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9-19E A hot plate with an insulated back is considered. The rate of heat loss by natural convection is to be determined for different orientations.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 3 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature of (T s +T )/2 = (130+75)/2 = 102.5F are (Table A-15)

k

0.01535 Btu/h.ft. F

0.1823

10

3

ft

2

/s

Pr

0.7256

1

1

T

f

(102.5

460)R

0.001778 R

-1

Analysis (a) When the plate is vertical, the characteristic length is

the height of the plate. L

c

L 2 ft.

Then,

Insulation L = 2 ft   s Plate

T = 130F

### Q

T

Air

= 75F

Ra

gT

(

s

T

)

L

3

2

Pr

(32.2 ft/s

2

)(0.001778 R

-1

)(130

75 R)(2 ft)

3

(0.1823

10

3

ft

2

/s)

2

(0.7256)

5.503

10

8

Nu

 

0

.825

0 .387 Ra

1 / 6

 

1  

0 .492

Pr

9 / 16

 

8 / 27

 

2

 

0 .825

0

.387 (5 .503

10

8

)

1 / 6

 

1

 

0 .492

0 .7256

9 / 16

 

8 / 27

 

2

102 .6

h

k

L

Nu

0.01535

Btu/h.ft. F

2 ft

(102.6)

0.7869 Btu/h.ft

2

.

F

A

s

L

2

(2 ft)

2

4 ft

2

and

Q

hA

s

(

T

s

T

)

(0.7869 Btu/h.ft

2

.

F)(4 ft

2

)(130

75) C

173.1 Btu/h

(b) When the plate is horizontal with hot surface facing up, the characteristic length is determined from

Then,

L

s

A

s

L

2

L

2 ft

P

4

L

4

4

0.5 ft

.

Ra

g

(

T

s

T

)

L

3

c

2

Pr

(32.2 ft/s

2

)(0.001778 R

-1

)(130

75 R)(0.5 ft)

3

(0.1823

10

3

ft

2

/s)

2

(0.7256)

8.598

10

6

Nu

0.54

Ra

1 / 4

0.54(8.598

10

6

)

1 / 4

29.24

and

h

k

L

c

Nu

0.01535

Btu/h.ft. F

0.5 ft

(29.24)

0.8975 Btu/h.ft

2

.

F

Q

hA

s

(

T

s

T

)

(0.8975 Btu/h.ft

2

.

F)(4 ft

2

)(130

75)

C

197.4 Btu/h

(c) When the plate is horizontal with hot surface facing down, the characteristic length is again   0.5 ft

and the Rayleigh number is

Ra 8.598 10

6

. Then,

Nu

0.27

Ra

1/ 4

2

0.27(8.598

10

6

)

1/ 4

14.62

and

h

k

L

c

Nu

0.01535 Btu/h.ft. F

0.5 ft

(14.62)

0.4487 Btu/h.ft

2

.

F

Q

hA

s

(

T

s

T

)

(0.4487 Btu/h.ft

2

.

F)(4 ft

2

)(130

75)

C

98.7 Btu/h

9-49 Water in a tank is to be heated by a spherical heater. The heating time is to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The temperature of the outer surface of the sphere is constant. Properties Using the average temperature for water (15+45)/2=30 as the fluid temperature, the properties of water at the film temperature of (T s +T  )/2 = (85+30)/2 = 57.5C are (Table A-9)
k 
0.6515 W/m. C
s
 6
2
D = 6 cm
0.474
10
m
/s
Water
Resistance
heater
T = 85C
D = 6 cm
Pr
3.12
T
= 30C
,ave
 3
-1
0.501
10
K
Also, the properties of water at 30C are (Table A-9)
3
996 kg/m
and
C
4178 J/kg. C
p
Analysis The characteristic length in this case is L c = D = 0.06 m. Then,
3
2
3
-1
3
g T
(
T
)
D
(9.81 m/s
)(0.501
10
K
)(85
30 K)(0.06 m)
s
Ra
Pr 
(3.12)
8.108
10
2
 6
2
2
(0.474
10
m
/s)
1/ 4
8
0.589 Ra
0.589(8.108
10
)
Nu 
2
2
1/ 4
4 / 9
 89.14
4 / 9
9 /16
1
0.469 / Pr
1
9 /16
0.469 / 3.12
k
0.6515 W/m. C
2
h 
Nu
(89.14)
967.9 W/m
.
C
D
0.06 m
2
2
2
A
D
(0.06 m)
0.01131 m
s
The rate of heat transfer by convection is
2
2
Q
hA
(
T
T
)
(967.9 W/m
. C)(0.01131 m
)(85
30)
602.1 W
conv
s
s
The mass of water in the container is
3
3
m  V
(996 kg/m
)(0.040 m
)
39.84 kg

8

The amount of heat transfer to the water is

Q mC

p

( T
2  T
1

)

(39.84 kg)(4178 J/kg. C)(45 -15) C = 4.994

10

• 6 J

Then the time the heater should be on becomes

t

Q

4.994

10

6

J

Q

602.1 J/s

8294 s

2.304 hours

9-57 A heat sink with equally spaced rectangular fins is to be used to cool a hot surface. The optimum fin height and the rate of heat transfer from the heat sink are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 3 The atmospheric pressure at that location is 1 atm. W = 12.1 cm
Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and 1
atm and the film temperature of (T s +T  )/2 =
(65+25)/2 = 45C are (Table A-15E)
H
k 
0.02699 W/m. C
L = 18 cm
 5
2
1.749
10
m
/s
Pr
0.7241
1
1
-1
S
 0.003145 K
T
(45
273)K
f
65C

T = 25C

Analysis The characteristic length in this case is the height of the surface L c = L = 0.18 m. Then,

Ra

gT

(

s

• 3 (9.81 m/s

T

)

L

• 2 Pr

2

)(0.003145 K

-1

)(65

25 K)(0.18 m)

3

(1.749

10

5

m

2

/s)

2

(0.7241)

1.703

10

7

The optimum fin spacing is

S

2.714

• L 2.714

1/ 4

Ra

0.18 m

(1.703

10

7

)

1/ 4

0.007605 m

7.605 mm

The heat transfer coefficient for this optimum fin spacing case is

h

1.307

k

S

1.307

0.02699 W/m. C

0.007605 m

4.638 W/m

2

.

C

The criteria for optimum fin height H in the literature is given by H text) where A c /p t/2 for rectangular fins. Therefore, hA
/
c

pk (not in the

H ht
2 k

(4.638 W/m

• 2 . C)(0.001 m)

• 2

(177 W/m. C)

0.00362 m

The number of fins and the total heat transfer surface area is

 w w 0.121 n    16 fins  s  t s 0.007605 A s  2nLH  2 16  (0.18 m)(0.00362 m) = 0.02085 m

2

Then the rate of natural convection heat transfer becomes

Q

hA

s

( T
s

T

)

(4.638 W/m

2

. C)(0.02085 m

2

)(65

25) C

3.87 W

9-67 The absorber plate and the glass cover of a flat-plate solar collector are maintained at specified temperatures. The rate of heat loss from the absorber plate by natural convection is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 3 Heat loss by radiation is negligible. 4 The air pressure in the enclusure is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the average temperature of (T 1 +T 2 )/2 = (80+40)/2 = 60C are (Table A-

15)

k

0.02808 W/m. C

1.896

10

5

m

2

/s

Pr

0.7202

1

1

T

f

(60

273)K

0.003003 K

-1

Absorber Plate
80C
Solar
2 m
L = 2.5 cm
Glass
Insulation
Cover,
40C

Analysis For   0, we have horizontal rectangular enclosure. The characteristic length in this case is the distance between the two glasses L c = L = 0.025 m Then,

Ra

gT

(

1

T

2

)

L

3

2

Pr

(9.81 m/s

2

)(0.003003 K

-1

)(80

40 K)(0.025 m)

3

(1.896

10

5

m

2

/s)

2

(0.7202)

3.689

10

4

Then

Nu

1

1.44 1

 

1708

Ra

 

Ra

1/ 3

18

1

1

1.44 1

 

1708

3.689

10

4

 

(3.689

10

4

)

1/ 3

18

1

3.223

A

s

H W

(2 m)(3 m) 6 m

2

Q

kNuA s

T

1

T

2

L

(0.02808 W/m. C)(3.223)(6 m

2

)

(80

40) C

0.025 m

869 W

For

20, we obtain

Nu

1

1.44 1

1708

Ra cos

1

1708(sin 1.8

)

1.6

Ra cos

(Ra cos

)

1/ 3

18

1

1

1.44 1

1708

(3.689

10

4

) cos(20)

1

1708 sin(1.8

• 1.6 10

 

(3.689

• 4 ) cos(20)

## 

20)

1/ 3

(3.689

10

4

) cos(20)

1

• 18

Q

kNuA s

T

1

T

2

L

(0.02808 W/m. C)(3.152)(6 m

2

)

(80

40) C

0.025 m

850 W

3.15

For   90, we have vertical rectangular enclosure. The Nusselt number for this geometry and orientation can be determined from (Ra = 3.68910 4 - same as that for horizontal case)

Nu

0.42

Ra

1/ 4

Pr

0.012

 

H

L

 

0.3

0.42(3.689

10

4

)

1/ 4

(0.7202)

0.012

2 m

  0.025 m  

0.3

1.557

Q

kNuA s T
1

T

2

L

(0.02808 W/m. C)(1.557)(6 m

2

)

(80

40) C

0.025 m

420 W

Discussion Caution is advised for the vertical case since the condition H/L < 40 is not satisfied.