You are on page 1of 8

LABORATORY MANUAL

DRILLING ENGINEERING
Drilling Simulator

A kick is defined as any undesirable flow of formation fluids from the reservoir to the
wellbore that occurs as a result of a negative pressure differential across the formation face.
Meanwhile, Blow Out happens if the kick is reaching the surface and uncontrollable. Wells
kick because the reservoir pressure of an exposed permeable formation is higher than the
wellbore pressure at that depth.
There are many situations which can produce this downhole condition. Among the most
likely and recurring are:

Low density drilling fluid.


Abnormal reservoir pressure.
Swabbing.
Not keeping the hole full on trips.
Lost circulation

Kick indicators are classified into two groups: positive and secondary. Anytime the well
experiences a positive indicator of a kick, immediate action must be taken to shut-in the well.
When a secondary indicator of a kick is identified, steps should be taken to verify if the well
is indeed kicking.
The "Positive Indicators of a Kick" are:

Increase in Pit Volume


Increase in Flow rate

Immediate action should be taken to shut-in the well whenever these indicators are
experienced. It is not recommended to check for flow after a positive indicator has been
identifed.
The "Secondary Indicators of a Kick" are:

Decrease in Circulating Pressure


Gradual Increase in Drilling Rate
Drilling Breaks
Increase in Gas Cutting
Increase in Water Cutting or Chlorides

The occurence of any of these indicators should alert the Drilling Representative that the well
may be kicking, or is about to kick. These indicators should never be ignored. Instead, once
realized, steps should be taken to determine the reason for the indication.

SWABBING
Swabbing is a condition that arises when pipe is pulled from the well and produces a
temporary bottomhole pressure reduction.
Many downhole conditions tend to increase the likelihood that a well will be swabbed-in
when pipe is pulled. Several of these are discussed below:

Pulling Pipe Too Fast


Poor Mud Properties
Heaving or Swelling Formations
Large OD Tools

WELL CONTROL PROCEDURE (HARD SHUT IN * REMOTE


CHOKE IS ALWAYS CLOSE DURING DRILLING & TRIPPING)

1.1 SHUT-IN PROCEDURE WHILE DRILLING


1. When any indication is observed while drilling that the well maybe flowing, raise the
drill with pumps on until spaced out, stop rotating drill string.
2. Stop pumping and check for flow, if positive;
3. Close annular or upper pipe rams.
4. Open BOP upstream choke valve.
5. Call supervisor and commence plotting a graph of shut in drill pipe & casing pressure.
Check pit volume again.

1.2 SHUT-IN PROCEDURE WHILE TRIPPING


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

When a possible sign is observed, set top tool joint in the slips.
Check for flow.
Install a full opening Safety valve on the drill pipe. Close the valve once it is installed.
CLOSE annular BOP.
Open BOP upstream choke valve.
Alert supervisors.
Read and record pressures on SICP & SIDP
The operators representative will have to decide whether to kill in situ, or strip back
to bottom.
9. If operator decided to strip to bottom, stab IBOP (Gray valve) & open full opening
safety valve. Ready to strip drill string to bottom.

OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this experiment are as follow:
To conduct drilling operation simulation by using DrillSim 500.
To identify any kick indications by using DrillSim 500.
To control any kick confronted during drilling operations.

EXPERIMENT PROCEDURES
Drilling Test

Take slow pump rate pump#1 20 spm / xxxx psi, 30 spm / xxxx psi
Take slow pump rate pump#2 20 spm / xxxx psi, 30 spm / xxxx psi.
Increase mud pump 1 & 2 to achieve total of 600 gpm (8-1/2 hole size)
Setting rotary speed to 100 rpm.
Use handbrake to lower the drill string until bit touches bottom.
Increase and maintain WOB at 35.000 lbs.
Continue drilling by adjusting WOB at 35.000 lbs by adjusting handbrake at every
time.
Identify if there is any Kick indication at all operation time.
Continue to kick procedure when kick is encountered.
Well Control Drillers Method
1. Monitor surface instrumentation. Once positive kick detected, follow step 2.
2. Pick up off bottom & space out (ensure tooljoint is not across ram). Stop rotary.
3. Stop pump 1 and 2.
Close BOPs Annular or Upper Ram. Open BOP upstream choke valve.
4. Read and record final (stabilized) SIDPP and SICP. Read and record final pit gain.
Adjust the remote choke to maintain the SICP constant while bringing the pump up to
20 or 30 strokes per minute simultaneously.
When the casing pressure is stabilized, read and record the new circulating drill pipe
pressure. Adjust the remote choke to maintain the initial circulating drill pipe pressure
constant until the influx (the kick) is out. Once influx out, stop pump & close remote
choke completely while maintaining the last CP constant. ( If no further influx enter
the well bore, theoretical SICP & SIDP should be the same)
5. Increase mud weight to kill mud weight.
Kill MW = (SIDPP + 150 psi overbalance)/(0.052*vert. depth) + original MW
Open remote choke and start pump at 20 or 30 strokes per minute while maintaining
SICP constant. Once reach desired pump rate, continue to maintain SICP constant
until kill mud reach bit.
Once kill mud reach bit, start to maintain FCP (final drill pipe circulating pressure)
constant until kill mud reach surface
6. When the kill mud reach surface, stop pump & then close remote choke.
Read and record SIDPP, SICP and pit volume. (SIDPP & SICP shoule be zero if the
well is dead)
Open the BOP Upper ram, close BOP upstream choke valve and flow check well.

3. Well Control Engineers Method


Monitor surface instrumentation. Once positive kick detected, follow step 2.
Pick up off bottom & space out (ensure tooljoint is not across ram). Stop rotary.
Stop pump 1 and 2.
Close BOPs Annular or Upper Ram. Open BOP upstream choke valve.
1. Read and record final (stabilized) SIDPP and SICP. Read and record final pit gain.
Prepare kill sheet.
Increase the mud weight to kill mud weight.
Kill MW grad = ((SIDPP + 150 psi overbalance/ 0.052*vert.depth) + original MW)
Open remote choke and slowly bring pump to kill rate to 20 or 30 spm.
Adjust remote choke to maintain casing pressure constant.
When the pump is up to kill rate and casing pressure stable, follow the drill pipe
pressure schedule and maintain it by remote choke adjustment according to the kill
sheet.
When the kill mud is at the bit, maintain FCP (final drill pipe circulating pressure)
constant until kill mud reaches surface.
When the kill mud reach surface , stop pump and close the remote choke.
Read and record SIDPP, SICP and pit volume. (SIDPP & SICP should be zero if the
well is dead)
Open the BOP annular or upper ram, close BOP upstream choke valve and flow check
well.

FORMAT LABORATORY REPORT


1. TITLE PAGE
The title page serves as the cover for the report. Its main function is to identify the author and
the subject of the report. It should contain the following:

Course and section numbers


Experiment title
Name, I.D.# and Group #
Experiment date
Submission date

2. INTRODUCTION
This section should give a brief introduction and background of Drilling System and Well
control. This page must be written at least 3 (three) pages systematically and using proper
bullets and numbering.
3.
4.
5.
6.

OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENT
PROCEDURES
RESULTS
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

This section should give proper analysis about the results of experiment. This section should
be written at least 2 (two) pages.
7. ANSWER TO GIVEN QUESTIONS
8. REFERENCES

ANSWER TO GIVEN QUESTIONS


1. Explain the correlation between bottom hole temperature and hydrostatic gradient.
2. There are a variety that can cause abnormal formation fluid pressure. List 4 of the
principal causes.
3. What is MAASP stands for? When is the right time to re-calculate this parameter?
4. A well can be induced to flow by swabbing which happens due to the reduction of
bottom hole pressure when pulling pipe. List 3 conditions that can cause swabbing.
5. List at least 2 causes of the increase in rate of penetration during drilling.
6. Mention at least 5 components of drill stem.
7. Shown below is a pressure versus volume plot of a leak off test

The leak off was carried out with a 10.6 ppg mud. The casing shoe is at 4000ft TVD
a. What is the maximum pressure that the exposed formations below the shoe
can support?
b. What is the Fracture Gradient?
c. What is the maximum mud weight?
d. If drilling was resumed and the mud weight was increased to 12.6 ppg.
Calculate M.A.A.S.P
8. Given the following data:
Depth
Bit size
Shoe depth
Mud weight

10000ft TVD
8
8500ft TVD
12.6 ppg

Collars 600ft. Capacity


Metal displacement
Drill-pipe 5 capacity
Metal displacement
Casing / pipe annular capacity
Casing capacity
One stand of drill-pipe

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.0077 bbl / ft
0.03 bbl / ft
0.0178 bbl / ft
0.0476 bbl / ft
0.0476 bbl / ft
0.0729 bbl / ft
94 ft

Assuming the 12.6 ppg mud givens an over-balances of 200 psi


a. If 10 stands of pipe are removed dry without filling the hole, what would be the
resultant reduction in bottom-hole pressure?
b. If 5 stands of pipe had been pulled wet without filling the hole, the resultant
reduction in bottom-hole pressure would be.
c. If prior to tripping a 20 barrel slug of 14.6 ppg mud was displaced to prevent a wet
trip, what would be the expected volume return due to the U-tubing of the heavy
mud?