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8th IAG International Conference on Geomorphology - August 27th to 31st, 2013

Multi-scale and multi-purpose Geomorphological Mapping for


landscape evolution, slope instabilities, geotourism and medical geology
Tommaso Piacentini, Enrico Miccadei, Rosamaria Di Michele, Oscar Ranalli, Marco Sciarra, Tullio Urbano
Laboratory of Tectonic Geomorphology and GIS, Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Geologia (INGEO), Universit G.DAnnunzio di Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini, 31, 66100 - Chieti Scalo (CH), Italia. E-mail: miccadei@unich.it

ITALY

INTRODUCTION

Abruzzo

In this work several examples of geomorphological and geothematic maps are presented, realized in the Abruzzo region at different scales ranging form
1:5.000 to 1:50.000, within the research activities of the Laboratory of Tectonic Geomorphology and GIS, Department of Engineering and Geology, G.
d'Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara.
This work is a contribution of data and examples to enhance the value of modern geomorphological and geothematic maps for several purposes such as:
research activities concerning morphotectonics and landscape evolution, slope instabilities analysis, landslide and flood hazard, geotourism and enhancing
geological and geomorphological heritage, and geomedical analysis. Several examples of Morphotectonic maps, Applied Geomorphological maps,
Geoturist maps and Geomedical maps are presented. These maps are realized in the main morphostructural sectors of the Abruzzo Region: chain,
piedmont area and coastal plain. All the maps are based on the ISPRA (CARG Project) guidelines, eventually integrated and/or modified in order to be
adapted to specific purposes and different scales. All the maps are realized within GIS environment.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are grateful to the Struttura Speciale di Supporto Sistema Informativo Regionale of Abruzzo Region (http://www.regione.abruzzo.it/xcartografia/) for providing the topographic data and aerial photos used for geological and geomorphological investigations and for geothematic maps.

MORPHOTECTONIC MAP OF THE AVENTINO-LOWER SANGRO RIVER BASIN (SOUTHERN ABRUZZO, ITALY)
POST OROGENIC CONTINENTAL DEPOSITS

LOWER SANGRO RIVER VALLEY

Scree slope deposits and moraine deposits (1)

1:50.000 scale

M O R P H O T E C TO N I C M A P S

Holocene
Landslide deposits (2)

L
A
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D
S
C
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Southeastern Maiella breccias (9)

Piano della Madonna conglomerates (6)

Loose to weakly cemented scree slope deposit, composed of limestone clasts, sub-angular to
angular, etherometric (from pebbles to boulders); sandy matrix from absent to moderate. Sandy
lenses are present. Moraine deposits in the upper Maiella area. Thickness varies from a few meters
up to >10 m.

Fluvial sands and gravels, with lens and levels of clay. Gravel is made up of heterometric (size 1-50
cm), polygenic (calcareous and cherty) pebbles, cobbles and boulders, with sub-rounded to subangular shape, mainly matrix-supported. Thickness varies from a few to >15 m (up to 30 m at the
Sangro mouth).

Holocene
Fluvial deposits (3)
Chaotic clay, sand or debris landslide deposits, with metric and decimetric conglomeratic blocks or
calcareous blocks. Thickness from a few to <30 m.

Holocene

Heterometric, moderately-to-well sorted, moderately cemented pebble-to-boulder fluvial


conglomerates with mostly calcareous and marly, occasionally cherty, clasts, from sub-rounded to
well-rounded; generally clast-supported with sandy matrix. They are arranged in layers and lenses,
from decimeters to meters thick, with crossbedding and embricated pebbles; a few decimeters to 1
m thick lenses and layers of sands and silts are occasionally interbedded, in the lower part of the
unit. In the upper part of the unit sand deposits arranged in layers and lenses are prevailing, with
lenses of gravels and clays and paleosols levels. Thickness varies from a few meters to 20 m.

Heterometric, poorly cemented breccias, with angular to sub-angular calcareous and marly calcareous
pebbles to boulders (size 1-100 cm), with sandy-silty matrix. They are arranged in clinostratified bodies
conformable to the slope dip, forming talus cones at the outlet of major incisions on the Maiella flank.
Thickness varies up to >25 m.

Gray to brown silt and clay deposits, with lenses of sand and gravel; peat levels are present.
Thickness varies up to <5 m.

Holocene

Straight asymmetric ridge


Planimetric discontinuities of ridge

Fluvial conglomerates, with mostly calcareous pebbles and cobbles (size 5-10 cm) and sandy matrix.
They are arranged in decimeters to meters thick layers and lenses, from decimetres to meters thick, with
crossbedding and embricated pebbles; occasionally, a few decimetres thick lenses of sands and silts are
interbedded. Thickness varies up to 20 m.

Upper Pleistocene
San Giovanni in Venere conglomerates (7)
Well sorted, moderately cemented, pebble fluvial conglomerates, moderately cemented; with
mostly calcareous and marly, occasionally cherty, well-rounded clasts with sandy matrix. They are
arranged in decimetric layers and lenses, with cross and planar bedding and embricated pebbles;
a few decimeters thick lenses and layers, of sands and silts are occasionally interbedded in the
lower part of the unit. In the upper part of the unit sand deposits arranged in layers and lenses are
prevailing, with gravel and clays lenses and paleosols levels; at the top a thick level of soil is
present. Thickness from a few meters to 15 m.

Altimetric discontinuities of ridge


Saddle

Upper Pleistocene
Maiella breccias (10)

Hogback

Heterometric, poorly to moderately cemented breccias, with sub-angular calcareous and marly
calcareous pebbles to boulders (size 1-100 cm), with whitish to yellowish sandy-silty matrix. They are
arranged in wide lenses up to 2-3 m thick, clinostratified conformably to the slope dip, forming relict talus
slopes at the Maiella flank. Thickness varies up to >15 m.

Cuesta

Late Middle Pleistocene

Lucianetti gravels (8)

Glacial cirque

Colle San Marco gravels (11)

Heterometric, well sorted pebble-to-cobble (occasionally boulder) fluvial conglomerates, poorly


cemented; with mostly calcareous and marly, occasionally cherty, sub-rounded to well-rounded
clasts with sandy matrix. They are arranged in decimetric layers and lenses; a few decimeters
thick, of sands and silts are interbedded mostly in the upper part of the unit. Thickness varies from a
few meters to 15 m.

Loose gravels, with heterometric, sub-rounded, calcareous, marly calcareous, and calcarenitic pebbles
to cobbles, and silty-sandy matrix. They are referable to fluvial deposits and the thickness is 5-15 m.

Slopes
Stuctural scarp

Late Middle Pleistocene


Piano Laroma conglomerates (12)

Middle Pleistocene

The morphotectonic map presented


in this work is the base for recognition of
morphotectonic features at basin scale,
detection of tectonic control on
landscape, and reconstruction of paleolandscapes.
The study area is located in the
Aventino - lower Sangro River basin, in
southerastern part of Abruzzo region.
The map is based on drainage basin
scale geomorphological analysis within
GIS environment by means of: DEMand map-based cartographic analysis,
morphometry of orography and
hydrography, photogeology analysis,
Quaternary continental deposits, fluvial
terraces and morphostructural field
mapping, morphotectonic profiles that
couple landform, deposits and terraces.

Straight symmetric ridge

Upper Pleistocene
Piano La Fara conglomerates (5)

Late Middle Pleistocene

Lacustrine deposits (4)

MORPHOTECTONIC
ELEMENTS
Ridges

AVENTINO RIVER VALLEY

Counter slope

Moderately cemented conglomerates, with heterometric rounded to sub-rounded white calcareous


(occasionally cherty) pebbles to boulders (size up to 2 m), with whitish sandy matrix; arranged in layers
and lenses from few decimetres up to 3-4 m thick; layers and lenses of calcareous silts and fine sands, up
to 3-4 m thick, are interbedded; paleochannel features are also present. In the upper part of the unit,
levels and lenses of paleosols are occasionally present; at ten meters from the top a continuous level of
reddish paleosol, up to >1 m thick, including artifacts, can be found very continuous within the unit; at the
top of the unit a thick (2-5 m) layer of white calcareous sand with white silty matrix is present. The deposits
are 2-5clinostratified forming remnants of relict alluvial fans. Thickness is from 10 m to >40 m.

Late Middle Pleistocene


Piana d'Ascigno gravels (13)

Triangular facet
Structural surface
Flat iron

Valleys

Loose gravels, with heterometric, rounded to sub-rounded, calcareous, marly calcareous, and
calcarenitic pebbles to cobbles, and sandy matrix. They are referable to fluvial deposits and the
maximum observed thickness is 5-15 m.

Asimmetric valley
V shaped valley

Middle Pleistocene
Pennapiedimonte breccias (14)

Concave valley

Heterometric, well cemented breccias, poorly to well sorted, with angular to sub-angular calcareous
pebbles to boulders (size 1-150 cm), open work or occasionally with coarse sand matrix. Levels of
heterometric, well cemented conglomerates are interbedded; they are made up of well sorted calcareous
pebbles. They are arranged in well stratified lenses and levels from 20-40 cm to 1-2 m thick, clinostratified
(5-15) conformably to the slope dip, forming relict talus slopes at the Maiella flank. Thickness varies up
to >15 m.

Flat bottom valley


Beheaded valley

Middle Pleistocene
Palena and Lettopalena breccias (15)

Hanging valley

Well cemented breccias, with heterometric, moderately sorted, angular to sub-angular calcareous
pebbles to boulders, and occasionally up to >2 m blocks, within poor sandy matrix. They are arranged in
chaotic thick layers. Thickness is variable up to > 40 m.

Middle Pleistocene

Bedrock channel

Hydrography
Fluvial erosion scarp (terrace scarp)

POST OROGENIC MARINE DEPOSITS (16)

Rectilinear fluvial segment

Clay, sand, conglomerates neritic succession

Entrenched fluvial segment

Upper Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene


Gully

SYN - LATE OROGENIC MARINE DEPOSITS (17)

River bend

Conglomerates and calcarenites piggy-back basin successions; Evaporities succession Peliticarenaceous turbiditic succession; Calcarenites and calcirudites
turbiditic succession .

Counterflow confluence

Upper Miocene - Lower Pliocene

Gorge

PRE OROGENIC MARINE DEPOSITS (18)

2,5

km
5

Centrifugal drainage

Limestone, marly limestone and marly perlagic succession (Molise basin); Limestone carbonate platform
succession (Maiella carbonate platform).

Alluvial fan

Lower Cretaceous - Lower Miocene

Badlands area

MICCADEI E., PIACENTINI T., DAL POZZO A., LA CORTE M., SCIARRA M. (2013) - Morphotectonic map of the Aventino-Lower Sangro valley (Abruzzo, Italy), scale 1:50,000. Journal of Maps.

GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP FOR HILLSLOPE EVOLUTION OF THE FELTRINO STREAM BASIN AND MINOR COASTAL BASINS (SOUTHERN ABRUZZO, ITALY)
LITHOLOGY
Caothic and heterometric deposits constituted by gravel, sand, clay and fragments of waste material. In inactive gravel
quarry, they are made up of sand and clay with scattered pebbles and cobbles quarry waste.

Structural scarp

Concave valley

Beach deposits (10)

Structural degraded scarp

Flat bottom valley

Saddle

Asinnetric Valley

Slope gravity landforms

/
/

Alluvial deposits (9)


Mainly silt-clay deposits (a)
Fluvial clays, clayey-silts and silts, with level and lenses of sand. Thickness > 5 m
Mainly sand-gravel deposits (b)
Fluvial sands and gravels, with lens and levels of silt and clay. Gravel is made up of heterometric (size 1-15 cm),
polygenic (calcareous and cherty) pebbles and cobbles, with angular and sub-angular shape, mainly matrix-supported.
Thickness from few to 5 m.

!
!

!
!
!

/
/

Mainly sand-clay deposits (b)


Grayish to yellowish sandy silt, silt and sand, with calcareous concretion. Thickness up to 5-10 m
Mainly gravel deposits (c)
Yellowish to brown gravel deposits, from clast to matrix supported, with sand and silt matrix. Calcareous concretion are
present. The deposits are in chaotic assemblage or clinostratified conformably to the slopes. Thickness up < 10 m.

Small landslide not rapresentable to scale

Bank erosion

Rock fall and topple scarp, Active

Gully

+ + + Complex scarp, Active

Entrenched fluvial segment

+ + + Complex scarp, Inactive

Rectlinear fluvial segment

Rotation slide scarp, Active

Mainly silt with pebbles and cobbles deposits (d)


Brown-reddish to reddish silt with chert and calcareous pebbles and cobbles arranged in lenses with silt matrix or
scattered within the main deposit. Calcareous concretion and calcrete levels are present. The deposits are in chaotic
assemblage or clinostratified conformably to the slopes. Thickness up to 5-10 m.

Rotation slide scarp, Quiescent

Landslide deposits (7)

Rotation slide scarp, Inactive

Counterflow confluence

Trench, Active

90 confluence

Chaotic assemblage of polygenic clay and sand deposits, with conglomerate and sandstone boulders and locally very
large landslide blocks. Thickness from few to <10 m.

Scree slope deposits (6)


Loose to weakly cemented scree slope deposit, composed, angular, etherometric, pebbles and cobbles with poorsandy
matrix. Locally conglomerate and sandstone boulders are present. Thickness up to 5-10 m.

MARINE TO TRANSITION DEPOSITS

River bend
River bed with trend to down cutting

Trench, Inactive

Earthflow landslide, Active

Badlands area
Sheet erosion

c
c
c
c

Earthflow landslide, Quiescent


Rock fall and topple landslide, Active

BBBB
BBBB

Grey and grey-green interbedded sand, silt and clay, arranged in level and lenses with planar or cross bedding.
Thickness from a few meters up to 10 m

BBBB

Sand-clay deposits (5)

c
c
c
c

Rock fall and tople landslide, Inactive

Anthropic landforms

Conglomerate and sand deposits (4)


Calcareous and locally polygenic conglomerates, constituted by clast supported pebbles to cobbles in whitish sandy
matrix, massive or planar bedded. Lenses of sands or clays are present. Thickness from a few meters up to 25 m

`
`

Lateral spread landslide, Active

Main fluvial barrages

Upper Pliocene p.p.Lower Pleistocene p.p.

Fluvial erosion scarp

ll

Holocene

Mainly silt-clay deposits (a)


Grayish-brownish clayey silt, with calcareous concretions, calcrete levels and locally sandy levels. Thickness < 15 m.

Reverse slope in the landslide, Inactive

This map provides a basis for the


recognition of geological and
geomorphological features of
superficial deposits and hill-slope
evolution at detailed scale and it is
mostly applied geomorphology
oriented.
The study zone is placed in a
piedmont-coastal area of southeastern
Abruzzo Region.
The map is based on a detail scale
geomorphological analysis by means
of: cartographic analysis, morphometry
of orography and hydrography (raster
and vector data scale 1:25,000 1:5,000; 5m DEM), photogeology
analysis (scale 1:33,000-1:5,000),
geological and geomorphological field
mapping of bedrock, superficial
deposits and landforms (scale 1:5,000),
geomorphological schemes drawing.

Colluvial deposits (8)

Beheaded valley

Hanging valley

Reverse slope in the landslide, Dormant

c
c
c
c

Channelled river strech

Bank protection

1:5.000 scale

Complex landslide, Inactive

Quarry

Rotation slide landslide, Active


Rotation slide landslide, Quiescent
Rotation slide landslide, Inactive

sssssss
sssssss

Blue-grey clays and marly-clays interbedded with thin sand and clayey-sand levels. The sand/clay ratio is <<1. Fossils
content is represented by bivalves and small gastropods. Maximum observed outcropping thickness > 300 m (much
higher in depth).

Protective structure along shoreline

vvvvvvv
vvvvvvv

Clay deposits (1)

Complex landslide, Quiescent

vvvvvvv
vvvvvvv

Yellow-ocher sandstones and silty-sandstones, from poorly to highly cemented, with greyish, thinly laminated clays and
silty-clays interbedded. Yellowish sands and sandstones, frequently bioturbated, with conglomerate lenses, are
prevalent in the upper part. Thickness up to 100 m.

Edge of artificial scarp

Soil creep, Active

Tectonics
Fault

Sand deposits (2)

Complex landslide, Active

vvvvvvv
vvvvvvv

Light colour calcareous conglomerates, well sorted, moderately cemented, with sandy matrix; clasts are mainly
limestone and chert fragments, and are mostly centimetric in size. They are arranged in decimetric layers and lenses,
with cross and planar bedding and embricated pebbles; a few decimeters thick lenses and layers of sands and silts are
occasionally interbedded in the lower part of the unit. Thickness from a few meters to <30 m.

ccc
ccc
ccc
ccc
ccc

0.5

km
1

Conglomerate deposits (3)

ccc
ccc
ccc
ccc
ccc

Middle
Lower
Pleistocene p.p Pleistocene p.p

MARINE DEPOSITS
ccc
ccc
ccc
ccc
ccc
ccc

APPLIED GEOMORPHOLOGY MAPS

V shaped valley

Sand deposits (a)


Yellow-ocher fine and medium sands, loose or slightly compacted, with cross bedding. Thickness from few to >5 m.
Sand-gravel deposits (b)
Gravel is made up of heterometric (size 1-10 cm), polygenic (calcareous and cherty) subrounded to rounded pebbles
and cobbles, with lenses and levels of sands. Thickness from few to >5 m.

Superficial running water landforms

Structural surface

Backfill deposits (11)

c
c
c
c

I
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B
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Structural landforms

CONTINENTAL DEPOSITS

H
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L
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P
E

GEOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES

Bedding 5-45
Bedding 0-5

SCIARRA M., PIACENTINI T., MICCADEI E. & Urbano T. (in preparation) - Geomorphological mapping of superficial deposits for hillslope evolution analysis: the case of the Adriatic Piedmont of Central Apennines (Feltrino stram basin and minor coastal basins, Abruzzo, Italy), scale 1:20,000. Journal of Maps.

GEOMORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HEAVY RAINFALL EVENTS IN NORTHEASTERN ABRUZZO (ITALY)

H
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These kind of maps are the base for


flooding and slope instabilities hazard
analysis and for the estimation of
sediment volumes eroded during the
events. This is particularly important for
minor drainage basins of coastal slopes
and coastal hills where erosion and
hazard are frequently underestimated.
The map of geomorphological
effects triggered by heavy rainfall
events that affected the Coastal area of
northeastern Abruzzo Region in the last
3 years, are presented. Particularly, the
maps presented refers to the 1-2 March
2011 heavy rainfall event (up to ~200
mm/day) which affected the coastal
slopes and the coastal hills of the
northern Abruzzo.
These maps are mainly based on
aerial photo interpretation (taken after
the rainfall events) and field
geomorphological mapping carried on
immediately after the rainfall events.

1:50.000 scale
1:100.000 scale

GEOMEDICAL MAPS

G E O TO U R I S T M A P S

GEOTOURIST MAP OF THE AVENTINO RIVER AND MEDIO SANGRO RIVER (SOUTHERN ABRUZZO, ITALY)
G
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Cima
dell'Altare
Grotta 2542
Canosa
M. Macellaro
2636

Legend

Tavola
Rotonda
2403
Grotta
S. Angelo

In the geotourist maps, geology and


geomorphology are presented in an
easy and educational way, as a base of
a new way of reading landscape and
tourism. Going back over a history wrote
during millions of years, where books
are rocks, pages are layers, words are
fossils and ink ...is time.
In this work the first geotourist map in
Abruzzo (southern chain/piedmont
area) realized in the Aventino Rivermiddle Sangro River area is presented.
The map is reinterpreted from
geological maps, distinguishing
outcropping rocks as concern their
surface expression into distinct
geological landscapes.

Grotta del
Cavallone

Guado di
Coccia
1674

Grotta
Caprara

CIVITELLA
CIVITELLA
Messer
Messer Raimondo
Raimondo
CASOLI
CASOLI

M. Porrara
2137

LAMA DEI
DEI
PELIGNI

Morgia
della Penna
565
La Morgia

TARANTA
PELIGNA
PELIGNA
Tre Confini
1647

827

GESSOPALENA

LETTOPALENA
LETTOPALENA
TORRICELLA
TORRICELLA
PELIGNA

PALENA
PALENA
COLLEDIMACINE
COLLEDIMACINE

ROCCASCALEGNA
ROCCASCALEGNA

Grotta
M. dell'Irco
1036

1362
1379
1474
Grotta

Pietra Cernaia
1785

Serra
Tre Monti
1822

1.5

km
3

679
M. Licino

PENNADOMO
PENNADOMO

Lago di
Bomba

MICCADEI E., ESPOSITO G., INNAURATO A., MANZI A., BASILE P. & BERTI C. (2008) Carta Geologico-Turistica e relative Note della Comunit Montana Aventino-Medio Sangro Zona Q (Provincia di Chieti, Abruzzo).

GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP APPLIED TO MEDICINE (PESCARA RIVER, CENTRAL ABRUZZO - ITALY)

Geomedical maps are recently


developed in many countries
incorporating multiple land features:
bedrock lithology, surface deposits,
pedology, geochemistry, disease
distribution and incidence etc.
In this work the first example of
geomedical maps realized in the
Abruzzo Region presented. It is based
on the comparison of geological data
and epidemiological data in order to
evaluate the disease risk induced by
natural and anthropic sources in the
_main fluvial valleys of the piedmont
__area of the Abruzzo region.

Laboratory of Tectonic Geomorphology and GIS - G. dAnnunzio University of Chieti-Pescara.

www.tectonicgeomorphology.unich.it