NATIONAL MANAGEMENT COLLEGE LAHORE

Senior Management Wing
(7th Senior Management Course)
(05th February 2010 to 19th June 2010)

INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PAPER
On English or Urdu:

Which Language Should Be Used As the Medium of Education For National Development
By Mrs. Shahbano Ghulam Muhammad Khan (Customs & Excise Group)
A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Senior Management Wing of the National Management College, Lahore, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the 7th Senior Management Course. The contents of this paper are the end product of my own research and reflect my own personal views and are not necessarily endorsed by the college.

Signature Dated

Paper supervised by:

Mr. Toaha Hussain Bugti

Dedicated to my sons Faiz, Saif and Hasan and all the children of Pakistan

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am indebted to my Directing Staff, Mr. Toaha Bugti, for his consistent guidance and supervision in formulation of the research paper. Special thanks are due to Justice Javed Iqbal, Lt.General ( R ) Tanveer Naqvi (Ex-Chairman National Reconstruction Bureau),Mr. Iftikhar Arif, (D.G. National Language Authority) Mr. Amjad Islam Amjad, Dr. Amjad Saqib and Mr. Mushtaque Yusufi, and all other knowledgeable personages, who freely gave me their valuable time and answered my questions. Finally I would not have found all relevant materials without the help of the librarian Mrs. Naeema Naeem and the staff of superb library of the National Management Wing who not only located the books but also ordered when I wanted to obtain some new titles.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................iii Section-1...........................................................................................................................xiii 1.1Economic Growth Reviewed for Pakistan...................................................................xiii 1.2Role of Language in Statecraft and Governance:.........................................................xiv 1.3Use of Vernacular in teaching morals and building national character:.......................xv Section-2..........................................................................................................................xvii 2.1 Education and Medium of Instruction in the Subcontinent, legacies of the British Raj: ..............................................................................................................................xvii 2.2 The Role of Ideology in The Education System for Pakistan:..................................xviii SECTION-3.......................................................................................................................xx 3.1 Education in Constitutional Review:............................................................................xx 3.3. Policy Review: Teachers, Curriculum-Contents, Places of Instructions, Administration of Education.................................................................................xxi Section - 4.......................................................................................................................xxiii 4.1 Current Curriculum , medium of education and national development: Brief Criticism .............................................................................................................................xxiii Issues and Challenges...................................................................................................xxiii 4.1.1Parallel Streams: ....................................................................................................xxiii 4.1.2Haphazard Syllabi:..................................................................................................xxiii 4.1.3.Confusion of Identity , History, Language:...........................................................xxiv SECTION - 5...................................................................................................................xxv COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CURRICULA OF PAKISTAN, SRI LANKA AND ....xxv 5.1 INDIA.........................................................................................................................xxv 5.2 PAKISTAN................................................................................................................xxv 5.3 The Curriculum Development Pitfalls.......................................................................xxv 5.3.1Indifference To Curriculum Development Expertise:.............................................xxvi 5.3.2 Issue of Textbook quality:.....................................................................................xxvii iii

5.3.3 Lack of Implementation and follow-up.................................................................xxvii 5.4 SRI LANKA............................................................................................................xxvii 5.5 INDIA......................................................................................................................xxvii CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION................................................................xxix CONCLUSIONS.............................................................................................................xxix Vision of The National Education Policy:......................................................................xxix RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................................................xxxi Educational Goals for Pakistan:......................................................................................xxxi Implementation Strategy:................................................................................................xxxi BIBLIOGRAPHY.....................................................................................................xxxviii ANNEXURES...................................................................................................................xli Annex – I............................................................................................................................xli Annex-II............................................................................................................................xlii Annex –III.........................................................................................................................xlii Annex - IV.......................................................................................................................xliii Annex - V.........................................................................................................................xliv

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Preface It is not only the question of Urdu or English but other local languages as well. Medium of education in a post millennial world also includes the medium of computer ; Computer aided education through virtual mediums. Similarly, sports, music and group activities are also very important mediums of instruction as they impart ability to express the potential of individualself in harmony with the team. Group activities in indigenous informal education teach how to most successfully sustain cooperation in adversity and tolerance in competition. Education is a recognized capital investment for economic and social development of any country. Only an highly educated manpower can understand and use the superior technology of the new millennium. Education is basically a value system. It is a state of mind and a perpetual learning attitude bringing synergistic value; harmony and peace to the educated person and his surroundings. Without a value system, it is just a skill set that is useful in transition but needs to be updated like other machines after each transition.

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Executive Summary: Pakistan is a multilingual country located on a major trade route. Despite constitutional guarantees most people can neither read or write in any of the languages. Urdu was fought over by the Muslims in India as their identifying national symbol. The Ideology of a Muslim separate state was communicated in Urdu. The unfortunate developments after 1947, including the secession of East Pakistan continue to retard Pakistan’s national integration and development. The issue of promotion of cultural diversity with cross cultural education is globally accepted best practice for economic growth . However, for Pakistan, the language issue is still emotionally charged. The British Raj eroded the power of Urdu as the primary language of the elite class. English even today is the language of state business. This language barrier between the rulers and the ruled; alongwith other challenges in governance including political disenfranchisement and marginalization of diversities, has contributed to class barriers. After the decline of Urdu, regional languages have further decayed. The Education system in Pakistan has no uniform Syllabus, National Values- Content, or quality teaching staff. The lack of translation skills and declining interest in regional or Urdu literature has made it impossible to develop indigenous teaching materials , especially in science, commerce and diplomacy. A national Action Plan is required to promote the languages of Pakistan which in turn can revive culture and identity. Certain reservations against language based movements are expressed. Such expressions of protest are due to lack of economic opportunity and non participation of the common man in decision making. A big population with scarce resources can not solve administrative issues without technology. Cheaply available computer based education if standardized modules in phonetics, uniform syllabus , national as well as regional cultures; is a must for the children of Pakistan.

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Introduction “Whether one is dealing with cognitive matters such as level of factual information about politics or conceptual sophistication in its assessment; or such motivational matters as degree of attention paid to politics and emotional involvement in political affairs; or questions of actual behavior, such as engagement in any of a variety of political activities from party work to vote turnout itself: education is everywhere the universal solvent, and the relationship is always in the same direction. The higher the education, the greater the ‘good’ values of the variable. The educated citizen is attentive, knowledgeable, and participatory and the uneducated citizen is not.”1 Many studies have shown that education generally cultivates attitudes, motivations, and group-values which in turn encourage group-interaction, political tolerance and socioeconomically cohesive dynamics. In Pakistan movement , the role Urdu language played was definitive. By establishing a modern institution on the model of Oxford, Eton and Harrow in 1876, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan pulled the Indian muslims out of general depression, that engulfed them after the fall of moghal empire in 1857 .It is true that Aligadh University was for the socalled elite, yet it is also a fact that people generally follow the elite in morals and moods2. But the argument looses force when considered in the Urdu speaking/Persian writing-muslims governmental jobs context. A letter was written to Mehdi Ali Khan ( Mohsin ul Mulk) by Sir Syed from England on 22nd April 1867, when he learned that powerful hindus in Benares had started a movement to replace Urdu with Hindi as the Court (Treasury / Finance /Maliana/State) language.

1

Quotation of Converse in paper by David Edward Campbell, Department of Political Science, University of Notre Dame, 217 O’Shaughnessy Hall,Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, United States
2

Tariq Rehman, “Language and Politics in Pakistan”,Chapter 5-“Urdu-Hindi Controversy”, Oxford Press 1996, p-59.

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“ Babu Shiva Prasad Sahib’s initiative …about eliminating Urdu language and Persian script, which are symbols of the Muslims in India…..is such a proposal that Hindus and Muslims will not remain united” 3 This was a direct attempt to marginalize the Muslim elite from government jobs. Later, accompanied by Hali, Sir Syed met Shakespeare the Commissioner of Benares . It was Hali’s reported and perhaps oversimplified conclusion that started the mistaken claim that Urdu-Hindi controversy alone created Pakistan. The underlying reasons for creation of Pakistan (and ruefully, as in the case of Bangladesh) as usual are marginalization of socioeconomic justice to all national diversities. In the sadness that permeates the breaking apart of East and West Pakistan in 1971, the issue of Bengali, although it had been accepted as a parallel national language since 1956, is one of the dominating emblems. Pakistan as a nation has not been able to get over this national trauma todate.The tragedy has not been worked out to gain lessons and move on. The breakup of East Pakistan is seen as a Governance failure more than as a national, moral or Ideological failure4.It is no wonder that any discussion on the national language issue brings about first uncatharsized, unsorted emotions in otherwise very rational people, before they take a deep breath and reach for the glass of water. In the heat of the argument , we generally forget that language was not part of the notorious six points on which the political discussion, and ultimately the country broke.5Excluding one point for Bengali paramilitary, five demands of Sheikh Mujeebur Rehman related to trade, commerce, currency , financial independence. After failing to educate successive generations of Pakistanis, properly, a short term expedient of quota system instead of pure merit was introduced in Pakistan. In the long run with increase in population now almost all government jobs are domicile based. If a state rejects merit on a conscious level and sensitizes its citizens to the place of birth, then it is a direct result that job and opportunity starved masses will do everything to maintain their parochial identity by birth instead of identity by nation. The syllabus taught in pre partition India made the educated Indians multi linguist, enthusiastic ,with a sense of history. In 1937,
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ibid, p-65 “ ..the first lesson that we have learned is that in order to find out the causes of failure in any war we first must know as to why the war at all tookplace. Modern wars , we are told are not fought in isolation. They are no longer merely questions of matching weapons or generalship. Military tactics are directly linked up with political and diplomatic strategy. There are also psychological, sociological,economical and geographical factors to be taken into account.”The Report of the Hamoodur Rehman Commission of Inquiry into the 1971 War, as declassified by the Government of Pakistan, p-17. 5 ibid

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Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar from Peshawer successfully contested elections from Dhaka constituency of (later West Pakistan) Bengal. Yet the generation of free Bengalis born after 1947 and educated in Pakistani Curriculum, sent the ideology of Pakistan packing in 1971. Yes curriculum alone can not be blamed, but it was Aligadh’s education , syllabus and teachers that created Pakistan . They were the main stay of the Ideology of Pakistan. Such forces are no more. Education in Pakistan is haphazard, schools are congested , ill equipped, teachers can neither teach English nor Urdu properly, the syllabus is at best banal and at worst, divisive. The Ideology of Pakistan has not failed, it works even today , when a businessman in Karachi and a banya (hindu business caste) in interior sindh choose to pay their taxes. It shows confidence in the state system. Whatever, the emotional baggage , or probably suppressed guilt we carry over the language issue , it is the only means to impart education, knowledge and morals required for individual and national development, in the twenty first century, which has ushered in formally the millennium of knowledge based everything. Significance and Scope of the Study: The issue of a national language that can be used as the main medium of instruction has been a hotly contested one. After 63 years, three generations, three constitutions and one dismemberment later, the question of national identity and a national value system remain unanswered. Education of future leadership ready to serve and develop this land of dreams is therefore, a major activity for state building. The medium in which these national ideals and attitudes will be imparted is central to education geared for national development. Almost all types of thinkers and researchers from all socio-political, religious, business-economic fields have contributed to this topic. Its many contours have been surveyed and the general features thoroughly mapped. What now remains is the study of the particular challenges and their difficulties. This paper shall try to develop an approach to the issues. As public policy is an eternally evolving process, there are no definitive answers in the domain of public service, just systems for development of public service delivery. The research paper focuses on studying, analysing and presenting way forward for promoting national integration, empowerment and emancipation of the masses through education through use of multi-linguistic media and technology assisted solutions to the issue of quality of teachers and materials. ix

Review of the Literature: The library of NSPP proved a goldmine of books on the issue. The newspapers as well as websites of UN and world Bank were helpful in giving current figures and international policies. Methodology: Following methodology was adopted in line with the nature of the topic; 1. Primary research based on unstructured interviews 2. Secondary research from literature available on the subject, specially at the excellent library of National Institute of Management 3. Interviews of a number of stakeholders, such as curriculum experts, literary figures, students, teachers, parents, educationists, policy makers and implementers were conducted. Expert opinions of social scientists were also sought to gain an insight into the multiple aspects of this vital issue. Reports, newspaper materials, text books were also explored to interpret facts and make sense of the history. Organisation of the Paper: The first chapter details resources, people and methodology. It gives the scope and thus open the subject. It briefly touches the nerve points in existing history , modern understanding of education and use of language, and outlines UNESCO’s concept of education for sustainable development. The Second chapter reviews the colonial heritage. The third chapter reviews policies , Fourth chapter details criticism of present issues and challenges. The fifth chapter glimpses into the curricula and linguistic education of India and Sri Lanka, juxtaposed with Pakistan. Conclusions are followed by the last section containing recommendations and strategies to implement them. The Millenial definition of Knowledge: Although societies have their own informal system of transferring knowledge. Today

knowledge means only that information which helps shape and predict the future. Any data that only informs about the present events and their heuristics is just news. Ideally, education should help in generating knowledge and by doing so tame the unpredictability of change into the expected direction . Only this level of awareness can guarantee accurate monitoring of results; learning the required lessons and moving on . Learning means change in behavior. x

All modern management in the public as well as private sector is about knowledge management. It is about continuous improvement through collective learning and evolution of best practices. This paper seek to briefly outline what is generally meant by the term ‘ National

Development’. For instance it is the ability of a country to improve the socio-economic welfare of the people. By providing security, freedom of economic pursuit and personal growth on equal basis . By creation of conducive environment for synergistic development for all sects of society.By building its institutions of Democracy and Social Justice. Surely national development is gained when economic resources are invested with the best opportunity cost. This paper also seeks to give the operational definition of the term national development from the point of view of socio-economic development.For example is it the nature of English medium schooling that is creating socalled Macaulay’s children or the existing structures of governance ( or lack of governance) that are fueling the brain drain. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in the Global Perspective: Education for sustainable development aims to help people to develop the attitudes, skills and knowledge to make informed decisions for the benefit of themselves and others, now and in the future, and to act upon these decisions. The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), for which UNESCO is the lead agency, seeks to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning, in order to address the social, economic, cultural and environmental problems we face in the 21st century. Thus UNESCO has presented a new vision of education, a vision that helps people of all ages better understand the world in which they live, addressing the complexity and interconnectedness of problems such as poverty, wasteful consumption, environmental degradation, urban decay, population growth, health, conflict and the violation of human rights that threaten world’s future. ESD aims at demonstrating the following features: • Interdisciplinary and holistic: learning for sustainable development should be xi

embedded in the whole curriculum, not as a separate subject. • Values-driven: it is critical that the assumed norms - the shared values and principles underpinning sustainable development - are made explicit so they can be examined, debated, tested and applied. • Critical thinking and problem solving: leading to confidence in addressing the dilemmas and challenges of sustainable development in a globally correlated setting . • Multi- Disciplinary method: word, art, drama, debate, experience, different pedagogies which model the processes. • Participatory decision-making: learners participate in decisions on how they are to learn; including e-learning • Applicability: the learning experiences offered are integrated in day to day personal and professional life. • Locally relevant: addressing local as well as global issues, and using the language(s) which learners most commonly use.

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Section-1
1.1Economic Growth Reviewed for Pakistan Whereas, economic growth can be measured qualitatively. Generally,standards of social well being and other vectors of , national development can not be evaluated so easily. The indicators of social development for the nation of Pakistan include collective economic development , availability of opportunities for self growth to all the individuals whether male or female, public-sense of perceived justice, coexistence of political diversity, a healthy socio ethnic mix, internal equity as well as external equity. Internal equity means a comparison within the socio-ethnic group should show same status of life quality for all group members. External equity means that a comparison of opportunities and rewards available to a member of one socio-ethnic group with another individual who is part of a different socio-ethnic set but possesses the same economic status and skill set as that of the first group’s member. The discussion shall further encompass which education does Pakistan need ? and finally the language that can facilitate most the achievement of integrated dreams and aspirations of a people together. The Pakistani people who have been , generally ; most illserved in their history of leadership, history of national characteristics formation and national identity crisis. Can these people learn to evolve together around the framework of a common language. Then for people as unique as Pakistanis are, what are the forms of indigenous education. That ancient wisdom that courses through them as the evolution of last seven thousand years of Indus Civilization. Pakistanis have a long tradition of oral history. The classic forms of knowledge, thought provoking models and interpretation of real life situations as delineated in heritage poetry of Sindh, Punjab, Baluchistan , Gilgit-Baltistan, Kashmir, Bahawalpur – Rahim Yar Khan, Pashtoons and hazaras are still applicable to real life issues today .These prototypes of ancient wisdom are found in all languages and cultures. “It is not the production of goods, but the production of ideas that now provides the impetus for economic development.” Pakistan also registers substantial gender disparities. A simple measure of gender disparity is the ratio of female to male enrolment, i.e., the number of females for every male enrolled. As

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shown in chart Pakistan has a ratio of 0.6, which is the lowest in the region and suggests a sizable bias in favour of males (Annex-III). The high incidence of illiteracy, especially among women, creates an adverse impact on the level of school enrolments and on the quality of human capital. This is on account of the fact that the education level of parents is known to influence the level of education attained by their children. Illiterate parents are less likely to send their children to school. Poverty also tends to be concentrated in households in which the head of the household is illiterate. Thus, children belonging to such households, trapped in illiteracy and poverty, tend to remain out of school and/or be pushed into child labour with all its attendant consequences.6 According to Pakistan Social and Living Measurement (PSLM) Survey (2007-08), the overall literacy rate (age 10 years and above) is 56% (69% for male and 44% for female) in 200708.7 (Annex-IV) The Gender Parity Index (GPI) is the ratio of females’ enrolment to the males’ enrolment. A GPI of more than one indicates that, in proportion, to every male in the school, there is more than one female. The GPI for Pakistan as a whole in 2007-08, is 0.64 compared to 0.63 in 2006-07. Province wise GPI is high in Punjab (0.69) followed by Sindh (0.61), NWFP (0.49) and Balochistan (0.35). The lower GPI in NWFP and Balochistan calls for immediate attention by the policy makers at both federal and provincial levels.8 1.2Role of Language in Statecraft and Governance: A common language is required to communicate and resolve differences of otherwise diverse people. Resolution of conflict is a common ground of interest not identity.Therefore, a common language is the expression of a ‘community as well as commonality of interests’ among a group of people. Many of the current misperceptions regarding language arise due to stating this fact the other way around. It is a tangent to suppose that possessing a common language will give rise to a common identity of interests in a community. Like a tangent line passing near a circle, this supposition only touches the circle of actual facts without penetrating it. We are familiar with the statement that the British and the Americans are divided by a common language.9 Idioms changes their meaning with geography. Governments need a common language to make laws, impart and conserve common national cultural values through education and media. Governments of newly independent states of Africa had to adopt English or French to manage their otherwise highly diverse populations.
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ibid Pakistan Economic Survey 2008-09 8 ibid 9 R.B.Le Page, “The National Language Question, Linguistic Problems of Newly Independent States”, issued under the auspices of the Institute of Race Relations, London, Printed by R. J. Ackford ltd. Chichester, Oxford University Press, 1964.

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But their subsequent graphs of national development are generally dismal; after adopting a foreign language for charting their national course of action. This is a fact that 29 years after adopting its national language for “medium of governance”, the ancient Iranian culture and Arts are on a revival course. Every year a number of Iranian movies compete for awards at Cannes and elsewhere. Iranian architects are numbered among some of the best in the world. True, that Iran has its own mass of books and Pakistan lags most sadly in the field of upto date translations. If the business of governance had been converted in the national language, and Civil Services Competitive Exams were being held in Urdu, there would have been excellent books published in urdu today. Turkey maintained Turkish but in English transcript, yet today ,on the waters of Bosphorus it is just a balancing act between two civilizations, the East and the West, acknowledged by neither. On the contrary, China that has its own ancient civilization and a most powerful economic development agenda today, is teaching English to its populous billions. Therefore, in Pakistan a young man if he wants to get anywhere today in government or in business must learn to communicate effectively in English. The clever children should learn as much of the sciences in the least possible time, the latest books and training materials of which are available only in English. Hence the Chinese decision. 1.3Use of Vernacular in teaching morals and building national character: Language is a means of communication. Like a ship that carries across, passengers and cargo; language carries across information and belief.10 It is a fact that best medium for educating a child is the mother tongue. Yet it also presupposes female literacy, so that instead of a moral value system; primordial fears and prejudices of an ignorant mind don’t get transferred to the new generation. Modern researches have shown amply that a young child can learn to speak 5-7 different languages / dialects with facility until the age of five. The function of neural parsers is at the maximum until the age of 5-7. Parsers11 are neural mechanisms that analogise verbal

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Noam Chomsky, “On Language”, Penguin Academics,2003, p-87 “ How does perception of language work? A common assumption is that one component of the mind is ‘parser’, which takes a signal and turns it into a symbolic representation. The parser accesses a language. When you interpret what I say, you are using your knowledge of English and not Japanese(if you know Japanese). Meaning yielded by Parser is enriched by other systems , such as beliefs, expectations, and so on, which extend beyond language”. Noam Chomsky, “Powers and Prospects”, Pluto Press,1996,p-14

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expressions. Parser represents a faculty of the mind for language synthesis . It is best in early age.

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Section-2
2.1 Education and Medium of Instruction in the Subcontinent, legacies of the British Raj: British records show that indigenous education was widespread in the 18th century, with a school for every temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country. The subjects taught included Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Theology, Law, Astronomy, Metaphysics, Ethics, Medical Science and Religion. The schools were attended by students representative of all classes of society. Gandhi is said to have described the traditional educational system as a beautiful tree that was destroyed by British rule. The current system of education, was introduced and funded by the British in the 19th century, following recommendations by Thomas Babington Macaulay12. Thus traditional teaching structures were not recognized by the British government and soon declined. Today, the term 'Macaulay's Children' is used to refer to people born of Indian ancestry who adopt Western culture as a lifestyle. It is usually used in a derogatory fashion, and the connotation is one of disloyalty to one's country and one's heritage.The alternate term used for “confused desis” is the “white man’s monkey”. In the same year 1835 Lord William Bentninck revitalised the earlier Charter Act with his New Education Policy which determined that English should be the official language of the courts, diplomacy and administration. Prior to this Persian had been the accepted language of diplomacy. To this day language is a thorn in the side of national integration. India has 92 recognizedv languages but stresses Sanskrit, Pakistan has over five and stresses Urdu. Both countries do business in English. Under the present educational Policy, English is mandatory at the primary level in Pakistan. On the positive side , although the British Raj was socially and politically conservative, but it brought profound economic change to the subcontinent which was not possible in the decadent state the Moghal Empire was in since the late eighteenth century.

12

The passage to which the term refers is from Macaulay’s speech, 'Minute on Indian Education'

delivered in 1835 in the House of Commons.

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For strategic, administrative, and commercial reasons, the British improved transportation and communications and kept them in good repair. Coal mines were opened in Bihar and Bengal, and irrigation canals were laid out in the Yamuna (also seen as Jumna), Ganges, and Indus valleys; the Indus Valley became the largest irrigated area in the world. The expansion of irrigation in Punjab led to the development of canal colonies, settled mainly by Sikhs and Muslims, and the designation of Punjab as the granary of India. Law and order guaranteed a high rate of return on British, and later Indian, investment in these enterprises. Racial criteria were also used in a dramatic overhaul of the British Indian Army. The number of British soldiers was increased relative to the Indians, and Indians were excluded from artillery and technical services. A theory of "martial races" was used to accelerate recruitment from among "loyal" Sikhs, Punjabi Muslims, Dogras, Gurkhas, and Pakhtuns and to discourage enlistment of "disloyal" Bengalis and high-caste Hindus. 2.2 The Role of Ideology in The Education System for Pakistan: The ideology of Pakistan is protection of merit, socio-economic justice and coexistence of diversities in the true Islamic spirit of peaceful tolerance. The land of Pakistan was acquired to be an Ideological State. As a contiguous territory with wherewithal to sustain only one Pure Idea ,i.e. Dignity of Mankind; regardless of any other inherent or apparent attribute. Pakistan is to be the abode of The Idea . A place where people with faith in themselves alone can grow without preconceived notions. Without ancient chains of caste, brotherhood, belief-bound economic divisions (Kshatryas, Banyas etc). Hence , the soul of Iqbal’s message spreads high beyond the reaches of twentieth century time and space, and like a falcon of celestial light it alights on the vision of a land . A place where legend of unfettered progress of human potential truly takes shape. A land that provides all the possibilities to bring alive the Divine Intention and its Universal meaning in the Creation of Mankind . Pakistan’s education policy or language can never disassociate itself from the Ideology of the State. Before the partition of territory in 1947, Muslims shared life on the subcontinent, The land of Bharat warsh, sacred to Hindu religion . It excercises the worst kind of living apartheid against humanbeings’ power of self actualization, by imprisoning living breathing people into unnatural strictures. The dominant Hindu religion of the subcontinent regards muslims as well as a numerous other religious , ethnic, racial- communities, including those of its own

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non Brahmin hindus as Impure, or

“ Maleechas” (Dirty on account of blood, race and

religion). Dirty and therefore, unfit to personify the pure meaning of honorable humanity. The founder of Pakistan was M. A. Jinnah, a completely self made man with an high ethical character. In his broadcast of 19th February, 1948, he repeated the ideological promise. The covenant made by the common people to the Principle of development into tolerant mutually sustaining moral beings. He said, “ Make no mistake : Pakistan is not a theocracy or anything like it. Islam demands from us the tolerance of other creeds and we welcome in closest association with us all those, who, of whatever creed, are themselves willing and ready to play their part as true and loyal citizens of Pakistan”.13 Development by Self Actualization. To assert that Islam is the Principle of Collective Growth by Individuals

13

Dr. Javid Iqbal, “Ideology of Pakistan”( Sang-e-meel Publications,2005),15.

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SECTION-3
3.1 Education in Constitutional Review: The Constitution of Pakistan is the guarantor of its Ideological foundations.The state of Pakistan belongs to one idea, that is to make all possibilities available to its citizens for collective growth. Its various Constitutions ensured “ Equality of Opportunity” to develop their human and therefore ideological national potential. The Objectives Resolution guaranteed in March 1949: “ Equality of status , of opportunity and before law. Social , economic and political justice and freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship and association, subject to law and public morality”. The Constitution of 1956, Article 13 ensured fundamental rights including the right to admission to any educational institution receiving aid from public revenues, irrespective of admission seekers’ race, religion, caste, or place of birth (Sub Article 3 of 13). Nor did it constrict any religious community to establish and maintain its own educational institutions ( Sub Article 5 of 13). Similarly, Article 29 (d) of The Directive Principles of State PolicyConstitution of 1956 ensured education and all other fundamental facilities to the infirm, sick or unemployed. The fifth Schedule under Article 106, specified educational quality and standardization under the provincial management. The Constitution of 1962, formed under The Principles of Law Making and of Policy, in its Chapter 2, reiterated same guarantees to the citizens of Pakistan as contained in The Objectives Resolution and the Constitution of 1956. Its Article 7 committed, “Illiteracy should be eliminated, and free and compulsory primary education should be provided for all, as soon as is practicable”. Articles 37 and 38 of the Constitution of 1973, repeat, refine and clarify all the aforementioned principles for equal education for national development.

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3.3. Policy Review: Teachers, Curriculum-Contents, Places of Instructions, Administration of Education From the First Educational Conference in 1947 , Commission on National Education, 1959, down to various educational policies, all include high words and now also huge funds, but no concrete policies and their phase wise review mechanism. The automation of hundreds of thousands of administrative matters such as HRIS is completely missing. Obviously the data required for a meaningful review is never gathered. Since 1947 nine Five Year Plans followed by Annual Roll Out Plans and now Medium Term Framework have acknowledged the importance of education for national development. None examine past initiatives and suggest rectifications. There are no evolutionary policy frameworks that could Review and Modify the given education policies for objective achievements. Since 1980’s the term “ literacy” has started to be used sometimes synonymously, with “education”. Whereas, “literacy” is just a skill that teaches someone to read and write readably; “ education” is a way of life. It teaches a man to be a human being. It teaches commitment to values such as solidarity, equality, national loyalty, hope, honesty and hard work. Education teaches tolerance of diversity, coexistence for mutual interests, critical thinking, objective decision making, lifelong search for improvement and continuous learning attitude. The Five Year Plans allocated funds for education but in case of any shortage, the department of education would be the first one to receive the cut. Now the funds situation is not so bad, but the absence of any monitoring system for educational policies has caused immense damage to the future potential for Pakistan. The educational environment still lacks the setting to attract and retain teachers as well as students. The power of educational setting is still completely overlooked. Same students who were lacking in performance in Pakistan when get an opportunity to study abroad, perform wonders. The educational policies still have serious flaws in the design and delivery of educational services. Adhocism which has played havoc in the rest of the national policies, has adopted monstrous dimension in the education sector. The madressas, were once the last refuge and hope for some kind of literacy to the down trodden masses, even under the British Rule. In the eighties, they became captives to anti state elements who fund these unregulated , resource- starved , neglected

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teaching places for the poor of this country. For the non madressa sector, and the socalled elite schools, the Education Policy of Lord Macaulay that was set in the nineteenth century is still virtually operative. It is pathetic that over 63 years, trillions of rupees of national income and ,(now mostly loans) got spent to create migrant workforce for the USA,UK,Canada and Australia. These workers are willing to live as second degree citizens abroad but have no emotional connect with the unfortunate land and its hapless population that nurtured and fed them initially. (ANNEXURE-1)

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Section - 4
4.1 Current Curriculum , medium of education and national development: Brief Criticism

Issues and Challenges
4.1.1Parallel Streams: Pakistan has three parallel systems of education. The private schools, public schools and the madressahs. All cultivate class divide. The common upshot for all streams is brain drain. Be they the ‘elite’ private schools that specifically cater to training the children of the very rich for a college education abroad and are consciously distant from the realities of Pakistan14; or they be the less glossy places of desi education, the students dream of leaving Pakistan at the first opportunity. 4.1.2Haphazard Syllabi: Greater diversity in the use of textbooks creates opportunities for discussion, promotes diversity in thoughts and ideas, and tends to establish the basis for a pluralistic and tolerant mindset. Elite English-medium school students have a relatively more internationalist outlook. The limited discourses to which Urdu-medium students are exposed are likely to lead to a parochial outlook (tunnel vision) incapable of appreciating social and political issues at domestic and international levels.The anomalies were revealed by a questionnaire administered to English medium schools and madressahs. The elite English medium students strongly supported a free press, democracy, equal rights for women and minorities, and peace. While madrassah students attached significantly less weight to these issues. It is significant that madressah students showed dominant response in favor of peaceful solution of Kashmir; instead of Jihad15(ANNEXURE-II)

14

The Boston Group: Higher Education in Pakistan: Towards a Reform Agenda A Contribution to the Task Force on Improvement of Higher Education in Pakistan 15 Social Policy and Development Centre Karachi: Social Development In Pakistan Annual Review 2002-03.

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Such conflicting opinions produced by Pakistan's education system do not bode well for the creation of a homogeneous society or for national integration. 4.1.3.Confusion of Identity , History, Language: The curriculum can always be used to inculcate the importance of basic nation-building concepts in the students. The current curriculum mostly uses exclusive concepts when defining basic concepts such as citizenship. This has led to an increasing alienation of certain ethnic and religious groups. The current curriculum has also been criticized for historical inaccuracies by Ayesha Jalal16. Curriculum policy of Pakistan, like other oriental societies, has been plagued by ‘visceral nationalism and post-imperial neurosis where state-sanctioned dogmas suppress eclectic historical readings.’17 Curriculum has not been designed to include all the cultural, linguistic and religious diversities present in our country, rather it takes a very myopic look by ignoring all the diverse cultures, histories and languages forming the unique national fabric of Pakistan and instead promotes a stereotype of an impossibly uniform culture. Noted historian K.K Aziz in his book “Murder of History” in 1993 details the historical inaccuracies promoted by the State of Pakistan in the academic curriculum from class 1 to Masters degree level, claiming that its agenda is to promote political indoctrination in the state of Pakistan. '18 Linguistic confusion in the children is further compounded by inexperienced ill trained teachers who teach these inadequately designed text books. Pakistani children are not imparted appreciation of the great linguistic treasures of the Indus Civilization.

16

Jalal, A. (1995). Conjuring Pakistan: History as Official Imagining. International Journal of Middle East Studies. 27(1). pp. 73-89. 17 Waghmar, B. (2005). Pakistan Studies: The State of the Craft. Dawn. 27 February. p. 5. Retrieved on 9 June 2008. 18 ‘School texts spreading more extremism than seminaries’ By Our Special Correspondent; Tuesday, 19 May, 2009; Dawn Newspaper. http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/thenewspaper/national/school-texts-spreading-more-extremism-than-seminaries-959

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SECTION - 5
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CURRICULA OF PAKISTAN, SRI LANKA AND 5.1 INDIA To assess the impact of education on national development, analyses of the curriculum developed in three regional countries of South Asia namely Pakistan, Sri Lanka and India is briefly given below.19 5.2 PAKISTAN Education which is provincial subject, is considered to be a vital source of nation-building, therefore, in order to ensure national cohesion, integration and preservation of the ideological foundation of the State, certain educational functions are the responsibilities of the Federation —via the Federal Ministry of Education. These responsibilities include curriculum, syllabus, planning, policy and educational standards. The 1976 Act of Parliament authorized the Ministry of Education (MOE) to appoint competent authorities to perform the some curriculum-related functions. Accordingly, a Central/National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks (NBCT, commonly known as the Curriculum Wing) was appointed to supervise curriculum and textbooks development/approval and to maintain curriculum standards from the primary through to the higher secondary levels. As such, four counterpart provincial curriculum centers were established to ensure provincial collaboration and evolve consensus in all activities falling within the purview of the Federation. This initiative was followed by the establishment of four Provincial Textbook Boards. 5.3 The Curriculum Development Pitfalls Teaching of any language syntax,pronounciatin and grammar is further effected by the imprecise quality and effectiveness of the curriculum development process. Some such pitfalls in Pakistan are summarized below.

19

Section 10 Curriculum Practices, Induction Pack, For inducted staff of Curriculum Wing, Ministry of education, GoP, 77-108.

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5.3.1Indifference To Curriculum Development Expertise: Some serving teachers were, involved in curriculum development. But notwithstanding their outstanding subject area expertise, their contribution to the curriculum development was, for all practical purposes, nominal. The NEP 2009 proudly listed many participants for development of Education Policy such as follows: 1. The provincial Education Ministers and Education Secretaries 2. Other officers of the provincial Education Departments 3. Higher Education Commission 4. Officials of the Ministry of Education 5. Donors working in the education sector 6. Nazims and EDOs Education 7. Officials involved in Teacher Training 8. Experts/Academicians 9. Senate/ National Assembly Standing Committees on Education 10. Representatives of madrassahs 11. Sample of Teachers from each province and area 12. Samples of Parents and Students from each province and area 13. School Management Committees/Parent Teachers Association 14. Teachers and Managers of Higher Education Institutions 15. Eminent educationists including in-country and international specialists in the education sector 16. Civil Service personnel 17. Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) 18. Media/Journalists 19. All Pakistan Association for Private Schools 20. Officials, Teachers and Students of private schools 21. Private Schools For Technical and Vocational Education: 22. Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industries (Standing Committees on Education) 23.Chambers of Commerce and Industries (Federal and Regional representatives) 24.Key personnel working at NAVTEC, NISTE, TEVTA and other Federal and provincial organizations looking at TVE 23. Teachers and students of selected institutions of TVE Institutions xxvi

24. Civil Society Organizations involved in vocational training Not a single expert on syllabus development or educational psychology appears in the list.

5.3.2 Issue of Textbook quality: Textbooks often do not reflect the curriculum. It requires considerable experience and skill to translate the curriculum in a style that covers the objectives; simultaneously , curriculum development takes into consideration the children’s language proficiency and background knowledge. 5.3.3 Lack of Implementation and follow-up The third problem is that there is lack of follow-up of actual curriculum implementation in classroom practice. The curriculum actually implemented in the classroom is generally different from the official curriculum document. 5.4 SRI LANKA Organizational Structure of Curriculum Development In Sri Lanka, the Ministry of Education and the National Education Commission are responsible for all curriculum related policy making. However, the National Institute of Education (NIE) has the overall unified responsibility for curriculum design and development, preparation of syllabi, teacher’s guides and textbooks. A council empowered to take all policy and high-level administrative decisions on matters coming under its purview governs the NIE. Consultation takes place during the curriculum development process and subsequent implementation, with subject specialists and professionals outside of NIE, as well as affected parties, (i.e. teachers, students, parents and prospective employers). 5.5 INDIA The National Curriculum Education system gives due recognition to the various communities, particularly Scheduled Castes .

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Scheduled Tribes are supported among other ways by the development of materials and curricula in their languages. General education contains for ten years contains standard, core elements :The history of India’s freedom struggle; constitutional obligations; content essential for the development of national identity; common cultural heritage of India; democracy, secularism, socialism; gender equality; environmental conservation; removal of social barriers; the small-family norm; and development of a scientific approach. Medium of Instruction in India At upper primary and secondary level are provided guidance for languages which is study of three languages at the upper primary and secondary stages: first, mother tongue; second, Hindi, and third English.All states (except Tamil Nadu) have adopted the three language formula. Although it was envisaged that only one language (mother tongue or regional language) are taught at the primary stage, many states teach a second and third language at this level. Punjab has introduced English, along with the regional language in class I. In Sikkim, English is taught from Class 1,as a subject and used as the medium of instruction.

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CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
CONCLUSIONS Education is a means towards national development, its tools include medium of instruction: Vision of The National Education Policy: “Our education system must provide quality education to our children and youth to enable them to realize their individual potential and contribute to development of society and nation, creating a sense of Pakistani nationhood, the concepts of tolerance, social justice, democracy, their regional and local culture and history based on the basic ideology enunciated in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.” (Vision of NEP 2009: Implementation Framework as read out in a Policy Implementation briefing given in April 2010) The overall object of the education is to promote enlightened citizenship, economic development and national fabric. Pakistan has lagged on all accounts. The 18 global targets and 48 MDG indicators adopted in 2000 have been translated into 16 national targets and 37 indicators keeping in view Pakistan’s specific conditions, priorities, data availability and institutional capacity. Pakistan wishes to achieve 100% primary education, in a knowledge based global millennium, this goal is stupendously out of sync. And yet even this has not been achieved as per set targets.20 Substantial rural-urban differences exist in the distribution of net primary enrolment rates. These differences widen further moving from primary to the middle and matric level. Strikingly net enrollment rates at middle and matric level in 2005 were just at 7 and 3 percent for the poorest 20% compared to 32 and 23 percent for the richest 20% in 2001. The gap is still high after five years of planned expenditures and high sounding policies of MDG announced in 2000. The unrealistic Implementation strategy ( 4.5.16) that: National Education Policy 1998-2010 rules one

20

2006, MDG Review Report, Government of Pakistan, Planning and Development Commission website.

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“Driving and ammunition licences shall be given only to the literate persons”. Keeping the MDG Review in mind alonwith the fact that most of the rural able bodied men of 50% strong young population of Pakistan come to seek temporary jobs as drivers and guards in the affluent cities of Lahore, Faisalabad and Karachi. With such a non realistic policy , these impoverished un-employed men who are already beyond school age will feed urban anarchy. The regional languages are neglected. The precursor languages of Urdu i.e.Persian and Arabic are not taught anymore resulting Urdu as a national language has decayed as the first generation Aligs faded away. English is still the language of Bureaucracy and the elite. The lack of governance, adhocism,political policies of disenfranchisement faced by all classes of people for various reasons, including public take over by Mr. Bhutto, followed by taking over of foreign currency accounts by Mr. Nawaz Shareef , lead the brain drain. The Education system suffers from different teaching systems, incoherent syllabi, incompetent teachers, absenteeism and non participation of local communities in the general education activities or sentiment. The young students of Baluchistan and Sindh sling stones at the Government of Pakistan in general and their elders in particular for participating in the state formation process. There is no economic scope for the upcoming generation. Presently , there are six persons available against each job in Pakistan. Although, different policies emphasized to address all such weaknesses and issues but much was desired in the implementation and operational mechanisms. There are disparities in education between upper and lower income groups, so upper income households are enabled to capture a disproportionately large share of the benefits of growth in national income. As a result, educational inequalities are likely to exacerbate income inequalities and vice versa. A uniform basic education system has to be devised which is accessible to majority of the population which can solve such problems. The state and its populace has to show long term resolve and sustainable efforts for building human capital; development of a strong and effective education system in Pakistan is central to promoting moderation, tolerance, and economic development.

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RECOMMENDATIONS The Speech of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah given on 11th September 1947,that was reportedly suppressed for many years by Chaudhry Muhammad Ali , is Pakistan’s Ideology of state, it should be printed at the back of every text book in Pakistan , along with the national anthem. Educational Goals for Pakistan: • To develop and understand the cultural and religious heritage and the democratic traditions of the country, as well as an appreciation of the contributions made by the different ethnic groups to the national culture; • • To cultivate an appreciation of the arts, literature and science; To develop attitudes conducive to harmonious relations among the different ethnic

groups; • • To inculcate a sense of commitment to national development; To develop and promote a system for the acquisition of technical knowledge and

vocational skills to meet the manpower needs of the country; • To promote the democratization of education.

Implementation Strategy: • The National Education Policy is a verbose vision, its Review Plans, are just plans without a monitoring system to gauge actual progress of such costly loan based educational enterprise by independent performance audit . Even so, a technology based National Education Plan, is needed to be implemented by communities not just bureaucracy. • • A permanent Committee in the National Assembly be formed for reviewing progress of National Action Plan. National Plan should focus on virtual education for flung areas, where teachers and buildings are not existent. Best teachers recorded CDs can be made available through community health centers, or local elders. The National Testing Service is a small enterprise today. It can play a truly national role by devising test materials for practice

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and application. Nowadays, PCs are available most cheaply in Pakistan as container loads of western scrap get imported regularly. In the west PCs get discarded in a matter of 18 months. With minimum investment they should be distributed among rural and impoverished communities. The time their children loose in watching Indian movies and dances should be utilized. • The village mosque is the safest certainty for distribution of education materials. Where political strife makes it impossible, there political solutions should be used to distribute and administer computer based literacy, television based lectures on usage of computer based materials and testing program. Mosque everywhere is respected, it should be used for administration of exams. If there is no mosque, use the church, if there is no church, use the temple. Use the place of worship to spread literacy and knowledge. The message of Islam is Knowledge. ‘Ilm is another name of Ibadat’. The holy Prophet (PBUH) said, that the ink of a scholar’s pen is more sacred than the blood of a thousand martyrs. • The e-testing results when administered and compiled by the NTS, will have following advantages: a) Cost of administering examination will be curtailed. b) Incompetent, partisan checking by incompetent teachers will be eliminated. c) If any local element for any reason tries to hijack the education process, materials, exams, it will get immediately highlighted as a problem. Thus time lag between problem identification and solution will be reduced. Appropriate analysis will be taken timely by the concerned regional monitoring cell to consider the most appropriate response to solve the bottleneck. This solution should be pursued by the district administration and community. In case of no progress the education cell should inform the National Assembly Committee, so the representatives of the people of that area can solve the issue. d) Children adopt to computers better than boring ill trained teachers. With quality, interesting education materials , that will get prepared only with one time cost and then replicated, children will simultaneously become computer literate. • • A national syllabus should be prepared and made mandatory for all streams of education, public,private and the madressah. The first versions of this national syllabus should be in the vernacular , local language. Later versions of English, Urdu, should be introduced.The national newspapers are published in both these languages. xxxii

A multilinguist approach is being suggested in this paper to fight against close minded parochialism. Why should a poor child learn only the regional language, why cant he/she learn English, the language of trade and sciences, why not Urdu, the language of Pakistan’s Ideological founders, the language of state.

• •

The prepartition Urdu , Arabic and Persian syllabus must be revived with same strict standards of Examination under NTS. The subject of English cannot be taught without easy training session on phonetics, by teaching these phonetics through similar sounds in the local dialects. Urdu is a national means of communication. Almost sixty percent of Pakistanis, on the G.T Road, on The National Highways, on the Super Highway can communicate through urdu. Yet it is also a fact that pre partition India created better Urdu by teaching Persian and Arabic simultaneously. Again using CDs , standardized lectures should be administered, on basic Persian and Arabic; whether through the local teacher, local moulvi, community elder, or parent. Persian is the language of culture, Arabic is the language of religion for almost all the diverse races living in Pakistan. How local language sounds are used to teach secondary languages is discussed in detail in a valuable book, “ Pakistani Linguistics (1962), it is a compilation by Anwar S. Dil , of selected papers delivered at the first Pakistan Conference Of Linguists.

• •

The Linguistic Research Group, constituted in Lahore in 1961 must be revived. At UNO the hundreds of international representatives listen to real time translations of speeches.Internationally, technology on natural language processing, speech recognition, computational linguistics, and computational psycholinguistics21 is becoming so advanced with use of Artificial Intelligence that very soon it will be impossible to kill any language, as it will continue to be retained in any linguistic machine translator , computer memory. The costs of such language converters too are becoming cheaper by the day due to silicone chip technologies. The dearth of good translations and translators must be done away with by using this cheap, effective modern technology. The translation departments at any University need a scanner to save book images on digitized format. This scanned version should be machine translated. The machine translated version needs a single reading by any plain reader of the language to correct any idiomatic errors or syntax. In fact the machine translations are more faithful in grammar and syntax. Furthermore, Artificial

21

Daniel Jurafsky, James H. Martin, “ Speech and Language Processing”, A Text Book printed by Pearson Education Series in Artificial Intelligence, fifth reprint 2005.

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Intelligence based translators improve by usage. When human corrected translations are re-fed or updated into the translator software, the machine translation quality improves for future translations.

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The architecture of a speech understanding system22 Speech Input Signal Processing Acoustic Classification Recognition Speech Output Speech Synthesizer Phonetic String and Intonation Phonetic Look up and Intonation Planning Words Words

Natural Language Understanding System

It is an operational fact that Pakistan cannot solve the dearth of good well trained teachers and translations of books. Presently the Government is investing billions of rupees in scarce, absentee teachers and ill planned text books. A little investment in installing translating hardware and software at every university in the country, with assistance from students, if teachers are missing, will bring wonders in conservation of local indigenous literature, local translation of latest books in science, law and humanities. The progress of machine translation work should be treated as a community welfare exercise by the university.

Under the Constitution of Pakistan, all Pakistanis must be educated. Education can not come without reading and understanding diverse views in different languages of the region. Every child of Pakistan must have equal quality of teaching materials. This is possible only through use of technology. Pakistan must become a welfare state for its 170 million people by using cheaply available technologies and sincere administration specially at the community level. The attitude that the Devil may take the hindmost, the laggards and impoverished; can neither create national peace nor development.

Wherever, teachers are available they should be certified on annual basis in their subject of teaching. Whether, teachers are meant for the madressahs,

22

James Allen ,University of Rochester, “ Natural Language Understanding”, second editition ,Pearson education third reprint 2005,

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private schools or public sector.They must complete standardized modules through administered CDs and second hand PCs and then tested through internet based NTS Exams. The teachers must complete best training practice modules, alongwith ideology and ethics necessary for educating the Pakistani child. • The HRIS database for teachers both formal and informal must be centralized at the Federal level, for monitoring quality growth, pay and packages. For national development , national integration is a must. This can not come without political empowerment at community level. The brain drain is not because of Macaulay’s system but due to lack of opportunity and merit based culture. Since September 11 , 2001, Pakistanis all over the world are a vulnerable species. In a Post Terrorism world, instead of providing safety and comfort to its citizens, irrespective of caste, race or religion, Pakistan is following governance systems meant for a colonial power. No state can evolve by using systems meant for control instead of development. The education materials should openly discuss national issues such as breakup of Pakistan, the Indian caste culture that marginalized muslim jobs and economic growth. Pakistani text books should teach critical thinking instead of preconceived dogmas. They should talk about sports, community service, about living heroes from all regions, instead of only dead people. The curriculum should include community participatory excercises for neighbourhood, city and other parts of Pakistan. An informal education via community service in early childhood is most powerful for character building and inculcation of national values; whether in the classroom or outside or at home. The children of Pakistan should know basic common words of regional dialects and folklore for cross cultural understanding. The future generations of Pakistan should be multi linguistic, articulate, computer literate and compassionate. The oral traditional education of different regions in Pakistan is a goldmine of wisdom. It should be preserved and injected in the education materials to make the books relevant to life and expand imagination. In Pakistan around 2 to 4% children are handicapped.The medium for their education in any language ( for deaf and handicapped) should be computer based. Deaf children focus better in Mathematics, accounting and visual arts. Computer for them is the cheapest teacher. Community participation, comes as a result of empowerment. When people realize they have some control over their destinies and the state is genuinely interested in welfare systems. xxxvi

Pakistani people are the best in generosity, enterprise and ambition. Education is required to unfold their wings. Economic liberation can not come without wholesome education and character building. The solutions narrated above are just a public policy approach , that is forever evolving. The question is not that of mere mediums of instruction or languages.The real question is how far the Policy Planners and implementers are committed to the cause of education.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

PRIMARY SOURCES Interviews: • Justice (Retd) Javed Iqbal, son of late Dr. Allama Iqbal, the national visionary for Pakistan. • Mr. Amjad Islam Amjad, social thinker, writer and ex-D.G. National Language Authority, Islamabad. • Mr. Iftikhar Arif, writer, poet and present D.G. National Language Authority, Islamabad. • Mr. Mushtaq Yusufi, writer and Adamjee literary awards recipient, exPresident National Bank of Pakistan. • Dr. Amjad Saqib, Social Scientist, Patron , “Akhuwwat”, 9-A, Upper Mall , Lahore. • Mr. Faqir Aijazuddin, Principal, Aitchison School, Lahore. • Mr. Sohail Masood, Chairman Punjab Text Book Board. • Mr. Kayani, Project Director, Teachers Development, Lahore. • Dr. Shakeel , Teachers Development Project, Lahore. • Mr. Owais Humayun Syed, Directorate of Staff Development, Punjab Deptt. Of Education, Lahore. • Mr. Abdul Khalique Shaikh, Deputy Program Manager (Policy), Reform Support Unit, Education Department, Government of Sindh. • Mr. Waseem Ahmad Ursani, Special Secretary Education, Government of Sindh.

SECONDARY SOURCES Books: • Ahmad, Iftikhar Long Island University: “Islam, Democracy and Citizenship Education: An Examination of the Social Studies Curriculum in Pakistan.” • Culture Diversity." Review. Web log post. Cultural Diversity. Web. 11 Apr. 2010. • Noam Chomsky, “On Language”, Penguin Academics,2003 • Noam Chomsky, “Powers and Prospects”, Pluto Press,1996 • Tariq Rehman, “Language and Politics in Pakistan”, Oxford Press 1996 • Tariq Rehman, “Language, Ideology and Power”, Oxford Press 2002 • The Report of the Hamoodur Rehman Commission of Inquiry into the 1971 War, as declassified by the Government of Pakistan • Curtis, Lisa A. Senior Research Fellow for South Asia, Asian Studies Center, The Heritage Foundation: “U.S. Aid to Pakistan: Countering Extremism Through Education Reform.” • Daniel Jurafsky, James H. Martin, “ Speech and Language Processing”, A Text Book printed by Pearson Education Series in Artificial Intelligence, fifth reprint 2005

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• • •
• •

R.B.Le Page, “The National Language Question, Linguistic Problems of Newly Independent States”, issued under the auspices of the Institute of Race Relations, London, Printed by R. J. Ackford ltd. Chichester, Oxford University Press, 1964. Dean, Dr. Bernadette L., CRRP Programme Team Umelaila Amin, Cassandra Fernandes, Rahat Joldoshalieva, Karim Panah and Shazia Solangi: “The State of Civic Education in Pakistan Report.” Aga Khan Foundation (Pakistan) Islamabad James Allen ,University of Rochester, “ Natural Language Understanding”, second editition ,Pearson education third reprint 2005 Donald (ed) 'Simmel: “On individuality and social forms' Chicago University Press, 1971.” Dr. Captain U.A.G. Isani & Dr. Muhammad Latif Virk: Higher Education in Pakistan A Historical and Futuristic Perspective, National Book Foundation, 2005 Higher Education Commission: Annual Report 2007-08 Higher Education Commission: Report 2002-2008 Islam, Shada: “Building democracy and fighting extremism in Pakistan: a role for the

EU.” Kazmi, Saiyda Waidat: “Role of education in Globalization: A case for Pakistan Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan: “Curriculum Design and Development.” • Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan: “Pakistan Education Statistics 200708.” • Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan: “The State of Education in Pakistan 2003-04”. • Ministry of Education: Induction Pack for Newly Inducted Staff of Curriculum Wing. • National Education Policy 2009 • Justice Javed Iqbal, “Ideology of Pakistan”, Sange Meel Publications, 2005. • Pakistan Economic Survey 2008-09 • Rubina Saigol: Education Critical Perspectives • Social Policy and Development Centre Karachi: “Social Development in Pakistan Annual Review 2002-03.” • The Boston Group: “Higher Education in Pakistan: Towards a Reform Agenda A Contribution to the Task Force on Improvement of Higher Education in Pakistan.” • UNESCO: “The Dakar Framework for Action Education for All World Education Forum 2000.” Websites: • www.unicef.org/infobycountry/sri_lanka_statics_statistics • www.welt.de/english.news/article • www.youthink.worldbank.org/issues/environment/tsunami • • • • http://gladstone.uoregon.edu/~asuomca/diversityinit/definition.html http://iqrapakonline.wordpress.com/tag/education-policy-pakistan/ http://iqrapakonline.wordpress.com/tag/education-policy-pakistan/ http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2004/nov/19/tefl

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ANNEXURES Annex – I DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURE ALLOCATION FOR EDUCATION UNDER THE FIVE YEARS PLANS23 S.No. Five Years Plans 1st Five Year Plan (1955-60) 2nd Five Year Plan (1960-65) 3rd Five Year Plan (1965-70) 4th Five Year Plan (1972-77) 5th Five Year Plan (1977-83) 6th Five Year Plan (1983-88) 7th Five Year Plan (1988-93) 8th Five Year Plan (1993-98) Total Total development Expenditure allocated in billions of Rupees 9.3052 19 52 75 215 490 642.4 1700.5 Billions of Rs. allocated for National Development since 1955 3203.2052 Development Expenditure allocated for Education-In Millions of Rupees 581 1323 2674.548 3665 10254.9 19830 23110 69031.7 Percentage of total Expenditure allocated Actual amount Released in Millions of Rupees 400 912 1328.32 2299 5644 13430 19000 Actual amount released as percentage of development allocation for education 69.00% 69.00% 50.00% 63.00% 55.00% 68.00% 82.20%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

6.20% 7.00% 5.14% 4.90% 4.80% 4.00% 3.60% 4.00%

Millions of Average: Rs. allocated 4.96% Education since 1955 130,470.1 (Rs.130.5 billion)

Millions Average: of Rs. 65.17% spent on Education 43013.3 (Rs.43 billion)

23

Higher Education In Pakistan: A Historic and Futuristic Perspective, by Dr. Capt. U.A. G. Isani & Dr. Muhammad Latif Virk, National Book Founadation,2005, p-136.

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Annex-II

Annex –III

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Annex - IV

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Annex - V Statistical Comparison of Pakistan with India and Sri Lanka: Pakistan Population (July 2009 Est.) 174,578,558 Urban Population 36% Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28% Muslim 95% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), Others 5% (includes Christian and Hindu) India 1,156,897,766 29% Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% Sri Lanka 21,324,791 15% Sinhalese 73.8%, Sri Lankan Moors 7.2%, Indian Tamil 4.6%, Sri Lankan Tamil 3.9%, other 0.5%, unspecified 10% Buddhist 69.1%, Muslim 7.6%, Hindu 7.1%, Christian 6.2%, unspecified 10%

Ethnic Groups

Religions

Languages

Literacy Rate

Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% Hindi 41%, Punjabi 48%, Bengali 8.1%, Sindhi 12%, Telugu 7.2%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) Marathi 7%, 10%, Pashtu 8%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu (official) 8%, Urdu 5%, Balochi 3%, Gujarati 4.5%, Hindko 2%, Kannada 3.7%, Brahui 1%, Malayalam 3.2%, Burushaski, and other 8% Oriya 3.2%, English Punjabi 2.8%, (official; lingua franca of Assamese 1.3%, Pakistani elite and most Maithili 1.2%, government ministries) other 5.9% 49.90% 61%

Sinhala 74% (official and national language), Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8%

90.70%

Source: CIA World Fact book

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