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PART I

1. Why is it more difficult for top carnivores to obtain sufficient energy resources than it is for
animals lower on the food chain?
The lower the animal in the food chain, the more energy transferred to the next level. The most energy
comes from plants, but since carnivores only eat meat they receive less energy
2. What sorts of genetic changes are more common in smaller populations than large ones? Are
these problematic and, if so, how?
Smaller populations go through genetic drift. This is problematic since if one genetic drift occurs the
population will be so big that the genetic drift cannot happen again
3. What term or concept is used to describe the population size of breeding animals (not the total
population size)? What factors discussed above might reduce the number of breeding jaguars
below the total number?
The term used to describe population size of breeding animals is called effective population size.
Factors discussed above that might reduce number of breeding jaguars below the total number is when
the jaguars are not able to get to a place with food, because of the border
4. Is it important for people to try to protect endangered species?
Yes, its important since some endangered species could benefit humans

PART II
1. What does island biogeography theory suggest about the ideal design of a nature preserve?
(Think of a preserve as a habitat island.)
Larger reserves are better than smaller reserves since a single undivided reserve is better than a number
of smaller reserves
2. What are some reasons why the number and size of nature preserves are limited? In your
answer, consider what you know about both local and international pressures (social, economic,
and political).
Number and size of nature preserves are limited because of funding, cost, legality, and industry
3. What are some examples of corridors that already exist where you live?
In San francisco there is a south bay wildlife corridor where animals can move on seasonal migrations
between the santa cruz mountains and the northern diablo range

PART III
1. How and why might animals move between habitat patches?
Animals might move between habitat patches because of food shortage in there habitat
2. How and why might plants move between habitat patches?
Plants might move between habitat patches through the distribution of seeds, or move to get more

sunlight to make photosynthesis.


3. As Haddad et al. point out, we often think of forests as good habitat (ideal for corridors),
when they could be a barrier. What sorts of species might Haddad and colleagues be studying for
which pine forest can serve as a barrier?
Predators are blocked off by the barrier which separates the predators from the prey
4. What can you predict about the species Haddad and colleagues wanted to study, based on the
size and vegetation of the habitat patches and corridors they used?
Would corridor size affect movement and health of species.
5. Examining habitat patches 14, 15, and 16, can you predict the type of comparison Haddad and
his colleagues would make to determine whether corridors were important to the species studied?
Specifically, what type of data would you collect, and in which patches, to determine whether
corridors had an influence on the species of interest?
The overall movement of the animals in corridors determine whether or not the corridors are important.
The type of data collected would be the amount of movement of a specific species/life span of the
species with the corridor intact

PART IV
1. Briefly describe the overall pattern you see in the data.
More animals use the connected corridors instead of the unconnected corridors
2. For which species are the results significant?
Plants have the significant results
3. Does your answer to Question #2 suggest any patterns among species types? For example, are
plants different from animals or are butterflies different from bees? Describe the patterns and
try to explain them according to the characteristics of the taxa involved.
Plants move faster than mammals and insects. Mammals move faster than insects. The animals use
connected corridors more than the unconnected corridors
4. Haddad and colleagues conclude that In our study, we lack data on population viability and
genetic diversity, and our dramatic increases in movement to connected patches strongly suggest,
but do not demonstrate, the value of corridors.
(a) Do you think this statement (suggest, but do not demonstrate) is a fair assessment of their
study? Explain your answer.
No this statement is not a fair assessment since they are assuming something without actually seeing if
it's true or not.
(b) What other data are the researchers suggesting they need to conclusively demonstrate the
importance of corridors? Do you think they are right? For example, does knowing the level of
genetic variability answer questions about long-term population survival?
The researchers need to findout the biodiversity and population size. Yes, they are right which shows

that corridors can protect species from harm.


(c) How could researchers collect these data? Give suggestions for several of the species in their
study.
Researchers collect data using quadrats, which is used check the distribution of several species over the
area, suggestions of species are ones that do not compete, which might affect the biodiversity in the
area.
5. Based on what you know from the Haddad et al. study, what would be the effects of a border
fence on the population of jaguars mentioned in Part I? Explain your thinking. Specify any
additional information you need in order to make sound predictions.
The effects of a border fence on a population of jaguars will cause a decrease in population since they
need a sufficient food source in a large area. If these areas are fenced off, the jaguars are unable to get
the food they need. This affects biodiversity since there will be more prey than the predators.

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