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Prof. Jelka Petrovic

Luka Orlovic IV6

Zemun,maj 2014. godine

0. Preamble.3
1. Introduction4
2. History...5
2.1. A Brief History5
2.2. Relationship between France and the
3. The Church of England..8
4. The Capital........9
5. The Great Fire of London.........11
6. The Gunpowder Plot.........12
7. Manchester13
8. The Greats.15
8.1. William Shakespeare..15
8.2. The Beatles..........16
8.3. Charles Darwin17
8.4. King Henry VIII of England....18
9. In conclusion.....19
10. Sources..20

0. Preamble
The main reason that I have chosen to do a paper on this country, is that I
have very strong feelings towards it. Truth be told, I love this country very
much. Since I was a little boy, my dream was to, one day, move to London
and settle there.
The first part is the introduction, in which you will get the most basic
information about the subject of my paper. In the second, I review a bit of
English history, and their, hot and cold, relationship with France. Every
country has its religion and a capital, so these two things had to be in here,
as well. The Great fire of London and the Gunpowder plot are two very
important and very well known things in the English history. In the 7th part, I
have chosen to write about Manchester, because it is very important to me;
and you will see why.
What would a country be, without its greatest persons and greatest minds?
Nothing. That is why I have decided to dedicate the 8th part to the greatest
persons in the UKs history. William Shakespeare, the Beatles, Charles
Darwin and King Henry VIII of England were, in my opinion, the most
important and the most recognizable, and that is the reason I chose to write
about them.


The United Kingdom (official name: the United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland) consists of four countries united under one monarch
and government. The countries are England, Scotland, Wales and Northern
Ireland. Each have a distinct culture and feel of there own with some in
Northern Ireland wishing to separate from the United Kingdom and join the
Republic of Ireland, with which the UK shares its only land border.
England has traditionally been the dominant nation within the UK has over
80 percent of the share of the total population. People in Scotland and Wales
have proud national traditions and languages. Scottish Gaelic is mainly
spoken in the north west of the country, by a small proportion of the
population. Welsh language has a much bigger number of people speaking it
and all public signs in Wales are displayed in both Welsh and English.
The United Kingdom has formed over many centuries through old alliances,
conquests, and through royal marriages.
The United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional
monarch. A king or queen is the head of state, and a prime minister is the
head of government. The people vote in elections for Members of
Parliament (MPs) to represent them.

2.1. A Brief History

On the 1st of May 1707, the Kingdom of England (consisted of England and
Wales) and the Kingdom of Scotland merged as a political union known as,
the United Kingdom of Great Britain. This is the result of agreed terms,
signed by parliaments of England and Scotland, under the Treaty of Union.
Queen Anne is the first monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Act of Union in 1800 merged the Kingdom of Great Britain with the
Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland, on the 1st of January 1801. This is the result of several centuries of
historic events including the invasions of Normans in Ireland and War for
American Independence. The union eliminated the separate Parliaments of
Great Britain and Ireland creating a mutual Parliament of the United
During the 19th and the early 20th century, the rise of Irish nationalism
emerged particularly in the Catholic part of the population. In 1916, an onesidedly declared Irish Republic was announced in Dublin, and that
announcement led to the Anglo-Irish War that lasted until 1921. The AngloIrish Treaty was signed in 1921, and the Irish Free State was formed.
The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act, renames the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland. The change acknowledges that the Irish Free State is no
longer part of the Kingdom.

2.2. Relationship between France and the UK

The English monarchy increasingly integrated with its subjects and turned
to the English language wholeheartedly during the Hundred Years' War
between 1337 and 1453. Though the war was in principle a mere dispute
over territory, it drastically changed societies on both sides of the Channel.
The English, although already politically united, for the first time found
pride in their language and identity, while the French united politically.
Several of the most famous Anglo-French battles took place during the
Hundred Years' War: Crcy, Poitiers, Agincourt, Orlans, and Paris. Major
sources of French pride stemmed from their leadership during the war. Jean
de Dunois eventually forced the English out of all of France except Calais,
which was only lost in 1558.
Apart from setting national identities, the Hundred Years' War is often cited
as the root of the traditional rivalry and at times hatred between the two
During this era, the English lost their last territories in France, except
Calais, which would remain in English hands for another 105 years, though
the English monarchs continued to style themselves as Kings of France until
Even though, nothing unites the British as their traditional hatred towards
the French; not everything is as it seems. Throughout history, the two
countries havent been only on the opposing side of the wars. History shows
us that they have been allies, quite a few times, and they have fought
alongside each other.

Wars in which France and Britain fought on different sides:

Wars of Henry II of England and Philip II of France


Stephen and Matilda conflict

Anglo-French War (120214)
Saintonge War (1242)
War of Saint-Sardos (1324)
Hundred Years' War (13371453)
Parts of the Italian Wars (15111559)
War of the League of Cambrai
Anglo-French War (16271629)
Second Anglo-Dutch War (16661667, France sided with the Dutch
War of the Grand Alliance (Nine Years' War) (16881697)
War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
Seven Years' War (17561763)
American Revolutionary War (17751783)
French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars (17921815)

Wars in which the two countries fought on the same sides:

The Crusades
Part of the Italian Wars (15111559)
The Eighty Years' War (15681648)
The Fronde (16481653)
The Anglo-Spanish War (16541659)
Franco-Dutch War (England's involvement is known as the Third
Anglo-Dutch War, between 1673 and 1674)
The War of the Quadruple Alliance (17181720)
The Crimean War (18541856)
The Boxer Rebellion (19001901)
World War I (19141918)
World War II (19391945)
The Korean War (19501953)
The Suez Crisis (1956)
The First Gulf War (1991)
The War in Afghanistan (2001present day)
3. The Church of England

Christianity arrived in Britain in the first or second centuries, probably

via Ireland and Spain, but it only became firmly established when the
Pope sent St Augustine from Rome in the 16th century to convert the
people of Britain, especially the newly arrived Saxons, to Christianity.
With the help of Christians already living in Kent, Augustine established
his church in Canterbury and became the first in the series of
Archbishops in Canterbury.
For the next 1000 years, England was part of the Roman Catholic
Church. But in 1534, during the reign of King Henry VIII, the English
church separated from Rome. The main reason for the split was that
Henry the 8th wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Pope
Clement VII refused to agree to Henrys request and so Henry decided to
become head of the Church of England himself in order to ensure that the
divorce went through and that he could marry the second of his six wives
England briefly rejoined the Roman Catholic Church during the reign of
Queen Mary in 1555, but reverted to Protestantism after her sister
Elisabeth I came to the throne. In the 17th century there was conflict
between Puritans, who wanted further reform, and the church, who
wanted to keep traditional beliefs and practices. This led to a bloody civil
war in which King Charles I was executed by the Puritans. However, the
Monarchy and the Church of England were restored in 1660, and to this
day, the British monarch is still the head of the Church of England. For
many decades following the Restoration of 1660, Catholics were
excluded from public life and could not be elected to Parliament,
gradually they were granted full rights and liberties. However, the heir to
the British throne is still forbidden by law to marry a Catholic.

4. The Capital

London is a big city in the southeast of England, on the River Thames. It is

the capital of England and the United Kingdom. The population of London
is about 8.3 million people. London is the biggest city in the United
Kingdom and in Western Europe. It is one of the world's largest financial
centers. London was founded by the Romans in 43 AD and
called Londinium, which was later shortened to London. For a long time,
London was a small city. All of its citizens lived inside the walls that were
built by the Romans. This area is still called the City of London. There were
many villages around the city. Gradually, more and more people came to
live there. Then the villages joined together into one huge city, which is now
called "London" or Greater London. Most people in London are British.
However, London also has many immigrants. These people come from many
different countries and they speak many different languages and have
different religions and cultures.
London is also called City of Westminster and throughout
history, it has been one of the most important cities of the British island and
home of the British monarchy. Therefore you can find many important
buildings within this city, like: St. Pauls Cathedral, Big Ben (the bell tower
of the Palace of Westminster), and Westminster Cathedral.
The residence of the monarchy is the Buckingham Palace.
Besides the buildings, London has also many parks and public places to see,
such as the famous Hyde Park, Trafalgar Square and last but not least
Piccadilly Circus. In 2000, London got another sight, the London Eye
Europes largest Ferries Wheel.

Few of the most recognizable symbols of London.

The Big Ben ,the red telephone poll and the double-decker.

London, from a birds eye view.

5. The Great Fire of London


The Great Fire of London of September 1666 was one of the most famous
incidents in Stuart England. It was the second tragedy to hit the city in the
space of 12 months. Just as the city was recovering from the Great Plague,
the inhabitants had to flee the city once again this time not as a result of a
disease, but the result of as human accident. The Great Fire of London,
arguably, left a far greater mark on the city when compared to the plague.
The fire started in a bakers shop owned by Thomas Farriner who was the
kings baker. His maid failed to put out the ovens at the end of the night and
the heat created by the ovens caused sparks to ignite the wooden home of
Farriner. In her panic, the maid tried to climb out of the building, but failed.
She was one of the few victims of the fire. Once it started, the fire spread
quickly. The city was basically made out of wood and with September
following on from the summer, the city was very dry. Strong winds fanned
the flames, and the fire lasted for four days, from 2nd until the 5th September;
when it was finally stopped. It burned down 13,200 houses,
87 churches, Old St Paul's Cathedral, and most of the government buildings.
It is believed that it destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the 80,000 people that
lived in the city. It is not known how many people died in the fire. Only a few
deaths are certain, but for many of the victims there were no records. Also,
the fire may have cremated many, leaving no recognizable remains.

6. The Gunpowder Plot


The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries often called

the Gunpowder Treason Plot, was a failed assassination attempt
against King James I, by a group of provincial English Catholics led
by Robert Catesby. The plan was to blow up the House of Lords during
the State Opening of England's Parliament on the 5th of November 1605. The
plotters were hoping of securing greater religious tolerance, but they have
failed; leaving many English Catholics disappointed. The group of plotters
was made out of fourteen man, including Catesby. The one, who was given
the obligation to guard the explosives, was Guy Fawkes. He was chosen
because he has had the most military experience. The plot was revealed to
the authorities in an anonymous letter on the 26th of October 1605. During
a search of the House of Lords at about midnight on 4th of November 1605,
Fawkes was discovered guarding 36 barrels of gunpowderenough to
destroy the House of Lords and he was arrested. Most of the conspirators
fled from London as they found out of the plot's discovery. Celebrating the
fact that King James I had survived the attempt of assassination, people
lit bonfires around London.
Today, Guy Fawkes Night, also known as Guy Fawkes Day, is an annual
commemoration observed on 5th of November, primarily in Great Britain.
Traditionally, in the weeks running up to the 5th, children made "guys"
(dolls supposedly of Fawkes) usually made from old clothes stuffed with
newspaper, and fitted with a grotesque mask; to be burnt on the 5th
November bonfire. These guys were exhibited in the street to collect
money for fireworks, although this custom has become less common. The
word guy thus came in the 19th century to mean an oddly dressed person,
and hence in the 20th and 21st centuries to mean any male person.


7. Manchester

Manchester is the UKs third most popular tourist city. It is situated in the
North West England. Once the first industrialized city, it is now a multicultural and creative hive. Probably most famous worldwide for its
sporting events, Manchester was the host to the 2002 Commonwealth
Games. It has numerous sporting arenas. But equally impressive is its music
history, introducing countless numbers of the best British bands since the
late 1980s - Oasis, Happy Mondays, New Order, The Stone Roses, and The
Smiths are just a few. Salford Quays is one of the stylishly developing areas
of this youthful city. The city is notable for its architecture, culture, music
scene, scientific and engineering output, social impact and sports clubs.
Known through time as a source of radical ideas, Manchester was the site of
the world's first railway station and it is where scientists first split an atom.
I have chosen to write about this city is because it is the home of the worlds
most famous team, the team I have been cheering for since I was five years
old, Manchester United.

The landscape of the city of Manchester.


The emblem of the Manchester United Football Club.

Uniteds stadium, the Old Trafford.


8. The Greats
8.1. William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564- 23 April 1616) was an
English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in
the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often
called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works,
including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two
long narrative poems, and a few other verses, the authorship of some of
which is uncertain. His plays have been translated into every major living
language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.
Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of
18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna,
and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a
successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing
company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's
Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613 at age 49, where
he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive,
and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his
physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works
attributed to him were written by others.
Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His
early plays were mainly comedies and histories and these works remain
regarded as some the best work produced in these genres even today. He
then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King
Lear, Othello, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the
English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known
as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays
were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his
Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his
reputation did not rise to its present heights until the 19th century. In the
20th century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new
movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly
popular today and are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in
diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.


8.2. The Beatles

The Beatles were an English rock band that formed in Liverpool, in 1960.
With John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, they
became widely regarded as the greatest and most influential act of the rock
era. Rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the Beatles later
experimented with several genres, ranging
from pop ballads to psychedelic and hard rock, often
incorporating classical elements in innovative ways. In the early 1960s,
their enormous popularity first emerged as "Beatlemania", but as their
songwriting grew in sophistication they came to be perceived as an
embodiment of the ideals shared by the era's sociocultural revolutions.

The Fab Four

From 1960, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool
and Hamburg over a three-year period. Manager Brian Epstein molded
them into a professional act and producer George Martin enhanced their
musical potential. They gained popularity in the United Kingdom after their
first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962. They acquired the nickname "the Fab
Four" as Beatlemania grew in Britain over the following year, and by early
1964 they had become international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of
the United States pop market. From 1965 onwards, the Beatles produced
what many critics consider their finest material, including the innovative
and widely influential albums Rubber Soul (1965),Revolver (1966), Sgt.
Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), The Beatles (the White Album,
1968) and Abbey Road (1969). After their break-up in 1970, they each
enjoyed successful musical careers. Lennon was shot and killed in
December 1980, and Harrison died of lung cancer in November 2001.
McCartney and Starr, the surviving members, remain musically active.


8.3. Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, FRS (12 February 1809 19 April 1882) was an
English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to
evolutionary theory. He established that all species of life have descended
over time from common ancestors, and in a joint publication with Alfred
Russel Wallace introduced his scientific theory that this branching
pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection,
in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial
selection involved in selective breeding.
Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his
1859 book on the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of
earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s the scientific
community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact.
However, many favored competing explanations and it was not until the
emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s
that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic
mechanism of evolution. In modified form, Darwin's scientific discovery is
the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.
Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at
the University of Edinburgh; instead, he helped to investigate marine
invertebrates. Studies at the University of Cambridge (Christ's College)
encouraged his passion for natural science. His five-year voyage on
HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist, and publication of
his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.
Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected
on the voyage; Darwin began detailed investigations and in 1838 conceived
his theory of natural selection.
Darwin became internationally famous, and his pre-eminence as a scientist
was honored by burial in Westminster Abbey. Darwin has been described as
one of the most influential figures in human history.


8.4. King Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21
April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor
dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII.

King Henry VIII

Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation
of the Church of England from the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England
from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and his own
establishment as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Yet he
remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his
excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry oversaw the
legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and
1542. He is also well known for a long personal rivalry with both Francis I
of France and the Habsburg monarch. His contemporaries considered
Henry in his prime to be an attractive, educated and accomplished king, and
he has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the
English throne". Besides ruling with considerable power, he also engaged
himself as an author and composer. His desire to provide England with a
male heir which stemmed partly from personal vanity and partly because
he believed a daughter would be unable to consolidate the Tudor dynasty
and the fragile peace that existed following the Wars of the Roses led to
the two things for which Henry is most remembered: his six marriages and
his break with Rome (which would not allow a divorce), leading to
the English Reformation. Henry became severely obese and his health
suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterized in
his later life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king. He was
succeeded by his son Edward VI.


9. In conclusion
Throughout its history, it gave birth to some of the greatest minds of all
time. It is a country that is physically separated from the rest of Europe. A
strong and independent country. One of the most influential countries in all
of Europe and a country with one of the richest histories in the world. Also
known as the cradle of parliamentarism. Country with one of the best and
most interesting football leagues in the world, and the last host of the
Summer Olympics. In short, the United Kingdom.

10. Sources


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