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286 Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries

Pakistan
Item 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

001 POPULATION million; as of 1 July 89.89 92.40 94.93 97.50 100.09 102.71 105.35 108.04

002 LABOR FORCE million; fiscal year ending 30 June 27.13 27.90 28.07 28.00 29.43 29.60 30.38 31.15
003 Employed 26.07 26.81 27.03 26.98 28.53 28.67 29.43 30.17
004 Agriculture 13.75 14.14 13.66 14.57 14.05 14.67 15.05 15.43
005 Manufacturing 3.51 3.60 3.68 3.55 3.99 3.65 3.72 3.82
006 Mining 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.03 0.06 0.05
007 Others 8.79 9.04 9.63 8.79 10.42 10.32 10.60 10.88
008 Unemployed 1.06 1.09 1.04 1.02 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.97
009 Unemployment rate, % 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1

NATIONAL ACCOUNTS Bn Rupees; fiscal year ending 30 June


At Current Factor Cost
010 GDP by Industrial Origin 328.4 374.3 425.1 466.3 515.4 601.0 683.1 759.9
011 Agriculture 99.4 104.6 121.3 128.8 135.3 156.4 184.1 197.4
012 Mining 1.3 1.6 2.1 3.3 3.7 4.8 4.9 5.4
013 Manufacturing 50.2 60.4 67.6 75.9 85.8 100.9 113.5 132.3
014 Electricity, gas and water 7.3 8.3 8.7 10.6 11.8 15.7 17.1 21.5
015 Construction 13.7 14.7 17.1 19.0 22.5 25.1 27.7 32.1
016 Trade 50.0 58.2 67.6 72.7 80.9 100.6 115.8 129.1
017 Transport and communications 31.1 35.2 38.2 41.2 44.6 51.0 54.3 60.5
018 Finance 25.1 31.0 35.0 38.3 41.8 46.3 50.3 55.6
019 Public administration 26.5 33.1 36.7 42.1 51.0 57.3 65.2 69.1
020 Others 23.9 27.3 30.8 34.4 38.0 42.9 50.2 56.9
021 Indirect taxes less subsidies 36.0 45.5 47.1 48.2 57.1 74.4 86.6 96.1
022 GDP at current market prices 364.4 419.8 472.2 514.5 572.5 675.4 769.7 855.9
023 Net factor income from abroad 39.4 39.6 38.3 41.4 36.4 29.1 28.0 36.9
024 GNP at current market prices 403.8 459.4 510.5 555.9 608.9 704.5 797.8 892.8

At Current Market Prices


025 Expenditure on GDP 364.4 419.8 472.2 514.5 572.5 675.4 769.7 855.9
026 Private consumption 291.9 336.7 385.3 392.5 415.7 486.6 543.3 611.0
027 Government consumption 41.6 50.7 57.1 65.7 77.5 104.8 129.2 129.6
028 Gross fixed capital formation 61.8 69.2 77.9 87.5 100.0 111.3 133.2 148.1
029 Increase in stocks 6.7 7.5 8.6 9.0 9.5 10.4 12.4 14.0
030 Exports of goods and services 44.4 47.8 49.9 63.3 79.1 93.6 108.3 126.6
031 Less: Imports of goods and services 82.0 92.2 106.7 103.5 109.3 131.2 156.6 173.3
032 Statistical discrepancy – – – – – – – –

At Constant 1980/81 Factor Cost


033 GDP by Industrial Origin 284.7 296.0 321.8 342.2 362.1 385.4 403.9 422.5
034 Agriculture 83.5 79.5 88.2 93.4 96.5 99.1 105.9 109.1
035 Mining 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.3
036 Manufacturing 45.6 49.2 53.2 57.2 61.5 67.6 70.3 74.3
037 Electricity, gas and water 6.4 7.3 7.5 8.4 9.2 10.7 12.1 13.9
038 Construction 11.9 12.0 13.2 14.0 15.8 16.6 16.9 17.5
039 Trade 44.4 46.4 51.9 55.4 58.7 63.9 67.3 69.7
040 Transport and communications 28.0 30.3 32.7 34.3 36.8 39.3 37.7 40.2
041 Finance 21.6 25.0 26.6 27.8 28.9 30.3 31.7 32.9
042 Public administration 21.5 23.2 23.9 25.2 26.5 27.7 29.9 30.7
043 Others 20.6 21.9 23.3 24.9 26.5 28.2 30.1 32.0
044 Indirect taxes less subsidies 31.8 36.5 35.9 35.2 39.7 47.0 49.9 51.6
045 GDP at 1980/81 market prices 316.5 332.5 357.7 377.4 401.8 432.4 453.9 474.1
046 Net factor income from abroad 33.0 31.6 28.8 31.3 26.6 17.1 14.9 17.2
047 GNP at 1980/81 market prices 349.5 364.1 386.6 408.7 428.3 449.5 468.8 491.3

At Constant 1980/81 Market Prices


048 Expenditure on GDP 316.5 332.5 357.7 377.4 401.8 432.4 453.9 474.1
049 Private Consumption 243.7 258.7 281.2 278.2 288.0 317.3 319.9 334.3
050 Government Consumption 36.3 40.7 43.5 47.8 54.2 56.5 68.1 65.9
051 Gross fixed capital formation 57.5 60.4 66.6 69.8 73.0 72.0 77.3 81.3
052 Increase in stocks 5.9 6.0 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 7.1 7.5
053 Exports of goods and services 41.8 40.3 40.1 53.3 59.9 57.1 65.0 65.7
054 Less: Imports of goods and services 68.7 73.7 80.2 78.3 79.8 77.1 83.5 80.6
055 Statistical discrepancy – – – – – – – –
287

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

110.79 113.61 116.47 119.39 122.36 125.38 128.42 131.51 134.51 137.51 001

30.99 31.94 32.45 33.29 33.60 34.43 36.84 38.64 39.52 40.40 002
29.04 30.07 30.92 31.68 31.80 32.58 34.59 36.36 37.19 38.02 003
13.78 14.51 14.70 15.85 14.88 15.24 15.27 17.18 17.57 17.97 004
3.57 3.69 3.37 3.18 3.30 3.38 3.84 3.62 3.70 3.79 005
0.05 0.08 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.07 006
11.66 11.79 12.82 12.63 13.58 13.92 15.45 15.49 15.84 16.19 007
1.95 1.87 1.53 1.61 1.81 1.85 2.25 2.28 2.33 2.38 008
6.3 5.9 4.7 4.8 5.4 5.4 6.1 5.9 5.9 5.9 009

908.4 1077.9 1200.1 1412.9 1688.1 1951.6 2255.6 2480.9 2735.9 2951.7 010
233.1 282.4 297.8 357.9 437.0 491.8 594.6 677.5 739.6 776.2 011
6.4 7.1 7.4 8.7 9.0 11.3 11.5 13.5 14.5 16.6 012
158.8 186.8 207.3 247.1 288.9 331.4 382.6 393.1 423.5 446.9 013
30.6 36.6 38.6 40.9 55.1 74.6 77.1 94.5 123.0 111.2 014
38.2 43.8 49.8 55.2 61.0 70.8 81.3 89.3 88.4 97.5 015
152.0 178.0 195.3 229.4 275.3 321.3 357.2 375.9 410.7 442.5 016
77.7 101.0 127.5 149.3 170.9 186.1 218.0 252.8 277.5 315.8 017
66.6 76.9 89.1 109.0 128.3 149.5 176.6 187.3 211.7 234.1 018
76.5 85.5 94.6 105.3 130.7 159.2 171.3 183.9 207.0 246.1 019
68.4 79.9 92.8 110.0 132.0 155.7 185.5 213.0 239.9 264.8 020
112.2 133.4 141.5 160.2 193.9 190.3 201.7 196.8 202.4 231.1 021
1020.6 1211.4 1341.6 1573.1 1882.1 2141.8 2457.4 2677.7 2938.4 3182.8 022
23.9 12.5 10.0 4.0 14.0 -7.1 -19.4 -24.4 -25.5 -44.7 023
1044.5 1223.9 1351.6 1577.1 1896.1 2134.7 2438.0 2653.3 2912.8 3138.1 024

1020.6 1211.4 1341.6 1573.1 1882.1 2141.8 2457.4 2677.7 2938.4 3182.8 025
697.4 850.0 971.0 1121.6 1367.1 1566.2 1846.4 1928.7 2224.0 2385.6 026
145.6 155.6 174.7 189.1 219.1 268.1 288.8 301.6 304.4 351.3 027
177.6 225.4 256.6 280.9 318.3 369.1 397.8 403.9 409.4 445.1 028
15.8 18.7 21.1 24.6 28.2 34.3 38.3 71.4 48.1 51.7 029
172.8 209.2 217.4 254.2 311.8 358.4 390.5 441.4 451.1 514.4 030
188.7 247.4 299.1 297.3 362.4 454.3 504.4 469.3 498.5 565.2 031
– – – – – – – – – – 032

446.0 480.4 491.3 513.6 540.5 577.1 588.2 600.1 625.2 649.5 033
114.5 125.4 118.8 125.0 133.2 148.8 149.0 155.7 158.8 168.5 034
2.5 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.8 3.0 035
79.0 85.3 89.9 94.7 98.2 102.9 104.3 102.6 106.4 108.3 036
15.4 16.8 17.9 18.5 21.6 23.8 23.1 25.1 29.5 26.6 037
18.5 19.6 20.7 21.0 21.3 21.9 22.2 22.5 21.4 22.5 038
73.4 78.8 81.1 83.3 87.2 92.5 93.2 92.2 94.9 97.6 039
42.7 47.2 50.3 52.2 54.3 54.8 56.9 61.0 64.1 66.4 040
34.2 35.9 38.0 41.0 43.3 46.7 50.1 47.8 52.1 55.3 041
31.7 32.5 33.3 33.8 34.8 35.9 36.7 37.5 38.4 41.1 042
34.1 36.3 38.7 41.2 43.9 46.8 49.9 53.1 56.6 60.3 043
54.0 58.7 58.1 57.2 59.6 53.1 49.7 45.5 44.0 49.4 044
500.0 539.1 549.5 570.9 600.1 630.2 637.9 645.6 669.2 698.9 045
9.5 4.9 3.7 1.3 4.0 -1.9 -4.4 -5.6 -5.2 -7.9 046
509.4 544.1 553.2 572.2 604.1 628.3 633.5 640.0 664.0 691.0 047

500.0 539.1 549.5 570.9 600.1 630.2 637.9 645.6 669.2 698.9 048
329.9 375.4 384.3 398.4 427.0 458.8 478.9 477.9 513.7 518.1 049
65.6 60.4 71.1 63.9 67.4 71.9 65.9 70.4 65.6 70.2 050
83.9 92.5 96.4 95.5 100.0 104.9 100.9 97.2 92.8 96.4 051
7.6 8.7 8.7 8.8 8.7 9.6 9.4 16.5 10.4 11.0 052
87.7 99.8 101.1 104.3 101.1 103.1 96.4 90.8 88.2 102.4 053
74.6 97.7 112.2 100.1 104.0 118.2 113.7 107.3 101.5 99.2 054
– – – – – – – – – – 055
288 Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries

Pakistan
Item 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

Investment Financing, at current prices


056 Gross domestic capital formation 68.5 76.7 86.5 96.5 109.5 121.7 145.6 162.1
057 Gross national saving 70.2 71.9 68.0 97.7 115.7 113.2 125.2 152.3
058 Gross domestic saving 30.8 32.3 29.7 56.3 79.3 84.1 97.2 115.4
059 Net factor income from abroad 39.4 39.6 38.3 41.4 36.4 29.1 28.0 36.9
060 Foreign saving -1.7 4.8 18.5 -1.2 -6.2 8.5 20.4 9.8
061 Net transfer from abroad ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
062 Net borrowing from abroad ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

At Current Market Prices, Rupees


063 Per Capita GDP 4111 4606 5041 5347 5795 6661 7399 8022
064 Per Capita GNP 4556 5040 5450 5778 6163 6948 7669 8368

PRODUCTION thousand metric tons; fiscal year ending 30 June


Agriculture, crop year
065 1. Sugarcane 32534 34287 32140 27856 29926 33029 36976 35494
066 2. Wheat 12414 10882 11703 13923 12016 12675 14419 14316
067 3. Rice 3445 3340 3315 2919 3486 3241 3200 3220
068 4. Cotton 824 495 1009 1217 1320 1469 1426 1456
069 5. Maize 1005 1014 1028 1009 1111 1127 1204 1179
070 6. Gram 491 522 524 586 583 372 456 562
071 7. Jowar 222 222 230 219 236 181 248 262
072 8. Bajra 220 256 284 258 233 135 201 204

Mining
073 1. Limestone 4232 4696 4634 6313 6885 7610 7249 7736
074 2. Salt 548 581 573 619 503 502 620 735
075 3. Gypsum 341 339 400 381 412 404 426 491

Manufacturing
076 1. Cement 3938 4503 4732 5773 6508 7072 7125 7488
077 2. Cycle tubes (rubber), ‘000 units 5226 6173 7040 6121 6307 5748 6157 5501
078 3. Urea 1832 1798 1815 1820 1993 1985 2009 2109
079 4. Sugar 1127 1147 1306 1116 1286 1771 1858 1857
080 5. Cotton yarn 448 432 432 482 586 685 758 912
081 6. Vegetable products 513 595 640 612 609 697 624 683
082 7. Cotton cloth, Mn sq. m. 336 297 272 253 238 282 270 295
083 8. Pig iron 463 491 706 848 897 933 945 913

Production Indexes period averages


084 Agriculture, 1989-91 = 100 67.1 73.6 77.8 84.3 86.3 88.1 94.6 98.5
085 Mining, 1980/81 = 100 a 118.0 122.0 147.0 183.0 187.0 212.0 218.0 250.0
086 Manufacturing, 1980/81 = 100 b 123.0 133.0 143.0 154.0 165.0 179.0 183.0 192.0

ENERGY annual values


Crude petroleum, ‘000 bbl
087 Production 4738 4884 9525 14366 15005 16309 17074 19473
088 Exports ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
089 Imports ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
090 Consumption ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Coal, ‘000 m.t.


091 Production 1855 1926 2168 2115 2157 2727 2619 2751
092 Exports ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
093 Imports ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
094 Consumption ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Natural gas, Mn cu. m.


095 Production 9826 9811 10250 10769 11161 12383 12900 14094
096 Exports ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
097 Imports ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
098 Consumption 9826 9511 10250 ... ... ... ... ...
289

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

193.4 244.1 277.7 305.5 346.5 403.4 436.0 475.3 457.4 496.8 056
201.5 218.4 205.9 266.3 309.9 300.4 302.8 423.0 384.4 401.3 057
177.6 205.9 196.0 262.4 295.9 307.5 322.2 447.4 410.0 446.0 058
23.9 12.5 10.0 4.0 14.0 -7.1 -19.4 -24.4 -25.5 -44.7 059
-8.0 25.7 71.8 39.1 36.6 103.1 133.2 52.3 72.9 95.6 060
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 061
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 062

9327 10797 11662 13339 15570 17291 19365 20602 22091 23401 063
9546 10908 11749 13373 15686 17233 19212 20415 21899 23073 064

35989 38865 38059 44427 47168 45230 41998 53104 55191 46333 065
14565 15684 16157 15213 17002 16907 16651 18694 17856 21079 066
3261 3243 3116 3995 3447 3966 4305 4333 4674 5156 067
1637 2181 1540 1368 1479 1802 1594 1562 1495 1912 068
1185 1203 1184 1213 1318 1504 1491 1517 1665 1652 069
531 513 347 411 559 680 594 767 698 565 070
239 225 238 212 263 255 219 231 228 220 071
196 139 203 138 228 162 146 211 213 156 072

9009 8528 9015 9125 9682 9740 9491 11166 9467 9589 073
736 833 895 916 890 958 1066 971 1190 1358 074
468 471 533 666 624 420 521 307 242 355 075

7762 8321 8558 8100 7913 9567 9536 9364 9635 9314 076
5468 5757 5612 6191 5146 5594 5205 4978 5529 5937 077
2050 1898 2306 3104 3000 3260 3259 3284 3522 3785 078
1934 2322 2384 2841 2964 2426 2383 3555 3542 2429 079
1041 1171 1219 1310 1370 1495 1521 1532 1540 1670 080
656 639 725 671 711 733 714 719 773 699 081
293 308 325 315 322 327 333 340 385 437 082
1013 1048 1098 1253 1045 1002 1069 1016 989 1107 083

106.9 103.6 108.6 112.4 123.2 127.6 129.2 134.7 138.5 140.2 * 084
275.2 277.8 278.4 275.2 270.8 296.7 305.6 302.5 283.1 304.5 085
202.5 218.5 227.5 237.2 240.8 248.4 243.1 261.6 270.9 270.5 086

23486 22468 21895 20675 19856 21063 21270 20543 19986 20395 087
... 2751 3318 2170 2289 2155 3522 1696 3235 2653 088
... 29910 29407 30770 28386 31537 28589 30289 33365 33136 089
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 090

2872 3099 3267 3534 3043 3638 3553 3159 3461 3168 091
... – – – – – – – – – 092
... 1069 994 1094 1096 1080 840 960 910 957 093
... 4168 4261 4628 4139 4718 4393 4119 4371 4125 094

15021 15515 16441 17587 17699 18780 19659 19714 20988 23056 095
... – – – ... – – – – – 096
... – – – – – – – – – 097
... 13710 14412 15517 15405 16422 16842 17127 17914 20137 098
290 Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries

Pakistan
Item 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

Electricity, Mn kWh
099 Production 20291 22492 23671 26455 29326 34237 35562 37999
100 Exports ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
101 Imports ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
102 Consumption 14432 16140 18158 20107 22453 25650 26967 ...

Retail prices, Rupees/litre


103 Gasoline, premium ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
104 Diesel ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

PRICE INDEXES period averages


105 Consumer (General),
1980/81 I 1990/91 = 100 a 116.3 124.8 131.8 137.6 142.5 151.5 167.2 177.3
106 Food a 119.1 128.6 136.2 139.7 145.2 156.8 179.0 187.1
107 Wholesale, 1980/81 I 1990/91 = 100 a 113.1 124.4 130.9 137.0 143.8 158.2 173.5 186.2
108 Implicit GDP deflator, 1980/81 = 100 115.1 126.3 132.0 136.3 142.5 156.2 169.6 180.5

MONEY AND BANKING Bn Rupees; as of end of period


109 Money supply (M1) 100.6 105.8 123.1 145.3 173.1 189.8 217.1 260.6
110 Currency in circulation 46.4 52.0 58.7 71.6 81.9 92.1 105.3 125.4
111 Demand deposits 54.2 53.8 64.4 73.7 91.2 97.7 111.8 135.2
112 Quasi-money 59.3 61.5 68.9 77.6 86.3 89.5 83.0 82.6
113 Money supply (M2) 159.9 167.4 192.0 222.8 259.4 279.3 300.1 343.2
114 Foreign assets (net) 12.7 -3.6 -10.9 -11.7 -8.5 -8.7 -23.9 -15.0
115 Domestic credit 179.9 206.7 242.8 282.9 328.8 357.7 394.8 430.4
116 Claims on gov’t. sector (net) 82.4 92.5 96.2 110.6 147.8 154.3 175.2 191.5
117 Claims on private sector 97.5 114.2 146.6 172.3 181.0 203.4 219.6 238.9
118 Claims on other financial insts. – – – – – – – –
119 Other items -32.7 -35.7 -39.9 -48.4 -60.9 -69.7 -70.8 -72.2

Deposit Money Banks


120 Demand deposits 63.3 65.9 71.9 82.5 99.5 105.5 124.4 144.8
121 Savings deposits 52.6 57.3 64.2 77.7 88.6 94.0 107.4 124.9
122 Time deposits 62.0 66.0 82.4 99.2 111.0 117.8 134.1 161.6
123 Domestic credits outstanding ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Interest Rates percent; period averages


On deposits
124 Savings 7.62 7.62 7.64 6.99 6.93 6.59 6.62 6.94
125 Time: 6 months 9.36 9.64 7.88 8.03 7.82 8.64 8.92 9.00
126 12 months 9.84 9.80 9.26 9.16 8.49 8.81 9.03 9.38

GOVERNMENT FINANCE Mn Rupees; fiscal year ending 30 June


Central Government (Consolidated Federal and Provincial)
127 Current revenue 61467 74855 80042 92819 105692 122810 144297 165585
128 Taxes 49029 53646 55963 72423 82927 93456 110338 119435
129 Non-taxes c 12438 21209 24079 20396 22765 29354 33959 46150
130 Current expenditure 57738 71945 83769 94686 116242 133645 153066 165595
131 Current surplus/deficit 3729 2910 -3727 -1867 -10550 -10835 -8769 -10
132 Capital receipts – – – – – – – –
133 Capital expenditure 29383 28057 33050 39777 36160 46728 48110 56050
134 Capital account surplus/deficit -29383 -28057 -33050 -39777 -36160 -46728 -48110 -56050
135 Net lending – – – – – – – –
136 Overall surplus/deficit -25654 -25147 -36777 -41644 -46710 -57563 -56879 -56060
Financing
137 Domestic borrowing 14368 12280 12873 26962 27371 30931 37865 29581
138 Foreign borrowing 5162 5001 5169 8584 8424 12691 18195 22945
139 Foreign grants – – – – – – – –
140 Use of cash balances 6124 7866 18735 6098 10915 13941 819 3534

EXTERNAL TRADE Mn Rupees; fiscal year ending 30 June


141 Exports, fob 34675 37627 38517 50363 65007 79353 91058 107672
142 Imports, cif 68164 76718 89800 90979 92552 112617 135900 148891
143 Trade balance -33489 -39091 -51283 -40616 -27545 -33264 -44842 -41218
291

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

41390 45440 48750 50640 53545 56946 59125 62104 65402 65751 099
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 100
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 101
... 33878 36493 37381 39448 41924 42916 44572 43296 45587 102

... 11.79 12.97 14.27 15.00 16.05 18.35 18.91 26.04 25.65 103
... 5.05 5.56 6.16 6.23 7.46 9.66 9.66 10.66 11.74 104

199.8 I 110.6 121.5 135.1 152.8 169.2 189.2 204.0 215.7 223.4 105
211.2 I 110.6 123.8 137.6 160.6 176.9 197.9 213.0 225.6 230.6 106
208.0 I 109.8 117.9 137.2 159.2 176.9 199.9 213.1 226.6 230.6 107
204.1 224.7 244.2 275.6 313.6 339.9 385.2 414.8 439.1 455.4 108

284.1 354.4 387.1 435.4 491.0 528.0 699.8 732.3 795.4 876.0 109
142.9 162.3 177.9 195.8 234.0 252.1 272.1 301.1 341.0 410.5 110
141.2 192.1 209.2 239.6 257.0 275.9 427.7 431.1 454.3 465.5 111
127.4 201.8 231.2 279.0 322.0 448.1 470.7 530.2 521.6 600.7 112
411.5 556.2 618.4 714.4 813.0 976.1 1170.5 1262.5 1317.0 1476.7 113
-23.9 -12.4 -10.3 40.3 -15.0 -80.1 -17.5 -44.5 -21.3 -19.6 114
511.6 654.1 725.7 799.3 941.2 1135.8 1250.2 1359.2 1412.3 1575.1 115
249.7 332.7 355.5 376.7 434.7 555.2 595.8 622.1 598.3 649.7 116
261.9 321.4 370.2 422.6 506.5 580.6 654.3 737.1 814.0 925.3 117
– – – – – – – – – – 118
-76.2 -85.5 -97.0 -125.2 -113.2 -79.4 -62.2 -52.1 -74.0 -78.8 119

182.4 217.6 246.7 162.2 190.0 203.5 269.5 239.4 252.7 241.8 120
157.4 205.2 232.2 272.1 310.5 361.7 404.9 473.5 500.8 601.5 121
203.6 258.2 302.4 213.3 264.8 322.0 322.2 357.4 338.1 345.8 122
... ... ... ... 540.1 601.1 677.2 734.1 796.2 922.7 123

6.93 7.67 8.05 7.85 7.58 7.95 8.12 8.17 6.77 5.90 124
8.96 10.34 10.80 10.58 10.62 10.94 11.66 11.49 9.40 8.40 125
9.26 10.80 11.40 11.62 10.93 11.57 11.79 12.14 9.78 8.60 126

171777 231503 241128 272734 322932 380260 384331 429454 468601 536832 * 127
129640 164307 178391 208410 257892 305580 324641 354754 390726 405824 * 128
42137 67196 62737 64324 65040 74680 59689 74700 77875 131008 * 129
195676 230120 272457 293460 345941 423866 455411 529919 547279 642935 * 130
-23899 1384 -31329 -20726 -23009 -43606 -71080 -100465 -78678 -106103 * 131
– – – – – – – – – –* 132
65293 91354 76196 71453 82343 94233 85508 104527 98286 95589 * 133
-65293 -91354 -76196 -71453 -82343 -94233 -85508 -104527 -98286 -95589 * 134
– – – – – – – – 2213 5108 * 135
-89193 -89971 -107525 -92179 -105352 -137839 -156588 -204992 -179177 -206800 * 136

23724 -515 19972 55048 49927 56980 56495 118202 155919 99969 * 137
22102 18022 24334 24624 29319 28586 27636 38761 97070 66869 * 138
– – – – – – – – – –* 139
43368 72464 63219 12507 26106 52273 72457 48029 -73811 39962 * 140

139430 172883 177912 206309 252264 296051 327976 376455 393843 447152 141
171175 229959 258688 258365 320986 397723 465644 436505 466645 534732 142
-31745 -57076 -80776 -52056 -68722 -101672 -137668 -60050 -72802 -87580 143
292 Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries

Pakistan
Item 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

Exports, by SITC section


144 Food and live animals 6238 8769 6187 8607 8918 11049 10565 10320
145 Beverage and tobacco 123 146 161 201 225 321 24 212
146 Crude materials excl. fuels 4837 2916 5684 9579 9173 12917 20507 12921
147 Mineral fuels, etc. 988 544 525 519 444 481 649 1028
148 Animal, vegetable oil and fats 6 0 0 0 2 5 0 1
149 Chemicals 302 782 1474 990 166 291 328 593
150 Basic manufactures 17436 17956 17440 21348 31747 39002 41429 56981
151 Machines, transport equipment 431 374 527 356 301 133 225 371
152 Misc. manufactured goods 3621 5331 5538 7727 12243 14046 16133 23767
153 Unclassified goods 460 519 442 265 137 200 321 274
154 Re-exports 233 289 537 771 1652 908 875 1203

Exports, by principal commodity


155 1. Cotton yarn and thread 3308 3047 4046 4572 8766 9597 11704 17917
156 2. Cotton cloth 3579 4856 4638 5083 5931 8539 ... 12000
157 3. Rice 3683 5688 3340 5527 5139 6404 5966 5144
158 4. Leather 1195 1972 2325 2900 4079 5041 4702 6002
159 5. Raw cotton 3897 1772 4368 8290 7676 10758 18032 9550

Imports, by SITC section


160 Food and live animals 4491 5317 7960 9851 9035 7671 14147 17200
161 Beverage and tobacco 27 28 28 31 36 37 34 50
162 Crude materials excl. fuels 3739 5146 5253 4941 5650 8141 9375 9558
163 Mineral fuels, etc. 20910 19656 22489 17630 14806 19226 19596 25898
164 Animal, vegetable oil and fats 4167 7200 7895 6874 5003 8977 9663 9571
165 Chemicals 7508 8538 10049 11663 15773 17612 21317 25287
166 Basic manufactures 8896 9515 10161 10039 11484 13914 17214 17597
167 Machines, transport equipment 16815 19526 23730 27247 27543 32869 39961 39816
168 Misc. manufactured goods 1557 1707 2098 2583 2995 3769 4132 3682
169 Unclassified goods 42 75 116 86 105 334 399 193
170 Re-imports 13 11 21 32 121 66 59 37

Direction of Trade Mn US dollars; calendar year


171 Exports, Total 3074.9 2558.7 2738.4 3383.0 4168.3 4509.3 4660.1 5587.2
172 1. United States 192.3 262.6 274.4 365.7 462.6 506.9 583.7 695.1
173 2. Hong Kong, China 95.5 37.0 83.4 89.7 102.0 193.1 232.9 278.2
174 3. United Kingdom 135.1 156.6 147.9 216.0 290.5 308.3 298.5 413.8
175 4. Germany 136.6 138.0 148.7 220.1 296.3 313.5 318.4 475.9
176 5. United Arab Emirates 284.6 136.7 126.8 145.4 155.7 184.5 180.7 184.4
177 6. Japan 245.2 236.2 308.9 330.4 476.6 515.8 489.3 456.7
178 7. France 55.6 66.7 65.4 114.6 133.0 139.8 154.4 222.6
179 8. Netherlands 27.4 36.2 42.4 67.0 76.8 93.7 83.0 112.4
180 9. Italy 90.2 108.1 104.8 161.7 246.5 248.6 213.8 250.0
181 10. Korea, Republic of 19.8 20.2 46.3 90.0 112.1 135.8 144.5 166.3

182 Imports, Total 5326.0 5852.2 5888.5 5367.2 5818.7 6588.4 7107.0 7383.0
183 1. United States 505.5 636.5 821.8 705.5 547.0 855.6 1095.0 946.3
184 2. Japan 769.9 865.3 741.2 874.5 925.8 971.7 927.7 877.0
185 3. Kuwait 364.8 490.9 482.1 283.0 481.5 454.2 727.3 440.3
186 4. United Arab Emirates 314.8 332.7 237.7 113.8 167.3 97.2 111.6 158.0
187 5. Saudi Arabia 693.8 564.5 578.5 308.2 291.0 290.3 327.6 461.2
188 6. Malaysia 175.2 322.2 256.8 178.8 188.3 259.9 240.3 245.0
189 7. China, People’s Republic of 146.8 143.6 144.5 162.0 232.1 248.1 321.8 337.5
190 8. Germany 358.2 329.3 374.3 466.8 468.5 500.6 515.6 544.8
191 9. United Kingdom 321.4 382.9 360.3 364.1 408.5 418.3 393.7 359.6
192 10. Switzerland 67.6 90.5 96.8 138.9 142.9 129.6 150.4 185.5

Trade Indexes 1980/81 I 1990/91 = 100; period averages


Quantum index
193 Exports 112.6 106.5 109.6 159.5 214.3 179.4 206.1 181.2
194 Imports 114.0 119.2 138.8 139.8 133.8 148.6 159.5 148.3
293

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

13130 17211 16821 18538 28404 27879 31485 43157 54002 47624 144
116 271 172 134 185 93 97 212 238 287 145
13254 16944 10683 7197 7364 24041 7490 11929 6345 10921 146
2261 2071 2137 1621 2520 2267 3227 1529 2374 4242 147
– 0 1 1 15 2 – 137 783 1172 148
491 691 820 913 1689 2079 1879 2428 2474 5529 149
76952 91066 98428 118716 142798 163260 188059 206535 209398 239654 150
412 858 651 572 505 632 935 1599 2253 1397 151
31412 42087 46833 57336 67076 73875 91675 105322 111865 132076 152
252 528 482 470 617 614 465 312 610 776 153
1149 1156 884 811 1091 1309 2662 3295 3501 3474 154

26751 29263 29308 38197 47250 52214 55307 50067 47497 55551 155
15199 20372 22430 24789 33373 43279 49354 53991 55980 56757 156
7848 10340 8214 7319 14026 17141 18453 24562 26825 27944 157
6184 5991 5769 6772 8401 8726 9322 8970 8895 9071 158
9553 12944 7001 2383 1924 17421 1239 5483 116 3761 159

13736 18010 23067 18128 25657 29555 42884 52650 44271 41647 160
80 95 77 90 282 255 229 251 258 219 161
10582 15010 13945 17003 25679 22810 25083 24035 32495 37213 162
39215 36063 41864 46406 55237 71239 93389 76343 74189 148797 163
10433 11491 16668 16667 33273 31525 25981 36605 45035 26048 164
27903 36493 38781 45065 48975 73653 77020 77498 90486 103402 165
17395 23806 22250 25291 29853 42090 43931 39536 41646 44305 166
46567 82654 95350 81966 92234 104689 128849 103426 110345 103434 167
4828 5960 6364 6333 7427 10015 10875 10629 11789 13622 168
373 308 278 1299 2273 11743 16761 15365 15450 15104 169
61 69 47 117 94 148 643 167 681 940 170

6494.2 7268.7 6700.6 7332.1 7991.0 9298.9 8632.2 8432.8 8438.7 9155.6 171
742.0 932.6 974.4 1158.6 1204.7 1550.8 1625.8 1821.4 1934.8 2272.4 172
387.0 572.4 367.7 567.2 602.1 873.9 734.6 598.6 527.1 542.1 173
450.9 504.8 489.4 563.1 517.0 620.4 603.9 566.8 565.9 595.7 174
543.1 509.2 551.1 541.1 548.7 660.0 581.3 550.2 533.6 516.2 175
233.4 362.8 429.8 397.7 354.8 434.5 429.8 423.7 492.7 568.9 176
520.5 557.1 485.3 536.6 542.4 608.1 449.8 289.0 299.6 238.6 177
252.5 292.1 288.8 269.4 266.9 258.5 244.8 261.4 285.4 277.6 178
127.5 177.5 189.5 228.4 264.6 274.3 279.8 274.4 244.0 240.6 179
213.3 222.1 161.2 213.6 230.9 255.6 247.1 223.4 215.0 221.0 180
265.2 169.5 167.0 210.0 271.2 279.1 208.0 139.7 247.9 263.9 181

8431.5 9375.0 9492.6 8884.5 11460.6 12149.8 11611.3 9307.7 10296.7 11049.4 182
942.9 980.3 879.2 868.7 1065.2 1291.1 1368.1 913.5 659.9 662.8 183
1245.5 1331.2 1487.3 832.0 1228.9 1238.8 872.4 748.7 789.7 617.2 184
35.5 177.3 353.3 566.5 652.6 899.8 700.2 473.7 861.6 1292.3 185
306.9 286.9 325.5 295.6 545.8 614.8 1032.1 582.4 725.9 1185.0 186
382.1 497.2 506.1 488.0 567.9 706.6 782.1 594.3 874.4 1161.1 187
381.8 418.6 480.8 658.3 968.9 652.3 639.6 728.7 559.8 446.5 188
357.4 421.1 422.7 421.1 505.9 576.1 586.4 422.2 450.5 549.4 189
671.7 726.9 678.2 700.5 721.1 605.2 723.6 421.1 429.5 395.2 190
432.1 550.7 452.9 474.3 542.9 560.7 493.0 415.1 400.2 350.8 191
197.7 248.5 218.9 193.9 357.4 552.4 256.3 297.3 413.9 281.5 192

208.6 I 117.3 112.3 113.1 121.3 115.3 115.5 118.9 114.5 141.8 193
146.5 I 136.9 133.2 140.5 148.7 140.3 145.7 139.7 161.6 151.5 194
294 Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries

Pakistan
Item 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

Unit value index


195 Exports 106.2 118.8 124.3 118.7 132.1 163.9 168.0 192.9
196 Imports 119.4 125.2 133.0 132.2 136.9 170.2 187.5 215.0

197 Terms of trade 88.9 94.9 93.5 89.8 96.5 96.3 89.6 89.7

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS Mn US dollars; fiscal year ending 30 June


198 Merchandise exports, fob 2627 2669 2457 3191 3938 4396 4775 5368
199 Merchandise imports, fob -5616 -5993 -6009 -5971 -6249 -7080 -7328 -8077
200 Trade Balance -2989 -3324 -3552 -2780 -2311 -2684 -2553 -2709
201 Other goods, services and income -603 -717 -815 -1016 -1094 -1444 -1485 -1716
202 Credit 910 975 941 933 1082 944 1323 1515
203 Debit -1513 -1692 -1756 -1949 -2176 -2388 -2808 -3231
204 Unrequited transfers 3414 3353 3087 3151 2851 2724 2720 2780
205 Private 3081 3044 2687 2676 2437 2096 2207 2269
206 Official 333 309 400 475 414 628 513 511
207 Current balance -178 -688 -1280 -645 -554 -1404 -1318 -1645
208 Direct investment 26 43 77 106 121 173 165 242
209 Portfolio investment – – 23 83 121 126 17 86
210 Other long-term capital 610 375 359 473 118 944 1264 1052
211 Other short-term capital 226 187 -165 -183 -33 415 -81 64
212 Net errors and omissions 14 -6 -31 -42 22 15 105 -129
213 Overall balance 698 -89 -1017 -208 -205 269 152 -330
214 Allocation of SDRs – – – – – – – –
215 Monetary movements -698 89 1017 208 205 -269 -152 330

INTERNATIONAL RESERVES Mn US dollars; as of end of period


216 Total 2730 1670 1414 1364 1367 1216 1239 986
217 Gold, national valuation 757 635 607 655 865 822 718 691
218 Foreign exchange 1879 912 781 696 486 388 519 295
219 Reserve position in the Fund 93 87 0 0 0 0 0 0
220 SDRs 1 37 26 13 16 7 1 1

EXCHANGE RATES Rupees per US dollar


221 End of period 13.4663 15.3217 15.9401 17.2070 17.4065 18.6035 21.3666 21.8454
222 Average of period 13.0552 13.9802 15.8534 16.5691 17.3169 17.9185 20.4448 21.6052

EXTERNAL INDEBTEDNESS Mn US dollars; as of end of year


223 Total outstanding and disbursed 12026.2 12228.0 13464.9 14954.4 16797.7 17065.2 18348.2 20663.4
224 Long-term 9616.7 9855.8 10699.6 11897.4 13595.6 14082.5 14644.4 16643.2
225 Public and publicly guaranteed 9583.0 9829.5 10674.0 11867.9 13540.0 13989.1 14506.8 16505.6
226 Private non-guaranteed 33.7 26.3 25.6 29.5 55.5 93.4 137.6 137.6
227 Short-term 797.0 932.0 1310.0 1863.0 2280.0 2429.0 2771.2 3184.7
228 Use of IMF credit 1612.5 1440.2 1455.3 1194.0 922.1 553.7 932.6 835.5

Debt service transactions during the year


229 Principal repayments on LT debt 797.2 617.8 729.2 696.4 760.4 859.1 861.7 905.0
230 Interest on long-term debt 320.7 321.8 306.8 352.7 396.5 441.5 456.7 515.3
231 Interest on short-term debt 84.2 108.9 107.7 121.8 178.4 212.2 257.6 263.7

Average terms of new commitments


232 Interest (%) 5.4 4.7 5.7 5.7 4.8 5.3 5.0 5.3
233 Maturity (years) 28.7 27.5 26.8 26.7 25.8 23.7 23.7 22.5
234 Grace period (years) 6.6 7.1 6.5 6.8 7.0 6.2 6.6 6.1
235 Grant element (%) 39.4 45.1 34.1 34.1 39.2 36.8 39.7 34.7

Footnotes:

a Refers to period averages of fiscal year.


b Indices after 1987 are based on 96 items only due to non-availability of data for 10 items as a result of the withdrawal of excise duty starting July 1988.
Reference is period averages of fiscal year.
c Includes surplus of autonomous bodies from 1983 onward.
295

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

197.0 I 119.9 123.5 142.9 168.6 185.4 204.9 245.6 258.4 253.8 195
252.8 I 131.9 133.5 141.2 164.2 185.5 201.7 198.9 223.3 259.0 196

78.0 I 90.9 92.5 101.3 102.7 99.9 101.6 123.5 115.7 98.0 197

6364 6762 6782 6685 7759 8311 8096 8434 7528 8190 198
-8621 -8998 -10049 -8685 -10296 -12015 -11241 -10301 -9613 -9602 199
-2257 -2236 -3267 -2000 -2537 -3704 -3145 -1867 -2085 -1412 200
-1958 -2224 -2748 -2355 -2384 -3249 -3659 -3264 -2618 -2794 201
1591 1581 1628 1720 2150 2100 1840 1708 1409 1501 202
-3549 -3805 -4376 -4075 -4534 -5349 -5499 -4972 -4027 -4295 203
2963 3564 2688 2704 2758 2605 3247 3430 2468 3199 204
2338 3114 2327 2390 2437 2378 2958 3210 2274 3063 205
625 450 361 314 321 227 289 220 194 136 206
-1252 -896 -3327 -1651 -2163 -4348 -3557 -1701 -2235 -1007 207
260 343 310 360 439 1106 700 572 428 473 208
92 272 270 339 1280 309 677 34 142 -550 209
1123 1485 1578 1540 852 1061 761 694 1186 -157 210
-157 -1040 554 918 -95 -1492 -721 -339 -3655 -3157 211
-69 -34 26 79 -75 2933 1108 434 992 505 212
-3 130 -589 1585 238 -431 -1032 -306 -3142 -3893 213
– – – – – – – – – – 214
3 -130 589 -1585 -238 431 1032 306 3142 3893 215

1238 1533 1890 3723 2455 1239 1831 1646 2054 2056 216
712 682 694 794 722 691 637 618 543 543 217
519 850 1196 2929 1718 535 1184 1027 1511 1499 218
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 219
7 0 1 0 15 13 11 1 0 14 220

24.6584 25.6359 30.0449 30.7232 34.1646 40.0200 43.9401 45.8853 51.7846 58.0292 221
23.6887 24.9647 27.9748 30.4226 31.4937 35.9088 40.9179 44.9428 49.1183 52.8144 222

23363.3 24917.9 24546.4 27382.7 30228.7 29824.7 30069.3 32319.2 34269.3 ... 223
18161.6 19396.6 21478.9 23887.3 25380.9 25613.2 26307.1 28799.4 30735.6 ... 224
17736.6 18562.7 20421.6 22709.4 23787.5 23617.8 23969.4 26197.9 28514.4 ... 225
425.0 833.9 1057.3 1177.9 1593.4 1995.4 2337.7 2601.5 2221.2 ... 226
4134.1 4394.0 1946.0 1938.0 3235.0 2816.0 2481.0 2159.6 1830.2 ... 227
1067.6 1127.3 1121.5 1557.4 1612.8 1395.6 1281.2 1360.2 1703.5 ... 228

997.5 1271.7 1392.0 2390.6 1837.1 1771.7 2536.6 1285.8 1634.4 2730.3 229
595.2 657.3 747.7 850.6 955.3 910.0 904.5 711.8 864.8 1154.5 230
235.7 189.9 80.4 109.4 202.5 225.3 294.0 110.3 48.7 ... 231

5.7 4.4 3.6 4.3 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.1 4.9 ... 232
20.8 18.7 20.2 22.6 17.1 20.6 11.7 18.1 14.4 ... 233
5.5 6.7 5.7 6.4 5.0 6.1 3.4 5.0 3.8 ... 234
31.6 36.8 40.5 41.0 30.5 33.6 21.4 32.0 24.8 ... 235