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Reservoir Geoscience

PDB 2012

Sep 2015 semester

PDB 2012

What is Reservoir?
It is a porous and permeable underground trap which
accumulates water, oil, and/or gas.
What is Geoscience? (AKA Earth Science)
Field of science dealing with the planet earth
It uses physics, chemistry, biology, chronology, and
mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the
Earth system works, and how it evolved to its current state.

The course begins with a brief introduction into the
concepts of petroleum systems.
Then, it will focus in depth on sedimentology, transport and
deposition of sediments, sedimentary structure, clastic
depositional environments, carbonate sediments and
principle of stratigraphy.

Mode of Delivery


Lecture (G1) Tuesday

9 am-11 am


Lecture (G2) Thursday

10 am-12: noon


8-9 am (G1)


9-10 am (G2)




Attendance is compulsory
Be Punctual

1. Ms. Azeb Demisi Habte
Office: L-01-29
Ext: 7107

2. Dr. Solomon Kassa

Office: L-01-22
Ext: 7121

PDB 2012 Reservoir Geoscience

Credit Value



Course Work
Test 1
Test 2
Final Exam


Course Outcomes
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
CO1: Interpret the depositional environment of sedimentary rocks.
CO2: Analyze petrophysical properties and subsurface facies from log and seismic.
CO3: Interpret reservoir distribution and geometry.
CO4: Describe hydrocarbon distribution in a reservoir through geophysical and geochemical

Subject planning
Fundamentals of Reservoir Geology

Classification of sedimentary rocks

Sediment texture

Sand and sandstones

Lec. hrs

Mrs. Azeb

Transport and Deposition of Sediments and Sedimentary structure

Physical process of transportation

Bedforms and sedimentary structures

Primary and secondary sedimentary structures

Deformational sedimentary structures

Mrs. Azeb

Geological Controls of Reservoir

Classification of sedimentary rocks

Mrs. Azeb

Porosity and Permeability

Porosity types

Controls on porosity and permeability

Grain size, sorting, grain shape, packing and fabric

Grain morphology and surface texture

Diagenesis (compaction and sedimentation)

Mrs. Azeb

Clastic Sedimentary Facies

Aeolian environments

Fluvial environments

Costal and shallow marine environments

Deep marine clastic environments

Dr. Solomon

Carbonate Sedimentary Facies Sediments

Carbonate grains

Classification of carbonate rocks

Carbonate depositional environments

Porosity in carbonate rocks

Reservoir Continuity I

Geological time

Stenos principles


Stratigraphic column

Geological events

Faults and uncomformities

Reservoir Continuity II

Basin architecture

Sequence boundary

Diagenesis related to uncomformities

Slope fans

Basin flow fans


Dr. Solomon

Dr. Solomon

Reservoir Size & Shape

Dr. Solomon

Mrs. Azeb
Dr. Solomon

Reservoir Modeling & Reservoir Geophysics


Fundamentals of Reservoir Geology

Learning Outcomes
Students should be able to:
- Identify the main difference among the various sedimentary rocks.
- Classify sediments based on origin and size.
CO1: Interpret the depositional environment of sedimentary rocks.


Reservoir geology deals with the origin, spatial distribution, and petrological

characteristics of reservoirs.

Introduction: The Earths crust consists of three major rock types Igneous rocks solidify from magma (or molten rock).
Sedimentary rocks form from materials that are eroded from other rocks.
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have changed due to exposure to high heat
and/or pressure.

Rock Cycle
Enables to visualize the relationships of
changing internal and external processes.
Helps to clearly understand the idea that
each rock group is linked to the others
by the processes that act upon and within
the planet.

Fig. The rock cycle. The arrows indicate the processes whereby one kind of rock is changed to another.

Rock cycle

Fig. The rock cycle with respect to a convergent plate boundary. Sediment from the continent (and volcano) becomes
sedimentary rock, some of which is carried down the subduction zone. It is metamorphosed as it descends. It may
contribute to the magma that forms in the mantle above the subduction zone (Carlson et al., 2009).

Sedimentary Rocks


Classification of sedimentary rocks

Sediment texture
Sand and sandstones

Sediments/Sedimentary rocks


Unconsolidated products of Weathering & Erosion.

- loose debris that have not yet been lithified.
- Loose sand, gravel, silt, mud, etc.
- Transported by rivers, wind, glaciers, currents, etc.

Sedimentary rocks: Consolidated sediments.

- cemented sediments transformed into solid layers. They include common

types such as: conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, shale, chalk, and limestone,
- Sedimentary rocks are characterized by forming layers or strata, hence they are also called
stratified rocks.

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary rocks are formed as a result of the overburden pressure (burial) as particles of
sediment are deposited out of air, ice, or water flows carrying the particles in suspension.

As sediment deposition builds up, the overburden (or 'lithostatic') pressure squeezes the
sediment into layered solids in a process known as lithification.

The term diagenesis is used to describe all the chemical, physical, and biological changes,
including cementation, undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and
after its lithification, exclusive of surface weathering.


Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

The basic processes involved in the formation of a clastic (granular) sedimentary rocks are:
weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition and compaction (lithification).
Weathering - mechanical or
chemical break down of rock

Transportation - movement of
sediment by gravity, wind, water
(geologic/geomorphic agents)


- occurs when

geologic agent can no longer

transport material

Crystallization or diagenesis - new
minerals grow, or existing crystals grow
larger as time passes - helps hold rock

Compaction (lithification) - pressure of overlying sediments

packs grains and squeezes connate water out from pores
Cementation - pore spaces fill with a binding agent, typically calcite, quartz, iron oxide, precipitated from circulating water.

Processes during Transport

1. Sorting
Grain size is related to energy of transport
- Boulders
- Mud

high energy environment

low energy

Sediments deposition

2. Rounding
abrasion is progressive
- angular grains

near source

- rounded grains

long transport

Sorting and Rounding

Well rounded
Well sorted


Quartz sandstone

Bimodal rounding
Poorly sorted

Lithic sandstone


Decrease in pore space
Due to increasing pressure with burial

Pores filled
Quartz or calcite cements

No porosity left
Beginning of metamorphism


From sand grain to sandstone

From wet mud to shale

Three Types of Sedimentary rocks

Clastic /Detrital
- Made of rock fragments

- Formed by organisms

- Precipitated from Chemical Solution

Clastic / Detrital Rocks

Result from the cementation of loose particles or fragments of pre-existing rock. The
cementation occurs as a result of new minerals precipitating in the space between grains.

Clastic sedimentary rocks are classified on the basis of the size of the fragments that
make up the rock.

The grain size indicates the energy of the transporting agent. Turbulent water carries large
particles, wind carries fine dust.

Clastic /Detrital sedimentary rocks can be classified by grain size differences (size & shape)




All these rocks have clastic textures the rocks are composed of particles (fragments) that
are cemented together.

Clastic/ Detrital sediments & rocks classification by grain size

Particle Size Classification for Detrital Rocks

Biochemical sedimentary rock

Biogenic rocks may form in the sea as microscopic organisms plankton build shells
out of dissolved calcium carbonate or silica. Dead plankton steadily shower their dustsized shells onto the seafloor, where they accumulate in thick layers. That material turns

to two more rock types, limestone (carbonate) and chert (silica).

Another type of biogenic sediment forms where dead plant material builds up into thick
layers. With a small degree of compaction, this becomes peat; after much longer and
deeper burial, it becomes coal.

Biochemical sedimentary rocks


Limestones composed of calcite


Coal forms from plant material in

continental sediments.

On the continental shelves, the

organic remains of marine plants
and animals are buried in sediment,
and become oil and gas.

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks


ancient shallow seas sometimes allowed large areas to become isolated and begin

drying up. In that setting, as the seawater becomes more concentrated, minerals begin to
precipitate, starting with calcite, then gypsum, then halite. The resulting rocks are

limestones or dolomites, gypsum rock, and rock salt respectively. The rocks are known as

In some cases chert can also form by precipitation of silica. This usually happens below
the sediment surface, where different fluids can circulate and interact chemically.
Salt bed video

Chemical sedimentary rocks


Chert (silica)


Rock salt Halite

Sediments are generated by weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition in
sedimentary basins.
Sedimentary rocks are formed as a result of compaction (pressure) and cementation
of sediments.

The classification of sedimentary rocks is based on composition and texture. They

are divided into two main categories; namely clastic (detrital) or non-clastic (chemical/


Crystallization: is process of formation of solid crystals.
Diagenesis: is the change of sediments or existing sedimentary rocks into a
different sedimentary rock during and after rock formation (litification), at
temperatures and pressures less than that required for the formation
of metamorphic rocks.
Lithification: is the process in which sediments compact under pressure,
expel connate fluids, and gradually become solid rock.
Metamorphism: is the change of minerals or geologic texture in pre-existing
rocks , without melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
Weathering: is the breaking down or dissolving of rocks and minerals on
Earths surface.
Subduction: is the process that takes place at convergent boundaries by
which one tectonic plate moves under another tectonic plate and sinks into
the mantle as the plates converge.

Thank You