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4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

CHAPTER 5: LIGHT

In each of the following sentences, fill in the bracket the appropriate word or words given below.

solid, liquid, gas, vacuum, electromagnetic wave, energy

1. Light is a form of (

).

2. It travels in the form of (

)

3. In can travel through (

)

4. It travels fastest in the medium of (

)

5. Light of different colours travels at the same speed in the medium of (

Light can be reflected or refracted.

5.1 UNDERSTANDING REFLECTION OF LIGHT

Plane mirror and reflection: In the boxes provided for the diagram below, write the name of each

of the parts shown.

Plane mirror

Laws of Reflection: State the laws of reflection.

(i) .

..

.

r

Plane mirror

(ii) ..

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

.

.

Exercise 1. The diagram below shows how the relationship between incident angle and reflected

angle can be investigated.

Fill in the values of the angles of reflection, r in the table below

mirror

i r

i r

mirror

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

Laser pen

ir1020304050

Laser pen

Exercise 2:

Original direction

Mirror

50o

calculate the angle, . Hence

determine the angle of deviation, d.

normal

Image formed by a plane mirror: Using the law of reflection, complete the ray diagram to

determine the position of the image.

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

object

i1

r1

Eye

What can you say about the line joining object and image?

What can you say about the distances AB and BC? ..

Differences between real and virtual image:

Real imageVirtual imageCan be caught on a

screenCannot be caught on a screenFormed by the

meeting of real rays.Form at a position where rays

appear to be originating.

Characteristics of image formed by plane mirror: Observe the pictures below as well as using

previous knowledge, list the characteristics.

i)

mir

ror

ii)

iii)

image

object

iv)

Exercise 1:

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Complete the ray diagram below consisting of 2 rays originating from the object, reflected

and entering the eye such that the eye sees the image.

Mirror

object

Eye

Exercise 2:

Ahmad is moving with speed 2 m s-1 towards a plane mirror. Ahmad and his image will

approach each other at

A.

B.

C.

D.

1 m s-1

2 m s-1

3 m s-1

4 m s-1

Exercise 3:

Four point objects A, B, C and D are placed in front of a plane mirror MN as shown. Between their

images, which can be seen by the eye?

Eye

A

Curved Mirrors:

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Concave mirror

Convex mirror

P

r

P

r

Terminology: Refer to the diagrams above and give the names for the following:

C =

r =

P =

PC =

a) Incident rays parallel to the principal axis:

Concave mirror

Convex mirror

P

Study the diagrams above and fill in the blanks for the following sentences.

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

F is positioned at the .. between C and P

FP is named the which is denoted by f.

Hence write an equation giving the relationship between r and f.

b) Incident rays parallel to each other but not parallel to the principal axis:

Concave mirror

Convex mirror

Focal plane

Focal plane

F

f

Study the diagrams above and fill in the blanks in the following sentences.

The ray passing through C is reflected back along the line of the.ray.

The distance between the focal plane and the mirror is the ., f.

Principle of drawing ray diagrams:

a. Rays parallel to the principal axis are reflected through the principal focus, F.

Example:

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Convex mirror

Concave mirror

Convex mirror

Concave mirror

b) Rays passing through the principal focus are reflected parallel to the principal axis.

Example:

Convex mirror

Concave mirror

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Convex mirror

Concave mirror

c) Rays passing through the center of curvature are reflected directly back.

Convex mirror

Concave mirror

Exercise 3: Complete the ray diagrams below:

Convex mirror

Concave mirror

Using the principles of construction of ray diagram, complete the ray diagrams for each of the cases

shown below:

u = object distance; v = image distance ; f = focal length ; r = radius of curvature

Case 1: u > 2f

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Concave mirror

object

F

C

i)

ii)

iii)

Case 2: u = 2f or u = r

Concave mirror

object

C

i)

ii)

iii)

Concave mirror

object

C

i)

Case 4:

ii)

iii)

u=f

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Concave mirror

object

C

i)

Case 5:

u<f

Concave mirror

object

F

i)

ii)

iii)

u = object distance; v = image distance; f = focal length; r = radius of curvature

Concave mirror

object

C

i)

ii)

iii)

10

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Newtons Telescope: Fill in the boxes the type of mirror used

Lens

Eye

Curved mirror

lamp

OFF

ON

above result?

air

water

11

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

What is the phenomenon which causes the bending of light in the picture above?

Why did this bending of light occur? (think in terms of velocity of light)

Refraction of light:

Fill in each of the boxes

the name of the part shown

i

Air

Glass

r

r

Air

Direction of refraction:

normal

Less dense

medium

denser

medium

Denser

medium

Less dense

medium

normal

Draw on the diagrams above the approximate directions the refracted rays.

When light travels from a less dense medium to a denser medium, the ray is refracted

(toward/away from) the normal at point of incidence.

12

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

When light travels from a more dense medium to a less dense medium, the ray is refracted

(toward/away from) the normal at point of incidence.

Snells law:

Snells law states that

Exercise 1:

Referring to the diagram on the right,

Calculate the refractive index of liquid-X.

60o

Air

Liquid-X

30o

Exercise 2:

Referring to the diagram on the right,

Calculate the refractive index of liquid-Y.

45o

Air

Liquid-Y

30o

Exercise 3:

Eye

13

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Air

water

which originate from the fish to show

how a person observing from above

the surface of the water is able to see the

image of the fish at an apparent depth

less than the actual depth of the fish.

object

Exercise 4:

An equation that gives the relationship between apparent depth, real depth and the refractive index

of water for the diagram above is

n

real depth

apparent depth

If the fish is at an actual depth of 4 m and the refractive index of water is 1.33, what is the apparent

depth of the image?

Critical angle and total internal reflection:

Figures a, b and c show rays being directed from liquid-Y which is denser than air towards the air

at different angles of incident,.

Air

Air

90o

Liquid-Y

Liquid-Y

C

<C

Figure a

Figure b

14

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

has a complete ray diagram.

(i)

Air

Figure b and Figure c.

Liquid-Y

(ii)

(iii)

Figure c yang is called

>C

Figure c

.

(iv)

you mentioned in (iii) to occur.

Exercise 1:

90o

Air

write an equation that gives the relationship

between the critical angle, C, the refracted angle

and the refractive index of liquid-Y

Liquid-Y

C

Figure d

Exercise 2:

Referring to Figure e, determine the

refractive index of liquid-Z

90o

Air

Liquid-Z

30o

Exercise 3:

Figure e

15

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Explain why a pencil partially immersed in water looks bent.(Use a ray diagram).

Eye

Exercise 4:

Complete the path of the ray in the diagram below and explain how a mirage is formed.

object

Layer of cool air

Eye

ground

Exercise 5:

Completing the ray diagram below, to show how a periscope

works: (critical angle of glass = 42o)

Glass prism

Object

16

Eye

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

17

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Thin Lenses :

Types of lenses : Name the types of lenses shown below.

(i)

a.

b.

c.

a.

b.

c.

(ii)

18

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Draw in the following diagrams the paths of the rays after passing through the lens.

Write in the boxed provided, the name of the point or line shown.

i)

ii)

iii)

F

iv)

19

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Principles of constructing ray diagrams: Complete the path of each ray after passing through the

lens

i)

ii)

iii)

F

iv)

v)

vi)

F

F

F

F

vii)

viii)

F

F

Exercise 1:

State the meaning of each of the following terms:

i)

Focal length , f :

iii) Image distance, v :

Exercise 2:

Describe how you would estimate the focal length of a convex lens in the school lab.

20

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Construct ray diagrams for each of the following cases and state the characteristics of the image

formed.

i) Case 1 : u > 2f

Lens

object

F

2F

Characteristics of image:

ii) Case 2 : u = 2f

Lens

object

F

2F

Characteristics of image:

Lens

object

2F

F

F

Characteristics of image:

iv) Case 4 : u = f

21

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Lens

object

F

F

2F

Characteristics of image:

v) Case 5 : u < f

Lens

object

2F

Characteristics of image:

Exercise:

In each of the following statements below, fill in the space provide one of the following conditions.

( u > 2f / 2f = u / 2f > u > f / u > f / u < f )

i) To obtain a real image, the object must be placed at a distance u such that

ii) To obtain a virtual image, the object must be placed at a distance u such that

22

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Construct a ray diagram for each of the following and state the characteristics of the image formed

i)

Lens

object

F

2F

Characteristics of image:

ii)

Lens

object

F

2F

Characteristics of image :

Note: Image formed by a concave lens is always diminished, virtual and on the same side of the

lens as the object.

Power of a lens (p)

The power of the lens is given by:

1

Sign convention (for focal length) and the S.I. unit for power of a lens.

The focal length of a convex lens is (positive/negative)

The focal length of a concave lens is (positive/negative)

The S.I. unit for the power of a lens is....and its symbol is

When calculating the power of a lens, the unit of the focal length must be in (m/cm)

Exercise 1 : A concave lens has a focal length of 10 cm. What is its power?

23

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Exercise 2 : The power of a lens is + 5 D. State whether it is a convex lens or a concave lens and

calculate its focal length.

height of image

Definition:

m

hi

h0

Based of the definition above and the ray diagram below, derive an expression for the relationship

between linear magnification, m, the object distance, u and the image distance, v.

Lens

ho

v

C

A

D

hi

Lens formula :

The relationship between the object distance, u, image distance, v, and the focal length, f, of a lens

is given by

1 1 1

u v

f

This lens formula is valid for both convex and concave lenses.

When using the lens formula, the real is positive sign convention must be followed.

The rules stated in this sign convention are:

24

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

1)

2)

3)

Exercise 1. An object is placed 10 cm in front of a converging lens of focal length 15 cm.

Calculate the image distance and state the characteristics of the image formed.

Exercise 2 :

a) Find the position of the image, and state whether the image is real or virtual.

b) Calculate the linear magnification of the image.

Exercise 3 : An object is placed 30 cm in front of a diverging lens of focal length 20 cm. Calculate

the image distance and state whether the image is real or virtual.

25

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

1. Magnifying glass (simple microscope ):

A lens acts as a magnifying glass when the object is placed as in case 5 on page 23.

A magnifying glass consists of a (converging / diverging) lens.

The object must be placed at a distance (more than f / same as f / less than f / between

f and 2f / more than 2f) in order for the lens to act as a magnifying glass.

iii) The characteristics of the image formed by a magnifying glass are yang (real / virtual) ;

(inverted / upright) ; (magnified /diminished) ; (on the same side as the object / on

the opposite side of the object).

iv) Greater magnification can be obtained by using a lens which has (long / short) focal

length.

i)

ii)

Complete the ray diagram below to show how a magnifying glass produces an image of the

object.

Lens

object

2F

Exercise 1 : A magnifying glass produces an image with linear magnification = 4. If the power of

the lens is +10 D, find the object distance and image distance.

26

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Exercise 2: Which of the following lenses with their powers given below makes the magnifying

glass with the highest power of magnification?

A. 5 D

B. 25 D

C. +5 D

D. +25 D.

2. Simple camera : The diagram below shows the structure of a simple camera. In the boxes

provided, write the names of the parts shown.

Focusing

screw

Film drum

Diaphragm

adjustment ring

For each of the parts you have named, state its function.

3. Slide projector : The diagram below shows the structure of a simple camera. In the boxes

provided, write the names of the parts shown

Screen

Light source

Complete the ray diagram above to explain how the slide projector works.

27

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

4. Astronomical telescope :

Making of the astronomical telescope.

The objective lens has focal length, fo and the eye lens has focal length, fe where ( fo <

fe / fo > fe ).

The lenses are arranged such that the distance between the objective lens and the eye

lens is (fo fe / fo + fe / fo x fe / fo/fe).

Parallel rays

from distant

Objective lens

object

Eye lens

Fo

Fe

Complete the ray diagram above to show how the astronomical telescope works.

Characteristics of image formed by an astronomical telescope:

diminished/magnified).

The final image is (virtual/real ; upright/inverted ; diminished/magnified).

M=

f

f

0

e

Exercise:

An astronomical telescope with high power of magnification can be built using eye lens of (long /

short) focal length and objective lens of (long / short) focal length.

28

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Structure of the compound microscope:

The focal length of the eye lens is (long / short) and the focal length of the objective lens is

(long / short).

The objective lens is arranged such that the object distance, u is (u = fo / fo < u < 2 fo / u

=2fo).

The eye lens is used as a (magnifying / diverging / projector) lens.

The total length, s, between both lenses is ( s = fo + fe ; s > fo+fe )

Le

L0

Object

Fo

Eye

Fe

Complete the ray diagram above to show how the compound microscope works.

Characteristics of image formed by compound microscope:

upright/inverted ).

The final image is (real/virtual ; diminished/magnified ; upright/inverted ).

Exercise 1 (a) : A compound microscope consists of two lenses of focal lengths 2 cm and 10 cm.

Between them, which is more suitable as the eye lens? Explain your answer.

(b): How would you arrange the lenses in (a) to make an astronomical telescope?

29

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Reinforcement:

Part A:

1. Between the following statements about reflection of light, which is not true?

A. All light energy incident on a plane mirror is reflected.

B. The angle of incidence is always the same as the angle of reflection.

C. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the point of incidence, all lie on the

same plane.

D. The speed of the reflected ray is the same as the speed of the incident ray.

2. A boy stands in front of a plane mirror. He observes the image of some lettering printed on his

shirt. The letterings on his shirt are as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

Between the following images, which is the image observed by the boy?

C

A

B

3. Figure 2 shows an object, O placed in front of a plane mirror. Between the positions A, B, C and

D, which is the position of the image?

A

Plane mirror

O

Figure 2

4. A student is moving with a velocity of 2 m s-1 towards a plane mirror. The distance between the

student and his image will move towards each other at the rate

A. 2 m s-1

B. 3 m s-1

C. 4 m s-1

30

D. 5 m s-1

E. 6 m s-1

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

5. The table below shows the characteristics of the images formed by a concave mirror for various

positions of the object. All symbols used have the usual meanings. Which of them is not true?

Position of object

u > 2f

f < u < 2f

u=f

u<f

A

B

C

D

Characteristics of image

Diminished, inverted, real

Magnified, inverted, real

Same size, inverted, real

Magnified, upright, virtual

A

B

50o

50o

C

Plane mirror

Concave mirror

Convex mirror

7. The depth of a swimming pool appears to be less than its actual depth. The light phenomenon

which causes this is

A.

B.

C.

D.

Reflection

Refraction

Diffraction

Interference

8. The critical angle in glass is 42o. What is the refractive index of glass?

A. 1.2

B. 1.3

C. 1.4

D. 1.5

E. 1.6

9. Which of the following are the characteristics of an image formed by a magnifying glass?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Diminished, real, upright

Magnified, virtual, upright

Diminished, virtual, inverted

31

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

10. A student is given three convex lenses of focal lengths 2 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm. He wishes to

construct a powerful astronomical telescope. Which of the following arrangements should he

choose?

A

B

C

D

50

10

2

50

2

10

50

10

Part B

1.

Eye

air

water

Figure 3

Figure 3 shows the eye of a person looking at a fish.

a) Sketch a ray diagram consisting of 2 rays originating from the eye of the fish to show why the

image of the fish is seen closer to the surface.

b) The fish is at a depth of 2 m. If the refractive index of water is 1.33, calculate the apparent

depth of the fish.

32

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

2.

1

a) Starting with the lens formula, u v f , derive an equation that gives the relationship

between liner magnification, m and the image distance, v. Hence sketch the graph of m against v on

the axes provided below.

(b) State the value of m at the point of intersection of the graph with the vertical axis.

(c) Describe how you would determine the focal length of the lens using the graph.

33

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

Part C

1.

A student used a slide projector to project a picture onto the screen. Figure 1a and 1b show the

relative positions of the slide, projector lens and the screen.

It is observed that when the screen is moved further away (Figure 1b), the lens of the projector has

to be moved nearer to the slide to obtain a sharp image.

Projector

lens

Screen

Slide

image

Figure 1a

Projector

lens

Screen

Slide

image

Figure 1b

Based on your observations and knowledge of lenses;

a) make one suitable inference.

c) describe how you would design an experiment to test your hypothesis using a convex lens,

filament bulb and other apparatus.

In your description, state clearly the following:

34

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

(ii)

(v) The procedure of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling the manipulated

variable and the method of measuring the responding variable

35

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

2.

A student carried out an experiment to investigate the relationship between object distance, u,

and image distance, v, for a convex lens. The student used various values of u and recorded the

corresponding values of v. The student then plotted the graph of uv against u + v as shown in

Figure 2.

uv/ cm2

500

450

400

35055

3000

250

2000

150

100

50

36

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

10

20

30

40

50

u + v / cm

Figure 2

a)

(i) state the relationship between uv and u + v

[1 mark]

2

(ii) determine the value of u + v when the value of uv = 400 cm . Show on the graph how

you obtained the value of u + v.

From the value of u + v obtained, calculate the image distance, v when u = 20 cm.

[3 marks]

(iii) calculate the gradient of the graph. Show clearly on the graph how you obtained the

values needed for the calculation.

[3 marks]

b) Given that the relationship between u, v and focal length, f of the convex lens used, is

represented by the equation

1

+

1

= 1

u

v

f

Derive an equation which gives the relationship between uv and (u + v ).

[2 marks]

c) Using the equation derived in (b), and the value of gradient calculated in (a)(iii), determine the

focal length of the lens used in the experiment.

[2 marks]

d) State one precaution taken to ensure the accuracy of the experiment.

37

JPN Pahang

4

Students Module

Chapter 5 Light

38

[1 mark]

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