

[~ ~

r""

investigate; enquire into

.. ar: ,await~-~

for, comprise is ~ of, despite <fi ~


investigate ~ ~ into 'cfiT ~
~
ti
.- .. 25. two ~ins. -q two , divide into four quarters -q quarters
~
q;r >l<lT1T <>H icH' <!cf> t1
'

6f..

26. reason because


why

cfiT ~

mm t ~ reason that cfiT; ~-

q';f ~

lITTIT t; reason

(i) This is the reason why he does not come.


27. until, unless, forbid, prohibit, prevent, dissuade,
deny, refuse, Jest "q' 'not' cfiT ~

ti am: ~

am:: 'not'.

~ >l<lT1T ~ m-a-T t; ~-(i) He forbade me not to go out. (i\'


~=tlq)i <l<h

'not 'cfiT ~

to

28. coward man -q man <f>T Jl<ll'1T ~


t'; ~ coward
~ ~ Noun
31R ~ 3N tl' t ~ 3lJGlft'1 ~ a
cowardly.man.~
cowardly-~
Adjective ti

ant'; a coward= a cowardly man.


29. flee

= run away =

'lflT ";5fRTI a:to: flee away ~

ti

sq.

English q;r ~

an English teacher ~
~]

<>!41qli lj!f,

'and' cfiT

t; ~-

Q) He is Raman. and who.is my friend. .


[~ ~ if 'who' ~ ~ 'and' <fir ~

~-flqlillcfi

Antecedents js ~

it, them 'cfiT

~t;~-

m- ~41<:llt<lcfi

l:JRT

37. passing marks~~


pass marks 'cfiT ~
m'fil i,
linking language I linking road ~ 'if<ffi link language / link
road ~
ctiT ~
'fflm

t,

PROBLEMS BASED ON SUPERFLUOUS


EXPRESSIONS & SLANG
Directions : Find out the error in each of the following
setuences, if any. If there is no error, your answer is 'E'
1. All the members I of the Board are I kindly requested to

$)

appear I in the next meeting. I No Error.


(D)
(E)
2. Pakistan's support I to the terrorists of India I should be
(A)
(B)
.
. universally condemned I by all./ No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

(B)

(A)
Patna. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

(~

$)

would you have done ? I No Error.


(D)
.
(E)

them back I by the end of the month. I No Error.

(D)

32. Relative Pronouns ~ ~

crert" cfT<R ~ 3"Rr "q' ~


Preposition 'cfiT 1f1tlTr ~
~I

~~'IR~~

~~~~aRrif

tocfiT~~t1

33. Suddenly come across if suddenly q;r


~ come across= meet suddenly.

m come across~

iflG with CfiT ~

34. with bag and baggage jt with q;r_ ~


bag and baggage = with all belongings

mer. ~-~
~~ti

~ mer, ~

35. my family member js


~; ~

31:Mli 4cfi

ti
3141clli<lcfi

t;

=~ ~ ~

bag and baggage ~ with cfiT


~

all my family members ~ ~


~

l1<n'1T

a member of my family,
all the members of my

family member Slang

ti

(E)

6. He denied I that he was not I present at the spot of I

occurrence. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

(i) This is the man to whom I was talking to.

family 'cfiT

(C)

5. When he lent me I some books, he asked I me to return

(i) This is the book which Ibought it for you.


[~ ~ if bought~ ~ 'it' <fir ~
~--11=q....
ll-ll<li- t1]

a teacher of

4. Supposing if I ali your problems I had been solved, I what

ii]

am:: ~ ~

31. Relative Pronouns who.which, that~

3. Within an hour's I journey we I will approach near I


30.'Relative Pronouns who, which, that ~ ~

-;tit-

comprise ;;,, consist of


--

36. an English teacher a teacher who is an English man.


a teacher of English a teacher who teaches English.
a:to: ~ at2r "1'r ~
-q ~
~ ~ cfiBT ~I

. 7. The C.M. said I that it was his I decision and that nobody
(A)
(B)
(C)
could I get it changed. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

8. My father asked me I if I had I sufficient enough money I


(A)
(B)
(C)
to pay the fees./ No Error.
(D)
(E)
9. The candidate I requested the Chairman I to repeat the I
(A)
(B)
question again. / No Error.
(D)
(E)

(C)

A Mirror of Common Errors

B. The -Principal forbade I the students not .to I stage a I


(A)

(B)

(C)

walk out I No Error.


(D)

137

23. The reason why most I of the people commit crime 1 is


(A)

because they have not been I properly educated.


No Error.

1. "The patient is comparatively better I today and I hope I


(A)

(B)

that he will recover soon", I said the doctor./ No Error.


(D)

(C)

{E)

(E)

24. Many people don't hardly know I about the real factors I
(A)

(A)

(B)

(D)

(E)

(C)
{A)
(C)

(D)

little because he I was emotionally disturbed. I No Error.


(D)

(E)

(E)

(A)

(B)

(B)

(C)

and then I they returned home. I No Error.


(D)

.4. This is the new I book which my father I bought it I for


(A)

(B)

26. They stayed in Kashmir I for a very short I period of time

(B)

(C)

(E)

(D)

with the I so called officer. I No Error.

3. Yesterday in the night I he came to dinner but ate I very


(A)

25. They were quite all right I when they started arguing I

like to succeed him I when his term expired. I No Error.


(C)

(B)

that have led the state I to so many crises. / No Error.

2. A cousin sister I of the Chairman said that she would I

(E)

27. She reimbursed back I the money which I bad I spent

(C)

(A)

you. I No Error.
(E)

(B)

. during our I journey to Kathmandu. I No Error.

.5. The thing what/you like/ is not available I here./ No Error.


(B)

(D)

(C)

(E)

l6. She asked me politely I where I was going to I and what I


(A)

(B)

(C)

would I bring for her. I No Error.


(D)
(A)

(E)

28. Please remember that I Dr. Sharan, who is a surgeon, I is


(A)

29. I took a day's leave to attend I a dear departed friend's I


(A)

(B)

funeral service which. was I to be conducted by his family


(D)

{C)

l8. Probably by the end I of the year he will I leave for the
(B)
(D)

priest. I No Error.
(E).

(C)

USA I with bag and baggage. I No Error.

(E)

19. This 'idea of I the Chief Minister's I has surprised the I


(B)

30. Unless you do not I go through your books I you cannot


(A)
(B)
.get through the examination./ No Error.

(D)

31. The last project of I the company was I equally as


(A)

(E)

20; Two recent incidents I amply illustrate about I the present


(B)

(B)

of civilization I can again over-ride over I the claims of


(C)
the party spirit./ No Error.

(E)

(A)

22. Throughout the whole year I there was not I a single day I
(C)

(B)

(C)

proper I thing to do. I No Error.


(D)

(E)

33. The English teacher said I that we should work I regularly


(A)

(B)

if we wanted I to improve our English. I No Error.


(D)

(C)

.(E)

without some violence. I No Error.


(D)
(E)

(D)

21. Perhaps we must wait for I quiter times before the claims

(B)

(q.

32, He wanted to know I whether it was I the right and

political I condition of the country. I No Error.


(D)
(E)

(A)

(B)

successful I as the first project. I No Error.

(C)

(A)

(D)

(C)

(C)

intellectuals to a great extent I No Error.

(A)

(D)

(C)

(E)

(A)

(B)

my cousin brother and I must be shown due respect I No

(C)

had settled there. I No Error.

(A)

(E)

(E)

(B)

(D)

(D)

(C)

Error.

l7. In Delhi, he I came across with many I of his friends I who

(D)

(D)

(C)

(E)

(A)

(B)

(E)

34. He wishes to join / lecturership because I be thinks that


(A)

(B)

this I is a peaceful profession. I No Error.


(D)
(E)

(C)

'

: 138

. A.Mirror of Common Errors

35. One of my best friends I is in the teaching line I but he


(A)
(B)
'lives I abroad. I No Error.

(C)

(D)

(E)

47. He put his sign I at the foot of the I letter and posted it I
(A)
(B)
(C)
without delay./ No Error.
(D)
(E)

36. Now-a-days he I is living in foreign I but his parents I still


(A)
(B)
(C)
live in India. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

48. The officer asked me I to talk to the I concerned clerk


(A)
{B)
(C)
for I any difficulty in payment. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

37. According to me I every student of English literature I


(A)
' (B)
must read all the best I tragedies of Shakespeare. I
(C).
(D)
No Error.
(E)

49. He was I very friendly enough I to help me when I I was


(A)
(B)
(C)
in distress. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

38. To what has always puzzled me I is why we had to wait


(A)
(B)
,
for I the British to promote the. development I of our hill
(C)
.
(D)
stations. I No Error.
. (E)
39. At! his family members I are working on I some of the I
(A)
(B)
(C)
prestigious posts. I No Error,
(D)
(E)
40. In spite of his insincerity I he was awarded I cent-percent
(A)
(B)
. (C)
marks I in mathematics. I No Error:
(D)
(E)

SO The old man asked me I if there was any I place in / the


(A)
compartment. I No Error.
(D)
(E)

ANSWERS
2. (D)
7.(C)

3.(C)

4. (A)

5. (C}

6. (B)

8. (C)

9. (D)

10. (B)

11. (A)

12. (A)
17. (B)

13. (A)
18. (D)

14. (C)

16. (B)

19. (B)

15. (A)
20. (B)

21. (C)

22. (A)
27. (A)

23. (C)
28. (C)

24. (A)

25. (A)

29. (C)

30. (A)

32. (C)
37. (A)

33. (A)

34. (B)
39. (A)

35. (B)

~.(A)
49. (B)

45. (A)
50. (C)

1. (C)

41. The passing marks I in this paper are thirty I three but you
(A)
(B)
(C)
have got I just thirty. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
/,

41. (A)

42. (A)

42. Many pupils of this department I are working as. teachers I


,(A)
(B)
in different public schools I of the city./ No Error.
(C)
(D)
(E)

46. (E)

47. (A)

I'

43. Each competitor I tried his best I to defeat I the one


(A)
(B)
(C)
another. I No Error.
(D)
(E)
44. As my neighbourers I are very co-operative

(A)

(B)

I I do not I
(C)

feel any difficulty .. / No Error.


(D)
(E)
45. He ran as fastly I as he could to I win the
(A)
(B)
(C)
ultimately he lost. I No Brror,
(D)
(E)

(J!j

31. (C)
36. (B)

38. (A)
43. (D)
48. (C)

40. (C)

51. (D)

EXPLANATIONS

1. (C) 'kindly'

cfiT

'l!<lPT -:rt!' ~

~ ~

'kindly'

m- ~ ~ ~ mar t, 'kindly' <IT


m- Active Voice if ~ (request) if.

'requested' cfiT
'please' cfiT

Passive Voice

am ~

kindly <IT 'please'~

if 'requested'

cfiT

ffl' ~

~
';5fToT

t;

tttece-! but

46. Both of them have I not turned up I in this I court I


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
No EJ1or.

(C)

51. I have learnt I that a lot of I students have applied I for


(A)
(B)
(C)
freeship. I No Error .
(D)
(E)

26. (C)

(B)

Active : Please I kindly help me.


Passive: You are requested to help me.
2. (D) 'by all' cfiT ffl' superfluous t ~
universally inI'
3f4 tt' t 'fq,tqoqlcfl ~ ~1 am:, universally
accepted by all <IT universally acknowledged by all

~~~~ti
3. (C) 'near' q:;r

m. superfluous

3f4 ~ t ~

arr,:rr' I

i~
,

'approach' cfiT

139

A Mirror of Common Errors


4. (A) 'supposing'

~
<if

oeir 'if' cfiT ~

~ t ~

err 'supposing' cfiT ~

-q:q; ~

,:ft

<if 'if'

*' \1 af,

'ltRT I

cfiT ~

'q;f; ~-

(i) Supposing he comes late, what will you do ?

H he comes late, what will you do ?

<if (ii)

5. (C) 'back'

mt

Degree ~

'back' cfiT

Jl<ITlT ~

mm t; ~--:~

t:2iR

m1IT ~

ra ~

(i) You will not succeed, unless you will not work
hard.

tr ~~~b-

(ii) You will not succeed unless you work hard.


7. (C) 'that' cfiT ~
superfluous t ~
Part (B) ~ ~
'that'
t1 -~ 'TI" Narration~~~~

m~

q'T<Ff~

(i) Direct : The P.M. said, "It is my decision and


nobody can get it changed".
(ii) Indirect : The P.M. said that it was his decision
and nobody could get it changed".
'Indirect Narration' it
fcf; "liv-i it ~- 'll'Q;

'Sf2TI"1T ~ ~
8. (C) sufficient

mm t ~

~l<l~<Jq;ar

t ~

'll'Q; ~

cflq<f

if; PART (C)

'qof ~

it

'that' ~

(i) He came here last week/last month/last year, etc.


[;, ~ in the last month I in the last year] .

t'. ~

14. (C) 'it' cfiT ffl' superfluous


'bought' cfiT
Object which t; ~(i) This is the man whom I have invited.
;, fc:I:;,

(ii) This is the man whom I have invited him.


15. (A) <if
'..be thing' cm'what'~~
'which' m 'that' cfiT 'SPWT ~
~ cf<lifcf; 'what'~
Relative Pronoun~ ~ ~ ~
mnT
lITTlT t [The thing which m the things which). 3lo:
'what' ~ antecedent fwlr ~
ti iti f<f;m ~
Antecedentq;t refer~~
t; ~-

'TI" -q:q; ~

m cfiT ~ t ~, m:.
sufficient <if err enough cfiT ~
n; ~~

;rtl'
<iT

err

(i) I have enough time to do this work.


<if,

(ii) I have sufficient time to do this work.


9. (D) 'again' cfiT ~
superfluous t ~
repeat cfiT -~
mt 'say or do again',~~. 3+0<3:RI cf;vITI
3lo:, repeat again~~
10. (B) 'not' cfiT ~
~
~
~
'forbade'~ ofR 'not'
q;r
ti 'Forbade', forbid cfiT past~ t
~
aN 'tr! 'not allow'(~
-:r ~. ?AT cf;vIT,

t,

~~mar

t m~ ~

, (i) What you like most is this book.


(ii) The thing which I that you like mo!>t is this book.
16. (B) 'to' q;r ~
superfluous t ~
~ fcfim oZifcRr ~
~
WR ~
t "Where are you going ?" ;, fc:i:;
"Where are you going to?"
17. (B) 'with' W. ~
superfluous ! ~
'come across'
'q;f 31'f
t "to meet suddenly'' ~. ~
m;rr'
'a!Tc:: ~
Object~
!; ~(i) I came across Mohan while I was going to
college.

m
am: ~ ~

f':f ~. 'came across with' <if suddenly came across


with]
18. (D) 'with' cfiT ~
~Hic1~4<h t ~
'bag and baggage'
~ idiom t oYfT ~ ~
~
qi,fi ~ 'with'
B'i'IT

:m

\;~-

~)13r:,
(i) He forbade me to. walk in the sun. R ~ He
forbade me not to walk in the sun.]
ll. (A) <if
'comparatively' <@' 6eT ~
~
<if ~
. 'better'
q}
good
'if ~
~
~
'comparatively' cfiT ~ ~
',g{,HfMfi ~
~, ar:,
m
'better' <if
'comparatively good' 'q;f ~
~
~I
~
'lfcfiR relatively$
~
'lft' Positive

err

~~-mm

)'

;rtl' ti

am: enough cfiT ~

fcf;_ 3lTG'

'last night' cfiT wrrrT


'yesterday night' <if yesterday in the
~ ~ \1 ~ last night, last week,
<R 'SPWT ~ t; ~-

~-

night cfiT wrrrf


last month-

cfiT~~~t;~-

<fiR 1'fffif

~~~~~ti]

i!fTG' li'IT 'not'

refuse/forbid/prevent/until/unless ~

am

13. (A) 'yesterday in the night' ~ ~

mt

t ~

'qof ~

(ii) She is my cousin. ['She' ~ -qm ~

n ~

~-,

(i) H~ is my cousin. ['He'~

. ~ <fil ~ ~ ~ !1 ] .

(i) He reimbursed the money I had spent on his part.'


[;, fer; "reimbursed the money back".)
6. (B) 'not' cfiT ~
;rtl'
'deny' cfiT .3
~

l;~-

'superfluous' t ~
return <R ~
"come back" <if "give back''. ~ JlqiR afR"

Retreat/Recede/Reimburse ~

-mm t, -:; ~

'SPWT ~

m~

cfiT ~

ra ~

Adjective cfiT

Comparative Degree js Adjective q;rr


.
12. (A) 'sister' cfiT ~-:m'
'cousin' q;r ~ ~
~
~ 1 ffl ow-r1 am mi~~~~
tm
WiR ~. ~ .;im ~ -qm ~
~ ~
Subject jt mT

err

<

(i) He returned from Delhi bag and baggage.

[-:r ~ with bag and baggage]


19. (B) 's [Apostrophe's'] cfiT ~
+Noun+ of +N's] <R ~

superflupus
~ t, ~.

[this/that/these/those + Noun + of

t ~

+ N] cfiT ~

[A

mot

t;~(i) A friend of Ram's[= one of the friends of Ram]

A Mirror of Common Errors

:,-40

31. (C) 'equally' cfiT ~


as' ~ -gt "q<!T

(ii) The life of Ram.[= Ram's life]

t ~

20. (B) 'about' cf;T lPnlT superfluous


describe I discuss ~ ~ ~
atm t -;r fcfi 'about+ Object'.

illustrate

Object (something)

t ~

over-ride I
~

fif;ztr ~

t;tt-

m throughout the year ~

~ n ~

ey;rr

cf;T ~

the whole year q;r

"fflaT t ~

'R' I ar:, throughout the whole year ~


~
llmtl
23. (C) 'because' ~ ~
'that' <fiT l1<fflT ~ ~
'the
reason' ~
'because' cJil' ~
~
~
~ i\'TJr;

tt;r fcf;,

The reason of his absence is because he is ill.


q;r

~~fl~

hardly I scarcely

lJG Negative !1 af: ~


~
don't/doesn't/didn't/hasn't/haven't ~
tt ~
Negative q;r WWT ~ ~ ';;i(rnT t; ~(i) He hardly comes. pf fcf; doesn't hardly come]
25. (A) ~
quite~~~
~ fq;:( all~ ~
'quite
all' qi!' 'SPfflT ~ ~ ~ -iITTfT t I
26. (C) 'of time' q;r Jl<TI'lT superfluous t ~
'for a short
period'~ 'for a short time'~~~
;:;mrr t;
~

tt1ff

~-

(i) This is the right way to talk to him.

27. (A) 'back' qi!' ~


superfluous t
'back' cf;)' ~
~
ti
NOTE:~~~~~'tjo

mar

~I

28. (C) 'brother'

cf;T

~~I

reimburse js

(5)~~

m superfluous ti

NOTE:~~~~.~

'tjo (12) ~

29. (C) ~ervice' q;r


superfluous t ~
'funeral' ~
.a1N 1)' 'service' ti -gf, 'a funeral procession', 'a
funeral march, 'a funeral pyre', 'a funeral pile'
qif ~

irar ti

30. (A) 'do not' q;r Jlm'tT


NOTE:~~~

~ 'IDlTTI
~

33. (A) 'The English teacher'~ ~


'the teacher of English'
cfiT mT ittrr ~
'the English teacher' cf;T ~ t
~
~
~
'the teacher of English' cf;T ~ t

'3ilt3ft' ~ ~1 f.ti.if<:'lf~d ~
(i)

~ ~Mr. Jones is an English teacher.

t't)
(ii) Mr. Rakesh is a teacher of English.
[firo ~

~)

34. (B) 'lecturership' .% ~


'lectureship' q;r '5l<n1T
~
'lecturership' ~
~
~ ti '9tR W fcf;
'teachership' ~ ~
~ m1f 'lecturership'<R ~ .
~ ~ l ~ 'lectureship'~ !1
35. (B) 'line' ~ ~
'profession' cfir JflnlT
'teaching' ~. profession ti af:, 'in the leaching
profession'~
36. (B) 'in foreign' ~ ~
abroad cfiT lPnlT 'ffl'T1T ~
Standard English if ~
it ~ 'live abroad' cf;T
~ ffiW
in a foreign country cf;T ~
~ ~

n. ~

t,

t, ~.

~ti

37. (A) 'According to me' ~ ~


'In my opinion' q;r ~
~ ~
according to <R ~
First Person ~ ~
3r,!ffl ~
~
'1fTllT
~-According to me ~
~
In my opinion, According to us~ ~
In our
opinion cfiT '5l<n1T fcf;trr ~
~
~
~
tff.

t,

(ii) He stayed here for a short time.

~I

P 't;

t,

(i) He stayed here for a short period.

q;r ~

[firo ~~~~ti]

(i) The reason of his absence is that he is ill.

n ~

(ii) This is the proper way to help the needy.

(i) He overcame you. pf fcf; overcame over you)

(ii)

~ ~ .......

fcfi about it)

21. (C) 'over' cf;T Jl<TI'lT superfluous


overcome ~
~ ~ 'over' ciiT ~

24. (A) 'don't'

- -

(i) Ram and Shyam are equally successful.

(ii) Ram is as successful as Shyarn.


32. (C) ~
right <fiT ~
m proper
'right' 31R 'proper' cfiT ~
11.:'n m'lf ~

(i) He discussed it. pf fcf; about it]

22. (A) ~

f-'41{:jf~a ~

mn:D-":8l -:::!

'llT.

~(ii) He described it (;r

superfluous t ~
'as
~. t fcf; '3tRT ~

'tjo (6) ~

oqraqr

According to you I According to him I According to


them I According to the Bible ~
cfiT ~
fct;lfr

~ti
38. (A) To cfiT 'SPfflT superfluous t ~
'what' q;r Jfln'lT 73fif
Relative Pronoun ~ ~ if it ~ ~
~ ~
Antecedent./ Preposition ~
cfiT WWT ~ ~
~

t,tt-

(i) What has always disturbed me is your


insincerity .
39. (A) 'All his family members'~~
All the members of
his family ~ ~
it11T ~
a family member I
family members cfiT '5l<fl'1T TTm lfRT ~
!1 A
member of his family I A member of your family~
<fiT

wwr ~ ~ ti

A Mirror of Common Errors

40. {C) 'cent-percent' ~ ~

fl,

'hundred-percent'

(ii) He runs

qiT' ~

cent-percent~
'mi'-'5ITTl"fflf' qiT' .afW;ft
arr-, ffl ~'cent-percent'~~
~
Standard English -q- ~ ti
41. (A) 'passing marks' ~ ~
'pass marks'~ ~
il'TTT,
~
'passing marks' ~
~
~ ffl' -q- ~
~;;mrrt1
.
42. (A) 'pupils; ~ ~ 'students' qiT' ~
WIT ~
'pupils' '!fil" ~ t, 'ft'r!izr I ~
~ ~
fffiTI' ~
'students' q;r aN
'fcmreff' it

T
Verb

t, ~.

3'ITT: ~

cfiT ~

m ~
'1l"RlT t,
q;r

'1l"RlT

46. (E)

t ~

fast.

Adv.

t,

'signature' q;r

~ 3lef 'it) Verb t.

'Each'

1fR{

'the other' <if ~


'other' q;r ~
~

A ~
';r

fcfi 'one

another' ?fiTI

'neighbours' cfiT

44. (A) 'neighbourers' ~ ~


~
'neighbourers'
'neighbour'~
t~

aN

~
~1

J:

Adjective

Adverb

J,

J,

(i) careful

carefully

(ii) doubtful

doubtfully

49. (B) 'very'

(i) He is

runner .

.Adj.

Noun

superfluous

t~

'Positive Degree

ffl' 'ffl"ffi' t; ~-

(ii) tall enough


(iii) rich enough

so.

[-r f.fi, very lucky enough ~


luckiest enough.]
<C) 'place' % ~
'roo~ <fir

~t.

if ~. ~~~.'room'

***'

"ffl'1IT ~

t:r

cPnfcf; q,
cfiT ~

tt-

~fct; 'place'lR;

room in the bus. [';f fcfi no place]

(i) There is no
51. (D) 'freeship' ~ ~

-r

luckier enough ~

m ~

really

a fast

ffl'

Adjective+ enough' q;r

t; tt-

~. 'fast' Adjective \ft' t ~ Adverb \ft't ~:.


~
me!' '-ly' ~
'fastly' ~ iR11lf ~
ti
~

~-

qi!'.

'the
the

. (i) lucky enough


ijiq1:::qa1,1:

'3ITTIT

n ~

48. (C) 'concerned' ?fiT ffl' 'clerk' ~ "'1G


concerned clerk' cfiT ~ t ~
fci;u:ft' ~
clerk concerned qi!' 3lef t ~
~ 1

':Jtl' ti 11'

'fast' cfiT
ft~
Adjective 'q' '-ly' ~
Adverb~

45. (A) 'fastly' ~ ~

(iii) real

ffl' ft

ti

Verb
(ii) He put his signature to the letter.

Noun

ffi

'sign'

'signature' Noun

(i) He si8ed the letter.

~~~~~%faQ'.~~

43. (D) 'one another'~

1f1ITlT ~ ~

anf:~-

ti ~. 'pupil teacher'
a;ef "ffl'ffl t - ~.

qJcR

47. (A) 'sign'~

~ t ~ '

141

'free-studentship'

'freeship' cfiT
Slanglt

~~t1 ~

w JPit1T

Standard English

if ~

'.JI::====================================:-~~~~~~~~~~~~~--~~""':'""~~--'
.
.
I
B.S.R.B.CLEid~~L EXAM.; 1986

ffi 'how' cfiT 'm ~ ~


bow % ~
how I when I where I what ~
if ~ 3lvi % ~
1)
fcl:;tjy . ~ cfil" JlcIT1T ~ INFINmVE (to + V ~ lT<llTl

2. (C) 'to' $

PROBLEMS I QUESTION:S

Direction : Find ouuhe error, if any.


1. Make haste I lest I you should not miss I the train. I
(A)
No Error.
(E)

(B)

~~t;~-

(D)

(C)

(A)

(B)

(D)

(C)

to

siig ..

know

how

to

V1

[~ 1T'AT ~ ~
{.]
(ii) I do not know what

(E)

3. At last I he was married I with I a poor girl. I No Error.


(A}
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

fine day,

we went out I for picnic I at Okhla. I


(B)
(C)
(D)

6. Many a man I have been I working I under me. I No Error.


(A)

(B)

(C) . .

{D)

(E)

7. Your flat is. superior I than I that of mine I in all respects.z


/

(A)
No Error.
(E)-

(B)

(C)

(I))

8. I told him the story I in details I to make him understand/


(A) .
it fully. I No Error .
(D)
(E)

(C)

(B)

(D)

(C)

(B)

2. (C)

(D) .

(C}

-m ~

~, .mr:

t]

. ~,

Subject + to

Subject+ marry+ Oltject


J,
(Verb)

~-

(i) Ram married Sita. [~ fcn married with Sita <IT


married to Sita}
4. (C) 'will'~ ~
'would' <f;j
'iW1T ~
~ ~
~
Indirect Narration if t ~
Reporting clause
'She said' Past Tense if !1
5. (A) 'Being'~ ~
'It' cfi!' >l<WT' ~nrn

-m

%~

_Yerbs ~

Chapter

it

~
'has'q;r ~
WIT~
'Many
~
Singular Countable Noun cfiT w:rl'TT moT t
Singular Verb q';'f; ~(i) Many a
on the table.

Tm t,

Lest ~

am

Noun Verb (Singular]

(E)

4. (C)
9. (A)

8. (B)

-m -::m' n ~

a'$

[Countable Singular]

-m n ~

7. (B) 'than' $ ~
'to' ~
superior,
inferior, anterior, posterior, prior, junior, senior ~

3. (C)

7. (B)

cfiT

"lJRT

T ~

5. (A)
10. (B)

'ffl' ~

'lest' ~ ~

3lvi ~ ~

(i) Work hard, lest you should fail.


should not fail]

'not'

cfiT

! ~ ~~
r,; ~

Lest

you

t.

':f ~ 'than' ~I
'in detail'~
'in
detail' ~
idiomatic use t atR ~
idiomatic use
cfit 61:f aw.ft ~
<fir w:im -:rt!' ~
confusion,
trouble, in danger, in debt
~ fr fc!. in a danger <IT in dangers ~] 1
9. (A) 'catties' ~ ~
the 'cattle' ~
'cattle' ~
~
plural noun ti ar:, The cattle
are grazing [':f ~ some catties "l!T the cattles]
~

'to'~

-m m ~

8. (B) in details $ ~

t,

t ~

tt...:...in

EXPLANATIONS
. 1. (C) 'not'

yl

NOTE : ~

ANSWERS

6. (B).

to

3. (C) 'with' ~ ~
'to' ~ >l<WT' WIT ~
be+ married+ to+ Object <fiT WWT
(i) Ram is married to Sita.

10. You are really I senior than I me I in age. I No Error.

1. (C)

t~

~ -:rtf ~

what

6. (B) 'have'~

(B)

(A)

sifg .

~I

9. Catties I were grazing I in the meadows I near our farm./


(A)
No Error.
(E)

to

--rTT
know

4. She said I that I she will help me I whenever I was in


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
difficulty. I No Error.
(E)

. I

how

.--rTT

2. Many of us I do not know I to swim I at all./ No Error.

5. Being a I
_(A)
No Error.
(E)

(i) Ido not know

in

-m ~ ~ .

10. (B) 'than'~~


NOTE : ~

~~'

'to'~-mm1
~

~ ~

am:-msirr (7) "cfil'