919E A hot plate with an insulated back is considered. The rate of heat loss by natural convection is to be determined for different orientations.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 3 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.
Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature of (T _{s} +T _{} )/2 = (130+75)/2 = 102.5F are (Table A15)
k
0.01535 Btu/h.ft. F
0.1823
10
3
ft
2
/s
Pr
0.7256
1
1
T
f
(102.5
460)R
0.001778 R
1
Analysis (a) When the plate is vertical, the characteristic length is
the height of the plate. L
c
L 2 ft.
Then,
Insulation
L = 2 ft
s
Plate
T = 130F
T
Air
= 75F
Ra
g T
(
s
T
)
L
3
2
Pr
(32.2 ft/s
2
)(0.001778 R
1
)(130
75 R)(2 ft)
3
(0.1823
10
3
ft
2
/s)
2
(0.7256)
5.503
10
8
Nu
0
.825
0 .387 Ra
1 / 6
1
0 .492
Pr
9 / 16
8 / 27
2
0 .825
0
.387 (5 .503
10
8
)
1 / 6
1
0 .492
0 .7256
9 / 16
8 / 27
2
102 .6
h
k
L
Nu
0.01535
Btu/h.ft. F
2 ft
(102.6)
0.7869 Btu/h.ft
2
.
F
A
s
L
2
(2 ft)
2
4 ft
2
and
Q
hA
s
(
T
s
T
)
(0.7869 Btu/h.ft
2
.
F)(4 ft
2
)(130
75) C
173.1 Btu/h
(b) When the plate is horizontal with hot surface facing up, the characteristic length is determined from
Then,
L
s
A
s
L
2
L
2 ft
P
4
L
4
4
0.5 ft
.
Ra
g
(
T
s
T
)
L
3
c
2
Pr
(32.2 ft/s
2
)(0.001778 R
1
)(130
75 R)(0.5 ft)
3
(0.1823
10
3
ft
2
/s)
2
(0.7256)
8.598
10
6
Nu
0.54
Ra
1 / 4
0.54(8.598
10
6
)
1 / 4
29.24
and
h
k
L
c
Nu
0.01535
Btu/h.ft. F
0.5 ft
(29.24)
0.8975 Btu/h.ft
2
.
F
Q
hA
s
(
T
s
T
)
(0.8975 Btu/h.ft
2
.
F)(4 ft
2
)(130
75)
C
197.4 Btu/h
(c) When the plate is horizontal with hot surface facing down, the characteristic length is again 0.5 ft
and the Rayleigh number is
Ra 8.598 10
6
. Then,
Nu
0.27
Ra
1/ 4
2
0.27(8.598
10
6
)
1/ 4
14.62
and
h
k
L
c
Nu
0.01535 Btu/h.ft. F
0.5 ft
(14.62)
0.4487 Btu/h.ft
2
.
F
Q
hA
s
(
T
s
T
)
(0.4487 Btu/h.ft
2
.
F)(4 ft
2
)(130
75)
C
98.7 Btu/h
949 Water in a tank is to be heated by a spherical heater. The heating time is to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The temperature of the outer surface of the sphere is constant. Properties Using the average temperature for water (15+45)/2=30 as the fluid temperature, the properties of water at the film
8
The amount of heat transfer to the water is
Q mC
p
(
)
(39.84 kg)(4178 J/kg. C)(45 15) C = 4.994
10
6 J
Then the time the heater should be on becomes
t
Q
4.994
10
6
J
Q
602.1 J/s
8294 s
2.304 hours
957 A heat sink with equally spaced rectangular fins is to be used to cool a hot surface. The optimum fin height and the rate of heat transfer from the heat sink are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 3 The atmospheric pressure at that location is 1 atm.
T = 25C
Analysis The characteristic length in this case is the height of the surface L _{c} = L = 0.18 m. Then,
Ra
g T
(
s
3 (9.81 m/s
T
)
L
2 Pr
2
)(0.003145 K
1
)(65
25 K)(0.18 m)
3
(1.749
10
5
m
2
/s)
2
(0.7241)
1.703
10
7
The optimum fin spacing is
S
2.714
L 2.714
1/ 4
Ra
0.18 m
(1.703
10
7
)
1/ 4
0.007605 m
7.605 mm
The heat transfer coefficient for this optimum fin spacing case is
h
1.307
k
S
1.307
0.02699 W/m. C
0.007605 m
4.638 W/m
2
.
C
The criteria for optimum fin height H in the literature is given by H text) where A _{c} /p t/2 for rectangular fins. Therefore,
pk (not in the
H
(4.638 W/m
2 . C)(0.001 m)
2
(177 W/m. C)
0.00362 m
The number of fins and the total heat transfer surface area is
w 
w 
0.121 

n 

16 fins 



s 

t 
s 
0.007605 

A 
s 
2nLH 2 16 (0.18 m)(0.00362 m) = 0.02085 m 
2
Then the rate of natural convection heat transfer becomes
Q
hA
s
(
T
)
(4.638 W/m
2
. C)(0.02085 m
2
)(65
25) C
3.87 W
967 The absorber plate and the glass cover of a flatplate solar collector are maintained at specified temperatures. The rate of heat loss from the absorber plate by natural convection is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 3 Heat loss by radiation is negligible. 4 The air pressure in the enclusure is 1 atm.
Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the average temperature of (T _{1} +T _{2} )/2 = (80+40)/2 = 60C are (Table A
15)
k
0.02808 W/m. C
1.896
10
5
m
2
/s
Pr
0.7202
1
1
T
f
(60
273)K
0.003003 K
1
Absorber
Analysis For 0 , we have horizontal rectangular enclosure. The characteristic length in this case is the distance between the two glasses L _{c} = L = 0.025 m Then,
Ra
g T
(
1
T
2
)
L
3
2
Pr
(9.81 m/s
2
)(0.003003 K
1
)(80
40 K)(0.025 m)
3
(1.896
10
5
m
2
/s)
2
(0.7202)
3.689
10
4
Then
Nu
1
1.44 1
1708
Ra
Ra
1/ 3
18
1
1
1.44 1
1708
3.689
10
4
(3.689
10
4
)
1/ 3
18
1
3.223
A
s
H W
(2 m)(3 m) 6 m
2
Q
kNuA _{s}
T
1
T
2
L
(0.02808 W/m. C)(3.223)(6 m
2
)
(80
40) C
0.025 m
869 W
For
20 , we obtain
Nu
1
1.44 1
1708
Ra cos
1
1708(sin 1.8
)
1.6
Ra cos
(Ra cos
)
1/ 3
18
1
1
1.44 1
1708
(3.689
10
4
) cos(20)
1
1708 sin(1.8
1.6 10
(3.689
4 ) cos(20)
20)
1/ 3
(3.689
10
4
) cos(20)
1
18
Q
kNuA _{s}
T
1
T
2
L
(0.02808 W/m. C)(3.152)(6 m
2
)
(80
40) C
0.025 m
850 W
3.15
For 90 , we have vertical rectangular enclosure. The Nusselt number for this geometry and orientation can be determined from (Ra = 3.68910 ^{4}  same as that for horizontal case)
Nu
0.42
Ra
1/ 4
Pr
0.012
H
L
0.3
0.42(3.689
10
4
)
1/ 4
(0.7202)
0.012
2 m
0.025 m
0.3
1.557
Q
kNuA _{s}
T
2
L
(0.02808 W/m. C)(1.557)(6 m
2
)
(80
40) C
0.025 m
420 W
Discussion Caution is advised for the vertical case since the condition H/L < 40 is not satisfied.
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