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Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu
ac

.c

tr

om

to
k
lic
C

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

om

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

((

))

(
(

.
.

1859

)
(

)
.

.
(Rocks Oil)

Petra
.

Oleum

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

:
1876

.
)
.

(
Al4C3+12H2O

CaC2+2H2O

4Al(OH)3+3CH4

CH-CH+Ca(OH)2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
.

(
.

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
:
(

.1

.2

.
(

.
.
)
(

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
.
.

26-2

)
.

.
.

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

%80
250

100

15-10

.
.

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

-80
%90

.
.
.

:
:
)

C1 C4
C5 C15
C 16

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

15-5
.

...
15

.
(n-heptane)
.(100)

(iso-octane)

.
)

CnH2n
.
cyclohexane

cyclopentanc

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

Cyclopentan
cyclohexane

.
:

:R

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
.

.
:
:

%7
.
% 0,5

R-SR
.

R-SH

H2O
R-S-S-R

.
:

(%0.3

0.03)
.

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

%1

R-COOR- , R-OH ,R-COOH


:
P

V
I

Ni

%0.7
HCl

.
:

.
.
-1
-2 .
.

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

:
:

-1

:
(

-2

.
:

-3

:
: API

-1
.

.
American petroleum

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

API

API

lnstitute

131.5 -

141.5) = API

60

)
(5

API

10)

API

API(45-20

API
18

0.95

36

0.84

60

0.74

11

0.99

.
:

POIS
(

/2 ) (

-2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
:

-3

.
:

-4

300-250

.
:

-5
: Flash point

.
:

.
:

90-30

50-30

)
320-130

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

500

- 300

400
350

.
(

-6

.(

) refractometer
:

-7
.

-8

.
.
:
.(

.
:

-9

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

100)

iso.octan

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

)
.

.
:
C16H34 (Cetane)

%50

.
.
.

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

0,001)

500-150

))

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

:
:

-1

)
.

gas separator

.
:
(

-2
)

.
(NaCl,MgCl2)
.

HCL

-3

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

)
Hydrophilic

) Hydrophobic

(
.

.
)
.
(

Ca,Al,Fe,Mg

:
:

.
:

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
.
:

-4

50

%15-10
.
:

-5

:
(Separation) (

.1

.2

(Treatment)

.3

(Conversion) (

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

(Separation

:
.
:
.
:

-1

:
.(

-2

.
:
-

-3

80

)
81

54.4

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

58.3
.
:

-4

.
:

.
: (conversion

-2

: thermal cracking

1913
(

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

)
(
C24H50

C12H26+C12H24

C12H26

C6H14+C6H12

C6H14

C3H8+C3H6
:(

. 1936

hydro cracking
H2S

.
%88

%12

)
:
:

)
.
:
.

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
)

.1

.1

.2

.2

.3

.3

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.4

.4

.5

.5

(90)
.

-:
.1

.2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.3

.
C5,C6

.
(

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

90
(

AlCl3+HCl

[AlCl4]- H+

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

(
.

:
%4-1

:
.1

:
.
2NaOH + H2S

Na2S +2H2O

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

H2S
:
(

K3PO4 + H2S

.1

K2HPO4 +KHS
.2
.

NH2 CH2 CH2 OH + H2S


NH(CH2 CH2 OH)2 + H2S

HOCH2 CH2 NH3 SH


(CH2 CH2 OH)2 NH2HS
.2

RSH + NaOH

RSNa + H2O
.3

:
H2S

(hydrogenation)
:

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

RSH + H2
R2S + 2H2
+ 4H2

RH + H2S

.1

2RH + H2S

.2

C4H10+H2S

.3

:
.1

.2

.
.1

.2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

RCl + H2

RH + HCl
.

.1

.
(

)
H2S

.
150

:(
C12

.2

C4

.
.3
250 -150

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

C16

C12

.
:(Gas Oil

.4

350 -250
C20

C17

.
: Lubricating Oil
( 450 -350)

500 350
( 500 -450)

( 450 -400)

.5

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

((

))

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
: Ethylene

.
.1

:
( 830)

:
CH3

CH3

2CH3

CH4 + 0CH2 CH3

CH3+ H:CH2 CH3

CH3 0CH2

CH2 CH2 + H0

H0 + H:CH2 CH3

CH2 CH3 + H2
:

.2

( 120 150)
200

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

( 750 830)
.
CH3 (CH2)8CH3

CH2CH2CH2CH3 + CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

CH2 = CH2 + CH2CH2CH2CH3

CH2 0CH2:CH2CH3

CH2 = CH2 + 0CH2CH3


CH2CH2 + 0H

CH2CH3
CH2CH3 + 0H

CH2 = CH2 + H2

:
(
35-17

90-60
H2O

CH2 = CH2 + H2SO4

CH3CH2SO4

CH3CH2SO4H + CH2 = CH2

(CH3CH2)2SO4

CH3CH2OH + H2SO4
(CH3CH2)2SO4

(
CH3CH2SO4 + H2O

CH3CH2OH + H2SO4
2CH3CH2OH + H2SO4

.1

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

70

300

CH2 = CH2
CH3CH2O+H2

H+

HOH

CH3CH2+

CH3CH2O+H2

CH3CH2OH

.2

.
n CH2 = CH2

(- CH2

CH2-)n

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

1
3

0.96-0.94

13.4-3.4
180

300-

0.92-0.91

3000-1500
O2

150

4
135

93

5
6
7

:
:

.3
50

.
Cl2 + H2O
CH2 = CH2 +HOCl

HOCl + HC
ClCH2CH2OH

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

ClCH2CH2OH + Ca(OH)2

CH2

CH2 + CaCl2 + H2O


O

250 300
Ag/Al2O3

CH2 = CH2 + 1/2O2

CH2

CH2

.
.
:

CH2

CH2 + H2O

CH2
OH

CH2
OH

.4

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CH2

CH2 + CH2 CH2

CH2 CH2 O CH2 CH2


OH

OH

OH

OH
O

CH2 CH2 O CH2 CH2 + CH2 CH2


OH

OH

CH2 CH2 - OCH2CH2 O CH2CH2


OH

OH

.
.

100

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CH 2 CH 3
ALCL 3

+ CH 2 = CH 2

630

.
C H 2C H 3

CH = CH2
Zn
+ H2

630 c

:
.

. (Syndiotactic)

(Isotactic)

.1

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

. 150

%90

.
:

.2

500 400

CH2 = CH-CH3 + 3NH3+ 3O2

CH2 = CHCN + 3H2O

500 400

%70
.
CH3 CH = CH2 + 3NH3 + 3O2
CH3 CH = CH2 + 3O2

3CO +3 H2O

CH3 CH = CH2 + 9/2O2

3HCN + 6H2O

3CO2 + 3H2O

.
:

.3

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CH3 - CH - CH3

CH2 = CH - CH3 + H2SO4

OSO3H
CH3 - CH - CH3 + H2O

CH3 - CH - CH3 + H2SO4


OSO3H

OSO3H

.
.4

:
25

250

.
H
CH3

CH3

+ CH2 = CH - CH3

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

H
CH3

O2H
CH3

CH3

OH

CH3

CH3
H2SO4

C=O

60 - 70 C

CH3
propanol

phenol

cumene
hydroperoxide

.5

:
.(

)
:

180 110

)
300-150

CH3 - CH = CH2 + H2 + CO

CH3 - CH2 - CH2 CHO + CH3 CH CH3


CHO

.
.
100
.
CH3 CH2 CHO + H2

CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2OH


)

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.6

:
CH3
CH3

(CH3)3C - O - O - H + CH3 - CH = CH2

OH

CH3

O
(CH3)3 CHO + CH3 - CH - CH2

H
CH2 CH3

CH3CHOH

CH3 C - OOH

O
+ CH3-CH=CH2

+ CH3 - CH - CH 2

.
:
CuO
:

.7
350

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CH2 = CH - CH3

CuO/ 350

CH2 = CH - CHO

:
OH

CH2 = CH - CHO+CH3 - CH - CH3


CH2 = CH - CH2OH + H2O2

400

Mg/Zn

CH2 = CH CH2OH+CH3 - C - CH3

CH2 - CH - CH3
CH3 CH3 CH3
(% 90-85)

.
:

.8
.1

.2

:
7%
2%
.
(CH3)2 CHOH + ZnO

90%

(CH3)2 - CO +H2

:
600-400
.

.3

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

-1 3 -

- 2)

.9

.
-1-

- 2)

200
:

(C3H7)3AL

CH3 CH = CH2

250-150

CH2 = C - CH2CH2 CH3


CH3
-1

- 2

300-150
-2

-2

CH2 = C - CH2 CH3

CH3 - C = CH CH2 CH3

+H

CH3

CH3

750-650

-2

- 2)

HBr
750-600

(CH3)2 C = CH CH2 CH3

65%

CH2 = C - CH = CH2 + CH4


CH3

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
:

(
.2

)
.1
.1

.2

:
:
CH3 CH2 CH2CH3

CH2 = CH CH2 CH3 + CH3 CH = CH CH3


- H2
- H2
+ H2
CH2 = CH CH = CH2

CH2 = CH CH = CH2

650-600

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.1

:
( 2100-200)

:
CaO +3C

CaC2 + CO

)
:
:

CaC2 + 2H2O

CH

CH + Ca(OH)2

.
:
.

CO

Ca(OH)2
-

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.2

1000

2CH4
HC CH + 3H2
CH3CH3
HC CH +2H2
CH3 CH2 CH2 CH3
HC CH + CH2 = CH2+ H2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
:
.1

.
.2

:
6

(
.(

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

catalytic

.3

:
rearagement of naphtha

.
.4

.
.
760 )

:
(6.7-3.3)

( 590

:
C6H5CH3 + H2
R + H2
H + C6H5 CH3
CH3 + H2

C6H5 + CH4
RH + H
(C6H6CH3)
CH4 + H4

C6H6 + CH3

+ H2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

(T.N.T)
.
(

:
(

( 138.4

139.1

144.4)

( 13.3 -)

)
( 47.9-)

. 50

.
:

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
:

(NO2+)
.
NO2+ + H3O+ + 2HSO4-

HNO3 + 2H2SO4

(NO2+)
(NO2+)
:
H

+ NO2

NO2

NO2
H+

.
.
:
:

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

HNO3 %32-29 H2SO4 %60-53)

60

(H2O %8

.
:
)

270

)
(
. %98
NH2

NO2

Ni

+ 3H2

30%

600 C

HCL
96%
NO2

NH2

+ 9Fe + 4H2O

HCl

+ 3Fe3O4

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

NH2

NH2

NH2
NO2

NO2

NO2

NH2
mono-Nitro Toluene

Di-Nitro Toluene

55

Tri-Nitro Toluene (TNT)

23% H2SO4 58% NHO3 19%


.
:

Cl.

60

220
NH2

Cl + 2NH3

+ NH4Cl

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

:
:

.1

:
CH3

CH3
NO2

CH3
NO2

HNO3

NO2
+

H2SO4

NO2

.2

CH3
O2N

CH3

CH3
H2N

NO2

NO2

CH3
NH2

H2

NH2

Ni

NH2

NO2

.3

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CH3
H2N

CH3
NH2

CH3
NH2

CH3
ClCOHN

NHCOCl

NHCOCl

COCl2

+
NH2
NHCOCl

CH3

CH3

NCO

NCO

OCN

HCl

NCO

.
.
)
.

(SO3

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

( 110-70)

H2SO4
80)
:
H

SO3

SO3

SO3

(
SO3H

-H+

H+

SO3
.

SO3H
)
.
SO3H

(
OH

ONa

SO3H

OH

ONa

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

C6H5SO3H + 2Na2SO3
C6H5SO3Na + 2NaOH
C6H5ONa + SO2 + H2O

H2SO4

ONa

OH

C6H5SO3Na + SO2 + H2O +Na2SO4


C6H5ONa + Na2SO3 + H2O
C6H5OH + Na2SO3

OH

OH

COOH

COONa
CO2

NaOH

O-CO-CH3

OH

COOH

COOH

500-)
( 0
:

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

SO2NH2

SO3Cl
NH3

ClSO3H

SO2NH2

SO3Cl
CH3

COOH
SO2NH2

C=O

SO2NH2

[O]

N-H

SO2

.
(1)

60

(2)

160

SO3H
SO3H
H2SO4 %98

%85

%15

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

SO3H

SO3H

SO3H

SO3H

NO2

NO2

Fe/H+

HNO3/H2SO4

SO3H

k
lic
tr

SO3 H

HO3S

OH

HO3S

NH2

NAOH 30%

180 H2SO4
SO3H

SO3H

:
R - CH = CH2 + AlCl3 + HCl

R - C+HCH3AlCl4R-CHCH3

+ R - C+HCH3AlCl4R-CHCH3

+ AlCl3 + HCl

AlCl4-

ac

.c

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

om

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

12
.
C12H25

+ C12H24

AlCl3

.
.1 :
.2

.
:
C12H25

+ C12H25Cl

AlCl3

+HCL

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

:
OH

(
OH

+ C9H19Cl

C9H19

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

((

))

( 1500)
.

.
.

.1

)
(
.

.2

.3

.
CaCO3

CaO

Ca(OH)2

:
:

.
%
74 70

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

13 10

16 13

:
. %1

.1

0.035

.2

CaCO3

CaO+CO2

CaO +SiO2

CaSiO3

:
Na2CO3 + a SiO2

Na2O.a SiO2 + CO2

CaCO3 + b SiO2

CaO.bSiO2 +CO2

b a

.
:

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

Na2O : SiO2

1:2.5

CaO : SiO2

1:5
.

:
:
.1

(15%

.2

Na2B4O7.10H2O

B2O3

.
)

:(

.3

)
(

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
.
.4

:
Cu , Co , Mn , Cr , V , Ti
d d
.
.
P2O5

.5

:
.a

.
.b

.
:

.6

:
.

.
.(

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

))

:
:

-6

)
.

gas separator

.
:

-7

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
(NaCl,MgCl2)
HCL

:
(

-8

)
Hydrophilic

) Hydrophobic

(
.

.
)
.
(

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

Ca,Al,Fe,Mg

:
:

.
:

.
:

.
.
:

-9

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

50

%15-10
.
:

-10

:
(Separation) (

.4

.5

(Treatment)

.6

(Conversion) (

(Separation

:
.
:
.
:

:
:

_
-5

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

:
.(

-6

.
:
-

-7

80

)
81

54.4

58.3

.
:

-8

.
:

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
: (conversion

-2

:
: thermal cracking

1913
(

)
(
C24H50

C12H26+C12H24

C12H26

C6H14+C6H12

C6H14

C3H8+C3H6
:(

. 1936

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

hydro cracking
H2S

.
%88

%12

)
:
:

)
.
:
.
:

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
)

.1

.1

.2

.2

.3

.3

.4

.4

.5

.5

(90)
.

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

-:
.1

.2

.3

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
C5,C6

.
(

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

90
(

AlCl3+HCl

[AlCl4]- H+
(

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

:
%4-1

:
.1

:
.
2NaOH + H2S

H2S
:

Na2S +2H2O

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

K3PO4 + H2S

.1

K2HPO4 +KHS
.2
.

NH2 CH2 CH2 OH + H2S


NH(CH2 CH2 OH)2 + H2S

HOCH2 CH2 NH3 SH


(CH2 CH2 OH)2 NH2HS
.2

RSH + NaOH

RSNa + H2O
.3

:
H2S

(hydrogenation)
:
RSH + H2
R2S + 2H2

RH + H2S

.1

2RH + H2S

.2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

+ 4H2

C4H10+H2S

.3

:
.1

.2

.
.1

.2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

RCl + H2

RH + HCl
.

.6

.
(

)
H2S

.
150

:(
C12

.7

C4

.
.8
250 -150
C16

C12

.
:(Gas Oil
350 -250

.9

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

C20

C17

.
: Lubricating Oil
( 450 -350)

.10

500 350
( 500 -450)

( 450 -400)

((

))

.
: Ethylene

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
.1

:
( 830)

:
CH3

CH3

2CH3

CH4 + 0CH2 CH3

CH3+ H:CH2 CH3

CH3 0CH2

CH2 CH2 + H0

H0 + H:CH2 CH3

CH2 CH3 + H2
:

.2

( 120 150)
200
( 750 830)
.
CH3 (CH2)8CH3

CH2CH2CH2CH3 + CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

CH2 = CH2 + CH2CH2CH2CH3

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CH2 0CH2:CH2CH3

CH2 = CH2 + 0CH2CH3


CH2CH2 + 0H

CH2CH3
CH2CH3 + 0H

CH2 = CH2 + H2

.1

:
(
35-17

90-60
H2O

CH2 = CH2 + H2SO4

CH3CH2SO4

CH3CH2SO4H + CH2 = CH2

(CH3CH2)2SO4

CH3CH2OH + H2SO4
(CH3CH2)2SO4

(
CH3CH2SO4 + H2O

CH3CH2OH + H2SO4
2CH3CH2OH + H2SO4

70

300
HOH

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

H+

CH2 = CH2
CH3CH2O+H2

CH3CH2+

CH3CH2O+H2

CH3CH2OH

.2

.
n CH2 = CH2

(- CH2

CH2-)n

1
3

0.96-0.94

13.4-3.4
180

300-

0.92-0.91

3000-1500
O2

150

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

135

93

5
6
7

.3

50
.

Cl2 + H2O

HOCl + HC

CH2 = CH2 +HOCl

ClCH2CH2OH

ClCH2CH2OH + Ca(OH)2

CH2

CH2 + CaCl2 + H2O


O

250 300
Ag/Al2O3

CH2 = CH2 + 1/2O2

CH2

CH2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
.
.4

CH2

CH2 + H2O

CH2

CH2

OH

OH

CH2

CH2 + CH2 CH2

CH2 CH2 O CH2 CH2


OH

OH

OH

OH
O

CH2 CH2 O CH2 CH2 + CH2 CH2


OH

OH

CH2 CH2 - OCH2CH2 O CH2CH2


OH

OH

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
.

100

CH 2 CH 3
ALCL 3

+ CH 2 = CH 2

630

.
C H 2C H 3

CH = CH2
Zn
630 c

+ H2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.1

.2

. (Syndiotactic)
. 150

(Isotactic)
%90

500 400

CH2 = CH-CH3 + 3NH3+ 3O2

CH2 = CHCN + 3H2O

500 400

%70
.

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CH3 CH = CH2 + 3NH3 + 3O2


CH3 CH = CH2 + 3O2

3HCN + 6H2O
3CO +3 H2O

CH3 CH = CH2 + 9/2O2

3CO2 + 3H2O

.
.3

CH3 - CH - CH3

CH2 = CH - CH3 + H2SO4

OSO3H
CH3 - CH - CH3 + H2O

CH3 - CH - CH3 + H2SO4


OSO3H

OSO3H

.
:
25
.

.4
250

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

H
CH3

CH3

+ CH2 = CH - CH3

.
.
H
CH3

O2H
CH3

CH3

OH

CH3

CH3
H2SO4

C=O

60 - 70 C

CH3
phenol

cumene
hydroperoxide

propanol

.5

:
.(

)
:

180 110

)
300-150

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CH3 - CH = CH2 + H2 + CO

CH3 - CH2 - CH2 CHO + CH3 CH CH3


CHO

.
.
100
.
CH3 CH2 CHO + H2

CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2OH


)

.6

:
CH3
CH3

C
CH3

OH

(CH3)3C - O - O - H + CH3 - CH = CH2


O
(CH3)3 CHO + CH3 - CH - CH2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

H
CH2 CH3

CH3CHOH

CH3 C - OOH

O
+ CH3-CH=CH2

+ CH3 - CH - CH2

.
.7

:
CuO

350

:
CH2 = CH - CH3

CuO/ 350

CH2 = CH - CHO

:
OH

CH2 = CH - CHO+CH3 - CH - CH3


CH2 = CH - CH2OH + H2O2

400

Mg/Zn

CH2 = CH CH2OH+CH3 - C - CH3

CH2 - CH - CH3
CH3 CH3 CH3
(% 90-85)

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.8

.1

.2

:
7%
2%

90%

.
(CH3)2 CHOH + ZnO

(CH3)2 - CO +H2

.3

:
600-400
.
(

-1 3 -

- 2)

.9

-1-

- 2)

200
:

(C3H7)3AL

CH3 CH = CH2

250-150

CH2 = C - CH2CH2 CH3


CH3
-1

- 2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

300-150
-2

-2

CH2 = C - CH2 CH3

CH3 - C = CH CH2 CH3

+H

CH3

CH3

750-650

-2

- 2)

HBr
750-600

(CH3)2 C = CH CH2 CH3

65%

CH2 = C - CH = CH2 + CH4


CH3

.
:

(
.2

)
.1
.1

.2

:
:

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CH3 CH2 CH2CH3

CH2 = CH CH2 CH3 + CH3 CH = CH CH3


- H2
- H2
+ H2
CH2 = CH CH = CH2

CH2 = CH CH = CH2

650-600

.1

:
( 2100-200)

:
CaO +3C

CaC2 + CO

)
:
:

CaC2 + 2H2O

CH

CH + Ca(OH)2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
:
.

CO

Ca(OH)2
.2

1000

2CH4
HC CH + 3H2
CH3CH3
HC CH +2H2
CH3 CH2 CH2 CH3
HC CH + CH2 = CH2+ H2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
:
.5

.
.6

:
6

(
.(
catalytic

)
.7

:
rearagement of naphtha

.
.8

.
.
760 )

:
(6.7-3.3)
:

( 590

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

C6H5CH3 + H2
R + H2
H + C6H5 CH3
CH3 + H2

C6H5 + CH4
RH + H
(C6H6CH3)
CH4 + H4

C6H6 + CH3

+ H2

(T.N.T)
.
(

:
(

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

( 138.4

139.1

144.4)

( 13.3 -)

)
( 47.9-)

. 50

.
:

.
:

(NO2+)

.
NO2+ + H3O+ + 2HSO4-

HNO3 + 2H2SO4

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

(NO2+)
(NO2+)
:
H

NO2

NO2
H+

+ NO2

.
.
:
:
HNO3 %32-29 H2SO4 %60-53)

60

(H2O %8

.
:
)
270

)
(
. %98

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

NH2

NO2

Ni

+ 3H2

30%

600 C

HCL
96%
NO2

NH2

+ 9Fe + 4H2O

HCl

+ 3Fe3O4

NH2

NH2

NH2
NO2

NO2

NO2

NH2
mono-Nitro Toluene

Di-Nitro Toluene

Tri-Nitro Toluene (TNT)

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

55

23% H2SO4 58% NHO3 19%


.
:

Cl.

60

220
NH2

Cl + 2NH3

+ NH4Cl

:
:

.1

:
CH3

CH3
NO2
HNO3
H2SO4

CH3
NO2

NO2
+

NO2

.2

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CH3
O2N

CH3

CH3

CH3

H2N

NO2

NO2

NH2

H2

NH2

Ni

NH2

NO2

.3

.
CH3
H2N

CH3
NH2

CH3
NH2

CH3
ClCOHN

NHCOCl

NHCOCl

COCl2

+
NH2
NHCOCl

CH3

CH3
OCN

HCl

NCO

NCO

NCO

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.
.
)
.

(SO3

:
( 110-70)

H2SO4
80)
:
H
SO3

(
SO3

SO3
-H+

H+

SO3
.

SO3H

SO3H

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

)
.
SO3H

(
OH

ONa

SO3H

OH

ONa

:
C6H5SO3H + 2Na2SO3
C6H5SO3Na + 2NaOH
C6H5ONa + SO2 + H2O

H2SO4

ONa

OH

C6H5SO3Na + SO2 + H2O +Na2SO4


C6H5ONa + Na2SO3 + H2O
C6H5OH + Na2SO3

OH

OH

COOH

COONa
CO2

NaOH

H+

O-CO-CH3

OH
COOH

COOH

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

500-)
( 0
:
CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

SO2NH2

SO3Cl
NH3

ClSO3H

SO2NH2

SO3Cl
CH3

COOH
SO2NH2

C=O

SO2NH2

[O]
N-H

SO2

:
.
(1)
(2)

60
160

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

SO3H
SO3H
H2SO4 %98

%15

%85

.
SO3H

SO3H

NO2

Fe/H+

SO3H

HO3S

SO3H

SO3H

NO2

HNO3/H2SO4

SO3H

k
lic
tr

OH

HO3S

NH2

NAOH 30%
180 H2SO4
SO3H

SO3H

ac

.c

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

om

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

R - CH = CH2 + AlCl3 + HCl

R - C+HCH3AlCl4R-CHCH3

+ R - C+HCH3AlCl4-

AlCl4-

R-CHCH3

+ AlCl3 + HCl

12
.
C12H25

+ C12H24

AlCl3

.
.1 :

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.2

.
:
C12H25

+ C12H25Cl

AlCl3

+HCL

:
OH

(
OH

+ C9H19Cl

C9H19

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

((

))

( 1500)
.

.
.

.4

)
(
.

.5

.6

.
CaCO3

CaO

Ca(OH)2

:
:

.
%
74 70

13 10

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

16 13

:
. %1

.1

0.035

.2

CaCO3

CaO+CO2

CaO +SiO2

CaSiO3

:
Na2CO3 + a SiO2

Na2O.a SiO2 + CO2

CaCO3 + b SiO2

CaO.bSiO2 +CO2

b a

.
:
Na2O : SiO2

1:2.5

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

CaO : SiO2

1:5
.

:
:
.1

(15%

.2

Na2B4O7.10H2O

B2O3

.
)

:(

.3

)
(

.
.

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re

Nadher Daman Alshamary

H
F-XC A N GE

H
F-XC A N GE

N
y
bu

.4

:
Cu , Co , Mn , Cr , V , Ti
d d
.
.
P2O5

.5

:
.a

.
.b

.
:

.6

:
.

.
.(

ac

.c

tr

om

k
lic
C

om

k
lic
C

.c

re

k e r- s o ft w a

ac

ww

ww

tr

to

to

bu

O
W
!

PD

O
W
!

PD

k e r- s o ft w a

re