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You are on page 1of 7

Summary

1.

Elementsofafraction.............................................................................................................1

2.

Equivalentfractions.................................................................................................................1

3.

Simplificationofafraction......................................................................................................2

4.

Rulesforaddingandsubtractingfractions.............................................................................3

5.

Multiplicationrulefortwofractions.......................................................................................5

6.

Divisionruleoftwofractions..................................................................................................6

7.

ExercisesOperationswithnumbers......................................................................................7

1. Elements of a fraction

Thefraction iscomposedofanumerator

andadenominator

2. Equivalent fractions

Itisimportanttorememberthattherearemanywaystorepresentthesamefraction.

Forexample,thefractions and areequivalent.Buthowdowegofromonefraction

toanotherandconservetheequivalencerelation?

Afractionremainsequivalentifthenumeratorandthedenominatoraremultipliedor

dividedbythesamenumber.

Example

2

3

24

30

2

3

5

5

24

30

10

15

6

6

3. Simplification of a fraction

Afractioniswritteninitssimplifiedformifthenumeratorandthedenominatorhaveno

commonfactor.Inotherwords,itisimpossibletofindanumberthatisadivisortoboth

thenumeratorandthedenominatorinafractionssimplifiedform.

Example

Thefraction isnotwritteninitssimplifiedformsincetherearenumbersthatdivide

both120and200.Thelargestcommondivisor(factor)of120and200is40,where

120

200

120

200

40

40

Since we divided the numerator and the denominator by the same number (40), the

fraction isequivalentto .Inaddition, isthesimplifiedformof sincenoother

commonfactorexistsfor3and5.

A simplification can be done in many steps if we do not recognize atonce the largest

commonfactorforthenumeratorandthedenominator.

Example

108

144

108

144

2

2

54

72

54

72

9

9

6

8

6

8

2

2

"Countdown" enthusiasts will have noticed that 108 and 144 have 36 as a common

factor:

108

144

108

144

36

36

Intheend,nomatterhowmanystepstaken,thesamesimplifiedformwillbefound...

Page2of7

The symbol , which is read "plus or minus", indicates that this rule applies both to

sumsandsubtractions.

Example

7

8

3

8

7

6

5

6

7

8

10

8

2

6

4

1

Notethattheaddingandsubtractingruleforfractionsisapplicableonlyifbothfractions

havethesamedenominator.However,thiswillgenerallynotbethecase.Wewillneed

torewritethefractionsintoequivalentfractionswithacommondenominator.

Example

Evaluatethefollowingsum

These fractions cannot be added together before rewriting them with a common

denominator.Thesmallestcommonmultipleof3and5is15.15willthereforebethe

commondenominator.

2

5

1

3

2

5

3

3

1

3

5

5

6

15

5

15

5

15

11

15

Example

Evaluatethefollowingsubtraction

The common denominator (the smallest common multiple) of 8 and 24 is 24. The

fraction does not require rewriting. However, must be written so that 24 is its

denominator.

3

8

17

24

3

8

3

3

17

24

9

24

17

24

8

24

Page3of7

Note: When possible, it may be useful to simplify fractions before proceeding with

addition or subtraction. Such a simplification will facilitate finding a common

denominator.

Example

Evaluatethefollowingsum

9

12

7

14

9 3

12 3

7 7

14 7

3

4

1

2

3

4

2

4

Inthepreviousexample,thecommondenominatorof12and24wouldhavebeen84.

Byfirstsimplifyingeachfraction,thecalculationsweregreatlyreduced.

Page4of7

It is important to note that contrary to sums, the multiplication rule does not impose

constraintstothedenominatorvalues.Thismeanstheydonotneedtobecommon.

Example

4

7

3

11

4 3

7 11

3

2

5

4

3 5

2 4

12

77

15

Note:Itmaybeusefultosimplifyfractionsbeforemultiplying.Inadditiontosimplifying

each fraction individually, simplifying the denominator of one fraction with the

numeratoroftheotherfractionispermitted,providedthatbothhavecommonfactors.

Example

Evaluatethefollowingproduct

denominator16andthenumerator8have8asacommonfactor.Thedenominator81

and the numerator 27 have 27 as common factor. It is therefore possible to simplify

beforemultiplying

27

16

8

81

27 27

16 8

8

81

8

27

1

2

1

3

Page5of7

Theruleallowsustotransformadivisionintoamultiplication.

Example

3

8

2

7

2

7

8

3

16

21

Payattentiontothefollowingnotationthatdescribesthesamedivision:

2

3

7

8

2

7

8

3

16

21

Afewfinalremarks

Workingwithfractionsdoesnotmodifythepriorityofoperations.

Example

2

3

4

5

2

3

8

15

5

3

8

1

8

15

18

15

5

3

24

3

5

3

19

Avoidworkingwithmixednumbers...transformthemintosimplefractions.

Example

4

10

15

Awholenumbercanalwaysbewrittenasafractionifanoperationistobedone

betweenthenumberandafraction.

Example

2

3

2

7

28

7

2

7

30

Page6of7

Calculatethefollowingwhilerespectingthepriorities:

a) 8

b) 4

c) 8

d)

2

4

5

6

2

2

3

1

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

Solutions

a) 22

b) 15

c)

12

d)

e)

f) 37/40

g)

29/21

h) 17/20

i) 1/20

j) 15/32

Page7of7

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