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Reservoir Geoscience

PDB 2012

Sep 2015 semester


PDB 2012

What is Reservoir?
It is a porous and permeable underground trap which
accumulates water, oil, and/or gas.
What is Geoscience? (AKA Earth Science)
Field of science dealing with the planet earth
It uses physics, chemistry, biology, chronology, and
mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the
Earth system works, and how it evolved to its current state.
Wikipedia

Synopsis
The course begins with a brief introduction into the
concepts of petroleum systems.
Then, it will focus in depth on sedimentology, transport and
deposition of sediments, sedimentary structure, clastic
depositional environments, carbonate sediments and
principle of stratigraphy.

Mode of Delivery
Lecture
Tutorial

Timetable

Lecture (G1) Tuesday

9 am-11 am

C3

Lecture (G2) Thursday

10 am-12: noon

C3

8-9 am (G1)

13-01-04

9-10 am (G2)

13-01-02

Tutorial

Friday

Attendance is compulsory
Be Punctual

Lecturers
1. Ms. Azeb Demisi Habte
Office: L-01-29
Ext: 7107
email: azeb.habte@petronas.com.my

2. Dr. Solomon Kassa


Office: L-01-22
Ext: 7121
email: solomon.kassa@petronas.com.my

PDB 2012 Reservoir Geoscience


Credit Value

Assessment

2L&1T

Course Work
Test 1
Test 2
Assignments
Quizzes
Final Exam

50%
15%
15%
10%
10%
50%

Course Outcomes
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
CO1: Interpret the depositional environment of sedimentary rocks.
CO2: Analyze petrophysical properties and subsurface facies from log and seismic.
CO3: Interpret reservoir distribution and geometry.
CO4: Describe hydrocarbon distribution in a reservoir through geophysical and geochemical
studies.

Subject planning
Topics
Fundamentals of Reservoir Geology

Classification of sedimentary rocks

Sediment texture

Sand and sandstones

Lec. hrs
2

Lecturer
Mrs. Azeb

Transport and Deposition of Sediments and Sedimentary structure

Physical process of transportation

Bedforms and sedimentary structures

Primary and secondary sedimentary structures

Deformational sedimentary structures

Mrs. Azeb

Geological Controls of Reservoir

Classification of sedimentary rocks

Mrs. Azeb

Porosity and Permeability

Porosity types

Controls on porosity and permeability

Grain size, sorting, grain shape, packing and fabric

Grain morphology and surface texture

Diagenesis (compaction and sedimentation)

Mrs. Azeb

Clastic Sedimentary Facies

Aeolian environments

Fluvial environments

Costal and shallow marine environments

Deep marine clastic environments

Dr. Solomon

Carbonate Sedimentary Facies Sediments

Carbonate grains

Classification of carbonate rocks

Carbonate depositional environments

Porosity in carbonate rocks


Reservoir Continuity I

Geological time

Stenos principles

Lithostratigraphy

Stratigraphic column

Geological events

Faults and uncomformities


Reservoir Continuity II

Basin architecture

Sequence boundary

Diagenesis related to uncomformities

Slope fans

Basin flow fans

Dr.
Solomon

Dr. Solomon

Dr. Solomon

Reservoir Size & Shape

Dr. Solomon

Mrs. Azeb
&
Dr. Solomon

Reservoir Modeling & Reservoir Geophysics

References

Fundamentals of Reservoir Geology

Learning Outcomes
Students should be able to:
- Identify the main difference among the various sedimentary rocks.
- Classify sediments based on origin and size.
CO1: Interpret the depositional environment of sedimentary rocks.

What is RESERVOIR GEOLOGY?


Reservoir geology deals with the origin, spatial distribution, and petrological

characteristics of reservoirs.

Introduction: The Earths crust consists of three major rock types Igneous rocks solidify from magma (or molten rock).
Sedimentary rocks form from materials that are eroded from other rocks.
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have changed due to exposure to high heat
and/or pressure.

Rock Cycle
Enables to visualize the relationships of
changing internal and external processes.
Helps to clearly understand the idea that
each rock group is linked to the others
by the processes that act upon and within
the planet.

Fig. The rock cycle. The arrows indicate the processes whereby one kind of rock is changed to another.

Rock cycle

Fig. The rock cycle with respect to a convergent plate boundary. Sediment from the continent (and volcano) becomes
sedimentary rock, some of which is carried down the subduction zone. It is metamorphosed as it descends. It may
contribute to the magma that forms in the mantle above the subduction zone (Carlson et al., 2009).

Sedimentary Rocks

Outline

Classification of sedimentary rocks


Sediment texture
Sand and sandstones

Sediments/Sedimentary rocks

Sediments:

Unconsolidated products of Weathering & Erosion.


- loose debris that have not yet been lithified.
- Loose sand, gravel, silt, mud, etc.
- Transported by rivers, wind, glaciers, currents, etc.

Sedimentary rocks: Consolidated sediments.


- cemented sediments transformed into solid layers. They include common

types such as: conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, shale, chalk, and limestone,
etc.
- Sedimentary rocks are characterized by forming layers or strata, hence they are also called
stratified rocks.

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks


Sedimentary rocks are formed as a result of the overburden pressure (burial) as particles of
sediment are deposited out of air, ice, or water flows carrying the particles in suspension.

As sediment deposition builds up, the overburden (or 'lithostatic') pressure squeezes the
sediment into layered solids in a process known as lithification.

The term diagenesis is used to describe all the chemical, physical, and biological changes,
including cementation, undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and
after its lithification, exclusive of surface weathering.

cont.

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

The basic processes involved in the formation of a clastic (granular) sedimentary rocks are:
weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition and compaction (lithification).
Weathering - mechanical or
chemical break down of rock

Transportation - movement of
sediment by gravity, wind, water
(geologic/geomorphic agents)

Deposition

- occurs when

geologic agent can no longer


transport material

Sedimentary
rocks
Crystallization or diagenesis - new
minerals grow, or existing crystals grow
larger as time passes - helps hold rock
together.

Compaction (lithification) - pressure of overlying sediments


packs grains and squeezes connate water out from pores
Cementation - pore spaces fill with a binding agent, typically calcite, quartz, iron oxide, precipitated from circulating water.

Processes during Transport


1. Sorting
Grain size is related to energy of transport
- Boulders
- Mud

high energy environment

low energy

Sediments deposition

2. Rounding
abrasion is progressive
- angular grains

near source

- rounded grains

long transport

Sorting and Rounding


Well rounded
Well sorted

Good
Reservoir!

Quartz sandstone

Bimodal rounding
Poorly sorted

Lithic sandstone

Poor
Reservoir!

Lithification
Compaction
Decrease in pore space
Due to increasing pressure with burial

Cementation
Pores filled
Quartz or calcite cements

Recrystallization
No porosity left
Beginning of metamorphism

LITHIFICATION

From sand grain to sandstone

From wet mud to shale

Three Types of Sedimentary rocks

Clastic /Detrital
- Made of rock fragments

Biochemical
- Formed by organisms

Chemical
- Precipitated from Chemical Solution

Clastic / Detrital Rocks


Result from the cementation of loose particles or fragments of pre-existing rock. The
cementation occurs as a result of new minerals precipitating in the space between grains.

Clastic sedimentary rocks are classified on the basis of the size of the fragments that
make up the rock.

The grain size indicates the energy of the transporting agent. Turbulent water carries large
particles, wind carries fine dust.

Clastic /Detrital sedimentary rocks can be classified by grain size differences (size & shape)
Conglomerate

Shale

Breccia

Sandstone

All these rocks have clastic textures the rocks are composed of particles (fragments) that
are cemented together.

Clastic/ Detrital sediments & rocks classification by grain size


Particle Size Classification for Detrital Rocks

Biochemical sedimentary rock


Biogenic rocks may form in the sea as microscopic organisms plankton build shells
out of dissolved calcium carbonate or silica. Dead plankton steadily shower their dustsized shells onto the seafloor, where they accumulate in thick layers. That material turns

to two more rock types, limestone (carbonate) and chert (silica).

Another type of biogenic sediment forms where dead plant material builds up into thick
layers. With a small degree of compaction, this becomes peat; after much longer and
deeper burial, it becomes coal.

Biochemical sedimentary rocks

Travertine

Limestones composed of calcite

Coquina

Coal forms from plant material in


continental sediments.

On the continental shelves, the


organic remains of marine plants
and animals are buried in sediment,
and become oil and gas.

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks


The

ancient shallow seas sometimes allowed large areas to become isolated and begin

drying up. In that setting, as the seawater becomes more concentrated, minerals begin to
precipitate, starting with calcite, then gypsum, then halite. The resulting rocks are

limestones or dolomites, gypsum rock, and rock salt respectively. The rocks are known as
evaporites.

In some cases chert can also form by precipitation of silica. This usually happens below
the sediment surface, where different fluids can circulate and interact chemically.
Salt bed video

Chemical sedimentary rocks


Evaporites

Chert (silica)

Gypsum
Flint

Rock salt Halite

Summary
Sediments are generated by weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition in
sedimentary basins.
Sedimentary rocks are formed as a result of compaction (pressure) and cementation
of sediments.

The classification of sedimentary rocks is based on composition and texture. They


are divided into two main categories; namely clastic (detrital) or non-clastic (chemical/

biochemical).

Terminologies
Crystallization: is process of formation of solid crystals.
Diagenesis: is the change of sediments or existing sedimentary rocks into a
different sedimentary rock during and after rock formation (litification), at
temperatures and pressures less than that required for the formation
of metamorphic rocks.
Lithification: is the process in which sediments compact under pressure,
expel connate fluids, and gradually become solid rock.
Metamorphism: is the change of minerals or geologic texture in pre-existing
rocks , without melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
Weathering: is the breaking down or dissolving of rocks and minerals on
Earths surface.
Subduction: is the process that takes place at convergent boundaries by
which one tectonic plate moves under another tectonic plate and sinks into
the mantle as the plates converge.

Thank You